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Comprehensive Cancer Care: an outpatient treatment facility

Braden Abrams Reid , Clemson University

Date of Award

Document type, degree name.

Master of Architecture (MArch)

Legacy Department


Committee Chair/Advisor

David Allison

Committee Member

Daniel Harding

John Jacques

Dr. Cynthia Pury

A cancer diagnosis can result in a loss of decision-making and control for patients. The majority of clinical treatments fail to adequately address corollary symptoms and needs that arise both from treatment and from the disease itself. Thus, the architectural problem identified in this thesis inquiry is how can an outpatient cancer centre treat the whole patient comprehensively, while at the same time instilling control and re-empowering the patient? This thesis project proposes a patient-centered environment designed to support the myriad and nuanced needs of the cancer patient, as well as a site-specific proposal for a comprehensive outpatient cancer treatment centre located in Spartanburg County, South Carolina. This cancer centre is designed with the notion of patient-empowerment as a design driver, and incorporates non-traditional complementary treatments in addition to those clinical treatments typically offered in the conventional North American cancer centre.

By way of supporting this topical area of inquiry, the following topics comprise the scope of inquiry undertaken in this project: Clinical Cancer Treatment Architecture: the three main facility types in which cancer treatment occurs - freestanding, aggregated, and monolithic. Complementary/Alternative Treatment Architecture: both cancer-focused and general alternative treatment centres were also investigated, in order to determine what complementary therapies might be appropriate to incorporate with a clinical cancer treatment center. Additionally, these facilities were helpful in giving cues as to what physical design drivers could help guide the subsequent thesis design proposal.

The review of many personal cancer patient blogs and video diaries (all openly available online) was important in framing the experience of the patient. What therapies were commonly feared, personal aversions that developed as a result of treatment, and similar notions written or spoken about all helped to give a sense of what it might be like to be in a patient's situation, and what design decisions might have been helpful in nurturing a more positive experience.

Design principles were developed out of the topical inquiry and architectural investigation, with the focus of patient empowerment at hand. Similarly, site selection, programmatic development, and the final design proposal were each conducted through the lens of the patient experience, and how best to instill control before, during, and after treatment is delivered (that is to say, before the patient arrives, the experience of receiving care, and what is taken away once they leave the treatment centre).

The resulting design proposal developed from this investigation is a 45,000 square foot outpatient cancer treatment centre located in Spartanburg County, South Carolina. The facility comprises a full hematology and infusion therapy suite, a radiation therapy suite, an alternative medicine suite, a physical therapy program, mind-body therapies, and a diet and nutrition area. Patients originating in the Cities of Greenville, Spartanburg, and Greer, and all surrounding areas will utilize this centre.

Recommended Citation

Reid, Braden Abrams, "Comprehensive Cancer Care: an outpatient treatment facility" (2014). All Theses . 2172. https://tigerprints.clemson.edu/all_theses/2172

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Home > Graduate Studies > Masters Theses > 669

  • Masters Theses

Healing through architecture: role of architecture in promoting healing in cancer care settings

Vrindha Vijay , Rhode Island School of Design Follow

Date of Award

Spring 6-1-2021

Document Type

Degree name.

Master of Architecture (MArch)


First Advisor

Second advisor.

Jonathan Knowles

Architecture creates the ambience and frame of mind for the carer, who then passes it on to the patients. It is the physical space that provides us to feel a certain way or experience a set peacefulness. Humans tend to react to spaces around them to connect emotionally and physically. And in that sense, Architecture is key. The focus, thus far, in most healthcare centers have been on clinical care rather than the soft services. Today, Architecture is striving to make a better environment that can contribute to patients’ healing, recovery, and well-being.

The goal of this thesis is to facilitate the processes of caring and healing through the redesign of a cancer care center. The project will establish relationships between experience, empathy and architectural environment. The design should aim to reduce patient and family stress. To achieve this goal, architecture must eliminate environmental stress, poor lighting, and the lack of private spaces to allow the patients to take complete advantage of the space they are in.

When one finds themselves in a situation that conquers their abilities to fight their inner stress, they begin to rely on external factors. It is the physical space they are in that allows them to connect their emotions. The fact that hospitals ignore the importance of design in providing emotional and stress-free care for their patients is something one needs to reflect upon. This thesis explores the relationship between healing and architecture and focuses on cancer patients and their caretakers/caregivers in particular.

How can the physical space of a care center be used to enable emotional, physical and psychic well-being for patients and caregivers?

View exhibition online: Vrindha Vijay, HEALING through ARCHITECTURE

Recommended Citation

Vijay, Vrindha, "Healing through architecture: role of architecture in promoting healing in cancer care settings" (2021). Masters Theses . 669. https://digitalcommons.risd.edu/masterstheses/669

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Home > Eppley Institute > Theses & Dissertations

Theses & Dissertations: Cancer Research

Theses/dissertations from 2024 2024.

Novel Spirocyclic Dimer (SpiD3) Displays Potent Preclinical Effects in Hematological Malignancies , Alexandria Eiken

Therapeutic Effects of BET Protein Inhibition in B-cell Malignancies and Beyond , Audrey L. Smith

Identifying the Molecular Determinants of Lung Metastatic Adaptation in Prostate Cancer , Grace M. Waldron

Identification of Mitotic Phosphatases and Cyclin K as Novel Molecular Targets in Pancreatic Cancer , Yi Xiao

Theses/Dissertations from 2023 2023

Development of Combination Therapy Strategies to Treat Cancer Using Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase Inhibitors , Nicholas Mullen

Overcoming Resistance Mechanisms to CDK4/6 Inhibitor Treatment Using CDK6-Selective PROTAC , Sarah Truong

Theses/Dissertations from 2022 2022

Omics Analysis in Cancer and Development , Emalie J. Clement

Investigating the Role of Splenic Macrophages in Pancreatic Cancer , Daisy V. Gonzalez

Polymeric Chloroquine in Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer Therapy , Rubayat Islam Khan

Evaluating Targets and Therapeutics for the Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer , Shelby M. Knoche

