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Thesis Summary: A Detailed Academic Writing Guide

thesis summary

A thesis summary is a highly condensed version of the longer paper. It highlights the main points that have been covered in the paper while concisely describing the content of the thesis. In most cases, the summary of a thesis and the abstract serve the same purpose. They provide an overview of all the major points of a thesis. Thus, a reader can quickly see the main content of your thesis when they read the summary. This enables them to determine whether they are interested in your work or not.

What is Included in a Thesis Summary?

When asked to summarize something, you’re simply required to condense the text to the main points. As such, a good summary of thesis research should include important elements only. It should capture the main idea in the paper and the supporting points that may be interwoven with content that is of lesser importance.

Many learners confuse a thesis statement summary with an analysis. An analysis is a discussion of the techniques, ideas, and meaning in the text. On the other hand, a summary does not entail responding or critiquing the ideas in the text. Analyzing a paper entails summarizing its content to establish the ideas that you will be analyzing. A summary does not substitute for analysis.

Here are some of the things that a Ph.D. or master thesis summary should include: A title that is similar to that of your thesis The main purpose of your thesis The main topic of your thesis The research methods used to gather the information The sub-sections of your thesis Recommendations, results, and conclusions

Essentially, a summary should present the points of the author in a straightforward structure. Therefore, read the thesis carefully to determine the major and minor components or points of the argument and summarize them in an organized manner.

A point that the author makes at the beginning and another one at the end should concisely be included in a summary of thesis to convey the main argument of the author. Thus, you should read, understand, and reconstruct the thesis into a more concise, shorter form.

How to Write an Executive Summary for Thesis

Perhaps, you have written a short thesis that is not longer than ten pages. In that case, follow these steps to write a summary thesis:

  • Summarize every paragraph in one sentence
  • Summarize the entire text in a single sentence
  • Write a single paragraph that starts with a sentence that summarizes the entire text followed by a paragraph of summary sentences
  • Rewrite and rearrange your paragraph to ensure that it’s concise and clear.
  • Eliminate relatively minor and repetitive points and include transitions.

Make sure that the final summary is complete, coherent, and unified.

How to Write Summary of Ph.D. Thesis and Longer Texts

A longer text like a Ph.D. requires time to summarize. That’s because you have to read and understand the document before you summarize it. Here’s how to write a summary thesis for longer papers.

  • Outline the thesis by breaking it down into different major sections. To do this, group the paragraphs that focus on a similar topic and then list down the supporting points for different sections.
  • Write a sentence or two that summarizes every section.
  • Create a single sentence that summarizes the entire text. Look for the topic sentence in the thesis to guide you.
  • Write one paragraph or several to start the overall summary sentence. Follow it with sentences that summarize different sections.
  • Rearrange and rewrite the paragraphs to make the text concise and clear while eliminating repetitious and relatively minor points. Also, include transitions in your summary.

The final summary should include the main supporting points of every idea. Make the final version coherent, unified, and complete.

When is the Summary of Findings in Thesis Necessary?

The summary and conclusion thesis serves the purpose of providing an overview of the paper. As such, students are required to write a summary in many instances. In some cases, an educator can assign learners to write a page or two after reading a paper or article. They can also be asked to come up with a summary of their text as part of their critique or response after reading a paper.

Students can also write article summaries as a part of their planning or note-taking process when writing a research paper. These summaries or their parts can be included in the final papers. When writing a research paper, an author can depend on the summary as their reference to source materials. A summary enables a writer to condense broad information so that they can explain and present the relevance of the sources that deal with a similar subject.

A paper can also be summarized in the introduction to present a precise and concise overview of the main ideas to be discussed in the rest of the text. The length of a summary should depend on the complexity and length of the paper. Additionally, the purpose of a summary should determine whether it will be a few sentences, a shorter paragraph, or even several paragraphs. You can even come across a thesis summary sample that looks like an entire paper.

Qualities of a Good Summary Thesis Sample

When learning how to write summary and conclusion in thesis, many students use samples as their guides. But, how do you know that you’re using a good thesis summary example? Here are the qualities to look for:

  • Comprehensiveness : A good summary should be comprehensive. All important points should be isolated from the original passage and noted down in a brief list. These are the ideas that should form the summary because they are indispensable to the development of the thesis.
  • Conciseness : An ideal summary should be free of repetitions. Do not repeat the same points even if they have been restated in the main document. The summary should be shorter while providing a brief overview of the paper. Therefore, avoid repetition of the main point and supporting ideas.
  • Coherence : A good summary makes sense. It’s not a piece that looks like it’s been taken from the main document. It should also not sound like a collection of disjointed sentences from the main document that is being summarized.
  • Independence : When writing a summary, your work is not to imitate the main text’s author. Instead, you are expected to showcase your style and voice in the summary. Thus, you should not just quote the main text’s author. Instead, express how you understand the document in your words. A summary should be based on your understanding and interpretation of the main ideas or points of the writer. Nevertheless, a good summary does not create distortion or misrepresentation through the introduction of criticisms or comments.

It’s also crucial to note that a good summary thesis example uses a structure that features an introduction, the body, and a conclusion. It presents the goal or purpose, results, and conclusion or recommendations. What’s more, it features logical connections of the included information without adding new information.

To write a great summary, work on this part after completing your thesis. Make sure that you’re guided by the main points of your thesis. What’s more, use a good executive summary for thesis sample to guide you. The length of your summary should depend on its purpose and the length of the main document. Once you have written the summary, read it carefully, and eliminate all errors when proofreading and editing it. Alternatively, ask our thesis editors to proofread the summary for you.

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How to Write a Summary | Guide & Examples

Published on 25 September 2022 by Shona McCombes . Revised on 12 May 2023.

Summarising , or writing a summary, means giving a concise overview of a text’s main points in your own words. A summary is always much shorter than the original text.

There are five key steps that can help you to write a summary:

  • Read the text
  • Break it down into sections
  • Identify the key points in each section
  • Write the summary
  • Check the summary against the article

Writing a summary does not involve critiquing or analysing the source. You should simply provide an accurate account of the most important information and ideas (without copying any text from the original).

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Table of contents

When to write a summary, step 1: read the text, step 2: break the text down into sections, step 3: identify the key points in each section, step 4: write the summary, step 5: check the summary against the article, frequently asked questions.

There are many situations in which you might have to summarise an article or other source:

  • As a stand-alone assignment to show you’ve understood the material
  • To keep notes that will help you remember what you’ve read
  • To give an overview of other researchers’ work in a literature review

When you’re writing an academic text like an essay , research paper , or dissertation , you’ll integrate sources in a variety of ways. You might use a brief quote to support your point, or paraphrase a few sentences or paragraphs.

But it’s often appropriate to summarize a whole article or chapter if it is especially relevant to your own research, or to provide an overview of a source before you analyse or critique it.

In any case, the goal of summarising is to give your reader a clear understanding of the original source. Follow the five steps outlined below to write a good summary.

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You should read the article more than once to make sure you’ve thoroughly understood it. It’s often effective to read in three stages:

  • Scan the article quickly to get a sense of its topic and overall shape.
  • Read the article carefully, highlighting important points and taking notes as you read.
  • Skim the article again to confirm you’ve understood the key points, and reread any particularly important or difficult passages.

There are some tricks you can use to identify the key points as you read:

  • Start by reading the abstract . This already contains the author’s own summary of their work, and it tells you what to expect from the article.
  • Pay attention to headings and subheadings . These should give you a good sense of what each part is about.
  • Read the introduction and the conclusion together and compare them: What did the author set out to do, and what was the outcome?

To make the text more manageable and understand its sub-points, break it down into smaller sections.

If the text is a scientific paper that follows a standard empirical structure, it is probably already organised into clearly marked sections, usually including an introduction, methods, results, and discussion.

Other types of articles may not be explicitly divided into sections. But most articles and essays will be structured around a series of sub-points or themes.

Now it’s time go through each section and pick out its most important points. What does your reader need to know to understand the overall argument or conclusion of the article?

Keep in mind that a summary does not involve paraphrasing every single paragraph of the article. Your goal is to extract the essential points, leaving out anything that can be considered background information or supplementary detail.

In a scientific article, there are some easy questions you can ask to identify the key points in each part.

If the article takes a different form, you might have to think more carefully about what points are most important for the reader to understand its argument.

In that case, pay particular attention to the thesis statement —the central claim that the author wants us to accept, which usually appears in the introduction—and the topic sentences that signal the main idea of each paragraph.

Now that you know the key points that the article aims to communicate, you need to put them in your own words.

To avoid plagiarism and show you’ve understood the article, it’s essential to properly paraphrase the author’s ideas. Do not copy and paste parts of the article, not even just a sentence or two.

The best way to do this is to put the article aside and write out your own understanding of the author’s key points.

Examples of article summaries

Let’s take a look at an example. Below, we summarise this article , which scientifically investigates the old saying ‘an apple a day keeps the doctor away’.

An article summary like the above would be appropriate for a stand-alone summary assignment. However, you’ll often want to give an even more concise summary of an article.

For example, in a literature review or research paper, you may want to briefly summarize this study as part of a wider discussion of various sources. In this case, we can boil our summary down even further to include only the most relevant information.

Citing the source you’re summarizing

When including a summary as part of a larger text, it’s essential to properly cite the source you’re summarizing. The exact format depends on your citation style , but it usually includes an in-text citation and a full reference at the end of your paper.

You can easily create your citations and references in APA or MLA using our free citation generators.

APA Citation Generator MLA Citation Generator

Finally, read through the article once more to ensure that:

  • You’ve accurately represented the author’s work
  • You haven’t missed any essential information
  • The phrasing is not too similar to any sentences in the original.

If you’re summarising many articles as part of your own work, it may be a good idea to use a plagiarism checker to double-check that your text is completely original and properly cited. Just be sure to use one that’s safe and reliable.

A summary is a short overview of the main points of an article or other source, written entirely in your own words.

Save yourself some time with the free summariser.

A summary is always much shorter than the original text. The length of a summary can range from just a few sentences to several paragraphs; it depends on the length of the article you’re summarising, and on the purpose of the summary.

