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Critical Analysis of Amy Tan’s The Joy Luck Club

By NASRULLAH MAMBROL on October 4, 2020 • ( 0 )

With the publication of her first novel, The Joy Luck Club , in 1988, Amy Tan (born February 19, 1952) became a household name. The book was a tremendous critical and commercial success from the beginning. Before the end of its first year, it had been named a selection for both the Book-of-the-Month Club and the Quality Paperback Club; foreign rights had been sold for Italy, France, Japan, Sweden, and Israel; serial rights went to the Atlantic magazine, Ladies Home Journal, and San Francisco Focus ; and audio rights had been purchased by Dove.

The majority of reviews of The Joy Luck Club were strongly positive. Publishers Weekly called the novel ‘‘intensely poetic, startlingly imaginative and moving,’’ describing it as ‘‘on the order of Maxine Hong Kingston’s work, but more accessible, its Oriental orientation an irresistible magnet . . . a major achievement’’ (66). From the Times Educational Supplement came the following: ‘‘Amy Tan . . . is marvelously alert to the rich ambivalence in her material. With the delicacy of a butterfly she touches on matter that is ineradicable and profound’’ (19). Even less ebullient reviews acknowledged the fact that Tan’s novel ‘‘strikes deep roots’’ (Pollard 44) and that readers ‘‘cannot help being charmed, however, by the sharpness of observation . . . and, finally, the universality of Tan’s themes’’ (Koenig 82).

thesis of joy luck club

Amy Tan (Todd France/Corbis)

Structured as a series of personal narratives about eight women—four pairs of mothers and daughters— The Joy Luck Club chronicles the lives of its protagonists and traces the connections between the multiple cultures through which the women must negotiate their lives. The club of the title—a mah-jong-and-investment group formed by four Chinese immigrant women in the late 1940s—has met for over thirty years, and the novel opens shortly after the death of founding member Suyuan Woo. To correct an imbalance of players and to fill the empty East corner left by Suyuan at the mah-jong table, the three remaining members have asked her daughter, Jing-mei, to join them as her mother’s replacement.

Significant differences are evident between the novel’s two groups of women. Born in China and veterans of tremendous hardship and tragedy, the aging but still feisty mothers daily negotiate the significant events of their current lives through a minefield of memories of their youth in China, through stories of the pride and misery that marked their lives before their immigration to America. As immigrants, they have had to make significant changes in their lives; they have been forced to unpack their personal archives of pain and loss and to reassess their ambitions. Although outwardly they are well established in their new lives, the mothers never assimilate entirely; they never acquire fluent English, never relinquish the rituals and ceremonies of their pasts, and never forget their Chinese years. Their English-speaking daughters, by contrast, are thoroughly and indelibly American by birth, by education, and by inclination, their narratives turning on cross-cultural confusions, generational conflict, and questions of self and identity. Driven by resentment as well as fear of maternal disapproval, the daughters dismiss their mothers as Old World fossils, and they do not attempt to conceal their irritation with their mothers’ stories about life in China. As the mothers struggle to imbue their daughters with a sense of Chinese tradition, the daughters in their turn wrestle with the need to reconcile their American lives and careers with the impossible and incomprehensible (to them) expectations of their mothers whose values remain rooted in China. The result is alienation and finally silence between mothers and daughters, exacerbated by an almost unbridgeable gulf between generations. The barriers between the women do not come down until the daughters learn to listen—truly listen—to their mothers’ stories and begin to come to terms with the links between those stories and their own lives.

thesis of joy luck club

May 1956: The Tan family in front of their rented apartment in Oakland. From left to right, Ms. Tan’s mother, Daisy; brother, John Jr.; Ms. Tan, age 4; her older brother, Peter; and her father, John/Achievement.org

PLOT DEVELOPMENT

Amy Tan did not originally intend The Joy Luck Club to be a novel. The proposal that Tan had written and that Sandra Dijkstra had sold to Putnam was for a collection of short stories. The idea that the book might be a novel apparently did not occur to Tan until the publisher began planning the marketing strategy for the book. Thus the plot of Joy Luck develops through connections between stories, unfolding vignette by vignette, episode by episode, one anecdote or reminiscence at a time as the alternating and intertwined narratives of seven women who represent the immigrant generation and their American-born daughters. Providing continuity, coherence, and connection among the seven voices are the narratives of Jing-mei Woo, whose first appearance provides both context and background for the personal stories that follow.

Jing-mei’s first narrative introduces the issues on which the novel focuses: the struggle for control between mothers and daughters; the daughters’ bids for independent lives; the mothers’ attempts to understand the dynamics of life in the New World and somehow to blend the best of their Old World culture with a new way of life that they do not comprehend. In subsequent chapters, Jing-mei more than any other narrator save Rose Hsu, reveals the connections between the narrators. In Jing-mei, the mothers’ dreams and the daughters’ concerns intersect; through Jing-mei’s stories, all of the other stories find a context and an anchoring landscape.

The death of Suyuan Woo before the novel opens allows Amy Tan to show how The Joy Luck Club is forced to include in its ranks a member of the next generation. Jing-mei is catapulted into becoming the uneasy representative of the American-born daughters in a social ritual that is one of their mothers’ last true links with a lost way of life on another continent. With Suyuan’s death, the Joy Luck aunties are confronted with their own mortality, as well as with the fact that their daughters have grown into strangers. Suyuan has not had the opportunity to complete the account of her life story to Jing-mei, but the aunties still have time. In the weeks following Suyuan’s death, each woman finds the power and the voice to speak the shaping events of her life to her daughter, and to acknowledge her pain and disappointment at her lack of rapport with her daughter; and each daughter in turn manages to articulate to herself—if not to her mother—the questions with which she wrestles, the frustrations she has been unable to voice, the small epiphanies that occur to her as she begins to understand her mother. And as each woman speaks, she contributes another layer to the palimpsest that is the novel’s plot; she adds her voice to the collective narrative that drives the novel’s forward motion.

NARRATIVE STRUCTURE

The Joy Luck Club essentially is episodic, with sections and chapters focusing on different protagonists whose individual stories create within the novel a series of climaxes that build toward the final narrative in which the stories come together. In the hands of a master storyteller like Tan, the episodic structure highlights the conflicts in the novel through a variety of structural devices: a changing, shifting focal point; clear relationships between cause and effect across time and great distance; cliffhangers and false resolutions and denouements that create suspense and tension. Each narrative stands alone, complete and self-contained, yet each narrative also is an essential pattern in the complex tapestry of the novel.

Tan has constructed her novel as a series of sixteen interlocking and interrelated narratives divided into four sections with four stories in a section. Each section is prefaced with a short fable or narrative proverb or vignette in which is distilled the essence of the stories that comprise the book; books and chapters are introduced with symbolic titles—pithy phrases, poetic words. Except for Suyuan who dies before the novel opens and Jing-mei whose voice opens two sections and closes two others, each character tells two stories about significant events or turning points in her life. ‘‘Feathers from a Thousand Li Away’’ reveals the mothers’ early lives in distant China and describes the experiences that motivated their emigration to America. ‘‘Twenty-Six Malignant Gates,’’ comprised of the daughters’ stories, focuses on the emotional pain of their childhoods and their discontent as adults who are still unable to comprehend what their mothers want from them. ‘‘American Translation’’ continues the daughters’ stories, foregrounding the American-born generation’s struggle to accept their immigrant mothers as contemporary women instead of as outdated relics of a long-vanished alien way of life. And finally, all of the stories come together, West meets East, and mothers and daughters achieve a fragile detente in ‘‘Queen Mother of the Western Skies.’’ Significantly, the two outer sections containing the mothers’ stories enclose—and embrace—the two inner sections that testify to the daughters’ emotional turmoil and their deep-seated fear that no matter what they accomplish, their mothers will find the achievements inadequate. Each section of the novel represents a definitive moment in four Chinese women’s experiences as immigrants, or a significant stage in those women’s relationships with their Americanborn daughters.

Jing-mei Woo, who tells the first story, introduces and elaborates the framing story that links all of the narratives. Structurally, her narratives lend shape and continuity to the novel, linking two generations of women. She alone of the eight women speaks four times, once in each section. Her voice opens the novel, introduces the dramatis personae, describes The Joy Luck Club , and sets in motion a series of crucial actions, revelations, and confessions; and, fittingly, she tells the concluding story in which rifts are healed and antagonists reconciled. Most important, she speaks for both herself and her recently deceased mother, and by telling Suyuan’s story, by becoming, in fact, her mother’s voice, Jing-mei bridges the chasm that divides the mothers from the daughters.

Jing-mei’s description of The Joy Luck Club , its founding and long history, clarifies the connections among the novel’s eight protagonists. For over three decades, the four members of the club have met in each others’ homes to feast on Chinese dishes and play mah-jong. After the club decides to begin investing in selected stocks, the members’ husbands and brothers join the regular meetings to enjoy the food and to participate in the financial discussions—but the mah-jong table is reserved strictly for the women. Throughout the club’s long existence, the American-born daughters have by their own choice remained peripheral to the activity, attending meetings with their parents, dining on their mothers’ specialty dishes, reluctantly babysitting the younger children, and silently criticizing their mothers for wearing traditional Chinese finery that is so elaborate as to be unfit for everyday Chinatown garb and too alien and unusual to pass for mainstream American party clothes.

Although the novel has seven speakers, no sense of fragmentation is evident. In fact, the clearest division is a simple bifurcation that separates one generation from another, mothers from daughters, a dislocation that is mirrored in the novel’s structure that separates the mothers’ stories from those of the daughters. Each generation is connected with the other by family ties and a shared racial identity; and each generation is estranged from the other through age and culture. Between the generations looms a series of nearly insurmountable barriers—time, experience, values, language—and the effect of the division is an image of antagonists poised for battle.

A powerful fable introduces the first section and thus the entire novel. In this tale, a duck who has ambitions to become a goose stretches out its neck so far that it turns into a swan—a bird that is too beautiful to be eaten. A woman purchases the swan, and together woman and bird travel across the ocean toward America and the woman’s dreams. During the journey, the woman promises herself that life will be beautiful and different when she reaches her destination. In her dreams, once she is in America, she will bear a daughter who will resemble her physically but who will experience life far differently than she has. Unlike the woman, her daughter will never face discrimination or prejudice because she will be raised speaking only perfect American English. More important, the daughter will be privileged to have a life that is so rich in the advantages that America has to offer that she will always be ‘‘too full to swallow any sorrow’’ (17). Ultimately, the woman hopes to present her daughter with the swan—a gift that will be significant because the bird has exceeded its own ambitions and achieved a goal far greater than it had hoped to attain.

When the woman arrives in America, immigration officials confiscate her swan, leaving her only with a single feather as a reminder of the graceful companion that shared her journey, and obliterating her memory of why she has come to America. Eventually, the woman’s dream is partially fulfilled: her daughter grows up speaking perfect English and ‘‘swallowing more Coca-Cola than sorrow’’ (17). But the rest of the dream remains elusive. Despite her desire and her diligence, the woman is unable to master English, and lacking a common tongue, mother and daughter find it difficult if not impossible to communicate with each other. In her old age, the mother is mute; linguistically, she is barred from telling the story of the duck-turned-swan, unable to present her daughter with the gift of the precious feather, yet still waiting patiently and now hopelessly for what now appears to be an impossibility—the magical day when she will have the ability to speak with her daughter in perfect American English.

The tale of the woman and the swan is a poignantly ironic introduction to the narratives that comprise the novel. In those stories are embedded the dreams and ambitions of immigrant women who have braved the unknown and travelled across oceans in the quest for a better life with limitless opportunities for their daughters. But the narratives prove only that daughters who can speak perfect American English and have never experienced genuine tragedy are strangers to their mothers whose Chinese tongues stumble over English words that they have never learned to pronounce. Unable to share with their daughters the stories of their own lives, the mothers must themselves swallow the sorrow and loneliness that their more fortunate daughters will never understand.

Regardless of the identity of the narrator, each of Joy Luck ’s stories demonstrates the impact of the past on the present, reinforcing the notion that personal history shapes an individual’s cultural identity and attitudes about the world. The mothers’ lives are the consequences of difficult childhoods, war, poverty, starvation, and—in the case of Ying-ying St. Clair who alone had a privileged upbringing—a single traumatic childhood experience. Moreover, three of the mothers were married in their teens, two of them to men who did not appreciate them and one to a good man who was killed in the war; and one had children from her first marriage. For good or for ill, in a variety of ways, personal histories become the foundation on which the mothers build their new lives in America. In each story, the impact of the past on the present is clearly demonstrated. Each mother’s Chinese past influences her American present; each daughter feels the impact of her own childhood on her adult life; and each mother’s past affects her daughter’s present. To complicate the equation, each mother has been influenced by her own mother’s life. The past stretches back generation after generation, and— ironically—moves forward as well into the unseen future.

The mothers’ stories have a number of common elements: dramatic recollections of girlhood and young womanhood in China, bewildered accounts of attempts to raise daughters in America, and almost dauntingly high expectations for their daughters. Likewise, the daughters’ narratives display similarities: descriptions of their inability to meet their mothers’ expectations, questions about the place of Chinese culture in their solidly American lives, and ignorance of the personal forces and private demons that drive their mothers. David Denby has pointed out that ‘‘each story centers on a moment of creation or self-destruction in a woman’s life, the moment when her identity becomes fixed forever’’ (64). He is describing the film version of The Joy Luck Club , but his analysis applies equally well to the novel.

At the end of the novel, Jing-mei’s concluding narrative functions in a number of ways as a paradigm for the other narrators’ stories that need resolution. In traveling to China to meet her twin half-sisters—the now-grown babies for whom Suyuan had searched for almost forty years—Jing-mei brings closure and resolution to her mother’s story as well as to her own. For Jing-mei, the journey is an epiphany and a discovery of self: finally aware of her mother’s meaning, she is able to give voice to Suyuan’s story as well as to the story that they share as mother and daughter. The Joy Luck aunties, whose gift of a generous check has sent Jing-mei on her pilgrimage to China, are well aware of the significance of the journey for her and for themselves. They beg her to tell her half-sisters about Suyuan—how she was able to create a full and rewarding life for herself in America, how she raised a family and gained success in her own way. The aunties encourage Jing-mei to make Suyuan come alive for her other daughters through narrative, through descriptions of her hopes and dreams, through re-creations of stories that she once told Jing-mei. Their words reveal their own dreams that in time their own daughters will, like Jing-mei, also remember and recount the stories their mothers have told.