Characterization of 1,1-Diarylethylene FOXM1 Inhibitors Against High-Grade Serous Ovarian Carcinoma Cells , Cassie Liu

Novel Mechanisms of Protein Kinase C α Regulation and Function , Xinyue Li

SOX2 Dosage Governs Tumor Cell Identity and Proliferation , Ethan P. Metz

Post-Transcriptional Control of the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in Ras-Driven Colorectal Cancers , Chaitra Rao

Use of Machine Learning Algorithms and Highly Multiplexed Immunohistochemistry to Perform In-Depth Characterization of Primary Pancreatic Tumors and Metastatic Sites , Krysten Vance

Characterization of Metastatic Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the Immunosuppressed Patient , Megan E. Wackel

Visceral adipose tissue remodeling in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cachexia: the role of activin A signaling , Pauline Xu

Phos-Tag-Based Screens Identify Novel Therapeutic Targets in Ovarian Cancer and Pancreatic Cancer , Renya Zeng

Theses/Dissertations from 2021 2021

Functional Characterization of Cancer-Associated DNA Polymerase ε Variants , Stephanie R. Barbari

Pancreatic Cancer: Novel Therapy, Research Tools, and Educational Outreach , Ayrianne J. Crawford

Apixaban to Prevent Thrombosis in Adult Patients Treated With Asparaginase , Krishna Gundabolu

Molecular Investigation into the Biologic and Prognostic Elements of Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma with Regulators of Tumor Microenvironment Signaling Explored in Model Systems , Tyler Herek

Utilizing Proteolysis-Targeting Chimeras to Target the Transcriptional Cyclin-Dependent Kinases 9 and 12 , Hannah King

Insights into Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Pathogenesis and Metastasis Using a Bedside-to-Bench Approach , Marissa Lobl

Development of a MUC16-Targeted Near-Infrared Antibody Probe for Fluorescence-Guided Surgery of Pancreatic Cancer , Madeline T. Olson

FGFR4 glycosylation and processing in cholangiocarcinoma promote cancer signaling , Andrew J. Phillips

Theses/Dissertations from 2020 2020

Cooperativity of CCNE1 and FOXM1 in High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer , Lucy Elge

Characterizing the critical role of metabolic and redox homeostasis in colorectal cancer , Danielle Frodyma

Genomic and Transcriptomic Alterations in Metabolic Regulators and Implications for Anti-tumoral Immune Response , Ryan J. King

Dimers of Isatin Derived Spirocyclic NF-κB Inhibitor Exhibit Potent Anticancer Activity by Inducing UPR Mediated Apoptosis , Smit Kour

From Development to Therapy: A Panoramic Approach to Further Our Understanding of Cancer , Brittany Poelaert

The Cellular Origin and Molecular Drivers of Claudin-Low Mammary Cancer , Patrick D. Raedler

Mitochondrial Metabolism as a Therapeutic Target for Pancreatic Cancer , Simon Shin

Development of Fluorescent Hyaluronic Acid Nanoparticles for Intraoperative Tumor Detection , Nicholas E. Wojtynek

Theses/Dissertations from 2019 2019

The role of E3 ubiquitin ligase FBXO9 in normal and malignant hematopoiesis , R. Willow Hynes-Smith

BRCA1 & CTDP1 BRCT Domainomics in the DNA Damage Response , Kimiko L. Krieger

Targeted Inhibition of Histone Deacetyltransferases for Pancreatic Cancer Therapy , Richard Laschanzky

Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Class I Molecule Components and Amyloid Precursor-Like Protein 2 (APLP2): Roles in Pancreatic Cancer Cell Migration , Bailee Sliker

Theses/Dissertations from 2018 2018

FOXM1 Expression and Contribution to Genomic Instability and Chemoresistance in High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer , Carter J. Barger

Overcoming TCF4-Driven BCR Signaling in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma , Keenan Hartert

Functional Role of Protein Kinase C Alpha in Endometrial Carcinogenesis , Alice Hsu

Functional Signature Ontology-Based Identification and Validation of Novel Therapeutic Targets and Natural Products for the Treatment of Cancer , Beth Neilsen

Elucidating the Roles of Lunatic Fringe in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma , Prathamesh Patil

Theses/Dissertations from 2017 2017

Metabolic Reprogramming of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Cells in Response to Chronic Low pH Stress , Jaime Abrego

Understanding the Relationship between TGF-Beta and IGF-1R Signaling in Colorectal Cancer , Katie L. Bailey

The Role of EHD2 in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Tumorigenesis and Progression , Timothy A. Bielecki

Perturbing anti-apoptotic proteins to develop novel cancer therapies , Jacob Contreras

Role of Ezrin in Colorectal Cancer Cell Survival Regulation , Premila Leiphrakpam

Evaluation of Aminopyrazole Analogs as Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors for Colorectal Cancer Therapy , Caroline Robb

Identifying the Role of Janus Kinase 1 in Mammary Gland Development and Breast Cancer , Barbara Swenson

DNMT3A Haploinsufficiency Provokes Hematologic Malignancy of B-Lymphoid, T-Lymphoid, and Myeloid Lineage in Mice , Garland Michael Upchurch

Theses/Dissertations from 2016 2016

EHD1 As a Positive Regulator of Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor-1 Receptor , Luke R. Cypher

Inflammation- and Cancer-Associated Neurolymphatic Remodeling and Cachexia in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma , Darci M. Fink

Role of CBL-family Ubiquitin Ligases as Critical Negative Regulators of T Cell Activation and Functions , Benjamin Goetz

Exploration into the Functional Impact of MUC1 on the Formation and Regulation of Transcriptional Complexes Containing AP-1 and p53 , Ryan L. Hanson

DNA Polymerase Zeta-Dependent Mutagenesis: Molecular Specificity, Extent of Error-Prone Synthesis, and the Role of dNTP Pools , Olga V. Kochenova

Defining the Role of Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation in the Regulation of Gap Junction Proteins , Hanjun Li

Molecular Mechanisms Regulating MYC and PGC1β Expression in Colon Cancer , Jamie L. McCall

Pancreatic Cancer Invasion of the Lymphatic Vasculature and Contributions of the Tumor Microenvironment: Roles for E-selectin and CXCR4 , Maria M. Steele