With the summariser tool you can easily adjust the length of your summary.

You might have to write a summary of a source:

  • As a stand-alone assignment to prove you understand the material
  • For your own use, to keep notes on your reading
  • To provide an overview of other researchers’ work in a literature review
  • In a paper , to summarise or introduce a relevant study

To avoid plagiarism when summarising an article or other source, follow these two rules:

  • Write the summary entirely in your own words by   paraphrasing the author’s ideas.
  • Reference the source with an in-text citation and a full reference so your reader can easily find the original text.

An abstract concisely explains all the key points of an academic text such as a thesis , dissertation or journal article. It should summarise the whole text, not just introduce it.

An abstract is a type of summary , but summaries are also written elsewhere in academic writing . For example, you might summarise a source in a paper , in a literature review , or as a standalone assignment.

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the ‘Cite this Scribbr article’ button to automatically add the citation to our free Reference Generator.

McCombes, S. (2023, May 12). How to Write a Summary | Guide & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved 21 May 2024, from https://www.scribbr.co.uk/working-sources/how-to-write-a-summary/

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Other students also liked, how to paraphrase | step-by-step guide & examples, how to quote | citing quotes in harvard & apa, apa referencing (7th ed.) quick guide | in-text citations & references.

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Guide On How To Write a Thesis Summary In 2023

thesis summary

So, you just found out that you need to write a thesis summary. In most cases, students who encounter this requirement for the first time start to panic. Frankly, not everyone knows what this thesis summary is. And let’s not forget that most students have no clue how to write one. Don’t worry about it too much though.

What is a thesis summary?

Why use a thesis summary, how to write an effective thesis summary in 2023, master thesis summary example.

A thesis summary is a document that summarizes the points of a longer essay, thesis, or dissertation. Readers will often find a summary to be helpful as it offers a succinct overview of the document’s contents. A Thesis Summary should not be confused with an abstract as they both refer to separate documents that serve different purposes.

The steps involved in writing a Thesis Summary depend on what type of thesis you are summarizing. If you’re summarizing a text-based thesis, then your first step should be to read the Thesis and make note of any major key points and conclusions made by the author(s). You then assemble your notes into one coherent paragraph detailing each one of the major key points. Keep in mind that this initial paragraph will serve as an introduction to your Thesis Summary; therefore, it should not contain the thesis’ main points. Once you’ve completed this step, use these Main Points (identified in your thesis) as a guide for writing the body of your document.

If you’re developing a summary thesis that’s math-related, then you’ll first need to take note of the main conclusions. Second, you must determine how these conclusions were reached by noting each step in the proof. Finally, you’ll have to explain why each step is true using logic statements and definitions from the thesis.

These are the two standard ways to write a thesis summary. However, you can also include your insights, opinions, and comments if you choose.

The steps for writing a ‘ Thesis Summary in 2023’ are just about the same as they’ve always been. They’re pretty much set in stone because this is how students have written thesis summaries for decades.

For both types of thesis summaries, you should include a final paragraph that ties everything together with a brief conclusion. This final paragraph should highlight the key points and conclusions made throughout your document as well as offer a brief statement about why these points matter.

Step 1: Read the Text

The very first thing you’ll want to do is read the entire text. When you’re reading, make note of any major key points and conclusions made by the author(s). If you’re summarizing a text-based thesis, then these major points will form the basis for your introduction paragraph. However, don’t include these points in this introduction.

Step 2: Get to Work

After reading the entire document, it’s time to get started! Begin by taking notes on what you’ve learned from the text and organize them into one coherent paragraph. Make sure that this introduction doesn’t contain the thesis’ main points. Next, use these Main Points (identified in your thesis) as a guide for writing the rest of your thesis summary.

Step 3: Proof it Out

If you’re summarizing a math-related thesis, then you’ll first need to take note of the main conclusions and purposes stated within the document. Next, determine how these conclusions were reached by noting each statement or step in the proof. Finally, complete your Thesis Summary by explaining why each step is true using logical statements and definitions from the thesis.

Step 4: Wrap it Up

Once you’ve finished writing the body of your Thesis Summary, include a final paragraph that ties everything together with a brief conclusion. This final paragraph should highlight the key points and conclusions made throughout your document as well as offer a brief statement about why these points matter.

The best reasons to use a thesis summary are that it will both summarize the relevance of the document and add relevance to an argument. If someone is looking for a specific point or conclusion from the original text, then a Thesis Summary provides them with a quick breakdown of what they can find in the document’s introduction.

You should include a thesis summary in your writings when you believe that there may be too many arguments within your writing. It will help you put together the important points from the different arguments into one concise section.

If you’re summarizing a math-related thesis, they will ensure that you proof every step of the proof given in your paper. It will make sure that you do not miss any details.

There are a few key things that you should keep in mind when writing an effective thesis summary.

  • When you’re summarizing a math-related paper, make sure to highlight the main conclusions and how they were arrived at.
  • Tell the reader why these conclusions matter by explaining each one with logical statements and definitions from the original document.
  • Include a brief conclusion paragraph that ties everything together and highlights the key points covered throughout your work.
  • If your thesis is text-based, make sure to include important points throughout the body of your work.
  • Last but not least, remember that you are writing a summary so don’t use big words or complex sentence structures! Your goal is to be understood by anyone who reads it in the future.

This Thesis Summary sample is based on a text-based document. Please note, as far as the format and structure are concerned, there’s not much difference between a summary of a bachelor thesis example, an example of a Ph.D. thesis summary, and a thesis chapter summary from a Master thesis summary.

The introduction to the original document should be written as such:

“In this thesis, we’d like to introduce a new framework for understanding how we learn and teach math. The topic of learning and teaching should be the focus of mathematics education.”

Then, point out the main points and conclusions made throughout the body of your work:

“One conclusion that we’ve drawn from our research is that children’s conceptions should be taken into account when designing an appropriate math curriculum for them.”

“A second conclusion that we’ve drawn from our research is that children are more likely to develop their ideas about math if they are encouraged to think critically.”

Finally, make a brief statement about why these points matter using logical statements and definitions from the thesis:

“These conclusions highlight how important it is to focus on children’s conceptions when designing curricula because if we don’t take them into account, we miss out on our student’s potential.”

“These conclusions also show that we need to emphasize critical thinking as a means for children to develop their ideas about math.”

Now, you’ve successfully written an effective thesis summary! Keep in mind that your goal is to highlight the main points and conclusions of the original document as well as boast about their significance. To make this process easier for you, we hope that our tips come in handy.

You should now have a good idea about what a thesis summary or dissertation summary is, why you should use them, and how to write one.

A thesis summary is an overview of the main points and conclusions made in a text-based document or simply put, a summary of the research paper. A Thesis Summary should be included when you believe there are too many arguments within your writing, or if you’re summarizing math-related papers for proofing purposes. Key things to keep in mind while writing one include highlighting important concepts that were previously mentioned, explaining why these new ideas matter with logical statements and definitions from the original work, and providing a brief conclusion paragraph that ties everything together. If you want thesis help with any part of this process from reading or understanding complex texts to organizing them into coherent paragraphs let us know! Our team of thesis writers will be happy to help you complete your thesis summary!

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The Writing Center • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Summary: Using it Wisely

What this handout is about.

Knowing how to summarize something you have read, seen, or heard is a valuable skill, one you have probably used in many writing assignments. It is important, though, to recognize when you must go beyond describing, explaining, and restating texts and offer a more complex analysis. This handout will help you distinguish between summary and analysis and avoid inappropriate summary in your academic writing.

Is summary a bad thing?

Not necessarily. But it’s important that your keep your assignment and your audience in mind as you write. If your assignment requires an argument with a thesis statement and supporting evidence—as many academic writing assignments do—then you should limit the amount of summary in your paper. You might use summary to provide background, set the stage, or illustrate supporting evidence, but keep it very brief: a few sentences should do the trick. Most of your paper should focus on your argument. (Our handout on argument will help you construct a good one.)

Writing a summary of what you know about your topic before you start drafting your actual paper can sometimes be helpful. If you are unfamiliar with the material you’re analyzing, you may need to summarize what you’ve read in order to understand your reading and get your thoughts in order. Once you figure out what you know about a subject, it’s easier to decide what you want to argue.

You may also want to try some other pre-writing activities that can help you develop your own analysis. Outlining, freewriting, and mapping make it easier to get your thoughts on the page. (Check out our handout on brainstorming for some suggested techniques.)

Why is it so tempting to stick with summary and skip analysis?

Many writers rely too heavily on summary because it is what they can most easily write. If you’re stalled by a difficult writing prompt, summarizing the plot of The Great Gatsby may be more appealing than staring at the computer for three hours and wondering what to say about F. Scott Fitzgerald’s use of color symbolism. After all, the plot is usually the easiest part of a work to understand. Something similar can happen even when what you are writing about has no plot: if you don’t really understand an author’s argument, it might seem easiest to just repeat what he or she said.

To write a more analytical paper, you may need to review the text or film you are writing about, with a focus on the elements that are relevant to your thesis. If possible, carefully consider your writing assignment before reading, viewing, or listening to the material about which you’ll be writing so that your encounter with the material will be more purposeful. (We offer a handout on reading towards writing .)

How do I know if I’m summarizing?

As you read through your essay, ask yourself the following questions:

  • Am I stating something that would be obvious to a reader or viewer?
  • Does my essay move through the plot, history, or author’s argument in chronological order, or in the exact same order the author used?
  • Am I simply describing what happens, where it happens, or whom it happens to?

A “yes” to any of these questions may be a sign that you are summarizing. If you answer yes to the questions below, though, it is a sign that your paper may have more analysis (which is usually a good thing):

  • Am I making an original argument about the text?
  • Have I arranged my evidence around my own points, rather than just following the author’s or plot’s order?
  • Am I explaining why or how an aspect of the text is significant?