In a Guangzhou hotel early in the visit to China, Jing-mei asks her father to recount to her the rest of the story of the twin baby girls, the story that Suyuan had not had the opportunity to finish telling her. During that late night conversation, Jing-mei also learns that her Chinese name—the name that her mother gave her when she was born, the name that she once repudiated in favor of the more American sounding June— represents her mother’s past and present, losses and hopes. Jing-mei means ‘‘younger sister who [is] supposed to be the essence of the others’’ (281). For Suyuan, her American daughter would be the replacement child who would enable Suyuan to bear the loss of the twins. In going to China, then, to meet her older sisters, Jing-mei reconciles Suyuan’s two lives, two cultures, two countries; she reconciles her self with her mother; and she gives the aunties the hope that they, too, will be reconciled with their daughters.

thesis of joy luck club

Amy Tan/Achievement.org

POINT OF VIEW

The stories that stitch together the fabric of The Joy Luck Club are told by first-person narrators, by the individuals to whom those stories happened. Each narrator performs as both protagonist and peripheral observer— the central figure in her own story, and a supporting character in others’ stories—thus providing the novel with a richly textured collective point of view not generally possible with a single character who functions simply as the sole narrator. Like all first-person narrators, how ever, each Joy Luck storyteller has the predictable limitations of all human beings, and her knowledge is therefore limited to what she has directly experienced and seen—what she can realistically know. Being human, first-person narrators can be unreliable, and they can misinterpret events, withhold information, editorialize, and inadvertently mislead. After Suyuan’s death, Jing-mei recalls that she and her mother frequently misunderstood each other; they each interpreted the other’s meaning so differently that Jing-mei heard far less than her mother meant while Suyuan tended to invest what she heard with considerably more significance than her daughter ever intended.

Addressing their stories to their daughters, the mothers remain aware that their words are falling on indifferent ears; nevertheless, they persevere, hoping that a fragment of thought or a phrase will resonate in the heart of a daughter who will cherish the nugget of wisdom and pass it on to her own daughter. ‘‘It’s too late to change you,’’ Lindo Jong says to Waverly, adding that the only reason for the advice is concern for Waverly’s child who might grow to adulthood knowing nothing of her double cultural heritage (49). The mothers’ stories are carefully selected from vast reservoirs of memories and offered to the daughters as gifts of the heart, offerings of the soul, talismans to help the younger women confront their problems, secure in the knowledge that they have the strength of mothers, grandmothers, and great-grandmothers behind them. The mothers occasionally speak only in their minds, formulating questions, answers, thoughts that they cannot express to their daughters; but Ying-ying alone of the mothers speaks to herself only, having long since lost all rapport with her daughter who at birth ‘‘sprang from [her] like a slippery fish and has been swimming away ever since’’ (242). Yingying’s narratives, addressed to herself, reveal a woman in the process of rediscovering her self after decades of numbness caused by early pain. Not until she has reclaimed her past and her spirit will she be able to speak openly about her first disastrous marriage to a daughter who is suffering through the pain of a failed marriage.

None of the daughters speaks directly to her mother through her story. These second-generation Chinese-American women are convinced that their mothers are irrevocably disappointed in them; and certain that nothing they do will ever win maternal approval or praise—and they are hesitant to confess to their mothers the stories of their insecurities, their failed relationships, their fears about the future. In their narratives— shaped as internal monologues—the daughters document the emotional and psychological conflicts with which they wrestle daily, and they give voice to their emotional estrangement from their mothers to whom they dare not say what is truly in their hearts.

The sixteen stories that comprise the four sections have a cumulative power that underscores the tragedy of the women’s misunderstandings and highlights the comedy in the familial relationships that bind them one to another. But those sixteen stories also demonstrate the power of memory and the imagination to preserve the past or to reshape it. Early in the novel, as she attempts to recall everything that Suyuan has said about the original Joy Luck Club, Jing-mei acknowledges the fictionality of her mother’s stories, saying that she had always believed her mother’s tales about the war years in Kweilin to be little more than some sort of Chinese fairy tale because the conclusion differed slightly with each retelling, and the story constantly expanded and became more elaborate with time. Thus, Jing-mei is surprised when one evening, Suyuan tells the Kweilin story again, but with a completely different ending that bears no resemblance to the earlier versions. That new ending turns out to be the truth—as much of the truth as Suyuan believes Jing-mei can understand at that point in their relationship. And because Suyuan dies before she is able to retell the story with its complete and unaltered conclusion, Jing-mei must go to China to discover how the Kweilin story really ends (a conclusion that Suyuan has been denied), and to learn about the hidden years of Suyuan’s life.

CHARACTER DEVELOPMENT

At the heart of The Joy Luck Club are the four mothers whose lives are the sites of the intersection of past and present, China and America, mother and daughter. Having fled from China in the 1940s and created good lives for themselves in an alien land, these women are, nevertheless, still more Chinese than they are American. They share a common concern that their daughters, now grown to womanhood knowing little about their mothers or their mothers’ homeland, will have nothing of the ancestral homeland and culture to pass on to their children. Concealing her emotions behind an unsentimental and no-nonsense facade, each mother has a story that she longs to share with her daughter—and each tale reveals the trauma of a long-ago pivotal event that transformed a naive young girl into a self-directed woman who has learned to rely on and trust only herself.

Initially, Jing-mei gives the impression that her Joy Luck aunties are nearly indistinguishable, generic, elderly Chinese immigrants. Describing their dress at her first club meeting as a mah-jong player, she creates the picture of three aging women wearing nearly identical outfits of pants, brightly colored print blouses, and athletic shoes. And indeed, as has already been mentioned, strong similarities do exist among the women of that generation: they all have lived painful and tragic lives in China and have come to the United States for a second chance at life; they are ambitious for their children and completely baffled by the daughters in whom they have put all of their hopes.

Suyuan Woo appears in the novel as an absence, as the subject of her daughter’s first narrative. During World War II, Suyuan is forced to leave her twin baby girls beside a road in the hope that someone stronger than she will find them and care for them. In their clothes, she has concealed money and jewelry along with their names and the address of Suyuan’s family home. She collapses shortly thereafter, and while in the hospital she learns that her husband is dead. Later marrying a man whom she meets while she is ill, Suyuan and her new husband search for the babies but discover only that her home has been obliterated by the Japanese bombs and that there is no trace of the babies. In 1949, the couple emigrate to the United States where their daughter Jing-mei is born. Although for years she continues to search for her twin daughters by writing to friends in China, Suyuan never sees the twins again, and lives out the rest of her life feeling the absence of those babies and desperately attempting to discover their fate.

An-mei Hsu introduces herself through her reminiscence about a grandmother who refuses to tell An-mei about her mother who has gone away, leaving the child in the grandmother’s care. When the grandmother falls ill, An-mei’s mother returns to care for her, but the grandmother dies, and An-mei goes to live with her mother in Tientsin. Gradually and indirectly, An-mei discovers that her mother has been forced to become a rich man’s concubine and to bear him a son who is taken away to be raised by the man’s most powerful wife. Carefully timing her act to bring the greatest possible benefit to her children, Anmei’s mother commits suicide, and the rich man, fearful of her ghost, promises to raise An-mei as his own child.

Lindo Jong is betrothed to Tyan-yu, a neighbor’s son, when she is two years old, goes to live with her future in-laws at twelve, and is married at sixteen. The marriage is a disaster from the beginning: few guests attend the wedding because of the war, her immature husband does not desire her, and her mother-in-law’s demands for a grandchild escalate. Craftily playing on her in-laws’ superstitions, Lindo maneuvers the family into releasing her from the marriage and providing her with sufficient money to emigrate to America to build a new life for herself. In her adopted country, she marries Tin Jong and bears three children, including her daughter Waverly.

Ying-ying St. Clair grows up wealthy, surrounded with luxury, and spoiled. At sixteen she enters an arranged marriage. She falls in love with her husband, only to discover after she becomes pregnant that he is a womanizer. When he leaves her for an opera singer, she has an abortion and then exiles herself to an existence with poor relations for ten years. Clifford St. Clair ardently courts Ying-ying for four years, but she refuses to accept his proposal of marriage until after she hears that her former husband is dead. To her surprise, Ying-ying loses a part of herself with the death of the man she has loved: ‘‘I willing gave up my chi ,’’ she says, referring to her spirit, her essential self, her personality and distinctive identity. Significantly, Ying-ying is the only narrator who speaks solely to herself, recounting the story of her life in an interior monologue through which she seeks to rediscover her chi and reconnect with the woman she once was.

Doggedly clinging to their memories of life in China even as they adapt to American culture, the mothers deliberately remain suspended between two worlds and two cultures, embracing—as they believe—the best of each world and creating a new way of life that they hope to pass on as their legacy to their children. But Lindo Jong speaks for all of the mothers when she recalls wistfully that she once dreamed of giving her children the best of their two heritages: ‘‘American circumstances and Chinese character.’’ And she adds sadly, ‘‘How could I know these two things do not mix?’’ (254). As they grow older, the mothers grow more and more aware that they have—despite their best efforts—raised completely Westernized children. The ancestral culture has proved to be almost powerless against the domination of the culture of the New World.

The daughters are noticeably more American than Chinese despite their clearly Asian features, and since childhood, they deliberately have attempted to cultivate American ways and repudiate much of their Chinese heritage. Now adults, they have no patience with their elderly mothers whose daily communication still is conducted in Chinese and whose English at best remains a fractured version of the American lingua franca. The daughters yearn for an Americanization that they can neither define nor describe. More than anything else, they are unhappy and unfulfilled; for some reason, they often feel inferior to their mothers and unworthy of the maternal ambitions that have defined and in some cases scarred their childhood and adolescent years.

Jing-mei Woo, known as June among her contemporaries, is thirty-six years old and still entrapped by her mother’s long-ago dream of an accomplished and famous daughter. As a child she was forced to study the piano because her mother wanted to have a talented child about whom to brag, but after a disastrous talent show performance and an angry exchange of words between mother and daughter, Jing-mei never again touches the piano. Still, her mother’s disappointment follows her into adulthood, and Jing-mei continues to dwell on what she considers to be her failures—she was never a straight-A student, she did not attend Stanford University, she dropped out of school without earning her baccalaureate degree. Now that Suyuan is gone, Jing-mei no longer has a chance to win her mother’s approval or to live up to her mother’s expectations. Worse than that, she has never developed the courage to speak with her mother about her own need to decide on a course of action for herself, and she has never asked Suyuan why her ambitions for her daughter were so grand that Jing-mei could never be successful. Now in her late thirties, Jing-mei continues to be paralyzed by tremendous doubts about her abilities; she is insecure and unsure of her worth as a person.

Waverly Jong is Jing-mei’s opposite: a childhood success and a brash, confident young woman on her way to the top. As a child, she becomes famous as ‘‘Chinatown’s Littlest Chinese Chess Champion.’’ As an adult, she is a tax lawyer and the mother of four-year-old Shoshana—and she is loved by kind, romantic Rich Schields. Yet Waverly is unhappy: she fears her mother’s penchant for negative commentary and dismissive remarks about issues and concerns of great importance to Waverly—and anticipating her mother’s criticism, she cannot seem to summon the courage or the words to announce the plans for her impending marriage to Rich.

After several years of marriage, Lena St. Clair is angry and bitter. She has helped her husband, Harold, establish a successful architectural firm, but she feels that he has never valued her contributions to the partnership or the marriage—and she finds herself groping for ways to describe their problems that are so complicated and deeply rooted that she cannot articulate them. In her heart, Lena is convinced that somehow she deserves her dysfunctional marriage to Harold because a chance remark from her mother years before had led the young Lena to hate a neighbor boy so much that she wished him dead. To Lena, Harold represents etribution, a punishment with which she must live to atone for teenage hatred.

Rose Hsu Jordan, the only one of the daughters who has taken her husband’s name, is a timid uncertain woman whose fifteen-year marriage to Ted Jordan ends abruptly when he leaves her. Her indecisiveness— the result of childhood nightmares brought on by her mother’s stories—paralyzes her, and she finds it nearly impossible to make decisions related to the divorce.

Despite their superficial differences, the daughters share a common and significant characteristic: whether they have listened carefully when their mothers spoke about the past, their childhoods have been shaped by their mothers, deeply marked by their mother’s stories. At some subconscious level, the daughters recognize their mothers’ influence and understand the strength of the bonds that link them to their mothers. Resenting their inability to break away completely from what they perceive to be maternal control, they distance themselves from their mothers by withholding information about their personal lives, by living as far away from Chinatown as they can afford, and by marrying out of the Chinese community.

Ying-ying St. Clair plaintively articulates the cultural separation between herself and her daughter Lena: ‘‘All her life I have watched her as though from another shore’’ (274). Ying-ying’s allusion to the ocean separating mother and daughter is not just a figure of speech but an essential truth about all of the mothers and their daughters. Emotionally, the mothers are still in pre-war China on the other side of the Pacific Ocean, whereas to their American-born daughters, China is a foreign country that they have never seen and about which they know little. China, for the younger women, merely is a shadowy setting of their mothers’ stories, an intangible geography for narratives that have—in their telling—taken on the aura of dark fairy tales.

thesis of joy luck club

Amy Tan poses for a portrait at her home in Sausalito, CA Tuesday, October 29, 2013. (Michael Short)

Although Jing-mei’s framework narrative is set in California in the 1980s, The Joy Luck Club takes in considerable temporal and geographical territory, from post-feudal China to war-time China, to the America of the 1950s, to modern China under communist domination. But setting in Tan’s novel represents far more than a simple series of locations for significant events; setting in Joy Luck provides an atmospheric backdrop that emphasizes the sense of cultural disjunction that pervades the stories.