Altered Levels of SOX2, and Its Associated Protein Musashi2, Disrupt Critical Cell Functions in Cancer and Embryonic Stem Cells , Erin L. Wuebben

Theses/Dissertations from 2015 2015

Characterization and target identification of non-toxic IKKβ inhibitors for anticancer therapy , Elizabeth Blowers

Effectors of Ras and KSR1 dependent colon tumorigenesis , Binita Das

Characterization of cancer-associated DNA polymerase delta variants , Tony M. Mertz

A Role for EHD Family Endocytic Regulators in Endothelial Biology , Alexandra E. J. Moffitt

Biochemical pathways regulating mammary epithelial cell homeostasis and differentiation , Chandrani Mukhopadhyay

EPACs: epigenetic regulators that affect cell survival in cancer. , Catherine Murari

Role of the C-terminus of the Catalytic Subunit of Translesion Synthesis Polymerase ζ (Zeta) in UV-induced Mutagensis , Hollie M. Siebler

LGR5 Activates TGFbeta Signaling and Suppresses Metastasis in Colon Cancer , Xiaolin Zhou

LGR5 Activates TGFβ Signaling and Suppresses Metastasis in Colon Cancer , Xiaolin Zhou

Theses/Dissertations from 2014 2014

Genetic dissection of the role of CBL-family ubiquitin ligases and their associated adapters in epidermal growth factor receptor endocytosis , Gulzar Ahmad

Strategies for the identification of chemical probes to study signaling pathways , Jamie Leigh Arnst

Defining the mechanism of signaling through the C-terminus of MUC1 , Roger B. Brown

Targeting telomerase in human pancreatic cancer cells , Katrina Burchett

The identification of KSR1-like molecules in ras-addicted colorectal cancer cells , Drew Gehring

Mechanisms of regulation of AID APOBEC deaminases activity and protection of the genome from promiscuous deamination , Artem Georgievich Lada

Characterization of the DNA-biding properties of human telomeric proteins , Amanda Lakamp-Hawley

Studies on MUC1, p120-catenin, Kaiso: coordinate role of mucins, cell adhesion molecules and cell cycle players in pancreatic cancer , Xiang Liu

Epac interaction with the TGFbeta PKA pathway to regulate cell survival in colon cancer , Meghan Lynn Mendick

Theses/Dissertations from 2013 2013

Deconvolution of the phosphorylation patterns of replication protein A by the DNA damage response to breaks , Kerry D. Brader

Modeling malignant breast cancer occurrence and survival in black and white women , Michael Gleason

The role of dna methyltransferases in myc-induced lymphomagenesis , Ryan A. Hlady

Design and development of inhibitors of CBL (TKB)-protein interactions , Eric A. Kumar

Pancreatic cancer-associated miRNAs : expression, regulation and function , Ashley M. Mohr

Mechanistic studies of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) , Xiaming Pang

Novel roles for JAK2/STAT5 signaling in mammary gland development, cancer, and immune dysregulation , Jeffrey Wayne Schmidt

Optimization of therapeutics against lethal pancreatic cancer , Joshua J. Souchek

Theses/Dissertations from 2012 2012

Immune-based novel diagnostic mechanisms for pancreatic cancer , Michael J. Baine

Sox2 associated proteins are essential for cell fate , Jesse Lee Cox

KSR2 regulates cellular proliferation, transformation, and metabolism , Mario R. Fernandez

Discovery of a novel signaling cross-talk between TPX2 and the aurora kinases during mitosis , Jyoti Iyer

Regulation of metabolism by KSR proteins , Paula Jean Klutho

The role of ERK 1/2 signaling in the dna damage-induced G2 , Ryan Kolb

Regulation of the Bcl-2 family network during apoptosis induced by different stimuli , Hernando Lopez

Studies on the role of cullin3 in mitosis , Saili Moghe

Characteristics of amyloid precursor-like protein 2 (APLP2) in pancreatic cancer and Ewing's sarcoma , Haley Louise Capek Peters

Structural and biophysical analysis of a human inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase polymorphism , Peter David Simone

Functions and regulation of Ron receptor tyrosine kinase in human pancreatic cancer and its therapeutic applications , Yi Zou

Theses/Dissertations from 2011 2011

Coordinate detection of new targets and small molecules for cancer therapy , Kurt Fisher

The role of c-Myc in pancreatic cancer initiation and progression , Wan-Chi Lin

The role of inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPA) in maintanence [sic] of genomic stability in human cells , Miriam-Rose Menezes

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The Architectural Design of Outdoor Spaces in Oncology Hospitals: Toward Achieving Social Sustainability for Oncology Patients

  • Conference paper
  • First Online: 12 October 2021
  • Cite this conference paper

thesis on cancer hospital

  • Menna Allah Omar Ramadan 23 ,
  • Doaa Abouelmagd 23 &
  • Alia Amer 23  

Part of the book series: Advances in Science, Technology & Innovation ((ASTI))

853 Accesses

Cancer is one of the most life-threatening diseases that cause significant psychological consequences among the patients that receive treatment. The oncology patients need to do some activities outdoors with their families that improve their psychological state. A sustainable hospital is a corporate, socially responsible organization that strives to provide a healing environment. Literature review reveals that achieving good “health” contributes to the added values increasing patient satisfaction, healing environment, and supporting their activities. The design of the outdoor spaces plays an essential role in providing a healing environment for those patients. The aim of this research paper is double fold. First, it identifies the most critical design variables in outdoor spaces in oncology hospital and attributes, which link to the aspects and characteristics of social sustainability. Second, the research compares the identified variables and aspects of the social sustainability design of outdoor spaces in oncology hospitals and the real oncology patient’s needs. The paper aims at increasing patient satisfaction, efficiency of healing environment, and supporting patient activities.

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Ramadan, M.A.O., Abouelmagd, D., Amer, A. (2021). The Architectural Design of Outdoor Spaces in Oncology Hospitals: Toward Achieving Social Sustainability for Oncology Patients. In: Alalouch, C., Piselli, C., Cappa, F. (eds) Towards Implementation of Sustainability Concepts in Developing Countries. Advances in Science, Technology & Innovation. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-74349-9_17

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Chemical Society Reviews

Immunological nanomaterials to combat cancer metastasis.