Certain phrases are warning signs of summary. Keep an eye out for these:

  • “[This essay] is about…”
  • “[This book] is the story of…”
  • “[This author] writes about…”
  • “[This movie] is set in…”

Here’s an example of an introductory paragraph containing unnecessary summary. Sentences that summarize are in italics:

The Great Gatsby is the story of a mysterious millionaire, Jay Gatsby, who lives alone on an island in New York. F. Scott Fitzgerald wrote the book, but the narrator is Nick Carraway. Nick is Gatsby’s neighbor, and he chronicles the story of Gatsby and his circle of friends, beginning with his introduction to the strange man and ending with Gatsby’s tragic death. In the story, Nick describes his environment through various colors, including green, white, and grey. Whereas white and grey symbolize false purity and decay respectively, the color green offers a symbol of hope.

Here’s how you might change the paragraph to make it a more effective introduction:

In The Great Gatsby, F. Scott Fitzgerald provides readers with detailed descriptions of the area surrounding East Egg, New York. In fact, Nick Carraway’s narration describes the setting with as much detail as the characters in the book. Nick’s description of the colors in his environment presents the book’s themes, symbolizing significant aspects of the post-World War I era. Whereas white and grey symbolize the false purity and decay of the 1920s, the color green offers a symbol of hope.

This version of the paragraph mentions the book’s title, author, setting, and narrator so that the reader is reminded of the text. And that sounds a lot like summary—but the paragraph quickly moves on to the writer’s own main topic: the setting and its relationship to the main themes of the book. The paragraph then closes with the writer’s specific thesis about the symbolism of white, grey, and green.

How do I write more analytically?

Analysis requires breaking something—like a story, poem, play, theory, or argument—into parts so you can understand how those parts work together to make the whole. Ideally, you should begin to analyze a work as you read or view it instead of waiting until after you’re done—it may help you to jot down some notes as you read. Your notes can be about major themes or ideas you notice, as well as anything that intrigues, puzzles, excites, or irritates you. Remember, analytic writing goes beyond the obvious to discuss questions of how and why—so ask yourself those questions as you read.

The St. Martin’s Handbook (the bulleted material below is quoted from p. 38 of the fifth edition) encourages readers to take the following steps in order to analyze a text:

  • Identify evidence that supports or illustrates the main point or theme as well as anything that seems to contradict it.
  • Consider the relationship between the words and the visuals in the work. Are they well integrated, or are they sometimes at odds with one another? What functions do the visuals serve? To capture attention? To provide more detailed information or illustration? To appeal to readers’ emotions?
  • Decide whether the sources used are trustworthy.
  • Identify the work’s underlying assumptions about the subject, as well as any biases it reveals.

Once you have written a draft, some questions you might want to ask yourself about your writing are “What’s my point?” or “What am I arguing in this paper?” If you can’t answer these questions, then you haven’t gone beyond summarizing. You may also want to think about how much of your writing comes from your own ideas or arguments. If you’re only reporting someone else’s ideas, you probably aren’t offering an analysis.

What strategies can help me avoid excessive summary?

  • Read the assignment (the prompt) as soon as you get it. Make sure to reread it before you start writing. Go back to your assignment often while you write. (Check out our handout on reading assignments ).
  • Formulate an argument (including a good thesis) and be sure that your final draft is structured around it, including aspects of the plot, story, history, background, etc. only as evidence for your argument. (You can refer to our handout on constructing thesis statements ).
  • Read critically—imagine having a dialogue with the work you are discussing. What parts do you agree with? What parts do you disagree with? What questions do you have about the work? Does it remind you of other works you’ve seen?
  • Make sure you have clear topic sentences that make arguments in support of your thesis statement. (Read our handout on paragraph development if you want to work on writing strong paragraphs).
  • Use two different highlighters to mark your paper. With one color, highlight areas of summary or description. With the other, highlight areas of analysis. For many college papers, it’s a good idea to have lots of analysis and minimal summary/description.
  • Ask yourself: What part of the essay would be obvious to a reader/viewer of the work being discussed? What parts (words, sentences, paragraphs) of the essay could be deleted without loss? In most cases, your paper should focus on points that are essential and that will be interesting to people who have already read or seen the work you are writing about.

But I’m writing a review! Don’t I have to summarize?

That depends. If you’re writing a critique of a piece of literature, a film, or a dramatic performance, you don’t necessarily need to give away much of the plot. The point is to let readers decide whether they want to enjoy it for themselves. If you do summarize, keep your summary brief and to the point.

Instead of telling your readers that the play, book, or film was “boring,” “interesting,” or “really good,” tell them specifically what parts of the work you’re talking about. It’s also important that you go beyond adjectives and explain how the work achieved its effect (how was it interesting?) and why you think the author/director wanted the audience to react a certain way. (We have a special handout on writing reviews that offers more tips.)

If you’re writing a review of an academic book or article, it may be important for you to summarize the main ideas and give an overview of the organization so your readers can decide whether it is relevant to their specific research interests.

If you are unsure how much (if any) summary a particular assignment requires, ask your instructor for guidance.

Works consulted

We consulted these works while writing this handout. This is not a comprehensive list of resources on the handout’s topic, and we encourage you to do your own research to find additional publications. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial . We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback.

Barnet, Sylvan. 2015. A Short Guide to Writing about Art , 11th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Corrigan, Timothy. 2014. A Short Guide to Writing About Film , 9th ed. New York: Pearson.

Lunsford, Andrea A. 2015. The St. Martin’s Handbook , 8th ed. Boston: Bedford/St Martin’s.

Zinsser, William. 2001. On Writing Well: The Classic Guide to Writing Nonfiction , 6th ed. New York: Quill.

You may reproduce it for non-commercial use if you use the entire handout and attribute the source: The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

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Developing a Thesis Statement

Many papers you write require developing a thesis statement. In this section you’ll learn what a thesis statement is and how to write one.

Keep in mind that not all papers require thesis statements . If in doubt, please consult your instructor for assistance.

What is a thesis statement?

A thesis statement . . .

  • Makes an argumentative assertion about a topic; it states the conclusions that you have reached about your topic.
  • Makes a promise to the reader about the scope, purpose, and direction of your paper.
  • Is focused and specific enough to be “proven” within the boundaries of your paper.
  • Is generally located near the end of the introduction ; sometimes, in a long paper, the thesis will be expressed in several sentences or in an entire paragraph.
  • Identifies the relationships between the pieces of evidence that you are using to support your argument.

Not all papers require thesis statements! Ask your instructor if you’re in doubt whether you need one.

Identify a topic

Your topic is the subject about which you will write. Your assignment may suggest several ways of looking at a topic; or it may name a fairly general concept that you will explore or analyze in your paper.

Consider what your assignment asks you to do

Inform yourself about your topic, focus on one aspect of your topic, ask yourself whether your topic is worthy of your efforts, generate a topic from an assignment.

Below are some possible topics based on sample assignments.

Sample assignment 1

Analyze Spain’s neutrality in World War II.

Identified topic

Franco’s role in the diplomatic relationships between the Allies and the Axis

This topic avoids generalities such as “Spain” and “World War II,” addressing instead on Franco’s role (a specific aspect of “Spain”) and the diplomatic relations between the Allies and Axis (a specific aspect of World War II).

Sample assignment 2

Analyze one of Homer’s epic similes in the Iliad.

The relationship between the portrayal of warfare and the epic simile about Simoisius at 4.547-64.

This topic focuses on a single simile and relates it to a single aspect of the Iliad ( warfare being a major theme in that work).

Developing a Thesis Statement–Additional information

Your assignment may suggest several ways of looking at a topic, or it may name a fairly general concept that you will explore or analyze in your paper. You’ll want to read your assignment carefully, looking for key terms that you can use to focus your topic.

Sample assignment: Analyze Spain’s neutrality in World War II Key terms: analyze, Spain’s neutrality, World War II

After you’ve identified the key words in your topic, the next step is to read about them in several sources, or generate as much information as possible through an analysis of your topic. Obviously, the more material or knowledge you have, the more possibilities will be available for a strong argument. For the sample assignment above, you’ll want to look at books and articles on World War II in general, and Spain’s neutrality in particular.

As you consider your options, you must decide to focus on one aspect of your topic. This means that you cannot include everything you’ve learned about your topic, nor should you go off in several directions. If you end up covering too many different aspects of a topic, your paper will sprawl and be unconvincing in its argument, and it most likely will not fulfull the assignment requirements.

For the sample assignment above, both Spain’s neutrality and World War II are topics far too broad to explore in a paper. You may instead decide to focus on Franco’s role in the diplomatic relationships between the Allies and the Axis , which narrows down what aspects of Spain’s neutrality and World War II you want to discuss, as well as establishes a specific link between those two aspects.

Before you go too far, however, ask yourself whether your topic is worthy of your efforts. Try to avoid topics that already have too much written about them (i.e., “eating disorders and body image among adolescent women”) or that simply are not important (i.e. “why I like ice cream”). These topics may lead to a thesis that is either dry fact or a weird claim that cannot be supported. A good thesis falls somewhere between the two extremes. To arrive at this point, ask yourself what is new, interesting, contestable, or controversial about your topic.

As you work on your thesis, remember to keep the rest of your paper in mind at all times . Sometimes your thesis needs to evolve as you develop new insights, find new evidence, or take a different approach to your topic.

Derive a main point from topic

Once you have a topic, you will have to decide what the main point of your paper will be. This point, the “controlling idea,” becomes the core of your argument (thesis statement) and it is the unifying idea to which you will relate all your sub-theses. You can then turn this “controlling idea” into a purpose statement about what you intend to do in your paper.

Look for patterns in your evidence

Compose a purpose statement.

Consult the examples below for suggestions on how to look for patterns in your evidence and construct a purpose statement.

  • Franco first tried to negotiate with the Axis
  • Franco turned to the Allies when he couldn’t get some concessions that he wanted from the Axis

Possible conclusion:

Spain’s neutrality in WWII occurred for an entirely personal reason: Franco’s desire to preserve his own (and Spain’s) power.

Purpose statement

This paper will analyze Franco’s diplomacy during World War II to see how it contributed to Spain’s neutrality.
  • The simile compares Simoisius to a tree, which is a peaceful, natural image.
  • The tree in the simile is chopped down to make wheels for a chariot, which is an object used in warfare.