A Brief History of Chinese Novels

China as it appears in stories told by the mothers is a mysterious country, feudal and oppressive, yet strangely beautiful and colorful. Old China is first mentioned in a story that Jing-mei remembers hearing her mother tell. In that story, Suyuan describes Kweilin, a region famous for its beauty, a place that has been immortalized in silk paintings and poetry. Jing-mei remembers dreaming of jagged mountains rising above a winding river bordered by green mossy banks, and she recalls that when she finally saw Kweilin, she realized that her dreams were paltry imaginings that in no way resembled the magic beauty of the real mountains and river. Ying-ying’s childhood also is spent in that dream China, which she recreates through images of porcelain and jade, lanterns in the trees and garden pavilions. The Moon Festival that is central to her narrative is a blur of gaudily decorated boats on a lake, servants preparing baskets of food, the sound of cicadas and crickets and frogs, the Moon Lady’s wailing song rising into the night over the music of flutes and drums. By contrast, Lindo’s China is a feudal society, seen through the eyes of a girl from a family of modest means. When she goes to live with her future in-laws in their huge compound with many courtyards and houses with several levels, Lindo becomes a glorified servant as she is put to work learning how to cook, do the laundry, mend torn clothing, even clean chamber pots. As the child of a rich man’s concubine, Anmei lives in Ying-ying’s world of luxury and comfort, but because of her mother’s position, she is marginal to the household and is thus able to view objectively the domestic hierarchy that excludes her and her mother, and she remains aware—as Lindo does—that she is an outsider.

Perhaps because they are recreated through memory, the Chinese settings seem slightly unreal, very much like artfully planned and executed stage settings. This sense of careful design enhances Tan’s portrayal of traditional China with its rigidly structured hierarchies and social structures, its codified rituals, and its established protocols governing the lives of its people. By contrast, the American settings pulse with life, energy, and chaos. Whereas in China, the Joy Luck mothers had centuries of established convention dictating their behavior, America’s cultural practices are strange and unfathomable—and these women, who have left China specifically for the chance to start afresh in a new country far from the stultifying tradition of the old, find themselves reverting to the familiar customs of their faraway homeland. Barred for a variety of reasons from achieving the dreams of success that brought them to America, the mothers transfer their ambitions to their daughters in whom they hope to combine the best of Chinese and American culture. On those daughters, who grow up in Chinatown but attend American schools, rest the hopes of their immigrant mothers.

In the novel—as in reality—Chinatown combines elements of the ancestral homeland that the mothers have left with the essence of America, the country in which they have created new lives. Tan’s Chinatown is the bustling landscape of the Chinese immigrant community, a mosaic of sights and sounds, a concatenation of aromas and flavors that bring to life a place that simultaneously is American and exotic. In this Chinatown are a medicinal herb shop, the Ping Yuen Fish Market and the China Gem Company, Hong Sing’s cafe with a menu in Chinese only, a printing business that produces traditional gold-embossed wedding invitations and festive red celebration banners.

Within the homes of the Joy Luck Club members, the distinctly Chinese atmosphere is evoked in odors. The Hsus’ house is permeated with the lingering odors of countless Chinese meals prepared in the inadequate kitchen, with the stale memories of once fragrant smells now faintly masked by the inevitable film of grease resulting from years of frying and saute´ing. Waverly Jong recalls growing up in a small flat located on the floor above a Chinese bakery that specialized in a variety of delicacies intended for dim sum. She remembers that every morning the aroma of fried sesame balls and curried chicken pastries wafted into the Jong flat from the bakery below.

Although Chinatown is—as its name suggests—an outpost of the old country set incongruously in the heart of California, the distinctly Chinese ambiance is punctuated by intrusions of Western culture. Dominating weekend activities in Chinatown is the First Chinese Baptist Church, the setting for the annual neighborhood Christmas party at which local children are given gifts donated by parishioners of churches outside Chinatown. Also in Chinatown are several American institutions: a McDonald’s restaurant with a large sign flaunting Chinese characters that unaccountably represent the words, ‘‘wheat,’’ ‘‘east,’’ and ‘‘building’’; the Bank of America; Pacific Telephone; and a fortune-cookie factory.

From their earliest years, the children of Chinatown are aware that they live on the border between two worlds. They suck on Life Savers candy while waiting for their dinners of steamed dumplings, they learn to play the piano from elderly Chinese immigrants who teach them selections by Grieg and Schumann, and they attend church-sponsored Christmas parties that feature a Chinese man in a paper and cotton Santa Claus costume. Perhaps tiring of the constant need to negotiate their way between two seemingly irreconcilable cultures, after they become adults the children choose the American way of life and discard their childhood Chinese names. Leaving behind their old ethnic neighborhoods, they take up residence in Victorian houses in white districts like Russian Hill and Ashbury Heights, or they move out into the country, into trendy converted barns with postmodern details—structures that bear no resemblance to the crowded walk-up Chinatown apartments of their childhoods.

thesis of joy luck club

Amy Tan with Academy delegates at the 1998 Achievement Summit in Jackson Hole, Wyoming/Achievement.org

LITERARY DEVICES

To create texts that both tell stories and permit readers to construct meaning, novelists rely on a wide range of literary devices that function as individual elements or signs of a highly compressed and densely sensual literary language. Among the most common of these devices are symbols (which can be objects, persons, places, events, among others), icons, allusions, image clusters, motifs, archetypes, and linguistic patterns— all of which, in a work of fiction, contribute to the texture and richness of the work by engaging a reader’s senses along with the reader’s mind.

The Joy Luck Club is dense with symbols and allusions, and interwoven with icons and motifs, that involve the Joy Luck Club, food, and the Chinese language and Chinese-English patois, as well as mirrors, celebrations and events, home interiors, and dreams. Through these devices, Tan explores the layers of the palimpsest that is her text, her narrative of the immigrant experience in America, her exploration of the bond between mother and daughter.

A crucially important symbol in the novel is The Joy Luck Club with its mah-jong table as a centerpiece that links past and present, and codifies place and identity for club members. During the war years in Japanese-occupied China, Suyuan Woo had founded the first incarnation of the club for herself and a handful of other young women, all refugees from the relentlessly advancing Japanese army. While it existed, the club was a gesture of defiance that allowed the women to briefly forget the terrors and privations of wartime China by meeting weekly to celebrate the fact that they were still alive and to play mah-jong seriously. Remembering always that a war was laying waste to the China of their girlhoods, and constantly aware that giving in to despair was tantamount to wishing for everything that was already gone, Suyuan and her friends held the war at bay by using the meager food supplies to prepare symbolic dishes that were traditionally credited with bringing good fortune. Feasting on the carefully prepared delicacies and then gathering around Suyuan’s special mah-jong table, they played and talked and shared stories about happier times before the war. The fate of the original Joy Luck Club is unclear; whenever Suyuan told Jing-mei the story of the club, she changed the ending. But ultimately, the club is impotent against the juggernaut of war, and when the fighting and the bloodshed finally end, Suyuan finds herself widowed and childless.

When, in 1949, Suyuan forms the new Joy Luck Club in San Francisco, she recreates a memory, a reminder of her indomitable younger self, and provides herself with a link to the life that she has left, with the homeland that she will never see again. For three decades, she and her fellow immigrants, An-Mei Hsu, Lindo Jong, and Ying-ying St. Clair, meet to play mah-jong, indulge in a cooking rivalry, and tell stories—the same stories about China repeated over and over until those stories take on the outlines of myth and legend.

As important as The Joy Luck Club is to the immigrant mothers, their daughters find its existence perplexing and embarrassing. Jing-mei points out that as a child she considered the club to be some sort of shameful Chinese secret society, on a par with the Ku Klux Klan or the clandestine dances of television Indians preparing for battle. None of the other daughters mention the club or their mothers’ participation in it; but only through the intervention of The Joy Luck Club aunties are the daughters, represented by Jing-Mei, able finally to hear their mothers’ stories, to reconcile the two disparate worlds of their heritage, and to receive symbolically the gift of the swan feather. When Jing-mei takes her mother’s place on the East side of the mah-jong table, she begins her journey east—to China where the stories began—and through her the circle of mothers and daughters is closed and completed.

Food imagery plays a significant role in each separate narrative of the novel, linking past and present and future, bonding families and generations, expressing community—and providing a linguistic code that facilitates the retrieval of personal histories from oblivion. Food allows mothers to communicate with their daughters in a common language; food is an emotional homeland for both generations.

From the first narrative, Tan establishes the links between generations and between families through food. As Jing-mei readies herself to become a member of The Joy Luck Club , she recalls that her mother had been scheduled to host the meeting that Jing-mei is about to attend. Because Lindo Jong had served red bean soup at a previous club dinner, Suyuan, in the spirit of the culinary rivalry between the club members, had intended to prepare black sesame-seed soup for the club members. Although the club’s purpose is to play mah-jong and to discuss the group’s investments, the activity at the center of club meetings is eating, communal dining accompanied by storytelling and good-natured arguing. When, at the end of the novel, Jing-mei finally visits the country of her mother’s birth, another symbolic meal brings her father’s family together. For their first meal together, Jing-mei, her father, and his ancient aunt and her family dine on hamburgers, french fries, and apple pie with ice cream. Jing-mei’s first dinner in China is American fast food, provided by room service.

Food imagery enables the mothers to find words to describe their history. When Lindo Jong tells the story of her first unfortunate marriage, her account is larded with references to food: she meets her betrothed at a red-egg ceremony celebrating his naming; she is relegated to the kitchen to chop vegetables when she goes to live with her in-laws; she learns to cook Tyan-yu’s favorite dishes. After the wedding, Lindo personally sees to her husband’s breakfast every morning and cooks a special eight-ingredient tonic soup for his mother’s evening meal. Ying-ying St. Clair’s memory of a Moon Festival celebration of her childhood is similarly laced with food references. Interspersed with Ying-ying’s narration of the events of the picnic are explicit descriptions of the food that has been packed by the servants for the picnic meal: sticky rice cakes wrapped in lotus leaves; luxury fruits like apples, pomegranates, and pears; and a selection of preserved meats and vegetables. These descriptions are juxtaposed with her recollection of a woman cleaning fish, butchering chickens, and cooking freshwater eels. Although Ying-ying now lives in California, the foods of her Chinese childhood are integral elements of the story of her life.

For An-mei Hsu, food is a reminder of pain that she associates with her grandmother whom she called Popo. As a four-year-old child, Anmei is badly scalded on her neck when a pot of steaming soup tips off a table onto her, and Popo nurses her through the nights of pain by pouring water to soothe the burned skin so that little An-mei can go to sleep. Another memory takes her to Popo’s deathbed beside which Anmei’s mother is concocting a special restorative soup with herbs and medicines. As the child watches, her mother cuts a piece of flesh from her own arm and drops the piece into the soup, invoking an ancient magical charm in an attempt to heal the dying Popo. Forever after, Anmei considers her mother’s action to be an example of the proper way for a woman to honor her mother.

Because food can be so culturally specific, it functions to emphasize differences between generations, between cultures. When Waverly brings her fiance´ Rich to dinner at her parents’ home, his unawareness of the nuances of behavior required by the Jongs’ culture is revealed in his performance at the dinner table. ‘‘I couldn’t save him’’ (177), laments Waverly before she proceeds to outline his mistakes: he drinks too much of the wine that he has brought to the teetotaling Jongs; he helps himself to generous portions of shrimp before anyone else has had a bite; he does not taste politely every dish that is offered; and he pours soy sauce liberally over a special dish on which Lindo Jong prides herself. Sadly, although Waverly knows that Rich has appalled her parents and possibly offended their sensibilities, Rich believes that he has done well, and when he and Waverly return to their apartment, he crows delightedly that he and her parents have certainly impressed each other favorably. Like Rich, Waverly’s daughter, Shoshana, reveals her ignorance of Chinese culture and polite behavior at the dinner table. Invited to a special New Year crab feast at the Woos’ house, Shoshana waits until Waverly has carefully selected for her the largest, plumpest crab on the platter before whining to the assembled dinner guests that she hates crab.

The crucial role played by language—a third significant narrative device— is introduced early in The Joy Luck Club , embedded in the fable about the swan that serves as prologue to the first section of the novel. Integral to the fable is the woman’s dream of a daughter whose only language is perfect American English; but equally central is the woman’s silence because she has not mastered English. As Jing-mei points out more than once, she and her mother did not communicate in the same language; Jing-mei spoke to her mother in English, and Suyuan invariably responded in Chinese. Lacking a shared language and a common cultural tongue, Tan’s mothers and daughters face each other across the communication barrier that not only divides generations but also separates the old world and the new, the immigrant and the American-born.

To the frustration of the younger Americanized generation, the immigrant generation has created its own speech, a patois that incorporates Chinese and English words in a syntax that is derived from both languages and produces rich meanings of its own. For example, the widowed Ying-ying obliquely describes her straitened circumstances with a casual reference to her ‘‘so-so security’’ that her daughter supplements with a monthly check (243). Jing-mei complains about the special language used by the Joy Luck aunties who speak partly in broken English, partly in Chinese. The Chinatown patois bonds the mothers even as it confuses, alienates, and excludes their daughters who become impatient when their mothers speak Chinese, or smirk with superiority when their mothers caution that speeding causes unnecessary ‘‘tear and wear’’ on automobiles (150), or complain about a child who is a ‘‘college drop-off’’ (37). But for the mothers, the hybrid tongue is a form of selfidentification, a means of inscribing their unique existence on a culture that continues to exclude them, a strategy for preserving their heritage even as they embrace a new life.

Language becomes a political issue. Acutely aware that power and position in American culture are determined in large part by an individual’s ability to speak correct English with one of the approved accents, the mothers create their own private hierarchy within their circle, privileging the Chinese language. And although they are mired in an invisible ethnic ghetto to which their daughters have consigned them, and powerless because they lack skill in the dominant tongue, the mothers— who are bursting with stories to share and emotions to express—use Chinese and their special patois to articulate their most important thoughts, to exclude those whom they wish to ignore, to speak in their own authentic voices. When she gives Jing-mei a jade pendant, Suyuan lapses into Chinese, the language of her heart, to reveal that she has worn the pendant next to her skin so that when Jing-mei wears the piece she will understand her mother and realize at last what truly is important in her life. For Ying-ying St. Clair, Chinese represents her true self, the Ying-ying who has been erased by an unfaithful first husband, by a too-protective second husband who changed her name and birth date when she emigrated to America and now insists on speaking for her, interpreting her every comment to fit neatly into his image of her. After her second child—a boy—is stillborn, Ying-ying refuses to mention the baby in English, speaking only in Chinese so that her husband is forced to ask their daughter what her mother means. In that way, Ying-ying manages to separate a part of herself from the overwhelming, engulfing affection of her husband.