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* Corresponding authors

a Department of Neurosurgery, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China E-mail: [email protected]

b Key Laboratory of Precise Treatment and Clinical Translational Research of Neurological Diseases, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China

c Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, China

d Department of Radiology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School, Southeast University, Nanjing, China

e Department of Neurosurgery, Neurosurgery Research Institute, The First Affiliated Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350005, Fujian, China E-mail: [email protected]

f State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines and Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Drug Discovery for Metabolic Diseases, Center of Advanced Pharmaceuticals and Biomaterials, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, China E-mail: [email protected]

g Departments of Diagnostic Radiology, Surgery, Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, and Biomedical Engineering, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine and College of Design and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119074, Singapore E-mail: [email protected]

h Clinical Imaging Research Centre, Centre for Translational Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117599, Singapore

i Nanomedicine Translational Research Program, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117597, Singapore

j Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Agency for Science, Technology, and Research (A*STAR), 61 Biopolis Drive, Proteos, Singapore, Singapore

k Theranostics Center of Excellence (TCE), Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 11 Biopolis Way, Helios, Singapore 138667, Singapore

Metastasis causes greater than 90% of cancer-associated deaths, presenting huge challenges for detection and efficient treatment of cancer due to its high heterogeneity and widespread dissemination to various organs. Therefore, it is imperative to combat cancer metastasis, which is the key to achieving complete cancer eradication. Immunotherapy as a systemic approach has shown promising potential to combat metastasis. However, current clinical immunotherapies are not effective for all patients or all types of cancer metastases owing to insufficient immune responses. In recent years, immunological nanomaterials with intrinsic immunogenicity or immunomodulatory agents with efficient loading have been shown to enhance immune responses to eliminate metastasis. In this review, we would like to summarize various types of immunological nanomaterials against metastasis. Moreover, this review will summarize a series of immunological nanomaterial-mediated immunotherapy strategies to combat metastasis, including immunogenic cell death, regulation of chemokines and cytokines, improving the immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment, activation of the STING pathway, enhancing cytotoxic natural killer cell activity, enhancing antigen presentation of dendritic cells, and enhancing chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy. Furthermore, the synergistic anti-metastasis strategies based on the combinational use of immunotherapy and other therapeutic modalities will also be introduced. In addition, the nanomaterial-mediated imaging techniques ( e.g. , optical imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, photoacoustic imaging, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, radionuclide imaging, etc. ) for detecting metastasis and monitoring anti-metastasis efficacy are also summarized. Finally, the current challenges and future prospects of immunological nanomaterial-based anti-metastasis are also elucidated with the intention to accelerate its clinical translation.

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Y. Pan, J. Cheng, Y. Zhu, J. Zhang, W. Fan and X. Chen, Chem. Soc. Rev. , 2024, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/D2CS00968D

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Colon cancer rates have been rising for decades in younger people, study finds

Doctor operates colonoscopy device.

Colorectal cancer rates have been rising for decades among people too young for routine screening, new research finds.

Routine screening is recommended every 10 years starting at age 45; the new study focused on rates of the disease in children and adults ages 10 to 44, using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Cases of colorectal cancer were on the rise in all age groups, the researchers found.

“It means that there is a trend,” said Dr. Islam Mohamed, an internal medicine resident physician at the University of Missouri-Kansas City who led the research. “We don’t know what to make of it yet, it could be lifestyle factors or genetics, but there is a trend.”

The findings, which have not yet been published in a peer-reviewed journal, will be presented later this month at the Digestive Disease Week conference in Washington, D.C. 

Despite the increases, the overall number of cases in people younger than 40 was still low. In people under age 30, cases remained exceedingly rare.

But with such low rates to begin with, any increase can take on a larger significance.

The study found that colorectal cancer diagnoses in children ages 10 to 14 jumped from 0.1 cases per 100,000 in 1999 to 0.6 per 100,000 in 2020, a 500% increase. Cases among 15- to 19-year-olds jumped by more than 300%, from 0.3 per 100,000 to 1.3 cases per 100,000 people. In people ages 20 to 24, cases rose from 0.7 to 2 per 100,000 people, a 185% rise. 

“When you are starting off with a very rare disease in 15-year-olds and you add a couple cases, you are going to have a huge percentage increase,” said Dr. Folasade May, an associate professor of medicine in the University of California, Los Angeles Vatche and Tamar Manoukian Division of Digestive Diseases. 

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The increases were smaller for people over 25, but they also started with higher rates in 1999 than the younger groups. People older than 25 saw a more moderate, but still significant, rise in cases. The age group that was just too young to be routinely screened — those ages 40 to 44 — saw an increase of 45%, from about 15 per 100,000 people to about 21 cases per 100,000 people in 2020.

“We know this disease is age-related, as you get older you are more likely to develop polyps and those polyps are more likely to develop into cancer,” said May. 

May said that although the overall trend is alarming, it’s reassuring to see that the oldest group had the smallest percentage increase, since that group started with the largest number of cases. The data is still important, she said.

“Anybody who is 15 to 19 years old getting a colorectal cancer diagnosis is bad,” May said. 

‘Changing the face of colorectal cancer’

Colorectal cancer rates have been rising in people younger than 50 over the last few decades. At the same time, cases and deaths from the cancer that was once thought to only affect older people is decreasing in people in their 60s and beyond. 

“This reflects the changing face of colorectal cancer,” said Dr. Christopher Lieu, co-director of gastrointestinal medical oncology at the University of Colorado School of Medicine.

The increasing rates in younger people means that the greater risk for the disease will likely stick with them for the rest of their lives, a phenomenon called the birth cohort effect, Lieu said.  That means that a 40-year-old born in 1984 has a higher risk of colorectal cancer than someone born in 1950 did when they were 40.  

“It’s not like when you become a 50-year-old that risk diminishes, you carry that risk with you,” he said. “As younger people age, I worry that we will see increases in colorectal cancer cases in the groups that are getting screened.”