At first, the simile seems to take the reader away from the world of warfare, but we end up back in that world by the end.

This paper will analyze the way the simile about Simoisius at 4.547-64 moves in and out of the world of warfare.

Derive purpose statement from topic

To find out what your “controlling idea” is, you have to examine and evaluate your evidence . As you consider your evidence, you may notice patterns emerging, data repeated in more than one source, or facts that favor one view more than another. These patterns or data may then lead you to some conclusions about your topic and suggest that you can successfully argue for one idea better than another.

For instance, you might find out that Franco first tried to negotiate with the Axis, but when he couldn’t get some concessions that he wanted from them, he turned to the Allies. As you read more about Franco’s decisions, you may conclude that Spain’s neutrality in WWII occurred for an entirely personal reason: his desire to preserve his own (and Spain’s) power. Based on this conclusion, you can then write a trial thesis statement to help you decide what material belongs in your paper.

Sometimes you won’t be able to find a focus or identify your “spin” or specific argument immediately. Like some writers, you might begin with a purpose statement just to get yourself going. A purpose statement is one or more sentences that announce your topic and indicate the structure of the paper but do not state the conclusions you have drawn . Thus, you might begin with something like this:

  • This paper will look at modern language to see if it reflects male dominance or female oppression.
  • I plan to analyze anger and derision in offensive language to see if they represent a challenge of society’s authority.

At some point, you can turn a purpose statement into a thesis statement. As you think and write about your topic, you can restrict, clarify, and refine your argument, crafting your thesis statement to reflect your thinking.

As you work on your thesis, remember to keep the rest of your paper in mind at all times. Sometimes your thesis needs to evolve as you develop new insights, find new evidence, or take a different approach to your topic.

Compose a draft thesis statement

If you are writing a paper that will have an argumentative thesis and are having trouble getting started, the techniques in the table below may help you develop a temporary or “working” thesis statement.

Begin with a purpose statement that you will later turn into a thesis statement.

Assignment: Discuss the history of the Reform Party and explain its influence on the 1990 presidential and Congressional election.

Purpose Statement: This paper briefly sketches the history of the grassroots, conservative, Perot-led Reform Party and analyzes how it influenced the economic and social ideologies of the two mainstream parties.

Question-to-Assertion

If your assignment asks a specific question(s), turn the question(s) into an assertion and give reasons why it is true or reasons for your opinion.

Assignment : What do Aylmer and Rappaccini have to be proud of? Why aren’t they satisfied with these things? How does pride, as demonstrated in “The Birthmark” and “Rappaccini’s Daughter,” lead to unexpected problems?

Beginning thesis statement: Alymer and Rappaccinni are proud of their great knowledge; however, they are also very greedy and are driven to use their knowledge to alter some aspect of nature as a test of their ability. Evil results when they try to “play God.”

Write a sentence that summarizes the main idea of the essay you plan to write.

Main idea: The reason some toys succeed in the market is that they appeal to the consumers’ sense of the ridiculous and their basic desire to laugh at themselves.

Make a list of the ideas that you want to include; consider the ideas and try to group them.

  • nature = peaceful
  • war matériel = violent (competes with 1?)
  • need for time and space to mourn the dead
  • war is inescapable (competes with 3?)

Use a formula to arrive at a working thesis statement (you will revise this later).

  • although most readers of _______ have argued that _______, closer examination shows that _______.
  • _______ uses _______ and _____ to prove that ________.
  • phenomenon x is a result of the combination of __________, __________, and _________.

What to keep in mind as you draft an initial thesis statement

Beginning statements obtained through the methods illustrated above can serve as a framework for planning or drafting your paper, but remember they’re not yet the specific, argumentative thesis you want for the final version of your paper. In fact, in its first stages, a thesis statement usually is ill-formed or rough and serves only as a planning tool.

As you write, you may discover evidence that does not fit your temporary or “working” thesis. Or you may reach deeper insights about your topic as you do more research, and you will find that your thesis statement has to be more complicated to match the evidence that you want to use.

You must be willing to reject or omit some evidence in order to keep your paper cohesive and your reader focused. Or you may have to revise your thesis to match the evidence and insights that you want to discuss. Read your draft carefully, noting the conclusions you have drawn and the major ideas which support or prove those conclusions. These will be the elements of your final thesis statement.

Sometimes you will not be able to identify these elements in your early drafts, but as you consider how your argument is developing and how your evidence supports your main idea, ask yourself, “ What is the main point that I want to prove/discuss? ” and “ How will I convince the reader that this is true? ” When you can answer these questions, then you can begin to refine the thesis statement.

Refine and polish the thesis statement

To get to your final thesis, you’ll need to refine your draft thesis so that it’s specific and arguable.

  • Ask if your draft thesis addresses the assignment
  • Question each part of your draft thesis
  • Clarify vague phrases and assertions
  • Investigate alternatives to your draft thesis

Consult the example below for suggestions on how to refine your draft thesis statement.

Sample Assignment

Choose an activity and define it as a symbol of American culture. Your essay should cause the reader to think critically about the society which produces and enjoys that activity.

  • Ask The phenomenon of drive-in facilities is an interesting symbol of american culture, and these facilities demonstrate significant characteristics of our society.This statement does not fulfill the assignment because it does not require the reader to think critically about society.
Drive-ins are an interesting symbol of American culture because they represent Americans’ significant creativity and business ingenuity.
Among the types of drive-in facilities familiar during the twentieth century, drive-in movie theaters best represent American creativity, not merely because they were the forerunner of later drive-ins and drive-throughs, but because of their impact on our culture: they changed our relationship to the automobile, changed the way people experienced movies, and changed movie-going into a family activity.
While drive-in facilities such as those at fast-food establishments, banks, pharmacies, and dry cleaners symbolize America’s economic ingenuity, they also have affected our personal standards.
While drive-in facilities such as those at fast- food restaurants, banks, pharmacies, and dry cleaners symbolize (1) Americans’ business ingenuity, they also have contributed (2) to an increasing homogenization of our culture, (3) a willingness to depersonalize relationships with others, and (4) a tendency to sacrifice quality for convenience.

This statement is now specific and fulfills all parts of the assignment. This version, like any good thesis, is not self-evident; its points, 1-4, will have to be proven with evidence in the body of the paper. The numbers in this statement indicate the order in which the points will be presented. Depending on the length of the paper, there could be one paragraph for each numbered item or there could be blocks of paragraph for even pages for each one.

Complete the final thesis statement

The bottom line.

As you move through the process of crafting a thesis, you’ll need to remember four things:

  • Context matters! Think about your course materials and lectures. Try to relate your thesis to the ideas your instructor is discussing.
  • As you go through the process described in this section, always keep your assignment in mind . You will be more successful when your thesis (and paper) responds to the assignment than if it argues a semi-related idea.
  • Your thesis statement should be precise, focused, and contestable ; it should predict the sub-theses or blocks of information that you will use to prove your argument.
  • Make sure that you keep the rest of your paper in mind at all times. Change your thesis as your paper evolves, because you do not want your thesis to promise more than your paper actually delivers.

In the beginning, the thesis statement was a tool to help you sharpen your focus, limit material and establish the paper’s purpose. When your paper is finished, however, the thesis statement becomes a tool for your reader. It tells the reader what you have learned about your topic and what evidence led you to your conclusion. It keeps the reader on track–well able to understand and appreciate your argument.

thesis to summary

Writing Process and Structure

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Getting Started with Your Paper

Interpreting Writing Assignments from Your Courses

Generating Ideas for

Creating an Argument

Thesis vs. Purpose Statements

Architecture of Arguments

Working with Sources

Quoting and Paraphrasing Sources

Using Literary Quotations

Citing Sources in Your Paper

Drafting Your Paper

Generating Ideas for Your Paper

Introductions

Paragraphing

Developing Strategic Transitions

Conclusions

Revising Your Paper

Peer Reviews

Reverse Outlines

Revising an Argumentative Paper

Revision Strategies for Longer Projects

Finishing Your Paper

Twelve Common Errors: An Editing Checklist

How to Proofread your Paper

Writing Collaboratively

Collaborative and Group Writing

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Tips and Examples for Writing Thesis Statements

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Tips for Writing Your Thesis Statement

1. Determine what kind of paper you are writing:

  • An analytical paper breaks down an issue or an idea into its component parts, evaluates the issue or idea, and presents this breakdown and evaluation to the audience.
  • An expository (explanatory) paper explains something to the audience.
  • An argumentative paper makes a claim about a topic and justifies this claim with specific evidence. The claim could be an opinion, a policy proposal, an evaluation, a cause-and-effect statement, or an interpretation. The goal of the argumentative paper is to convince the audience that the claim is true based on the evidence provided.

If you are writing a text that does not fall under these three categories (e.g., a narrative), a thesis statement somewhere in the first paragraph could still be helpful to your reader.

2. Your thesis statement should be specific—it should cover only what you will discuss in your paper and should be supported with specific evidence.

3. The thesis statement usually appears at the end of the first paragraph of a paper.

4. Your topic may change as you write, so you may need to revise your thesis statement to reflect exactly what you have discussed in the paper.

Thesis Statement Examples

Example of an analytical thesis statement:

The paper that follows should:

  • Explain the analysis of the college admission process
  • Explain the challenge facing admissions counselors

Example of an expository (explanatory) thesis statement:

  • Explain how students spend their time studying, attending class, and socializing with peers

Example of an argumentative thesis statement:

  • Present an argument and give evidence to support the claim that students should pursue community projects before entering college

Wiseone

How to write a research summary

A research summary is a required task during academic research, and sometimes, you might need to prepare one during an organization's research project.

Most people find a research summary challenging. You must condense complex research material into an informative, easy-to-understand article, usually with a minimum of 300-500 words.

This blog article will guide you through all the steps required to make writing your research summary easier. 

What is a Research Summary?