For the mothers, the Chinese language and the Chinatown patois enable a subversive form of humor at the expense of those who are not privy to the nuances of either tongue. A few examples should suffice. On a visit to her architect daughter’s new house—a renovated barn with a trendy minimalist interior—reticence prevents Ying-ying from openly criticizing a house that she dislikes because its furnishing and ornaments are all for ostentatious display, for making a statement rather than for beauty. But slyly claiming that she cannot pronounce accurately the word that names her daughter’s profession, Ying-ying contrives to voice her true opinion when she labels Lena—and by extension, her house— ‘‘arty tecky’’ (243), a phrase that wittily conveys judgment and dismissal. Ying-ying gives in to the same impulse that prompts An-mei Hsu to ask her daughter, Rose, why she needs to talk with a ‘‘Psyche-atricks’’ about her failing marriage. An-mei’s opinion is clear: therapy is nothing but a method for playing tricks on the mind.

thesis of joy luck club

Amy Tan/An Rong Xu (The New York Times)

MAJOR THEMES AND ISSUES

Although she writes about Asian immigrants in California’s ethnic neighborhoods and highlights culture-specific issues in her novels, Amy Tan has earned praise and her loyal international readership for her treatment of universal themes—recurrent subjects or topics that resonate deeply for readers of all ages and backgrounds. Chief among the themes that have been identified in The Joy Luck Club by readers and critics is the mother-daughter dyad and its inherent conflicts and frictions; but equally important issues are self-discovery and the search for identity, the search for the American Dream, acculturation and ethnicity (and by extension, cultural alienation), the disintegration of family relationships, and separation and loss. Through her portrayal of the four motherdaughter pairs in Joy Luck , Tan explores the generational dynamics that function in the relationship between mother and daughter, and the influence of the remembered relationship between a mother and her own mother.

The major source of friction between Tan’s mothers and daughters is the mothers’ desire for their daughters to be successful by American measures while remaining culturally Chinese. Now that the daughters are grown women with lives of their own, the mothers have been forced to admit to themselves that their dreams will more than likely never find fulfillment, but their legacy of maternal ambition continues to shadow the lives of the daughters. In response, the daughters have—perhaps unconsciously—managed to subvert their mothers’ plans by ignoring their attempts to inculcate Chinese tradition into their minds and becoming so thoroughly Americanized that they retain only fragments of theircultural heritage. The result is a breakdown in communication between mothers and daughters; more like antagonists than friends, the two groups are so wary around each other that they cannot voice their frustrations and fears.

Raised by their mothers to acknowledge the existence of a system of matrilineage, Tan’s Chinese mothers have a sense of generational continuity; they feel connected with their own mothers and their mothers’ mothers, and they feel equally linked with their daughters. ‘‘Your mother is in your bones,’’ says An-mei Hsu to Jing-mei Woo who admits that she knows little about her dead mother (40). Later, preparing to tell her daughter, Rose, about her own mother, An-mei muses, ‘‘I was born to my mother and I was born a girl. All of us are like stairs, one step after another, going up and down, but all going the same way’’ (215). Unfortunately, their American daughters do not feel the same connectedness to their heritage, and they do not recognize a symbiotic relationship between mothers and daughters; these second-generation Americans see only that their mothers appear to be trying to live through their children.

In speaking about her mother, Jing-mei Woo identifies the dream that has brought the women of her mother’s generation to America, the dream that has shaped their lives and their relationships with each other and with their daughters. ‘‘My mother believed you could be anything you wanted to be in America’’ (132) she says, articulating a crucially important sentence that mothers and daughters interpret differently. Believing in their duty to encourage—and push, if necessary—their daughters to great heights of achievement, the mothers expect not only to be heeded but also to be allowed to share in whatever glory devolves from accomplishment; and they are baffled when their daughters, who have their own dreams, chafe at having to fulfill someone else’s expectations. Because they have been schooled in the American tradition of individuality, the daughters resist their mothers’ attempts to define their lives or to participate vicariously in their accomplishments. As a child embarrassed by her mother’s constant bragging about her chess victories, Waverly at first asks her mother to stop announcing her name to passersby in the market. Misunderstanding the request to mean that Waverly does not wish to be seen in public with her mother, Lindo becomes very angry. Frustrated, Waverly shouts that her mother needs to learn to play chess herself so that she does not have to resort to showing off through her daughter. The rift between mother and daughter begins at that point, and continues to widen steadily through time. To Lindo Jong, pride in a daughter’s talent is natural and she believes that a mother is—or should be—entitled to share in her daughter’s triumphs; to Waverly, that pride represents a mother’s attempt to live through her daughter, thereby denying that daughter a separate identity and a sense of personal individual achievement.

As they grow to womanhood, the daughters feel that at every turn they are reminded of their failure to live up to their mothers’ expectations, and they resent what they perceive as their mothers’ attempts to live through them, to mold them into the women that their mothers would like to have become. When Jing-mei tries to explain that she has learned in her psychology course that parental criticism is destructive because human beings perform well when faced with high expectations while criticism dooms individuals to inadequate achievement through the suggestion that failure is expected, Suyuan retorts that Jing-mei is too lazy even to rise to her mother’s expectations. Years later, Jing-mei is still weighed down by her mother’s implication that she is incapable of success.

Even as adults, the daughters live with the knowledge that they have somehow disappointed their mothers, that they have failed to live up to expectations of fame and success. During her last New Year celebration with her mother, Jing-mei finally admits to herself that she will more than likely never achieve great goals; she is perfectly competent at what she does—small projects at the advertising agency where she works— but her accomplishments are merely adequate, never spectacular. Even aggressive, successful Waverly admits that her mother makes her feel like a failure. Lunching at Waverly’s favorite Chinese restaurant, Lindo criticizes Waverly’s new haircut, complains about dirty chopsticks and bowls and lukewarm soup, and disputes the amount of the check. When the women stop by Waverly’s apartment after lunch, Lindo denigrates a mink jacket that Rich has given Waverly, pointing out that the jacket is constructed of inferior fur. Lena St. Clair looks forward with trepidation to her mother’s visit to her new home, which is an expensively converted barn, and when Ying-ying arrives, Lena’s fears are justified. The older woman notices only the slanted floor, the sloping roof in the guest room, and a wobbly postmodern marble and wood table that to Ying-ying is simply a useless—and ugly—ornament.

In the daughters’ imaginations, the mothers have become mythologized as potent goddesses who exhibit uncanny powers and make impossible demands on their daughters who, in turn, are powerless to resist. Rose remembers being a little girl and hearing her mother, An mei, claim that she could see Rose and read her mind even when the child was in another room. Young Rose believed her mother because ‘‘the power of her words was that strong’’ (185). To Lena, her mother Ying-ying possesses an uncanny talent for seeing future events, but instead of using that ability positively, Ying-ying tends to foresee only impending disasters for the St. Clair family. Wondering if her mother ‘‘poisoned’’ her first marriage by being critical, Waverly fears Lindo’s destructively acerbic tongue and its possible effect on her relationship with Rich. Apprehensively, she waits for Lindo to initiate a quiet, steady campaign of criticism, one word at a time, phrase by phrase, negative comment by negative comment ‘‘until his looks, his character, his soul would have eroded away’’ (173).

Fearful of the power that they ascribe to their mothers, the daughters respond by distancing themselves, first emotionally and then—as circumstances and finances permit them to do so—physically and geographically.

Although the Joy Luck mothers have always been aware of the gulf between themselves and their daughters, they are at a loss as to how they might bridge the distance. To the mothers, their daughters are strangers who remember nothing of their mothers’ values. In a preamble to her first narrative, Lindo complains to her daughter Waverly that promises mean nothing to the younger generation. Lindo accuses Waverly of making promises to have dinner with her parents, and then cancelling dinner plans on the basis of flimsily transparent excuses: a traffic jam, a favorite movie on television, or that most invoked and most abused excuse of all time—a headache. It is clear that the daughters excuse themselves from association with the older generation by offering a familiar litany of reasons, all of which are products of contemporary Western society. Ironically, the mothers view themselves as powerless against the engulfing American culture that has estranged their daughters from the old Chinese traditions. In a kind of epiphany immediately following The Joy Luck Club dinner, Jing-mei realizes that she has been blind to the truth about her mother’s friends; the aunties are old and frightened because in Jing-mei, they are forced to confront their own daughters who know nothing about the ancestral homeland or about their elders’ hopes and ambitions and lost dreams. The aunties ‘‘see that joy and luck do not mean the same to their daughters, that to . . . American-born minds ‘joy luck’ . . . does not exist’’ (41). Lindo Jong, Anmei Hsu, and Ying-ying St. Clair are fearful that their generation and its dreams will be erased from the memories of their daughters, who will in turn bear children who know nothing about their Chinese heritage or the courage and resourcefulness of their emigrant forebears.

Another theme that many readers have identified in The Joy Luck Club is the pursuit of the American Dream, a theme with special resonance in a novel about immigrants who live in a diaspora culture. The Joy Luck mothers have all come to the United States after losing everything in China; they have traveled across an ocean to a country that has, for many Chinese, acquired mythic status as the ‘‘Gold Mountain’’ where immense wealth and success are possible for all who are willing to work hard. Beginning with the fable about the woman and the swan, Tan reveals the depth of the mothers’ belief that in America, everyone can become rich and successful, and even immigrants can share as full partners in the bounty of the New World. Suyuan’s faith in the American Dream, inspired and then nurtured by the articles she has read in American magazines like Good Housekeeping and Reader’s Digest , drives her into an obsessive search for the one talent that will make her daughter famous through television and the ‘‘Ed Sullivan Show.’’ Lindo Jong gives her children names that signal her hopes for them specifically and for the Jong family in general. She names her first son Winston because the two syllables of that name—‘‘wins’’ and ‘‘ton’’—suggest a sudden windfall of cash, or even fame; she calls her second son Vincent, a name with two syllables that sound to Lindo like ‘‘win’’ and ‘‘cent.’’ Among the members of The Joy Luck Club , belief in the American Dream is signaled in a number of ways. For example, like their more well-heeled fellow citizens in country clubs, the club follows the activities of the stock market, and the financial report that precedes the club dinner records selling Subaru and purchasing Smith International. Less obvious is the fact that those who can afford to do so leave Chinatown and move to somewhat more upscale neighborhoods where they furnish their new homes with brand new Western-style furniture that advertises their success to their friends. The mothers achieve a small measure of success in their adopted country, but their daughters, who have fewer barriers to cross and fewer obstacles to negotiate, come closer to the promise of the American Dream.

Of the daughters, Waverly Jong best exemplifies one aspect of success according to the most familiar definition of the Dream. As a child, she enjoyed fame as a chess prodigy, winning tournaments and amassing a collection of trophies. Now a well-paid tax lawyer, Waverly enjoys the life of the upwardly mobile single mother and career woman of the 1990s. She has outgrown the local beauty shop and now gets her hair cut at an upscale establishment owned by a man who calls himself Mr. Rory. Like other successful careerists with an eye to image, she attends the symphony, takes her daughter to the zoo, and treats her mother to lunch at an expensive restaurant. Rich, her fiance´ who also is an attorney, has given her a mink jacket for Christmas, and together they are planning a honeymoon in China. By any number of measures, Waverly lives the Dream—but the novel makes clear that her brand of success is not enough. Her relationship with her mother has been problematic since Waverly’s childhood outburst during which she told Lindo to stop trying to live through her daughter. The distance between the two women has grown with the years; Waverly is embarrassed by her mother’s stubborn adherence to Old World customs and not a little irritated by Lindo’s tendency to intrude. Lindo, for her part, is aware that her daughter is ashamed of her, and that knowledge eventually leads her to begin questioning whether she did the right thing when she decided to raise her children with what she calls ‘‘American circumstances’’ (254).

For at least one of the mothers, the American Dream works in reverse. Ying-ying St. Clair differs from the others in several ways: she was a child of privilege and wealth, and she does not emigrate to America to have a better life. She comes as the wife of Clifford St. Clair, a man who has to court her for four years before she decides to let him marry her. Her decision comes after she learns that her first husband—her first love, from whom she is divorced—has died. For Ying-ying, marrying St. Clair is the easiest course of action, one about which she does not have to think too deeply. Despite St. Clair’s belief that he has given Ying-ying the opportunity of a lifetime by taking her to the United States, Yingying is conscious always that in her adopted country she lives in houses smaller than those in which her family’s servants lived, she does servants’ work, and she wears cheap American clothes. For Ying-ying, the American Dream remains elusive and out of reach, and it remains for her daughter, Lena, to achieve a measure of success through her country home with its expensive furnishings and swimming pool.

A third theme that Amy Tan explores in the novel is relationships. The mother-daughter dyad has already been addressed previously, but other and different relationships, especially marriage, come under scrutiny as well. As a group, the mothers have not been successful in marriage. Lindo Jong is married first to a boy to whom she has been betrothed since childhood, and when that union proves to be spectacularly unsuccessful, she uses her wits creatively to devise an escape. Ying-ying St. Clair also experiences an arranged first marriage to a man with whom she falls in love after the wedding. Her tragedy is that her husband is a womanizer who eventually leaves her for a woman with whom he has been having an affair. Ironically, if Ying-ying’s first husband does not love her enough, her second loves her perhaps too well. Clifford St. Clair is so protective of his wife that he nearly obliterates her personality.

The daughters fare as badly in marriage as their mothers have done. Waverly Jong is divorced from her high school sweetheart who turned out to be irresponsible and stingy as well as inclined toward extramarital affairs. Rose Hsu and Lena St. Clair are still married, but Rose’s husband has filed for divorce, and Lena’s is obtusely blind to the fact that their marriage is dysfunctional beyond repair. Jing-mei Woo has never married, and does not appear likely to do so in the near future.