Doctors are still searching for answers as to why colorectal cancer cases are on the rise among younger generations. But the reason does not appear to be genetic, May said. 

“There are a few cancers where we are now seeing an earlier onset and they are probably linked. We don’t know why, but I think what we all agree on is that it is something environmental over something genetic,” she said, noting that it may be tied to more recently developed food processing methods or exposure to plastics. 

The experts agreed that the increases in colorectal cancer rates among younger generations were alarming, but did not support lowering the screening age for people who have an average risk. In 2018, the American Cancer Society dropped its recommendation for routine screening from age 50 to 45. 

“Before we talk about lowering the screening age from 45, we need to get those people screened. Less than 60% of people 45 and over have been screened,” May said. 

Lieu said the data reinforces the importance of everyone, in every age group, being aware of the warning signs of colorectal cancer, and that doctors understand the importance of screening even their young patients if symptoms arise. 

“Young patients wait longer to go to the doctor and also have to wait longer to establish their diagnosis because many of our patients get told they are too young to have colorectal cancer,” Lieu said. “We don’t want our patients to experience that any more, especially based on this data.” 

The most common symptoms patients in the study diagnosed with early onset colorectal cancer reported were changes in bowel habits — either constipation or diarrhea — abdominal pain, rectal bleeding and signs of anemia. Lieu said if anyone, especially a young person, has blood in their stool, that is reason to schedule an appointment with a doctor. 

One of the most powerful things a person can do for their health is to understand their family history, Mohamed said. 

“Knowing their family history can provide them with valuable insights into their own health,” he said, noting that people who have a family history of colorectal cancer should start getting screened 10 years before a sibling or parent was diagnosed. 

Kaitlin Sullivan is a contributor for NBCNews.com who has worked with NBC News Investigations. She reports on health, science and the environment and is a graduate of the Craig Newmark Graduate School of Journalism at City University of New York.


Two Dozen Bodies Brought to Rafah Hospital, Doctor Says

The head of Kuwait Hospital in Rafah said the situation at the facility amid the Israeli military incursion was “catastrophic in every sense of the word.”

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  • May 7, 2024

A Palestinian doctor at a medical center in Rafah said on Tuesday that 27 bodies had been brought there since the start of Israel’s incursion, in which ground troops entered the southeast corner of Gaza and took control of the Gazan side of a border crossing with Egypt.

Dr. Suhaib Hems, the head of Kuwait Hospital in Rafah, said that his facility had also received 150 injured people, many of whom suffered from shattered bones, serious head injuries or severe burns.

“The situation is catastrophic in every sense of the word,” Dr. Hems said.

The Israeli military said it had killed about 20 people in Rafah, describing the dead as Hamas fighters. It said that “ground troops are continuing to operate against Hamas terrorist operatives and infrastructure in the area of the Rafah crossing.” Israel has called the incursion into Rafah — where more than a million people have sought refuge from the war — a limited operation.

It was not clear whether there was an overlap in the number of dead, and the two claims could not be independently confirmed.

Dr. Hem said that his hospital lacked the capacity to properly treat the wounded because of a shortage of equipment and medical staff.

“If the situation persists, we are only days away from complete service shutdown,” he said. “The health care system has completely collapsed.”

Before the war, he said, about 270 people worked at Kuwait Hospital, but that number had dwindled to just a few dozen. He said the war had left him with a feeling of “helplessness and betrayal and a sense of despair.”

According to a statement from the Gazan health ministry on Tuesday, at least 54 people had been killed across the Gaza Strip in the previous 24 hours. It said dozens more were treated for injuries at medical facilities in the territory.

“A number of victims are still under rubble and on the streets and ambulance and civil defense crews cannot reach them,” the ministry said. The circumstances of the deaths could not be confirmed independently.

Israeli forces seized control of the Rafah border crossing during the incursion and shut it down. Wael Abu Omar, a spokesman for the Palestinian side of the crossing, said the closure had prevented 46 injured and sick people from leaving Gaza for treatment in Egypt.

The patients included people with breast cancer, lymphoma and other ailments, the health ministry said.

Liam Stack is a Times reporter covering the Israel-Hamas war from Jerusalem. More about Liam Stack

Our Coverage of the Israel-Hamas War

News and Analysis

The United Nations’ top court is scheduled to hear arguments from South Africa  after the country recently requested that the court issue further constraints on Israel, saying “the very survival” of Palestinians in Gaza was under threat.

Secretary of State Antony Blinken warned that recent gains in getting desperately needed humanitarian aid  to people in the Gaza Strip risked being undone by the fighting in southern Gaza.

The Biden administration has told Congress that it intends to move forward with a plan for the United States to sell more than $1 billion in new weapons to Israel .

PEN America’s Boiling Point: As it cancels events amid criticism of its response to the Israel-Hamas war, PEN America faces questions  about when an organization devoted to free speech for all should take sides.

A Key Weapon: When President Biden threatened to pause some weapons shipments to Israel if it invaded Rafah, the devastating effects of the 2,000-pound Mark 84 bomb  were of particular concern to him.

A Presidential Move: Ronald Reagan also used the power of American arms to influence  Israeli war policy. The comparison underscores how much the politics of Israel have changed in the United States since the 1980s.

Netanyahu’s Concerns: Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu of Israel, under pressure from all sides, is trying to reassure his many domestic, military and diplomatic critics. Here’s a look at what he is confronting .

thesis on cancer hospital

Everything we know about King Charles' cancer, from diagnosis to treatment

King Charles III has resumed his public duties amid his cancer diagnosis.

In fact, his schedule is so busy that he will not be able to see his son Prince Harry during his travels to the U.K. the second week in May for the Invictus Games, an event the Duke of Sussex co-founded that honors wounded service people and veterans.

“It unfortunately will not be possible due to His Majesty’s full programme,” a spokesperson for the duke said. “The Duke of course is understanding of his father’s diary of commitments and various other priorities and hopes to see him soon.”

Charles had a scheduled meeting with U.K. Prime Minister Rishi Sunak on May 8, just 3 miles from where Harry's appearance for the 10th anniversary of the games at St. Paul’s Cathedral.