A  research summary  is a concise overview of a research paper or project. It is designed to provide the reader with essential research insights without reading the entire document. Research summaries are commonly required in academic settings and are fundamental in disseminating knowledge concisely.

The key components of a Research Summary

Objective writing.

It is crucial to maintain objectivity when writing a research summary. The summary should reflect the author's ideas and findings without including personal opinions. This requires the summarizer to convey the main points and intent of the original research accurately while remaining neutral.

Focus and Clarity

Determining the focus of the summary is a critical first step. It involves deciding whether to create a "global" summary, which covers all main ideas, or a "selective" summary, which focuses on specific aspects of the research. The summary should be clear, engaging, and concise, capturing the essence of the study in a brief format.

Essential Elements

A good summary should include the research's foundation, the theoretical framework, and a clear outline of the empirical findings. It should also identify any research gaps addressed by the study. The content should be well-organized, starting with a brief introduction to the topic and then discussing the research methods, results, and conclusions.

Tips for writing a compelling Research Summary

Below is a checklist of helpful research paper tips worth considering when writing research summaries:

Considering the target audience 

The golden rule of writing is always to consider your target audience; a research summary is no exception. Why? Different people have different needs, and your paper should meet the needs and preferences of the target audience. Ask yourself, “Who am I writing for?” write down the answer, and you’ll find it easier to pinpoint research articles for the summary.

  • Being aware of the bigger picture

Remembering a complete and coherent picture of the story delivered by the original article is crucial. It might be helpful to reread or scan the content to remind yourself of the declared goals, hypotheses, key evidence, and conclusions—this awareness offers a constant sense of direction, which ensures that no written sentence is out of context.

  • Research outline

Consider writing a detailed research outline before writing a summary research draft. 

Sketch the main elements of the conclusion before writing it for several reasons:

  • Validate/invalidate hypotheses.
  • Enumerate key evidence supporting or invalidating them and list potential implications.
  • Mention the subject's importance.
  • Mention study limitations and future directions for research.

Consider writing the introduction and discussion last. It makes sense first to list hypotheses, goals, questions, and results. The information in the introduction and discussion can be adapted as needed (for instance, to match a word count limit). Additionally, based on written paragraphs, you can quickly generate your discussion with the help of a conclusion tool.

  • Visual representation 

it’s not just about writing a long text and analysis of some subject by using the information you find, both research and its summary need visuals for full effect. Sometimes, a simple diagram or graph can say much of the information you tried to convey. A common mistake students make is leaving visuals for the original file and omitting them in the summary. Feel free to include tables, figures, and other visual supplements to this paper too.

  • Avoiding plagiarism

It is very tempting to "borrow" or quote entire phrases from an article, provided how well-written these are. However, you need to summarize your paper without plagiarizing; only paraphrasing is allowed, and it's best to do it carefully. The best way to stay safe is by formulating your thoughts from scratch.

  • Keeping the word count in check

The general rule of thumb is that the summary should meet the criteria of no more than 10% of the number of pages in the original document. In most cases, it takes 2 and 4 pages.

The writing style  

When summarizing content, it should be impersonal, precise, and purely evidence-based. A personal view or an attitude should be provided only in the critical section.

Ask a colleague to read your summary and test whether they can understand everything without reading the article—this will help ensure that you haven't skipped any vital content, explanations, concepts, etc.

  • Using dedicated AI Tools

Leveraging tools like Wiseone can help by generating a thorough summary with key takeaways to remember, ensuring it remains concise and focused on the main ideas.

How to write a Research Summary

Once the requirements of the fundamentals for starting a research summary are satisfied, you can begin to write using the following format:

  • Why was the research done?  – A clear description of why the research was embarked on and the hypothesis being tested.
  • Who was surveyed?  – The research study should have details of the source of your information. If it was via a survey, you should document who the survey participants were and why they were selected.
  • What was the methodology?  – Discuss the methodology regarding what kind of survey method you adopted. Was it a face-to-face interview, a phone interview, or a focus group setting?
  • What were the key findings? - This is perhaps the most vital part of the process. What discoveries did you make after the testing? This part should be based on raw facts free from any personal bias.
  • Conclusion: What conclusions were drawn from the findings?
  • Takeaways and action points: This is where the views and perceptions can be reflected. Here, you can now share your recommendations or action points.
  • Identify the article's focal point: To grasp the content covered in the research paper, you can skim the article first to understand the essential part of the research paper. 
  • Analyze and understand the topic and article: Writing a research paper summary involves familiarizing yourself with the current state of knowledge, key definitions, concepts, and models. This information is often gleaned while reading the literature review. Please note that only a deep understanding ensures efficient and accurate content summarization.
  • Make notes as you read:  Highlight and summarize each paragraph as you read. You would further condense your notes to create a draft forming your research summary.

How to Structure Your Research Summary

  • Title  

The title announces the exact topic/area of analysis and can even be formulated to briefly announce key finding(s) or argument(s) delivered.

  • Abstract  

An abstract is a concise and comprehensive description of the study, present virtually in any academic article (the length varies greatly, typically within 100-500 words). Unlike a scholarly article, your research summary is expected to have a much shorter abstract.

  • Introduction  

The introduction is an essential part of any research summary, which provides the necessary context (the literature review) that helps introduce readers to the subject by presenting the current state of the investigation, an important concept or definition, etc. This section describes the subject's importance (or may not, for instance, when it is self-evident). Finally, an introduction typically lists investigation questions and hypotheses advanced by authors, which are usually mentioned in detail in any research summary (obviously, doing this is only possible after identifying these elements in the original paper).

  • Methodology

Regardless of location, this section details experimental or data analysis methods (e.g., experiments, surveys, sampling, or statistical analysis). Many of these details would have to be omitted in a research summary; hence, it is essential to understand what is most important to mention.

  • Results section –

This section lists evidence obtained from all experiments with some primary data analysis, conclusions, observations, and primary interpretations being made. It is typically the most significant section of any analysis paper, so it must be concisely rewritten, which implies understanding which content is worth omitting and keeping.

  • Discussion  

The discussion is where experts discuss results in the context of current knowledge. This section contains interpretations of results, theoretical models explaining the observed results, study strengths and limitations, complementary future exploration, conclusions, etc. All these are essential elements that need to be conveyed in summary.

  • Conclusion  

In the conclusion, hypotheses are revisited and validated or denied, based on how convincing the evidence is (key lines of evidence could be highlighted).

  • References  

References mention those cited works directly in your summary – obviously, one has to provide appropriate citations, at least for the original article (this often suffices). Mentioning other works might be relevant when your critical opinion is also required (supported with new unrelated evidence).

Writing a practical research summary involves a blend of comprehension, objectivity, and clarity. Focusing on the main ideas, maintaining neutrality, and organizing the summary effectively can create a valuable and insightful overview that serves the audience's needs, whether for academic purposes or general knowledge.

What is a research summary?

What are the key components of a research summaries.

Objectivity : Maintaining objectivity is crucial when writing a research summary. The summary should reflect the author's ideas and findings without including personal opinions. This requires conveying the main points and intent of the original research accurately while remaining neutral.

Clarity and focus: Determining the focus of the summary is a critical first step. It involves the decision to create either a "global" summary, which covers all main ideas, or a "selective" summary, which focuses on specific aspects of the research. The summary should be clear, engaging, and concise, capturing the essence of the study in a brief format.

Essential elements: A good research summary should include the research's foundation, the theoretical framework, and a clear outline of the empirical findings. It should also identify any research gaps addressed by the study. The content should be well-organized, starting with a brief introduction to the topic and then discussing the research methods, results, and conclusions.

What are the tips for writing a compelling research summary?

  • Thinking about the target audience 
  • Keeping the writing style in check

What is the structure of a research summary?

  • Introduction
  • Results section

In the conclusion, hypotheses are revisited and validated or denied based on how convincing the evidence is (key lines of evidence could be highlighted).

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  • Filters weak arguments and speculation
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TLDR This is for anyone who just needs to get the gist of a long article. You can read this summary, then go read the original article if you want to.

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How to Write a Good Conclusion Paragraph (+30 Examples)

A good conclusion paragraph is the lasting impression you want to leave with your reader.

Here is a quick summary of how to write a good conclusion paragraph:

Write a good conclusion paragraph by summarizing key points, restating your thesis, and providing a final thought or call to action. Ensure it wraps up your main ideas, reinforces your argument, and leaves the reader with something to ponder.

This ultimate guide will walk you through the steps to craft an effective conclusion, along with 30 examples to inspire you.

5 Steps for Writing a Good Conclusion Paragraph

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Table of Contents

There are five main steps to writing a good conclusion.

Let’s go through each step

1. Understand the Purpose

The conclusion is your final opportunity to leave an impact.

It should tie together your main ideas, reinforce your message, and give the reader a sense of closure.

Wrap Up Your Main Ideas

The conclusion should succinctly wrap up the main points of your writing. Think of it as a summary that captures the essence of your arguments without going into detailed explanations.

This helps reinforce what you have discussed and ensures that the reader remembers the core message.

Reinforce Your Thesis

Your thesis statement is the foundation of your writing.

In the conclusion, restate it in a new way to reinforce your central argument. This reminds the reader of the purpose of your writing and underscores its significance.

Give a Sense of Closure

A good conclusion gives a sense of closure to the reader. It signals that the discussion has come to an end and that all points have been addressed. This helps the reader feel that the piece is complete and that their time was well-spent.

Leave the Reader with Something to Think About

The best conclusions go beyond merely summarizing the content.

They leave the reader with a final thought or reflection that stays with them. This could be a call to action, a prediction about the future, or a thought-provoking question that encourages further reflection on the topic.

2. Summarize Key Points

Briefly summarize the key points discussed in the body of your text.

Avoid introducing new information. This helps the reader recall the main ideas.

Brief Summary

The summary should be concise and to the point. Highlight the main ideas discussed in your writing without going into detailed explanations. This helps refresh the reader’s memory of your key points.

Avoid New Information

Introducing new information in the conclusion can confuse the reader. The conclusion is not the place to present new arguments or data. Stick to summarizing what has already been discussed.