ALTERNATIVE READING: CULTURAL CRITICISM

Cultural Criticism Cultural criticism is such a vast and sprawling (and growing) discipline that it is not easy to arrive at a succinct definition that will both say enough for clarity and avoid the kind of over-definition that leads inevitably to obfuscation. To understand what is being examined by the cultural critic, we need a definition of culture . According to Clifford Geertz , culture is a semiotic (that is, based on signs and symbols) system, a concept that he explains as follows:

Believing with Max Weber , that man is an animal suspended in webs of significance he himself has spun, I take culture to be those webs, and the analysis of it to be therefore not an experimental science in search of a law but an interpretive one in search of meaning. (5)

In other words, culture is a human invention, a collection of hierarchies, relationships, practices, and behaviors that define the context in which an individual is expected to function as a member of a specific cultural group. Among the webs that Geertz identifies in his work are social institutions, cultural categories, patterns of socialization, habits of thinking and acting, and even modes of speaking. Race, ethnicity, class, and gender are significant cultural constructs that affect all individuals, and the points at which those constructs intersect form some of the most interesting and controversial subjects of cultural critique. Shirley Geok- Lin Lim, an Asian American literary critic, defines cultural criticism by codifying its purpose and describing its functions. She points out that cultural criticism is

concerned with analysis of race and ethnicity, specifically the imbalance of power between dominant white groups and peoples of color and the attempt to change the unequal sets of relationships. (571)

She further suggests that cultural criticism ‘‘resists and interrogates the claim that aesthetic criteria form a dominant, autonomous, objective, privileged position,’’ and that it views the literary text as a ‘‘lapidary of discourses from the past: memoir, myth, family and community history, folk tales, talk-story’’ (573). In other words, instead of relying on traditional and artificially constructed standards or criteria as guides to approaching a work of literature, the cultural critic attempts to visualize the social and cultural structures embedded in the work, and to understand the ‘‘lapidary of discourses,’’ or narrative and artistic practices, that have shaped that work, and, in a sense, called it into being and given it a voice.

To discuss contemporary texts as well as to interrogate the cultural practices and narrative forms that underpin those texts, cultural studies embraces and synthesizes approaches from anthropology, economics, feminism and gender studies, history, literary theory, psychoanalysis, and sociology. Employing a wide-ranging vocabulary drawn from those disciplines, cultural studies has created a critical language and identified a series of crucial questions that allow for the examination of the cultural codes that are embedded in literary texts.

We begin a cultural analysis of The Joy Luck Club by first noting that although the work is indubitably a novel, it bears little resemblance to other novels such as—to name a few literary classics that reside securely in the canon—Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice , George Eliot’s Middlemarch , or Charlotte Bronte¨’s Jane Eyre , or even such enduringly popular works of fiction as Daphne du Maurier’s Rebecca or Margaret Mitchell’s Gone With the Wind. Yet despite its difference from these works, Joy Luck has achieved the status of both classic and popular work. The contemporary text that Tan’s novel most resembles is Maxine Hong Kingston’s Woman Warrior , another hybrid multi-generic and multi-perspectival text that appropriates a variety of narrative structures—many from oral traditions—and juxtaposing those structures not only with each other but also with poetry and reportage, myth and factual material, reminiscence and dream vision. Like Joy Luck, Woman Warrior appears to have earned both classic and popular labels, suggesting that these two texts have resonances for a variety of readers, both academic and nonacademic. Both Kingston and Tan employ for their novels the narrative form known as talk story (defined in Chapter 2), which allows them to privilege the voices of individuals for whom the more familiar Western narrative structures would be inappropriate and inadequate. As a narrative form, talk story provides the mothers in The Joy Luck Club with the structural and linguistic apparatus to tell their stories in their own words without having to resort to translation to fit the demands of the traditional Western narrative, which requires clear patterns of conflict, crisis, and denouement. Tan’s text is a novel—albeit one that radically alters and expands the traditional definition of novel—that invites an examination of the ways in which Tan appropriates a variety of modes of expressive writing to accomplish her purposes: the portrayal of the immigrant experience from the distinctive point of view of first- and second-generation Americans of noticeably ethnic heritage, and the ways in which that experience radically influences the lives of some of America’s ethnic minorities. Clearly, a connection exists between Tan’s focus on the ethnic diaspora community and her choice of that community’s multiple narrative forms to shape her text; such a choice allows the novel’s characters to speak in their natural voices and customary linguistic patterns, thus giving the novel the kind of authenticity that would be lacking in a straightforward linear narrative.

The Bicultural Condition

We continue the cultural analysis of The Joy Luck Club by focusing on issues of identity and ethnicity or race in the novel, especially on biculturalism as a condition in which identity and race intersect, as an experience that involves existing on as well as crossing and re-crossing national, ethnic, and generational boundaries. Tan’s protagonists inhabit a psychological and emotional landscape that has been labelled ‘‘the border’’: mothers mediate between the homeland of their birth and their adopted country; daughters feel trapped between their Chinese heritage and their American upbringing; and mothers and daughters meet uneasily in the unstable geography of the immigrant family in which one generation remains firmly entrenched in an ancestral culture while the younger family members feel like outsiders or aliens in that culture. For second-generation Americans, the dominant culture can be as unwelcoming as the ancestral culture; their black hair and brown skin ensure that these individuals cannot simply disappear into anonymity in American society. Thus they are American by birth, by education, and even by inclination, but they are marginalized by their Otherness, by their appearance that trumpets difference to the dominant culture.

In an essay entitled ‘‘Growing Up Asian in America,’’ Kesaya Noda poses a series of crucial questions that can lead to a cultural analysis of Tan’s novel. Beginning by asking how an individual might come to self-knowledge and self-definition, Noda posits two possible answers:

From the inside—within a context that is self-defined, from a grounding in community and a connection with culture and history that are comfortably accepted? Or from the outside— in terms of messages . . . from the media and people who are often ignorant? Even as an adult I can still see two sides of my face and past. I can see from the inside out, in freedom. And . . . from the outside in, driven by the old voices of childhood and lost in anger and fear. (244)

Noda’s questions suggest the existence of dual identities between which many immigrants and their children must oscillate, depending on their circumstances.

Amy Tan’s Joy Luck mothers know themselves from the inside; they are secure in a Chinese cultural context that they accept. As a group, the mothers—including Ying-ying at the end of the novel—have a fairly healthy sense of their worth and a clear conception of who they are individually. Proudly displaying her gold bracelets, Lindo Jong says that to the Chinese, fourteen-carat gold has very little worth, and she notes that her own jewelry is made of twenty-four-carat gold. Later, she explains that she buys only the most expensive gold bracelets to commemorate her escape from a bad marriage because she feels that she is worth the luxury. Ying-ying at first seems disconnected and lost, but her daughter’s distress goads her into confronting the memory of her failed first marriage and the child that she aborted, the source of the emotional pain that led to her depression. Having voiced her loss, Ying-ying is able to remember that she was born in the Year of the Tiger (a reference to thetraditional Chinese designation for the year of her birth), and with that recollection she gains the strength to reclaim her ‘‘tiger spirit,’’ so that she can pass it on to her daughter. The mothers’ self-knowledge and centeredness come from their ‘‘grounding in community and a connection with culture and history’’ (Noda 244). Deep in their hearts, they have carried from their ancestral culture what Orville Schell describes as a ‘‘sustaining fund of memory’’ (3), the heritage that they are trying to pass on to their daughters.

It is the mothers who talk story to give shape and significance to their lives. Their distinctive linguistic patterns and images fit comfortably with the conventions of popular narrative and oral tradition; moreover, their experiences defy description through conventional narrative structures. Wendy Ho points out that The Joy Luck Club foregrounds the stories of women whose lives have been neglected, women who feel the need to transmit their stories to their daughters who need to know their mothers’ lives if they are to integrate comfortably the two cultures into which they have been born:

The personal stories of the Joy Luck mothers do battle through gossip, circular talking, cryptic messages/caveats, dream images, bilingual language, and talk-story traditions—not in the linear, logical, or publicly authorized discourse in patriarchal or imperialist narratives. (339)

Talk story empowers the mothers, something that the dominant culture has failed to do for the daughters who remain mired in uncertainty about their identities, about their place in the culture that they want to claim as theirs.

The Joy Luck daughters have not experienced the cultural connectedness that sustains their mothers. Caught between the Chinese and American cultures, unable to connect with their mothers’ memories of a homeland that they have never seen, and unable because of their visible ethnicity to blend effortlessly into the American melting pot, the daughters derive the shapes and outlines of their identities from the images and icons of popular culture, as well as from media-generated images of success and fulfillment. Waverly Jong exemplifies the instability of identity that has plagued the daughters. When Lindo tells Waverly that the way she carries herself will mark her instantly as an outsider and as an American when she goes to China, Waverly is displeased. At Waverly’s ‘‘sour American look,’’ Lindo ruminates that although Waverly nowwants to be labelled Chinese because ethnicity has become fashionable, her interest has awakened nearly too late, and she remembers almost nothing of what Lindo tried to teach her years earlier. Lindo notes that Waverly as a child paid lip service to the role of the traditional Chinese daughter, listening to Lindo’s stories about China and paying some attention to the lessons embedded in those stories. But Waverly performs according to Lindo’s ‘‘Chinese ways’’ only while she is still dependent on her mother, ‘‘only until she learned how to walk out the door.’’ Now, Waverly is almost totally assimilated, Chinese in skin and hair color but thoroughly ‘‘American-made’’ in her values, her language, and her identity (254). Significantly, the daughter through whose story the others’ narratives are mediated discards her American name, June, in favor of her Chinese name, Jing-mei. As Jing-mei, she journeys to her mother’s ancestral homeland, China, and completes the circle of her heritage by claiming her Chinese half-sisters. But even as Jing-mei travels to her ancestral homeland, she still is a Chinese American—a stranger who is visiting a country that is foreign to her.

The Chinese American Experience

For many Chinese Americans, life in the United States is a series of dualities—two identities, two voices, two cultures, and even two names—that represent an uneasy stance somewhere between the traditional Chinese culture of their own or their parents’ homeland and the contemporary American culture in which they have chosen to live or into which they have been born. Maxine Hong Kingston articulates the position poetically in Woman Warrior:

Chinese-Americans, when you try to understand what things in you are Chinese, how do you separate what is peculiar to childhood, to poverty, insanities, one family, your mother who marked your growing with stories, from what is Chinese? What is Chinese tradition and what is the movies? (5–6)

Kingston eventually comes to the conclusion that the Chinese American identity cannot be divided simply into two ethnic halves, independent of each other, each retaining the distinctive characteristics of its origins, and she refuses to portray her identity as unified.

Orville Schell observes that after China opened its borders to travelers from the West in the 1970s, older Chinese emigrants who cherished memories of life before Mao Zedong welcomed the chance to revisit the homeland from which they had been exiled since 1949. Their children, however, ‘‘looked with deep ambivalence on the idea of having to awaken a dormant Chinese side in themselves’’ (3). It is this ambivalence that paralyzes Jing-mei when her Joy Luck aunties suggest that she travel to China; the same cultural uneasiness prompts Waverly to worry that she will look so much like the native Chinese that U.S. Immigration officials will bar her from re-entering the United States at the end of her trip.

Only tenuously connected with the ancestral home about which their mothers speak frequently, the daughters in The Joy Luck Club are more conscious of the complexities of living as hyphenated Americans in a society that privileges homogeneity. Heirs to a range of opportunities that their mothers never had, the daughters must nevertheless deal with American society’s inability to define them without stereotyping. More than their mothers, they are aware that they are neither Chinese nor American, that they are American by birth and education, but they are Chinese because their features force comparisons with white Americans. In need of some form of cultural identity, the daughters direct their best efforts toward unconditional assimilation and acculturation. They want to belong. Rose defiantly labels herself an American when her mother objects to her dating Ted Jordan on the grounds that he is an American (117). Unhappy as a child with her Asian eyes, Lena tried to make her eyes look rounder by pushing their outer corners in toward the center of her face. The daughters manage to succeed somewhat in blending into the mainstream: they refuse to learn to speak Chinese; unlike thousands of other Asian Americans they are not physicians or engineers (they are a restaurant designer who majored in Asian American studies in college, an advertising copywriter who is a college dropout, a tax lawyer, and a graphics production assistant); they marry men whom their mothers consider to be foreigners because they are not Chinese. But the price that the daughters pay for their assimilation is their nagging sense of unease in the identities that they have laboriously created for themselves. Worse yet, as Wendy Ho notes, another cost of assimilation is ‘‘the miscommunications between the Joy Luck mothers and daughters’’ (338). Without a language in which both the mothers and their daughters are fluent, the mothers cannot share the stories and the wisdom that can help their daughters to feel comfortable in their cultural contexts.

A particularly painful facet of the Chinese American experience is racism. The media label of ‘‘model minority’’ notwithstanding, Chinese Americans, along with other Americans of Asian origin, must frequently confront discrimination and prejudice, or, at the very least, stereotyping that is an insidious form of racism. In The Joy Luck Club , Amy Tan illustrates one form of racism through Rose Hsu’s encounter with her future mother-in-law, Mrs. Jordan, who carefully explains why Rose must not marry Ted. Assuring Rose that the Jordans—unlike other unnamed people— are open-minded and harbor no prejudice against minorities, Mrs. Jordan further confides that she and Mr. Jordan ‘‘personally [know] many fine people who [are] Oriental.’’ She reveals also that their circle of acquaintances includes even individuals of Hispanic or African- American ancestry. Reminding Rose that Ted wants to be a physician and that physicians and their wives have to conform to certain social expectations, Mrs. Jordan remarks that ‘‘it [is] so unfortunate . . . how unpopular the Vietnam War [is]’’ (118). Thus she implies that by continuing the relationship with Ted, Rose would certainly jeopardize his chances for a successful medical career. When Mrs. Jordan points out that she is ‘‘personally’’ acquainted with many ‘‘fine’’ minority individuals, she inadvertently reveals a bigotry that is so ingrained in her that she is unaware of its existence. She further displays her insensitivity by suggesting through her reference to the Vietnam War that all Asians are interchangeable—a common misperception and one that disturbs most Americans of Asian origin.