Harry briefly met with his father in February after his cancer diagnosis was announced.

The king made his first public appearance since his cancer diagnosis on April 30, when he visited a cancer hospital in London with his wife, Queen Camilla . There, Charles met with medical specialists and patients as the new patron of Cancer Research U.K.

King Charles' cancer diagnosis

Buckingham Palace announced in a statement on Feb. 5, 2024, that Charles had been diagnosed with an unspecified form of cancer.

During a treatment to address a benign enlarged prostate condition the month prior, doctors found something else. “A separate issue of concern was noted,” officials said.

Further diagnostic tests revealed that Charles has “a form of cancer.” In the months since the announcement, no further statements from the palace have confirmed any additional details about his condition or the type of cancer the king has, but they have shared that it’s not prostate cancer.

“His Majesty has today commenced a schedule of regular treatments, during which time he has been advised by doctors to postpone public-facing duties,” the Feb. 5 statement read .

The cancer was “caught early,” Sunak said during a BBC radio interview, per  NBC News . “And now everyone will be wishing that he gets the treatment that he needs and makes a full recovery.”

While Charles had to step back from some of his public-facing duties, he had a meeting with Sunak on Feb. 21, during which the king commented on the support he'd been receiving during this time.

“Wonderful to see you looking so well,” the prime minister told the king. “It’s all done by mirrors,” Charles joked in a clip of the meeting captured by the BBC .

“We're all behind you, the country is behind you,” Sunak added.

“I've had so many wonderful messages and cards,” Charles shared, “which reduced me to tears most of the time.”

The two went on to discuss how the news of Charles' diagnosis has shone a light on charities dedicated to cancer treatment and awareness, many of which the king said he's supported for years.

King Charles’ prostate treatment

Back on Jan. 17, 2024, Buckingham Palace announced that Charles would be undergoing “a corrective procedure” to treat a benign enlarged prostate. The treatment was to be followed by a “short period of recuperation.”

He entered London Clinic private hospital and received the procedure there on Jan. 26. He was discharged from the hospital on Jan. 29.

A  benign enlarged prostate  is a common condition that often comes with aging, Dr. Otis Brawley, professor of oncology and associate director of outreach and engagement at the Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, tells TODAY.com.

Also called benign prostatic hyperplasia, the condition “exists in almost every man over the age of 50,” Brawley explains, and it can put uncomfortable pressure on the bladder, blocking the flow of urine.

It typically involves an area known as the zone of transition, which is “the part that’s around the urethra where the urine comes out,” Dr. Justin R. Gregg, urologic oncologist and assistant professor of urology and health disparities research at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, tells TODAY.com.

“If you think about the prostate like a donut, and we urinate through the hole in the donut,” Brawley says, “just as you bake a donut and the donut gets bigger, the hole in the center gets smaller.” Similarly, as the prostate enlarges, it makes it more difficult to urinate and for the bladder to completely empty.

For instance, men with enlarged prostates often describe needing to wake up to pee in the middle of the night, Brawley says.

The treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia include medications, which typically need to be taken for months, Brawley says, or surgery. Some of these medications work by relaxing the muscles of the prostate while others can actually shrink the prostate over time, Gregg adds.

Of the surgical options available, the most common one is the transurethral resection of the prostate. This procedure “involves sticking a drill up the urethra to the level of the prostate,” Brawley explains, and using the drill to essentially “whittle out a larger hole for the person to urinate.”

Buckingham Palace did not disclose the specific procedure that Charles received.

Does King Charles have cancer?

Yes. In a Feb. 5, 2024, statement, Buckingham Palace confirmed that Charles has cancer.

“During The King’s recent hospital procedure for benign prostate enlargement, a separate issue of concern was noted,” the statement read. “Subsequent diagnostic tests have identified a form of cancer.”

What kind of cancer does King Charles have?

Buckingham Palace did not disclose the specific type of cancer that King Charles has (beyond stating that he does not have prostate cancer).

“The King is grateful to his medical team for their swift intervention, which was made possible thanks to his recent hospital procedure,” the official statement read. “He remains wholly positive about his treatment and looks forward to returning to full public duty as soon as possible.”

He began outpatient treatment for the cancer on Monday, Feb. 5, palace officials added. He returned to his public-facing royal duties in late April.

What kind of cancer might be discovered by enlarged prostate treatment?

The monarch’s diagnosis appears to be what experts call an incidental diagnosis, meaning the medical team was not looking for cancer but discovered it during another procedure.

“This can definitely happen,” NBC medical contributor Dr. Tara Narula said on TODAY on Feb. 6. “Any time you go in for any sort of surgical procedure, you have pre-op testing. That involves labs, urinalysis and usually a chest X-ray. In that case, you might find something.”

During some procedures to relieve the pressure of an enlarged prostate, doctors may analyze the tissue that’s removed, Gregg explains. That can sometimes lead to an incidental diagnosis of prostate cancer. However, a palace spokesperson clarified that Charles does not have prostate cancer.

Patients typically receive routine imaging during treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia that can reveal other unrelated issues, Brawley says. A CT scan or MRI of the pelvis or abdominal region can show signs of kidney or bladder cancer, for instance.

“Now, we have CAT scans and MRIs that are so good that many times we pick up incidental things,” Narula said. “And then, in certain procedures, you’re using scopes.”

The scope used during the prostate surgery may also reveal signs of bladder cancer. “If you go past the (prostate), you get into the bladder,” Brawley says, “and that’s where you might see a bladder problem, which frequently look like cauliflower growing into the bladder.”

While  kidney cancer  doesn’t usually come with noticeable symptoms in its early stages, Brawley explains, people with bladder cancer may exhibit symptoms that overlap with those of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

“Some bladder cancers can cause  urine-related symptoms  of urgency or frequency,” Gregg agrees.

More rarely, doctors may see signs of  colorectal cancer  during these routine steps of treatment for an enlarged prostate, Brawley says. Or there’s always a chance that other conditions, such as lymphoma, might be diagnosed via a chest X-ray for a completely unrelated issue, he adds.