Recall Main Ideas

Summarizing the key points helps the reader recall the main ideas of your writing. This reinforces the message and ensures that the reader takes away the most important information from your piece.

“In conclusion, adopting sustainable practices, reducing waste, and promoting renewable energy are essential steps towards a greener future.”

3. Restate the Thesis

Restate your thesis in a new way. This reinforces your argument without sounding repetitive.

Restate, Don’t Repeat

Restating the thesis means expressing it in a new way.

Avoid repeating it verbatim.

Instead, rephrase it to reinforce your argument and show that you have successfully argued your point throughout the piece.

Reinforce the Argument

Restating the thesis helps reinforce your central argument. It reminds the reader of the purpose of your writing and underscores its significance.

Provide Closure Restating the thesis in the conclusion gives a sense of closure.

It signals that the discussion has come full circle and that you have addressed your initial argument.

“By implementing these strategies, we can significantly reduce our carbon footprint and protect our planet for future generations.”

4. Provide a Final Thought

Offer a final thought or reflection to leave a lasting impression. This could be a call to action, a prediction, or a thought-provoking question.

Final Thought or Reflection

A final thought or reflection can leave a lasting impression on the reader.

It shows that you are not just summarizing your points but also offering a deeper insight or perspective.

Call to Action

A call to action encourages the reader to take the next step.

It motivates them to act based on the information or arguments presented in your writing.

Prediction or Question

A prediction about the future or a thought-provoking question can engage the reader and encourage further reflection. This leaves the reader with something to think about even after they have finished reading.

“As we move forward, it’s crucial to remember that every small effort counts. Together, we can make a difference.”

5. Use a Call to Action (if applicable)

If your piece is meant to persuade or encourage action, include a call to action. This motivates the reader to take the next step.

Motivate the Reader

A call to action motivates the reader to take the next step.

It encourages them to act based on the information or arguments presented in your writing.

Encourage Action

Including a call to action is especially important in persuasive writing. It encourages the reader to act on the information provided and make a change or take a specific action.

Provide Clear Steps

A good call to action provides clear steps for the reader to follow.

It should be specific and actionable, guiding the reader on what to do next.

“Join us in making a positive change. Start today by reducing your plastic use and spreading awareness about environmental conservation.”

Check out this video about how to write a good conclusion:

How to Write a Good Conclusion for an Essay

Writing a good conclusion for an essay involves summarizing your main points, restating your thesis, and providing a final thought or reflection.

Here’s how:

  • Summarize Main Points : Briefly recap the key points discussed in the body of your essay.
  • Restate Thesis : Paraphrase your thesis statement to reinforce your argument.
  • Final Thought : Offer a final insight, question, or call to action to leave a lasting impression.

This approach ensures your essay feels complete and leaves the reader with a clear understanding of your argument.

How to Write a Good Conclusion for an Argumentative Essay

A strong conclusion for an argumentative essay should not only summarize the main points and restate the thesis but also emphasize the importance of your argument.

Follow these steps:

  • Summarize Arguments : Briefly outline the main arguments presented.
  • Restate Thesis : Rephrase your thesis to highlight its significance.
  • Address Counterarguments : Acknowledge opposing viewpoints and reinforce why your argument is stronger.
  • Call to Action : Encourage the reader to take action or reconsider their position.

How to Write a Good Conclusion for a Research Paper

Crafting a good conclusion for a research paper involves summarizing your findings, discussing their implications, and suggesting future research.

Here’s a guide:

  • Summarize Findings : Recap the key results of your research.
  • Discuss Implications : Explain the significance of your findings and how they contribute to the field.
  • Restate Research Question : Reiterate the research question and how your findings address it.
  • Suggest Future Research : Propose areas for further investigation.

This format provides a comprehensive and thoughtful conclusion that underscores the importance of your research and its potential impact.

30 Examples of Good Conclusion Paragraphs

Let’s explore some good examples of good conclusions.

Example 1: Environmental Essay

“In conclusion, the preservation of our natural resources is not just a necessity but a responsibility we owe to future generations. By taking small steps today, we can ensure a healthier planet tomorrow.”

Example 2: Technology Article

“As we embrace the advancements in technology, it is vital to remain vigilant about privacy and security. Staying informed and proactive can help us navigate the digital landscape safely.”

Example 3: Health and Wellness Blog

“Ultimately, achieving a balanced lifestyle requires dedication and mindfulness. By prioritizing our well-being, we can lead healthier and more fulfilling lives.”

Example 4: Business Report

“In summary, the market analysis indicates a positive trend for our product. With strategic planning and execution, we can capitalize on these opportunities and drive growth.”

Example 5: Education Essay

“In the end, fostering a love for learning in students is the key to their success. By creating engaging and supportive educational environments, we can inspire the next generation of leaders.”

Example 6: Travel Blog

“To conclude, exploring new destinations enriches our lives and broadens our perspectives. Embrace the adventure and discover the beauty of our world.”

Example 7: Personal Development Article

“In the final analysis, personal growth is a lifelong journey. Embrace challenges, learn from experiences, and continue striving to become the best version of yourself.”

Example 8: Marketing Case Study

“In closing, the data clearly shows that targeted marketing strategies significantly improve customer engagement and sales. By refining our approach, we can achieve even greater success.”

Example 9: Historical Analysis

“In conclusion, the events of the past continue to shape our present and future. Understanding history is essential to making informed decisions and avoiding past mistakes.”

Example 10: Scientific Research Paper

“Ultimately, the findings of this study contribute to our understanding of the subject and open the door for further research. Continued exploration in this field is vital for advancing knowledge.”

Example 11: Political Commentary

“In the end, civic engagement is crucial for a functioning democracy. Stay informed, participate in discussions, and exercise your right to vote.”

Example 12: Fashion Blog

“To wrap up, fashion is a powerful form of self-expression. Embrace your unique style and let your wardrobe reflect your personality.”

Example 13: Food Blog

“In conclusion, cooking at home not only saves money but also allows you to experiment with flavors and ingredients. Start your culinary journey today and discover the joys of homemade meals.”

Example 14: Sports Article

“Ultimately, teamwork and perseverance are the foundations of success in sports. Keep pushing your limits and strive for excellence on and off the field.”

Example 15: Literature Analysis

“In summary, the themes explored in this novel resonate with readers and offer valuable insights into the human condition. Its timeless message continues to inspire and provoke thought.”

Example 16: Parenting Blog

“In the end, raising children requires patience, love, and commitment. Cherish the moments, and remember that every effort you make shapes their future.”

Example 17: Finance Article

“To conclude, financial planning is essential for securing your future. Start today by setting clear goals and creating a budget that aligns with your aspirations.”

Example 18: Career Advice Blog

“In conclusion, building a successful career takes time and dedication. Stay focused, seek opportunities for growth, and never stop learning.”

Example 19: Fitness Blog

“Ultimately, regular exercise and a balanced diet are key to maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Stay motivated, and remember that every step counts towards your fitness goals.”

Example 20: DIY Blog

“In summary, DIY projects are a rewarding way to personalize your space and learn new skills. Get creative and start your next project today.”

Example 21: Relationship Advice

“In the end, strong relationships are built on communication, trust, and mutual respect. Nurture your connections and strive for harmony in your interactions.”

Example 22: Pet Care Blog

“To wrap up, responsible pet ownership involves understanding your pet’s needs and providing them with a loving home. Invest in their well-being, and they’ll reward you with unconditional love.”

Example 23: Environmental Science Paper

“In conclusion, addressing climate change requires global cooperation and immediate action. Every effort counts, and together we can create a sustainable future.”

Example 24: Technology Review

“Ultimately, this gadget offers impressive features that enhance convenience and efficiency. Consider it for your next tech upgrade.”

Example 25: Psychology Article

“In summary, understanding human behavior is crucial for improving mental health and well-being. Continue exploring this fascinating field for more insights.”

Example 26: Gardening Blog

“In the end, gardening is a therapeutic and rewarding hobby that connects us with nature. Start your garden today and enjoy the benefits of fresh produce and beautiful blooms.”

Example 27: Home Improvement Article

“To conclude, home improvement projects can significantly enhance your living space and increase property value. Plan carefully and enjoy the transformation.”

Example 28: Social Media Marketing

“In conclusion, effective social media marketing requires consistency, creativity, and engagement. Develop a strategy that resonates with your audience and watch your brand grow.”

Example 29: Automotive Review

“Ultimately, this vehicle combines performance, style, and safety. Take it for a test drive and experience its capabilities firsthand.”

Example 30: Music Blog

“In summary, music has the power to evoke emotions and bring people together. Explore different genres and find the soundtrack to your life.”

Tips for Writing a Strong Conclusion

Here are some simple but good tips for writing a powerful conclusion:

  • Keep it Concise – A good conclusion should be short and to the point. Avoid unnecessary details and focus on wrapping up your main ideas.
  • Use Clear Language – Ensure your language is clear and easy to understand. Avoid jargon and complex sentences.
  • Be Consistent – Maintain the same tone and style as the rest of your text. Consistency helps create a seamless reading experience.
  • End on a Positive Note – Whenever possible, end with a positive or uplifting message. This leaves the reader with a good impression.

Common Mistakes to Avoid

There are some common mistakes that many writers make when crafting their conclusions.

  • Introducing New Information – Don’t introduce new ideas or arguments in the conclusion. This can confuse the reader and dilute your main points.
  • Being Vague – Avoid vague statements that don’t add value. Be specific and clear in your summary.
  • Repetitiveness – Don’t repeat the same points over and over. Restate your thesis and key points in a new way.
  • Ignoring the Thesis – Make sure to tie your conclusion back to your thesis. This reinforces your argument and gives a sense of closure.

Final Thoughts: How to Write a Good Conclusion Paragraph

Writing a good conclusion paragraph is essential for creating a cohesive and impactful piece of writing.

By summarizing key points, restating the thesis, providing a final thought, and using a call to action, you can craft a strong conclusion that leaves a lasting impression.

Use the 30 examples provided to inspire your own writing and ensure your conclusions are always effective and engaging.