We do need to note that prejudice is not the exclusive property of the dominant culture; in her own fashion, Rose’s mother is no less bigoted than Mrs. Jordan. On meeting Ted Jordan for the first time, An-mei Hsu cautions Rose against the relationship, voicing her disapproval of the young man by identifying him as a waigoren, a foreigner, thus relegating Ted to marginal status in her own—and, she hopes, her daughter’s— Chinatown culture. Like Mrs. Jordan, An-mei Hsu fears that she might lose her child, and by extension her grandchildren, to someone from an alien culture.

The Chinese American experience is characterized by deep divisions, disjunctions, contrasts, and seemingly irreconcilable oppositions, not just between individuals or groups of individuals but also within personal identities. Being Chinese American is not the ‘‘happy marriage of East and West’’ of Broadway musical or popular fiction fame, nor is it simply a matter of choosing to be either more Asian or more Western. Being Chinese American means living with duality and division, with contrast and opposition. And those divisions and dualities become very real and very personal for Lindo Jong as she sits in Mr. Rory’s beauty parlor, listening to her daughter, Waverly, and Mr. Rory discuss her as if she is not present. Lindo is acutely aware that she is in the hairdresser’s chair because her daughter is ashamed of her mother and worried about what her American husband’s parents will think of ‘‘this backward old Chinese woman’’ (255), and she fumes in silence when Waverly repeats to her in an artificially loud voice what Mr. Rory is saying, as though Lindo does not understand English. But Lindo is accustomed to this treatment and she simply smiles:

I use my American face. . . . the face Americans think is Chinese, the one they cannot understand. But inside . . . I am ashamed . . . [b]ecause she is my daughter and I am proud of her, and I am her mother but she is not proud of me. (255)

Lindo also has a ‘‘Chinese face’’ that she dons smugly when Mr. Rory comments, to Waverly’s initial displeasure, that the two women are uncannily similar. Lindo’s awareness of her two faces reveals that she is conscious of her dual identity in ways that Waverly cannot begin to understand. Waverly has assimilated so thoroughly and has so internalized her Western identity that she is guilty of treating her mother like a non-English–speaking alien—in effect, Waverly has positioned herself on the other side of a cultural divide from her mother.

For Lindo, Waverly’s position is both triumph and defeat. Lindo has wanted her children to have what she calls ‘‘American circumstances’’ in addition to their ‘‘Chinese character,’’ and Waverly has certainly achieved American-style success: she is a tax lawyer, she has a daughter whom she loves, and she is about to marry another tax lawyer. In addition, her English is fluent and idiomatic, and her close friends are not Chinese but rather other young white professionals. As Lindo points out, ‘‘Only her skin and hair are Chinese. Inside—she is all American made’’ (254). To Lindo’s great disappointment, she has been unsuccessful at instructing Waverly in what ‘‘Chinese character’’ entails: the ability to keep one’s thoughts hidden to gain every advantage in every situation; the acceptance of the fact that easy goals are never worth pursuing; and the continuing acknowledgment of self-worth.

Ultimately, Lindo Jong is left with only questions that even she cannot answer, questions about the choices she has made, questions that deepen the divisions in her soul. She has come to America with high ambitions,with the intention of giving her children the best opportunities available, but in her old age, she begins to wonder whether she has made the right decisions:

I think about my intentions. Which one is American? Which one is Chinese? Which one is better? If you show one, you must always sacrifice the other. . . . So now I think, What did I lose? What did I get back in return? (266)

Lindo recalls her return to China after a long absence of decades. On that trip, she had been careful not to flaunt fancy jewelry or wear loud colors—the marks of a tourist; she spoke Chinese fluently and handled local currency with ease; she did everything in her power to blend in with the local residents. Nevertheless, Lindo was treated like a wealthy visitor who could afford artificially inflated prices. Clearly, something ineffable about her—her appearance, her carriage, her manner—had changed. Remembering that experience, Lindo not only realizes that she is no longer truly Chinese, but also that in the eyes of people like Mr. Rory and her own daughter, she is not American. She is Chinese American; she inhabits a space on the border between two worlds, belonging to neither world completely, destined to live permanently in that border country.

Bibliography The Joy Luck Club. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1989. Angier, Carole. ‘‘The Joy Luck Club.’’ New Statesman and Society (30 June 1989): 35. Baker, John F., and Calvin Reid. ‘‘Fresh Voices, New Audiences.’’ Publisher’s Weekly (9 August 1993): 32. Beard, Carla J. Amy Tan’s The Joy Luck Club. Piscataway, NJ: Research and Education Assoc., 1996. Benjamin, Susan J. ‘‘The Joy Luck Club.’’ English Journal 79.6 (October 1990): 82. Braendlin, Bonnie. ‘‘Mother/Daughter Dialog(ic)s In, Around, and About Amy Tan’s The Joy Luck Club.’’ Private Voices, Public Lives: Women Speak on the Literary Life. Ed. Nancy Owen Nelson. Denton: University of North Texas Press, 1995. 111–24. Davis, Rocio G. ‘‘Wisdom (Un) heeded: Chinese Mothers and American Daughters in Amy Tan’s The Joy Luck Club.’’ Cuadernos de Investigacion Filologica 19–20 (1993–94): 89–100. Donovan, Mary Ann. ‘‘The Joy Luck Club.’’ America (17 November 1990): 372. Duke, Michael. ‘‘Red Ivy, and Green Earth Mother.’’ World Literature Today 65.2 (Spring 1991): 361. Feldman, Gayle. ‘‘The Joy Luck Club: Chinese Magic, American Blessings, and a Publishing Fairy Tale.’’ Publisher’s Weekly (7 July 1989): 24. Fisher, Ann H. ‘‘The Joy Luck Club.’’ Library Journal (15 February 1989): 178. Fong, Rowena. ‘‘The Joy Luck Club.’’ The Gerontologist 35.2 (April 1995): 284. Franzen, Jacqueline P. Breaking Boundaries: The Autobiographical Revolution in Jade Snow Wong’s Fifth Chinese Daughter, Maxine Hong Kingston’s The Woman Warrior, Amy Tan’s The Joy Luck Club, and Edna Wu’s Clouds and Rain. M.A. Thesis. University of Nebraska at Omaha, 1996. Gates, David. ‘‘The Joy Luck Club.’’ Newsweek (17 April 1989): 68–69. Gavioli, Davida. ‘‘In Search of the Mother’s Lost Voice: Mariama Baˆ’s Une si longue lettre, Francesca Sanvitale’s Madre e figlia, and Amy Tan’s The Joy Luck Club.’’ DAI 55.6 (December 1994): DAI Number 9428101. Heung, Marina. ‘‘Daughter-text/Mother-text: Matrilineage in Amy Tan’s Joy Luck Club.’’ Feminist Studies 19 (Fall 1993): 597. Ho, Khanh. ‘‘The Kitchen God’s Wife.’’ Amerasia Journal 19.2 (Spring 1993): 181. Ho, Wendy Ann. ‘‘Mother and Daughter Writing and the Politics of Location in Maxine Hong Kingston’s The Woman Warrior and Amy Tan’s The Joy Luck Club.’’ DAI 54.7 (January 1994): DAI Number 9320902. ———. ‘‘Swan-Feather Mothers and Coca-Cola Daughters: Teach Tan’s The Joy Luck Club.’’ Teaching American Ethnic Literatures: Nineteen Essays. Ed. John R. Maitino and David R. Peck. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1996. 327–45. Hoffman, Preston. ‘‘Book Sounds.’’ Wilson Library Bulletin 69. 7 (March 1995): 99. Koenig, Rhoda. ‘‘The Joy Luck Club.’’ New York 22.12 (20 March 1989): 82. Miner, Valerie. ‘‘The Joy Luck Club.’’ Nation (24 April 1989): 566. Nathan, Paul. ‘‘Tan Teams up for Encore.’’ Publisher’s Weekly (5 September 1994): 20. Ong, Caroline. ‘‘Roots Relations.’’ Times Literary Supplement (29 December 1989): 1447. Pollard, D. E. ‘‘Much Ado About Identity.’’ Far Eastern Economic Review (27 July 1989): 41. Schell, Orville. ‘‘The Joy Luck Club.’’ New York Times Book Review (19 March 1989): 3. Schueller, Malini Johar. ‘‘Theorizing Ethnicity and Subjectivity: Maxine Hong Kingston’s Tripmaster Monkey and Amy Tan’s The Joy Luck Club.’’ Genders 15 (Winter 1992): 72. Shear, Walter. ‘‘Generation Differences and the Diaspora in The Joy Luck Club.’’ Critique: Studies in Contemporary Fiction 34.3 (Spring 1993): 193–99. Shen, Gloria. ‘‘Born of a Stranger: Mother-Daughter Relationships and Storytelling in Amy Tan’s The Joy Luck Club.’’ International Women’s Writing: New Landscapes of Identity. Ed. Anne E. Brown and Marjanne E. Gooze. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1995. 233–44. Skow, John. ‘‘Tiger Ladies.’’ Time (27 March 1989): 98. Smith, Jayne R. The Joy Luck Club: A Curriculum Unit. Rocky River, OH: Center for Learning, 1994. Souris, Stephen. ‘‘ ‘Only Two Kinds of Daughters’: Inter-monologue Dialogicity in The Joy Luck Club.’’ MELUS 19.2 (Summer 1994): 99–123. Spalding, Frances. ‘‘The Joy Luck Club.’’ Times Educational Supplement (4 August 1989): 19. Steinberg, Sybil, and Genevieve Stuttaford. ‘‘The Joy Luck Club.’’ Publisher’sWeekly (23 December 1988): 66. Sterritt, David. ‘‘The Joy Luck Club.’’ Christian Science Monitor (16 September 1993): 11. Sweeting, Paul, and John Zinsser. ‘‘The Joy Luck Club.’’ Publisher’s Weekly (7 July 1989): 37. Tynan, Laurie. ‘‘The Joy Luck Club.’’ Library Journal (July 1989): 123. Wang, Dorothy. ‘‘The Joy Luck Club.’’ Newsweek (17 April 1989): 69. Xu, Ben. ‘‘Memory and the Ethnic Self: Reading Amy Tan’s The Joy Luck Club.’’ Memory, Narrative, and Identity: New Essays in Ethnic American Literatures. Ed. Amritjit Singh, Joseph T. Skerrett, Jr., and Robert E. Hogan. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1994. Movie and Theater Reviews Book, Esther Wachs. ‘‘Joy Luck Club Plays in China: Theatrical Version to be Staged in Five Cities.’’ Far Eastern Economic Review (26 August 1993): 31. Buck, Joan Juliet. Vogue (October 1993): 215. Denby, David. ‘‘The Joy Luck Club.’’ New York (20 September 1993): 64. Johnson, Brian. Maclean’s (27 September 1993): 70. Klawans, Stuart. The Nation (4 October 1993): 364. Maslin, Janet. ‘‘The Joy Luck Club.’’ New York Times (8 September 1993): C15. ———. ‘‘The Joy Luck Club.’’ New York Times (25 March 1994): D17. ———. ‘‘Intimate Lessons of Family and Culture Available to All.’’ Migration World Magazine 22.1 (January–February 1994): 37. McCarthy, Todd. ‘‘The Joy Luck Club.’’ Variety (13 September 1993): 32. McGinnis, John. ‘‘The Joy Luck Club.’’ Wall Street Journal (19 August 1993): A8. Salomon, Julie. ‘‘The Joy Luck Club.’’ Wall Street Journal (9 September 1993): A18. Shapiro, Laura. ‘‘The Generation Gap in Chinatown.’’ Newsweek (27 September 1993): 70. Simon, John. ‘‘Chinoiserie.’’ National Review (15 November 1993): 61. Tyler, Patrick. ‘‘The Joy Luck Club.’’ New York Times (27 November 1993): N9.

Source: Huntley, E. D. (1998). Amy Tan: A Critical Companion. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press.

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THE JOY LUCK CLUB: AN ANALYSIS ON THE DIASPORIC PROBLEMS WHICH LEADS TO INTERGENERATIONAL CONFLICTS Dissertation

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The Joy Luck Club

The joy luck club study guide.

The Joy Luck Club is Amy Tan 's first novel, published in 1989. Just two years before the book's release, Tan was succeeding as a speech writer and self-proclaimed workaholic. Feeling unfulfilled, she found her calling in fiction writing. Tan explains that she did not set out to write a novel but a series of stories. She met a critic who told her, "If I were you, I would start over again and take each one of these and make that your story. You don't have one story here, you have 12 stories. 16 stories." Indeed, The Joy Luck Club was published as a collection of interrelated stories, but it was labeled and reviewed as a novel. It became an instant bestseller, catapulting Tan onto the international stage. Reviewers praised Tan's heartfelt yet gritty examination of mother-daughter relationships, following in the footsteps of Asian-American women writers such as Maxine Hong Kingston. The book exceeded an astounding 40 weeks on the New York Times bestseller list and was nominated for the National Book Award and the National Book Critics Award. It received the Commonwealth Gold Award and the Bay Area Book Reviewers Award. Tan and co-screenwriter Ron Bass adapted the work as a feature film in 1994, which was directed by Wayne Wang, and in which Tan made a cameo appearance in a party scene. The movie was a great success, and it was nominated for a BAFTA award for best adapted screenplay.

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The Joy Luck Club Questions and Answers

The Question and Answer section for The Joy Luck Club is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel.

Waverly's relationship with her ex-husband?

When Waverly and her first husband Marvin Chen eloped, Waverly's mother picked him apart until Waverly too saw his flaws and lost interest.

What is the author's view of marriage in the book?

The fact that many of the mothers and daughters have unhappy marriages creates a common ground on which they can relate. But marriage has different meanings for each generation. For the mothers, it is permanent and not always based on love....

Why is June uncomfortable at the Hsus' house?

In Chapter One, June goes to the Hsus' house, where she takes her mother's place in the Joy Luck Club. Although she is only one generation younger than everyone else, she feels out of place, as she realizes that her mother has made excuses for her...

Study Guide for The Joy Luck Club

The Joy Luck Club study guide contains a biography of Amy Tan, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis.

  • About The Joy Luck Club
  • The Joy Luck Club Summary
  • Character List

Essays for The Joy Luck Club

The Joy Luck Club essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of The Joy Luck Club by Amy Tan.