None of these cancers are directly related to or caused by an enlarged prostate, Brawley explains.

While it’s difficult to know exactly what condition King Charles may be dealing with right now, “when you find things early, that’s the best thing when it comes to cancer because we have treatments available,” Narula said, and the earlier you get diagnosed, the better chance those treatments have to be effective.

“His Majesty has chosen to share his diagnosis to prevent speculation and in the hope it may assist public understanding for all those around the world who are affected by cancer,” the Buckingham Palace statement from Feb. 5 read.

Gregg also hopes it serves as an important reminder that anyone experiencing bladder symptoms should speak to their doctor, and to keep regular cancer screening, including  screening for prostate cancer , in mind as they get older.

Will King Charles continue royal duties?

Yes, King Charles has resumed his public-facing royal duties since his cancer diagnosis. His first public appearance was on April 30 to a U.K. cancer hospital.

In Buckingham Palace's initial statement announcing Charles’ diagnosis, the palace wrote that while the king would have to step back from public-facing duties during treatment, “throughout this period, His Majesty will continue to undertake State business and official paperwork as usual.”

On April 26, Buckingham Palace announced in a statement that Charles would "shortly return" to public-facing duties amid his ongoing treatment.

A spokesperson for the palace added that Charles’ doctors were “sufficiently pleased” with the progress he has made during treatment, which would continue for an indeterminate amount of time.

Charles’ future engagements will remain subject to doctors’ advice and “adapted” as necessary to minimize risks to his continued recovery, said the spokesperson, noting that the king is not expected to participate in a full summer schedule of royal duties.

The palace’s announcement about Charles returning to his public duties was accompanied by a new image of him and Camilla shot by photographer Millie Pilkington in Buckingham Palace Gardens on April 10.

How is King Charles doing now?

King Charles is doing well enough to have his May 2024 schedule packed with royal duties. His first public appearance since his cancer diagnosis was on April 30.

A few days before, a Buckingham Palace spokesperson addressed Charles’ return to public duties and said it is “too early to say” for how much longer his treatment will continue, “but His Majesty’s medical team are very encouraged by the progress made so far and remain positive about The King’s continued recovery.”

The spokesperson also said: “His Majesty is greatly encouraged to be resuming some public-facing duties and very grateful to his medical team for their continued care and expertise.”

The palace’s official statement concluded by saying Charles and Camilla “remain deeply grateful for the many kindnesses and good wishes they have received from around the world throughout the joys and challenges of the past year.”

The palace also released a new photo of Charles and Camilla, taken in Buckingham Palace Gardens on April 10.

At a benefit for the Elephant Family charity on March 21, Princess Eugenie, King Charles' niece, gave an update on the monarch's health.

“He’s doing well,” Eugenie said in clip shared by ITV news. “Thank you for asking. He’s doing well, and he’d also be very proud today because the Elephant Family is very close to his heart too."

This article was originally published on TODAY.com

Everything we know about King Charles' cancer, from diagnosis to treatment

Dads of Asher Sullivan, Yousuf Ayesh shared 'devastating hug' in hospital, post reveals

Official condolences for yousuf's family set wednesday night.

thesis on cancer hospital

  • Yousuf's funeral was Tuesday night at the Islamic Center of Murfreesboro
  • A candle vigil for Yousuf is scheduled Friday night at Black Fox Elementary School
  • Sullivan asks for specific prayers for his 10-year-old son, Asher
  • Families of Asher and Yousuf have both been at Vanderbilt children's hospital in Nashville

Rutherford County Schools Director James "Jimmy" Sullivan has taken to social media again to ask for the community's help, but it isn't for his son, Asher.

Sullivan's post is for the family of Yousuf Ayesh , the 11-year-old Murfreesboro boy who died Tuesday from incurable brain cancer.

"Yousuf was down the hall from us this week at Vandy (Vanderbilt children's hospital)," Sullivan wrote in a Tuesday night post. "His dad and I shared a devastating hug (Tuesday morning) that only the two of us can understand. Please help his family if you can."

Sullivan's post included a link that shows a photo of Yousuf in his favorite red shirt to promote a gofundme.com account, set up to help the boy's family. Murfreesboro Muslim Youth, a group that seeks to help people in need in the community, organized the fund-raising account.

Asher and Yousuf: Tennessee community mourns Yousuf, prays for Asher after tornadoes

Official condolences, known as "Azza," to show support for Yousuf's family, are planned for 7:45 p.m. on Wednesday, May 15 at the Islamic Center of Murfreesboro , 2605 Veals Road, a congregation official announced after the boy's funeral Tuesday night.

A candle vigil "in loving memory of Yousuf Ayesh" is also scheduled for 7 p.m. Friday at Murfreesboro's Black Fox Elementary, where he was enrolled as a fifth-grader. He has a younger sister who attends the school and an older sister at Rutherford County's Central Magnet School in downtown Murfreesboro. An older brother attends the county's Oakland Middle School on the northeast side of the city.

Sullivan's 10-year-old son, Asher, remains in critical condition Wednesday. The boy suffered severe brain damage after getting caught in a storm drain on May 8. He was  swept under neighborhood streets where his family lives in the Christiana community on the southside of Rutherford County.

'Asher needs a miracle': Middle Tennessee prayer vigil sees 500+ after storm injures boy

In addition to the post about Yousuf, Sullivan gave a brief update about Asher earlier on Tuesday.

"Had some issues with blood pressure, but his brain stem was able to control his temperature," Sullivan wrote. "Asher's brain is severely damaged. The reality is that the things Asher could do before, he will not be able to do if he recovers (without unexplainable healing).

"We will love and cherish any version of Asher we are blessed to keep if that is what is best for Asher."

Community response for Asher: Helmet stickers for Tennessee storm-injured Asher Sullivan 'show love towards the family'

The director then went on to outline specific prayer requests for his son:

  • "swelling of his brain subsides and the brain herniation resolves;"
  • "Asher starts to take some breaths on his own again;"
  • "no new negative changes"
  • "pupils show more responses."