Read This Next:

  • How to Write an Introduction Paragraph [50+ Examples]
  • How to Write a Paragraph [Ultimate Guide + Examples]
  • Types of Evidence in Writing [Ultimate Guide + Examples]
  • Narrative Writing Graphic Organizer [Guide + Free Templates]
  • How to Write a Hook (40 Good Examples)

Examples

Summary Writing

Ai generator.

thesis to summary

In every simple statement or any formal dissertation, you can always find a summary. It is the part where the writer does a recap and states the highlights of the whole point that he/she is making. It is also where suggestions and recommendations are provided in order to give a clear view of the subject.

Every discourse or essay parts is composed mainly of three parts. That is the introduction, the body, and the summary or the conclusion. As Merriam-Webster dictionary defines it, a summary is “a brief statement that gives the most important information about something”. It offers a better understanding of what is stated.

Resume Summary

Resume Summary

Size: 36 KB

Sample Summary Writing

Sample Summary Writing

What Is Summary Writing?

Summary writing is the act or the formal writing process of creating or making a conclusion using a few words to highlight the most important information of an essay, speech, or other address. It is done by choosing the most essential elements that the writer has stated in the main body or main dialogue and try to present it briefly once again at the last part.

This is an effective way of letting the readers recall and remember what transpired and make them think once again. A summary writing offers an opportunity for the writer to express any last and final words as takeaway for the readers.

Teaching Summary Writing

Teaching Summary Writing

Size: 950 KB

Worksheet Summary Writing

Worksheet Summary Writing

Size: 236 KB

Writing Article Summary

Writing Article Summary

Size: 339 KB

How to Assess Summary Writing

To assess summary writing, you need to look at the essential elements and factors of a summary or a essay conclusion.

The essential elements are

  • the conciseness of the general statements ,
  • the effectiveness of how it was written, and
  • the overall impact of the summary.

Summary writing requires the ability to not overstate an idea as it becomes a repetition. The smart goal and purpose of summary writing is to provide only the highlights or the most important details and information. For a writer, you need to avoid making generalizations which are out of the topic because it causes confusion to the reader.

Technical Writing

Technical Writing3

Non Fiction Summary Writing

Non Fiction Summary Writing1

Free Summary Writing

Free Summary Writing

Guidelines for Summary Writing

For an effective and proper summary business writing , you need to follow certain guidelines. Here are a few that you might find helpful.

1. Limit your sentences.

A summary is a short recall or restatement (formats such as statements in pdf  ) of what was discussed in the whole discourse. Therefore, you should not make it longer than six sentences.

2. Use logical reasoning.

When we say logical reasoning, we mean follow the same line of argument and analysis from your main subject.

3. Avoid repetition of words.

Aside from repetition of ideas that you should avoid, get away as well from using the same word in a sentence. Be a wide reader for a greater range of your vocabulary. You may also see writing examples in pdf .

School Summary Writing

School Summary Writing

Size: 632 KB

Writing an Informal Summary

Writing an Informal Summary

Size: 1011 KB

Writing an Academic Summary

Writing an Academic Summary

Size: 104 KB

Importance of Summary Writing

The importance of summary writing lies in the whole idea that it provides a good opportunity for a writer to make a clear position. Through summary writing skills , one should be able to give an explanation of what the main point is and avoid any hanging ideas or realizations of the reader.

Just like in a court proceeding, both the defendant and prosecutor are given last statements to provide their final defense. It is a good practice in order to present a clearer picture and final rebuttal of their claims. You may also check out article writing examples & samples.

So too in a summary writing, a writer will the chance to state what he/she intends the reader to understand.

Twitter

Text prompt

  • Instructive
  • Professional

10 Examples of Public speaking

20 Examples of Gas lighting

thesis to summary

PhD defence

Unraveling the epidemiology of tick-borne infections in cattle and the potential impact of a novel biopesticide in coastal Kenya

Ticks pose a significant threat to livestock health and productivity in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, causing substantial economic losses, especially to resource-poor smallholder farmers. This thesis investigated the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) and evaluated the effectiveness of entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) as a potential biological alternative to synthetic chemicals for tick control. We found a high diversity of TBPs in ticks and cattle, albeit with low infection rates. Risk variables assessed for TBP infection in cattle were not statistically significant. Laboratory and field experiments showed that the tick-killing effect of Tickoff biopesticide (a formulation of EPF) is delayed, which would hamper the direct protection of treated cattle, but could result in indirect protection by preventing onward transmission to other animals (both treated and untreated). Using a mathematical model, we show that sufficiently high levels of population coverage and treatment frequency are needed for EPF to reduce the tick population size and considerably reduce TBP transmission in cattle populations. Further, increasing the persistence time of EPF on cattle skin could substantially enhance its impact.

thesis to summary

Hokkaido University Collection of Scholarly and Academic Papers  > Theses  > 博士 (工学)  >

Analysis of high-frequency electromagnetic devices based on equivalent circuit and homogenization method [an abstract of dissertation and a summary of dissertation review]

Atalanta coach Gian Piero Gasperini on his playing philosophy and the UEFA Europa League final against Leverkusen – interview

Wednesday, May 22, 2024

Article summary

Atalanta face all-conquering Leverkusen in Dublin but La Dea's coach is feeling optimistic, telling UEFA.com: "I hope that we can create problems to scupper their chances."

Article top media content

Article body.

At 66, Gian Piero Gasperini has made it to his first ever UEFA club competition final as his Atalanta side prepare to take on Leverkusen in the UEFA Europa League showpiece in Dublin . However, as the coach told UEFA.com, trophies are not necessarily the only metric of success in the world of football.

Over the course of his long coaching career, Gasperini has built up a reputation for nurturing young talent, playing exciting attacking football and getting results against sides with better resources. Once regarded as overly risky, his hallmark 3-4-3 system has become reasonably familiar at the highest levels in European football, but a trophy or two to add to his reputation would be most welcome.

On his first-ever European final

It feels good. It's a great achievement and source of satisfaction, achieved with a really good season from this whole team. Is it the highest point of my career? Yes, in terms of accomplishment and prestige, absolutely. In terms of gratification, fortunately I've had quite a few, although perhaps not on the same level.

I don't think winning a cup is necessarily always part of the parameters by which success is judged. Everyone has their own goals. When you manage to exceed them by far, as has happened at Atalanta, you still have to be very satisfied. If we also manage to add a cup, of course, we'll be even more satisfied.

On his time at Atalanta

It started eight years ago, very suddenly, as good things usually do. At that time there were lots of players in the youth ranks, close to the first team, but they were hardly involved. That was the turning point – from then on, Atalanta's world changed a bit. First [we reached] the Europa League, then after that the Champions [League].

Three Champions League qualifications in a row [for] a team who also played very good football, who scored a lot of goals. And the run in the [2019/20] Champions League also gave us a big boost. We came very close to a semi-final by coming up against Paris . That has always remained a bit like the milestone that got away, and I must say that this year we may have passed that milestone, and gone beyond it.

Gasperini during Atalanta's 2019/20 Champions League quarter-final against Paris

On Atalanta's quest for European success this season

This team always wanted it. Sometimes, you get teams who are good technically but lacking in determination and hunger. From the start, from the group stage, since we played in Lisbon, in a group where we were not the favourites – Sporting [CP] were the favourites – we played great matches against strong opponents. Of course, winning at Anfield boosted our confidence even more.

On final opponents Leverkusen

The team and their achievements speak for themselves. They haven't lost this year. We're going to be up against a very tough team who have pulled off something extraordinary in their home country. They're a very robust team. They play in a very compact way, which makes it hard to get through. It's hard to create space against them. They have a lot of pace and technique in attack. They're an excellent team, otherwise they wouldn't have got these results. But I believe we have some important attributes and I hope that we can create problems to scupper their chances.

Both teams have a similar shape. I'm very pleased about this because when I started playing with this formation a few years ago, we were pretty much the only ones doing it. We were very much the odd ones out. Now, in the Champions League and Europa League, there are lots of teams doing the same thing, albeit with their own approach and style. Three defenders and three strikers has become very fashionable, you could say. Very common, at least.

Selected for you

Meet the 2024 winners

Meet the 2024 winners

Europa League final preview

Europa League final preview

What to look out for in Dublin

What to look out for in Dublin

Press release

Doctoral thesis on the potential of silica-based nanoparticles in pharmacy.

Rawand Mustafa.

M.Sc. Rawand Mustafa’s doctoral thesis in pharmacy will be put forth for public defence at the Faculty of Science and Engineering at Åbo Akademi University.

The thesis is entitled  Silica core@shell Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications .

The public defence of the doctoral thesis takes place on Friday 31 may 2024, at 1.15 p.m. in the Argentum auditorium, Aurum building, Henrikinkatu 2, Turku. Professor Gøril Eide Flaten , UiT Arctic University of Norway, will serve as opponent and Professor Hongbo Zhang , Åbo Akademi University, as custos. You can also follow the defence online.

This thesis focuses on improving treatment outcomes in serious conditions such as cancer, infections caused by biofilms, and hearing loss via nanotechnology-based drug delivery. Nanotechnology enables the creation of extremely small particles that can carry drugs to the diseased cells and making treatments more effective, reducing harmful side effects on healthy cells, ensuring patient compliance, and even enabling new medical treatments.

Cancer remains a leading cause of death globally, and finding better ways to deliver drugs is crucial for improving treatments. Traditional chemotherapy often has drawbacks like harming healthy cells and not reaching tumours effectively. Similarly, hearing loss affects millions worldwide, but treating inner ear conditions with systemic drugs can cause side effects. Local administration is risky and invasive, while barriers in the ear limit drug permeation. Biofilms, that are responsible for many infections, are tough to treat because they form protective layers that resist antibiotics. This makes them up to 1000 times harder to kill than single bacteria.