  • Spiritual Reassessment and Moral Reconciliation
  • Mother-Daughter Evolution in The Joy Luck Club
  • Music as a Motif in The Joy Luck Club
  • Intergenerational Relations in “Rules of the Game”
  • The American Dream in The Joy Luck Club

Lesson Plan for The Joy Luck Club

  • About the Author
  • Study Objectives
  • Common Core Standards
  • Introduction to The Joy Luck Club
  • Relationship to Other Books
  • Bringing in Technology
  • Notes to the Teacher
  • Related Links
  • The Joy Luck Club Bibliography

Wikipedia Entries for The Joy Luck Club

  • Introduction

thesis of joy luck club

“The Joy Luck Club”: Film Analysis Essay

Introduction, mother-daughter relationship, the essence of storytelling and tradition, fate and independence, parental sacrifice.

The Joy Luck Club revolves around the story of four Chinese women who migrated to America to look for new life. They all live in San Francisco, and each one of them has a Chinese-American daughter whom they love a lot and wish the best for them. At the movie’s beginning, the four women, Tsai Chin, Kieu Chinh, France Nuyen, and Lisa Lu, sit down in an open place, playing Mahjong while narrating their past stories. The four different stories make the entire movie, considering that it unfolds how they are connected and how their relationship affects their daughters. Since the film is highly feminine, it explains the importance of the mother-daughter relationship, the essence of storytelling and tradition, fate and independence, and parental sacrifice.

The central focus of The Joy Luck Club movie is the multifaceted relationship between daughters and their mothers. When telling their stories, it is clear that there is an inherent bond between the four women and their daughters, despite the cultural and generational problems they encountered over time. For example, when Suyuan, June Woo’s mother, died, the inherent bond between June and her deceased mother encouraged her to understand her mother’s life well. Since her mother migrated to America when June was not born, she did not know much about her mother’s past life (Wang, 1993). However, she finds more about her mother, including her other twin sisters, from her mother’s three friends. While still alive, Suyuan showed her friends the undying love she had for her daughters, and this confession later helped June find her twin sisters, who were left in China during WWII. Although Suyuan left her daughters in china during Japanese inversion to save their lives, her bond with them was always strong, despite the physical distance. This material and emotional sacrifice portray the length that some mothers go to honor the survival of their daughters. Therefore, the movie shows that the connection between mothers and their daughters subsists beyond worldly activities and personal events.

People tell stories to make sense of life and understand the world around them. The movie has four segments of different stories, which helps the viewers understand the lives and cultures of the main characters. We realize that the four women migrated from China to America through each story due to political instabilities. The viewers can understand the importance of adoring other people’s cultures through the stories. For instance, despite being raised in Chinese culture, the four women still value the American culture and would like their daughters to adore them. To justify this statement, Suyuan says, “In America, I will have a daughter just like me. Nevertheless, nobody will say her worth is measured by the loudness of her husband’s belch. Over there, nobody will look down on her because I will make her speak only perfect American English” (Wang, 1993 00:35:46). Therefore, viewers can learn from the movie that adoring other people’s culture is essential, considering that it would open more life opportunities and strengthen personal relationships.

The concept of fate and independence fills the film, considering that the main characters dither between the traditional acceptance of one destiny and the free will to decide their fate in life. When Suyuan died, the Chinese tradition preferred June Woo to take her mother’s place and follow in her footsteps. However, the concept of fate and independence changed all these by making June follow her ways to track her late mother’s history (Bloom, 2009). Unfortunately, through fate, she meets her twin sisters in the Joy Luck Club, of which she could fail to find them suppose she could choose to follow the Chinese cultural restrictions. As a result, fate is a power beyond human beings’ supremacy, controlling what happens to people’s lives.

Parental sacrifice refers to how parents, especially mothers, prioritize their children’s needs at the expense of their own lives. The Joy Luck Club portrays that all the aspects of parental love require some level of sacrifice. It shows that women always sacrifice themselves for the good of their children, which would later strengthen their bonds. For instance, the most significant parental sacrifice in the film is when Suyuan decides to leave her twin daughters in a safe place to be rescued during WWII, the Japanese invasion of China. She narrates that, at that mysterious moment, she was nearly dead due to dysentery, and the only way she could save her babies was by leaving them by the roadside (Bloom, 2009). Therefore, her willingness to prioritize her babies’ lives before her own life guaranteed their rescue.

In conclusion, most parents should view the Joy Luck Club as a positive and instructive film. It highly portrays how parents should handle their children, despite their challenges. It shows the essence of storytelling, considering that June found her mother’s origin through listening to the stories her mother used to tell other women. Furthermore, as the film shows, parental sacrifice and the concept of independence are important to people’s lives. For instance, by sacrificing her life during WWII, Suyuan was able to save the lives of her twin daughters. In addition, by being independent, June, through fate, was able to reunite with her twin sisters in The Joy Luck Club.

Bloom, H. (Ed.). (2009). Amy Tan’s The Joy Luck Club . Infobase Publishing.

Wang, W. (1993). The Joy Luck Club. Buena Vista Pictures.

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IvyPanda. (2023, April 19). "The Joy Luck Club": Film Analysis. https://ivypanda.com/essays/the-joy-luck-club-film-analysis/

""The Joy Luck Club": Film Analysis." IvyPanda , 19 Apr. 2023, ivypanda.com/essays/the-joy-luck-club-film-analysis/.

IvyPanda . (2023) '"The Joy Luck Club": Film Analysis'. 19 April.

IvyPanda . 2023. ""The Joy Luck Club": Film Analysis." April 19, 2023. https://ivypanda.com/essays/the-joy-luck-club-film-analysis/.

1. IvyPanda . ""The Joy Luck Club": Film Analysis." April 19, 2023. https://ivypanda.com/essays/the-joy-luck-club-film-analysis/.

Bibliography

IvyPanda . ""The Joy Luck Club": Film Analysis." April 19, 2023. https://ivypanda.com/essays/the-joy-luck-club-film-analysis/.

thesis of joy luck club

The Joy Luck Club

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In Trump’s racist America, The Joy Luck Club’s Amy Tan turns to backyard birding for peace

thesis of joy luck club

SINGAPORE – Chinese-American novelist Amy Tan used to be terrified of birds because of an Alfred Hitchcock thriller. The Birds (1963), with its menacing swarm of murderous black avians, was filmed only about 30km from the author’s California home.

But The Joy Luck Club (1989) author began to sing a different tune when politics went awry in the United States. With the election of far-right populist Donald Trump as president, anti-Asian racism reached a fever pitch.

Tan, like many Americans, felt helpless and wanted to retreat. She turned to birding in her backyard and started nature journal classes.

“I was thinking: Don’t fall into depression. Depression is being helpless, you need to find some place where you can recover. I decided to go into nature and do something that was about beauty, not something ugly like hatred or racism.”

Today, Tan can identify 66 birds in her backyard – situated amid four Pacific live oaks with overlapping canopies – and is chirpy about recently spotting a great blue heron.

“It’s shocking because that’s a bird found by water where it can go fishing. Plus, the great blue heron already looks like a dinosaur. It’s a fabulous bird to see in your yard.”

Her newest book, The Backyard Bird Chronicles, began as a private record of what she saw during those dispiriting years and was never meant to be published. But Tan’s editors convinced her to compile a book drawn from across nine of her personal journals.

The book, replete with Tan’s dynamic sketches, is accompanied by her signature novelistic observations.

The 72-year-old tells The Straits Times from her loft in New York that birding has not left her. Even in the urban sprawl where birds are sparse, she manages to spot gulls, pigeons and a few house sparrows.

“A lot of my trips are based on where I can go birding,” says Tan, rattling off a list of places she has visited – Botswana, South Africa, Hong Kong. Her next destinations are to Ohio – to catch the spring songbird migration – and Raja Ampat in Indonesia.

“The birds in Ecuador and Panama, I mean, I saw 500 birds. They are like surreal animals because of their colours and their patterns are so crazy. If you believe God made this world, then you think – well, did he have an assistant who was a little off their meds when they created these birds?” she says with a smile.

Tan has made a virtue out of staying child-like. Her best tip for beginning birders is to “be naive”.

“Go out there into your yard or your park like you’re a child and see it for the first time. Don’t even say that it’s a bird. Just ask – what is it?”

In writing as in birding, Tan says: “The more that you think you know something, the more you won’t see it. Because you’re just looking at it long enough to confirm what you think you already know.”

Has birding made Tan a better writer? Not really, she says with a laugh. “Mostly because it took away time from my writing, at least my writing of novels. It was a very big distraction, I wanted to just keep my mind off what was happening. I just wanted to look at the birds and take notes and be in the present moment.”

The time commitments of birding aside, Tan had the strange feeling that “the novel was not as prescient” during the era of Trump’s presidency. Her last novel, the historical epic The Valley Of Amazement, was published in 2013.

She is working on a new novel, but says nothing is set in stone as the political landscape is once again shifting.

“We might have another Trump presidency, you know, and who knows how that’s going to affect the novel?” she says. “I think that’s true for almost every writer I know, that their writing is definitely going to be shaped, influenced and governed by whatever is happening politically at the time.”

But a decade of watching birds has transformed her consciousness. She says the theme of survival has been on her mind recently.

“I couldn’t tell you right now what (the novel) would be, except that a lot of what I observed about birds had to do with survival and how much of a bird’s characteristics is geared towards survival and what they will do in the presence of competitors. That’s something to think about with humans too: What will humans do for survival?”

Tan recalled meeting former Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong at the White House during a state dinner hosted by US president Barack Obama in 2016, where she was seated across from Singapore’s premier. “I said, Mr Prime Minister, I really admire Singapore’s green architecture that you have created in this very dense urban environment.”

With another possible Trump presidency on the cards, Tan feels a certain sense of deja vu. “Back in 2016, it was absolutely stunning because it didn’t seem as though it was quite possible. Now, I think, we all know that – again – it could be possible. I would not be as unprepared if that happened, but I would still be distraught.”

She was, in 2016, one of more than 450 authors who signed a statement against Trump, opposing his candidacy for presidency. “Some people become activists and they protest in very overt ways, but I figured (my way) was to support various organisations at work,” she says.

Now, she also finds solace in the very non-political nature of the birds that her backyard attracts.

Freed of their Hitchcockian horror, the birds now give her an undisturbed, peculiar peace.

“Birds are not political – birds are just beautiful. Birds are little miracles, and that’s what I love about birds. You don’t have to think about elections or anything like that. They’re just there, and they’re just beautiful. They’re funny. They’re very funny, I find, looking at them.”

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thesis of joy luck club

How The Joy Luck Club director Wayne Wang grew as a filmmaker, and why Hong Kong frustrated him

  • Long before directing Jennifer Lopez in Maid in Manhattan, Wayne Wong, working both in Hong Kong and the US, made films that showed Asians as 'real humans'
  • While filming in Hong Kong he crossed some of its gangsters. A subsequent film was critical of the city's social mores. A Post review called it a 'cheap shot'

The Joy Luck Club's Wayne Wang is probably the best-known Asian-American film director.

While he made his name making films in the United States, Wang was born in Hong Kong, in 1949. He went to college in the US when he turned 18, and studied painting and photography at California College for Arts and Crafts, and then filmmaking at graduate school.

Wang went back to Hong Kong and started work at public broadcaster Radio Television Hong Kong (RTHK), where he was assigned to the now classic Below the Lion Rock series.

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"After one or two episodes, I was pretty much fired," he told film critic Roger Garcia. "I think there was too much experimental blood in me still, and I felt that Hong Kong was somewhat restrictive, having been in America."

Wang left Hong Kong for San Francisco, where he got involved in theatre, working with the politically oriented Sung Fung Se theatre group.

His second film, Chan Is Missing (1982), an independent film that loosely focuses on the search for a missing friend, was the first Asian-American film to garner attention in the US.

Let's hear it for these Johnnie To, Ringo Lam, Lau Kar-leung action movies

Wang conceived the film as an experimental piece, but it evolved into one that drew on the real people and real conversations he'd experienced in San Francisco's Chinatown. A schoolroom scene, for instance, was shot with a real teacher and students, in a school where Wang was teaching.

The film is quirky, individual and enjoyable, in the manner of American independent cinema of the time. It played in 250 cinemas in the US and put Wang on the map as a director.

"I got offered a lot of different studio projects and bigger movies, but I just didn't feel comfortable doing that - I wasn't ready to do that stuff," he told Garcia.

Chan Is Missing was not the first Asian-American film, but "it was simply the one that got noticed", says Kris Montello, programming manager for the New York-based Asian-American International Film Festival.

"American films had visited Chinatown before, in Lady from Shanghai and, well, Chinatown . But in Hollywood, Chinatown's citizens were never the focus - it was just used as a seedy backdrop for the loose morals and lost souls of crime pictures.

" Chan Is Missing reckons with that history, while also portraying the real humans that live there - they are more than just background extras hanging around dark alleys, opium dens and noodle shops. It calls attention to the Asian identity both in reality and in the movies."

Montello adds that the film helped non-Asian viewers to gain an understanding of the Asian-American community.

"It also showed that independent cinema could be a forum for Asian-American voices during a time when bold independent cinema, by directors like Jim Jarmusch and Spike Lee, was starting to penetrate into the mainstream," he says.

Wang's next film, Dim Sum: A Little Bit of Heart (1985), was very different. Also set in San Francisco's Chinatown, the light ensemble drama revolves around an old woman trying to set her affairs in order before she dies.

It is a much more polished film, one that has drawn comparisons with the work of Japanese master Yasujiro Ozu. Compared to the frantic camerawork in Chan Is Missing , Wang hardly moved the camera at all in Dim Sum .

"We were building on the idea in Chan Is Missing that we are not just one kind of people. There are so many different types of Chinese Americans. We were also dealing more with the women than the guys, because Chan was very male," Wang said.

After that, Wang made the thriller Slam Dance (1987), which had no Chinese components. He certainly seems to enjoy variety.

Wang is known for making all kinds of different films in different ways. He made the unscripted Blue in the Face (1995), which featured cool New Yorkers Lou Reed and Jarmusch, and the glossy studio picture Maid in Manhattan (2002), which starred Jennifer Lopez. He has said that he's interested in exploring different genres.