"We love you Asher," Sullivan said to conclude the Tuesday post. No changes had been observed in the boy overnight Tuesday, Sullivan noted in a separate post.

"We are reaching a point where we really are needing some positive signs," he wrote.

'Damage is substantial': Rutherford Schools director shares details about injured 10-year-old son, Asher

Reach reporter Scott Broden with news tips or questions by emailing him at [email protected]. To support his work with The Daily News Journal,  sign up for a digital subscription.


  1. (PDF) No impact of distance to hospital on survival in T1 bladder

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  4. (PDF) No impact of distance to hospital on survival in T1 bladder

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  1. Sparsh Hospice Design

    DECLARATION. I Vidhi Wadhawan, Scholar No. 2015BARC005 hereby declare that, the thesis titled Sparsh Hospice for Terminally Ill Cancer Patients, Hyderabad, submitted by me in partial fulfilment ...

  2. Comprehensive Cancer Care: an outpatient treatment facility

    A cancer diagnosis can result in a loss of decision-making and control for patients. The majority of clinical treatments fail to adequately address corollary symptoms and needs that arise both from treatment and from the disease itself. Thus, the architectural problem identified in this thesis inquiry is how can an outpatient cancer centre treat the whole patient comprehensively, while at the ...

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    The fact that hospitals ignore the importance of design in providing emotional and stress-free care for their patients is something one needs to reflect upon. This thesis explores the relationship between healing and architecture and focuses on cancer patients and their caretakers/caregivers in particular.

  4. Using Evidence to Design Cancer Care Facilities

    The hospital environment is one of the most complex work domains such in the design of cancer hospitals (1) and hybrid cardiovascular treatment rooms (2). There is the growing need of ...

  5. Building a Comprehensive Cancer Center: Overall Structure

    Clinicians providing cancer care in university medical center settings may have dual reporting relationships to both the comprehensive cancer center director and to hospital or university-based leadership. Quality Monitoring in Cancer Care. Cancer care is a highly complex, high-risk, discipline characterized by rapid development of new therapies.

  6. Theses & Dissertations: Cancer Research

    Functions and regulation of Ron receptor tyrosine kinase in human pancreatic cancer and its therapeutic applications, Yi Zou. Theses/Dissertations from 2011 PDF. Coordinate detection of new targets and small molecules for cancer therapy, Kurt Fisher. PDF. The role of c-Myc in pancreatic cancer initiation and progression, Wan-Chi Lin. PDF

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  8. Building for Change: Comparative Case Study of Hospital Architecture

    The hospital's immediate need to develop two new medical centers—one for cancer and one for heart treatment—led to the decision to locate both of them in the same building. The vertical division of the building was an attempt to create an image of two separate buildings to attract different donors to finance the project.

  9. (PDF) Improving Quality of Cancer Care at Community ...

    We compared changes in concordance with five National Quality Forum-approved quality of care measures (three for breast cancer, two for colon cancer) for patients diagnosed from 2006 to 2007 (pre ...

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    Floor System. Being a primarily steel structure, the Cancer Hospital has a fairly typical composite steel beam and girder framing system. The typical composite floor slab is 5‐1/4" thick using 3000psi lightweight composite concrete, an 18 gauge 2" galvanized steel deck, and 3‐1/2" metal studs. This composite floor slab is used on all ...


    multi-hospital health system, is currently building a 160-bed hospital in Wexford, Pennsylvania to provide patient-centered care to their communities. The patient-centered design of Wexford Hospital includes a variety of unique facility and technology features such as the rooftop garden, smart television, mobile app, and patient room control.

  13. Design Of Cancer Center

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  14. Humanity in A Children'S Cancer Hospital

    Jandaghi Jafari, Sara, "HUMANITY IN A CHILDREN'S CANCER HOSPITAL" (2017). Masters Theses. 508. Children, who are the future of the country, are the most important asset. If cancer in children is diagnosed at an early stage, effective precautionary measures can be taken in order to save their lives. Children sense their physical space in a ...

  15. Nihal Thesis Report

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  17. PDF PhD Thesis Investigation of cancer cell dynamics during division ...

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    This workflow can be applied to cancer cohorts with matched tumor and normal data from admixed patients to examine germline contributions to cancer. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Carrot-Zhang et al. (2020). Date of publication. 2021; Keyword. Cancer; Bioinformatics; Genomics; DOI. https://doi ...

  20. Immunological nanomaterials to combat cancer metastasis

    Metastasis causes greater than 90% of cancer-associated deaths, presenting huge challenges for detection and efficient treatment of cancer due to its high heterogeneity and widespread dissemination to various organs. Therefore, it is imperative to combat cancer metastasis, which is the key to achieving complete can

  21. Colon cancer rates have been rising for decades in younger people

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  22. Two Dozen Bodies Brought to Rafah Hospital, Doctor Says

    Dr. Suhaib Hems, the head of Kuwait Hospital in Rafah, said that his facility had also received 150 injured people, many of whom suffered from shattered bones, serious head injuries or severe burns.

  23. Test-at-home kit for cancer patients approved for use

    A new device to help reduce the time cancer patients spend in hospital has been given regulatory approval. The Liberty allows patients to take blood tests - and upload the results - at home, and ...

  24. Everything we know about King Charles' cancer, from diagnosis to ...

    His first public appearance was on April 30 to a U.K. cancer hospital. In Buckingham Palace's initial statement announcing Charles' diagnosis, the palace wrote that while the king would have to ...

  25. Middle Tennessee dad asks for support for child who died of cancer

    Official condolences, known as "Azza," to show support for Yousuf's family, are planned for 7:45 p.m. on Wednesday, May 15 at the Islamic Center of Murfreesboro, 2605 Veals Road, a congregation official announced after the boy's funeral Tuesday night.. A candle vigil "in loving memory of Yousuf Ayesh" is also scheduled for 7 p.m. Friday at Murfreesboro's Black Fox Elementary, where he was ...

  26. John J. York Returns to General Hospital Following Cancer Battle

    The official GH account on X shared the exciting news that the actor is back after dealing with cancer. RELATED: General Hospital's John J. York on Cancer Treatment: "One Day at a Time"