Addressing these challenges, this doctoral thesis presents using nanoparticles (tiny delivery trucks for drugs) called silica core@shell nanoparticles, by combining different materials in a so-called core@shell design. These nanoparticles can perform multiple tasks, making them useful in treating these challenges. In one part of the study, these nanoparticles were tested for cancer treatment. The nanoparticles release drugs when triggered by light or pH changes, making them effective in delivering drugs directly to tumours while reducing the amount drug needed and prolonging the release time i.e. duration of treatment. They also showed promise in killing cancer cells while preserving healthy tissue. Additionally, this thesis explored using these nanoparticles to treat hearing loss by enhancing drug delivery to the inner ear using light as a drug permeability enhancer and release trigger. The study also developed a new method to understand how these nanoparticles interact with bacterial biofilms, which could improve infection treatments.

Overall, this research shows the potential of silica-based core@shell nanoparticles in pharmacy. They can be tailored for different treatments, offering hope for improved patient outcomes. As this field progresses, these nanoparticles could open up new possibilities for drug delivery and medical treatments, ultimately improving patient care and quality of life.

Rawand Mustafa can be reached by phone 041 704 2573 or email rawand.mustafa@abo.fi .

The doctoral thesis can be read online through the Doria publication archive.

Click here for a press photo of the doctoral student.

Instructions for following the doctoral defence remotely:

To follow the defence, you need the Zoom software or the Google Chrome browser . You do not need to create a Zoom account to follow the defence. If you install the application, you participate by clicking on the meeting link, after which you should allow the link to open in the Zoom app.

IMAGES

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COMMENTS

  1. How to Write a Thesis Summary

    Elaborate a thesis statement. The thesis statement. is the most important part. This is a sentence usually placed at the beginning of the summary and it is aimed at clarifying the main research questions of your work. The thesis statement must be clear and concise. MA theses, but also PhD dissertations, usually concern very narrow topics.

  2. Free AI Text Summarizer

    100% free: Generate unlimited summaries without paying a penny Accurate: Get a reliable and trustworthy summary of your original text without any errors No signup: Use it without giving up any personal data Secure: No summary data is stored, guaranteeing your privacy Speed: Get an accurate summary within seconds, thanks to AI Flexible: Adjust summary length to get more (or less) detailed summaries

  3. How to Write a Summary

    Table of contents. When to write a summary. Step 1: Read the text. Step 2: Break the text down into sections. Step 3: Identify the key points in each section. Step 4: Write the summary. Step 5: Check the summary against the article. Other interesting articles. Frequently asked questions about summarizing.

  4. Thesis Summary

    In that case, follow these steps to write a summary thesis: Summarize every paragraph in one sentence. Summarize the entire text in a single sentence. Write a single paragraph that starts with a sentence that summarizes the entire text followed by a paragraph of summary sentences. Rewrite and rearrange your paragraph to ensure that it's ...

  5. Thesis Statements

    A thesis statement: tells the reader how you will interpret the significance of the subject matter under discussion. is a road map for the paper; in other words, it tells the reader what to expect from the rest of the paper. directly answers the question asked of you. A thesis is an interpretation of a question or subject, not the subject itself.

  6. How to Write a Thesis Statement

    Step 2: Write your initial answer. After some initial research, you can formulate a tentative answer to this question. At this stage it can be simple, and it should guide the research process and writing process. The internet has had more of a positive than a negative effect on education.

  7. How can we write a summary of a thesis?

    Generally, the summary is about 200-350 words long, but you should verify this with your supervisor. Also, it generally follows an introduction-body-conclusion structure. Related reading: The basics of converting your PhD thesis into journal articles. Answered by Editage Insights on 13 Sep, 2017.

  8. How To Write a Summary: 5 Easy Steps

    5. Conclude by restating the author's thesis. Finish your summary with a clear statement that effectively captures the author's main argument or purpose. Keep in mind that the conclusion of a summary should not introduce new information but instead provide a sense of closure. This will leave the reader with a comprehensive understanding of ...

  9. How to Write a Summary

    When to write a summary. Step 1: Read the text. Step 2: Break the text down into sections. Step 3: Identify the key points in each section. Step 4: Write the summary. Step 5: Check the summary against the article. Frequently asked questions.

  10. Academic Guide For Students How Write a Thesis Summary

    A thesis summary is a document that summarizes the points of a longer essay, thesis, or dissertation. Readers will often find a summary to be helpful as it offers a succinct overview of the document's contents. A Thesis Summary should not be confused with an abstract as they both refer to separate documents that serve different purposes.

  11. Summary: Using it Wisely

    The Great Gatsby is the story of a mysterious millionaire, Jay Gatsby, who lives alone on an island in New York. F. Scott Fitzgerald wrote the book, but the narrator is Nick Carraway. Nick is Gatsby's neighbor, and he chronicles the story of Gatsby and his circle of friends, beginning with his introduction to the strange man and ending with ...

  12. Thesis Summary

    The thesis summary is a substantive description of your work read by an external examiner by presenting all the major elements of your work in a highly condensed form. Size and Structure Normally, a thesis summary would only contain 120 or less (for undergraduate theses), 150 words (for Masters theses) and 350 words (for a doctoral dissertation).

  13. How to Write a Thesis Statement for a Summary

    Writing a thesis statement for a summary is important because it sums up the assertions or arguments of the writing. The key to a well-written summary is the thesis statement. The thesis should clearly communicate the theme of the summary. Your ability to develop a concise thesis statement and summary will depend on your ability to read critically.

  14. Developing a Thesis Statement

    A thesis statement . . . Makes an argumentative assertion about a topic; it states the conclusions that you have reached about your topic. Makes a promise to the reader about the scope, purpose, and direction of your paper. Is focused and specific enough to be "proven" within the boundaries of your paper. Is generally located near the end ...

  15. What Is a Thesis?

    A thesis is a long-form piece of academic writing, often taking more than a full semester to complete. It is generally a degree requirement for Master's programs, and is also sometimes required to complete a bachelor's degree in liberal arts colleges. ... An abstract is a short summary of your thesis. Usually a maximum of 300 words long, it ...

  16. Creating a Thesis Statement, Thesis Statement Tips

    Tips for Writing Your Thesis Statement. 1. Determine what kind of paper you are writing: An analytical paper breaks down an issue or an idea into its component parts, evaluates the issue or idea, and presents this breakdown and evaluation to the audience.; An expository (explanatory) paper explains something to the audience.; An argumentative paper makes a claim about a topic and justifies ...

  17. How To Write a Summary in 8 Steps (With Examples)

    5. Write the summary. You can start your summary with the author's name and the title of the text. For example, you can use some variation of, "According to Martin Somers in 'The Child and the Wolf,'" to introduce your text. Then, include the thesis of the author in your first sentence.

  18. How to write a research summary

    Determining the focus of the summary is a critical first step. It involves deciding whether to create a "global" summary, which covers all main ideas, or a "selective" summary, which focuses on specific aspects of the research. The summary should be clear, engaging, and concise, capturing the essence of the study in a brief format.

  19. TLDR This

    TLDR This, the online article summarizer tool, not only condenses lengthy articles into shorter, digestible content, but it also automatically extracts essential metadata such as author and date information, related images, and the title. Additionally, it estimates the reading time for news articles and blog posts, ensuring you have all the ...

  20. How to Write a Good Conclusion Paragraph (+30 Examples)

    A good conclusion paragraph is the lasting impression you want to leave with your reader. Here is a quick summary of how to write a good conclusion paragraph: Write a good conclusion paragraph by summarizing key points, restating your thesis, and providing a final thought or call to action. Ensure it wraps up your main […]

  21. Summary Writing

    Guidelines for Summary Writing. For an effective and proper summary business writing, you need to follow certain guidelines.Here are a few that you might find helpful. 1. Limit your sentences. A summary is a short recall or restatement (formats such as statements in pdf ) of what was discussed in the whole discourse. Therefore, you should not make it longer than six sentences.

  22. Free Resume Summary Generator (Make a Resume Summary Fast)

    Most resume summaries are roughly three sentences long, and include the following information: Sentence #1: Your biggest selling points as a candidate, including how many years of relevant work experience you have. Sentence #2: One or more specific accomplishments or skills from your career to show employers what they can expect from you if ...

  23. Unraveling the epidemiology of tick-borne infections in cattle and the

    Summary. Ticks pose a significant threat to livestock health and productivity in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, causing substantial economic losses, especially to resource-poor smallholder farmers. This thesis investigated the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) and evaluated the effectiveness of entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) as a ...

  24. How to Write a Thesis or Dissertation Conclusion

    Step 1: Answer your research question. Step 2: Summarize and reflect on your research. Step 3: Make future recommendations. Step 4: Emphasize your contributions to your field. Step 5: Wrap up your thesis or dissertation. Full conclusion example. Conclusion checklist. Other interesting articles.

  25. Medifast: Significant Undervaluation Even As Struggles Persist

    Summary Medifast's financial performance is deteriorating rapidly due to the emergence of drug-weight loss competitors. The company reported a significant decline in revenue and earnings in Q1 2023.

  26. Analysis of high-frequency electromagnetic devices based on equivalent

    Analysis of high-frequency electromagnetic devices based on equivalent circuit and homogenization method [an abstract of dissertation and a summary of dissertation review] Other Titles: 等価回路と均質化法による高周波電磁デバイスの解析 [論文内容及び審査の要旨] Authors: 劉, 橋 Browse this author: Issue Date:

  27. Atalanta coach Gian Piero Gasperini on his playing philosophy and the

    Atalanta face all-conquering Leverkusen in Dublin but La Dea's coach is feeling optimistic, telling UEFA.com: "I hope that we can create problems to scupper their chances."

  28. Dissertation & Thesis Outline

    This is a short paragraph at the end of your introduction to inform readers about the organizational structure of your thesis or dissertation. This chapter outline is also known as a reading guide or summary outline. Tip You can find a thesis and dissertation outline template below, as well as a chapter outline example, and example sentences ...

  29. Doctoral Thesis on the potential of silica-based nanoparticles in

    Summary: This thesis focuses on improving treatment outcomes in serious conditions such as cancer, infections caused by biofilms, and hearing loss via nanotechnology-based drug delivery. Nanotechnology enables the creation of extremely small particles that can carry drugs to the diseased cells and making treatments more effective, reducing ...