There is a connection between them, Montello notes. "Wang has made many different types of films, but one can point to some stylistic similarities," he says.

"His films are concerned with a form of cinematic transmutation, where real characters, communities, stories and locations give life to the humour, romance, and wit of his scripts and source materials.

"From the beginning, Wang had a voracious appetite for filmmaking that was similar to that of his indie contemporaries. Films like Chan is Missing and Life is Cheap [ ... But Toilet Paper is Expensive ] , for example, call attention to film genres and tropes, particularly with regard to the intersection of Asian stereotypes and film archetypes.

"But these references are frequently skewed and subverted with a wry postmodernism that fuses them with a gritty reality," Montello says.

Wang's film Eat A Bowl of Tea (1989), a story about families being reunited after the lifting of the Chinese Exclusion Act - which forbade Chinese immigration to the US - had a section set in Hong Kong.

The American interiors in the film, which was partially financed by Hong Kong bankers, were also shot in the city. Wang told movie news outlet The Film Stage that he found the experience of shooting back in Hong Kong frustrating.

"I was so frustrated with some of the things that happened while we were shooting Eat a Bowl of Tea - with the gangsters, actually," he said. "For example, one day we were shooting outside an old building and it was the third day of a shoot. We were finishing up, and we had to put up these white silks to block out the sunlight.

"All of a sudden, we were surrounded by gangsters, and the lead gangster guy came out and said, 'My driver died this morning, and it's because you put up white all over my territory, as white is the colour of death. You've got a debt to my community. So you guys have to get out of it.' That kind of thing just happened, you know?" Wang said.

After Eat a Bowl of Tea , the filmmaker stayed on to make Life Is Cheap ... But Toilet Paper Is Expensive (1989) in Hong Kong. That film was a scathing attack on the social mores of the city.

In a review entitled "Cheap Shot at Hong Kong", the Post noted it was a "splintered and shapeless attack on Hong Kong mores - [highlighting] the pursuit of wealth at any cost, the evils of colonialism and Confucianism - which loses its way from the start".

Wang countered that he was trying to say that "people's relationships should be defined by human feelings rather than face, honour, tradition, or power".

His next film, The Joy Luck Club (1993), was the first big Asian-American film, screening way before Crazy Rich Asians . Like Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon in the early 2000s, the success of The Joy Luck Club was seen as the start of an "Asian wave" that failed to materialise.

But the film still left a mark. "It seemed that practically every article about the release of Crazy Rich Asians in 2018 noted that it was the first American film with a predominantly Asian cast since The Joy Luck Club ," Montello says.

In this regular feature series on the best of Hong Kong cinema, we examine the legacy of classic films, re-evaluate the careers of its greatest stars, and revisit some of the lesser-known aspects of the beloved industry.

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This article originally appeared on the South China Morning Post (www.scmp.com), the leading news media reporting on China and Asia.

Copyright (c) 2024. South China Morning Post Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved.

Marc Hayashi (left) and Wood Moy in a still from Chan Is Missing (1982).

This is a picture of Kevin Kwan standing in a verdant setting, flipping his hair off his shoulder. He's wearing a blue tie dye shirt unbuttoned over a dark shirt.

The Author of ‘Crazy Rich Asians’ Can’t Go Home, Except in His Books

Kevin Kwan left Singapore’s opulent, status-obsessed, upper crust when he was 11. He’s still writing about it.

Kevin Kwan photographed at the Huntington in San Marino, Calif. “I didn’t realize how privileged I was until I got to the U.S.,” Kevin Kwan said. Credit... Jessica Lehrman for The New York Times

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Elisabeth Egan

By Elisabeth Egan

Elisabeth Egan reported from Los Angeles

  • May 20, 2024

A reader of Kevin Kwan’s books could be forgiven for expecting him to make a grand entrance at lunch in Beverly Hills — in a Lamborghini, perhaps, or wearing a slick pair of shades.

Instead, on an unseasonably brisk Tuesday in April, Kwan walked into the private dining room at Crustacean with a tentative tilt to his head, as if clearing a low roof. He wore tortoiseshell glasses, a blue cardigan and hair cut for maximum pensive tucking behind ears. Picture David Foster Wallace minus the bandanna.

Kwan immediately moved a vase of white roses from one table to another — “Do you mind? So we can see each other?” — then hugged Crustacean’s chef, “the great Helene An,” whose garlic noodles make a cameo in his new book, “Lies and Weddings,” coming out on May 21.

To understand Kwan’s reputation for fabulousness, consider his oeuvre. His debut novel, “ Crazy Rich Asians ,” published in 2013, has sold more than 5 million copies worldwide and been translated into over 40 languages. A Broadway musical is in development. The movie version was the first major Hollywood film since “ The Joy Luck Club ” to feature a majority Asian cast .

Kwan’s next three novels covered similar territory: wealthy people behaving decadently and questionably, but usually with heart and always with panache. They were best sellers too. At one point, the “Crazy Rich Asians” trilogy occupied the top three spots on the paperback list, landing Kwan in an elite clique of authors including Colleen Hoover .

This is a picture of a party scene from the movie "Crazy Rich Asians." A crowd of people in evening finery are sitting outside, clapping and looking festive.

Kwan didn’t utter a word about these laurels at lunch, nor did he appear to have much in common with his over-the-top, entertainingly superficial characters. His relocation of the flowers showed a willingness to look a person in the eye. His hug was real, not an air kiss; Crustacean has been Kwan’s home away from home since he moved to Los Angeles from New York in 2019. As for his car, Kwan preferred not to go public with the make and model, but it’s not one a valet would be tempted to take for a joyride.

“I get tangential access to the world in my books, but I’m not part of that world,” Kwan said. “I feel like I’m always an outsider.”

Kwan has a habit of summarizing his characters’ educations — and, to an extent, their pedigree — in parentheses after their names. In “Lies and Weddings,” for instance, the heart throb is Rufus Leung Gresham “(Mount House/Radley/Exeter/Central St. Martins),” whose best friend Eden Tong “(Greshamsbury Nursery School/Mount House/Downe House/Cambridge)” secretly pines for him, much to the chagrin of his mother, Lady Arabella (Willcocks/Cheltenham/UWC Atlantic/Bard). You get the idea.

Kwan’s personal parenthetical is equally revealing. “Far Eastern Kindergarten/Anglo-Chinese Junior School,” he said, pausing for a swig of orange turmeric spritzer. “Clear Lake Intermediate School/Clear Lake High School/San Jacinto Junior College/University of Houston.”

The first two schools Kwan attended were in Singapore where, he said, “I grew up in a big house, with grounds, staff, all that.”

On weekends he boycotted Sunday school, preferring to sit with his parents in church (“ground zero for Singapore society”) while studying social machinations: “Who was seated where. Who dissed who.” Then he’d go to lunch with his aunt, Mary Kwan, an Auntie Mame-like figure who wrote for Singapore Tatler and “spared no fools.” Their dining companions were a roving salon of artists, architects, business people and royalty.

“I could hold my own,” Kwan said. “I didn’t behave like a kid. I would participate and listen to the gossip and feed off it from a really early age.”

If those meals were entry-level classes in the art of observation, Kwan graduated to the doctoral program when he moved, with three weeks’ notice, to Clear Lake, Texas. His father had spent his formative years in Australia and, Kwan said, “missed it when he went home to Singapore. He was a dutiful son; he gave his parents three grandsons. But he always wanted to have a different life.”

Clear Lake was NASA country and, circa 1985, home of “the last gasp of idyllic America,” Kwan said. “You went out and played with your friends till dinnertime. I think that’s really what my dad wanted us to have. He also wanted to toughen us up — toughen me up. He’d be like, Kevin, go mow the lawn. Kevin, take out the garbage. I became a really good lawn mower.”

Kwan’s new home, a suburban ranch, was a far cry from the protected luxury he’d left behind. His family lived within spitting distance of neighbors. His mother taught piano; his father was one of the original franchisees of Marble Slab Creamery.

In Texas, Kwan skipped two grades and was the youngest, smallest student in his class, earning the nickname “Doogie” (as in Howser). “I was a strange kid. I was smart and verbal. I could talk about high society,” Kwan said. “I was just trying to finish reading my biography of Margaret Thatcher.”

Among the children of engineers and astronauts, there was room for a creative type who liked to write and draw. But Kwan didn’t pursue either one with any intensity until he landed in Victoria Duckworth’s freshman composition class at San Jacinto Junior College.

“She encouraged my writing and my love of reading,” Kwan said. “She gave me Joan Didion’s ‘ A Book of Common Prayer ’ and that just blew up my world.”

The two lost touch years ago, but Duckworth was aware of Kwan’s success and sounded delighted to hear his name when she was reached by phone at her home in Buffalo. Even as a teenager, Duckworth said, “Kevin’s writing seemed effortless. He just had this wit.”

She recalled “preparing for the worst” when Kwan shared his poetry with her, but he turned out to be a gifted stylist with an “inner intellectual life.” Duckworth, who taught for more than three decades, said, “Out of the handful of students I remember, Kevin is one.”

At the University of Houston, Kwan started to take himself seriously as a writer and filmmaker. He also earned a new nickname: “the Designer Poet,” because he used words like “Armaniesque” in verse.

“I’ve always enjoyed the comedy of pretension,” he said. “I was hyper-aware of it as a child because I was in this world where there were all these high status people coming and going.”

Kwan said he has never been back to Singapore. In 2018, the country’s Ministry of Defense announced that he owed two years of national service and could face a fine or prison term if he returned. He used to dream about his home country when he was younger; now, Kwan said, “people show up from my childhood who become fully formed characters.”

Writing fiction, he said, is a way of “remembering and revisiting” that part of his life.

“Crazy Rich Asians” started as a lark, something Kwan planned to self publish for the amusement of friends. Midway through, he was working on a book about the Oprah Winfrey Show with Deborah Davis, the author of “ Strapless ,” and mentioned that he had a novel of his own in the works. Davis offered to read it.

“People were always asking me to read manuscripts and they were always dreadful,” Davis said. But she was fond of Kwan — “He was proper and courtly and had impeccable manners” — so, “I said, ‘Of course I’ll read it,’ half thinking that I probably wouldn’t.”

Davis was cooking Thanksgiving dinner for 25 people when the draft of “Crazy Rich Asians” arrived. “I looked at it and I thought, OK, I’ll read five pages,” she said. “I read five pages. I peeled five carrots. I read five pages more. Ten pages more. It was the worst dinner I ever made, but it was the best book. I could not stop reading.”

She encouraged Kwan to send “Crazy Rich Asians” to Michael Korda, a veteran biographer, novelist and longtime friend.

Kwan was reluctant. He said, “That would be like going to Michelangelo with a lump of coal and being like, ‘Look, I carved a little something, what do you think?’” — but Davis “would not let up.” Eventually he obliged.

Four days later, Korda called. He put Kwan in touch with Alexandra Machinist, then an agent at Janklow and Nesbit, who sold the book to Jenny Jackson at Doubleday.

“Crazy Rich Asians” was an instant hit in Asia, Kwan said. It was excerpted in the June 2013 issue of Vogue. Once it came out in paperback, it landed on the best seller list. And then, “Crazy Rich Asians” was the guest that never left, perched by the caviar for 41 weeks. Kwan’s ascent had begun.

Now, a dozen years and four books later, he admitted, “I wish I could have written under a pseudonym.” He was joking, sort of.

“I’m an introvert,” Kwan explained. “I grew up in a family where there were so many people who were public figures, and I saw the pressures they had to endure. I had no interest in that.”

Also, Kwan continued, “it takes a lot to write in this voice, to write in these characters’ voices. Actors always say, it’s a lot harder to make comedy. I feel the same way about writing fiction that’s funny. I can write you the saddest damn story you want; I could do that in my sleep.”

While working on “Lies and Weddings,” Kwan experienced writer’s block for the first time. The pandemic was at a low boil; the world was rife with uncertainty. “Those years changed me,” he said. “They changed everyone; how could they not? I was dealing with the new reality of, what do I even want to write anymore? There was a lot of soul searching.”

Unlike the “Crazy Rich Asians” trilogy, his new book doesn’t take place in Singapore. The story bounces from England to Hawaii to Morocco, with enough designer labels, priceless artwork and luxurious accommodations to make Beverly Hills seem folksy. But there’s an undertow beneath the froth.

“Kevin’s writing about mixed race heritage. He’s writing more about gender than he has before,” Jackson, his editor, said. “There’s this whole second layer that’s social commentary and astute cultural observation.”

The shift is intentional, Kwan said: “I’ve branched out. I’m inspired by this new generation of Asians who are so much more comfortable in their own skin.”

He went on, “I love looking at the theatricality of it all” — the art, the fashion, the food — “just like I did as a kid. I love sitting back and watching drama unfold. What happens when families get together? What happens when friends get together? What happens when someone new marries in?”

Now 50, the age his father was when the family moved to Texas, Kwan remains committed to his upper-crust characters. He still maintains folders of outfits, locations and foods for each one. He said, “I’m trying to show that authentic side to people who have rich people problems. Heartache is still heartache. Grief is still grief. That’s a through line you’ll see in all my books: what money does to families. How it can infantilize people. How it can be a prison.”

The garlic noodles arrived from the secret kitchen where An protects her family recipe from prying eyes.

“Hopefully I’m creating a faceted portrait of people and their issues,” Kwan said. “For better or worse, this is just what I know.”

Elisabeth Egan is a writer and editor at the Times Book Review. She has worked in the world of publishing for 30 years. More about Elisabeth Egan

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  1. Critical Analysis of Amy Tan's The Joy Luck Club

    With the publication of her first novel, The Joy Luck Club, in 1988, Amy Tan (born February 19, 1952) became a household name. The book was a tremendous critical and commercial success from the beginning. Before the end of its first year, it had been named a selection for both the Book-of-the-Month Club and the….

  2. The Joy Luck Club Study Guide

    The Joy Luck Club is considered a classic text in contemporary Asian American literature, and praised for its nuanced and compassionate characterization of the Chinese immigrant experience and the generational tensions between immigrants and their American-born children. Similar works include Maxine Hong Kingston's The Woman Warrior and Jhumpa Lahiri's The Interpreter of Maladies.

  3. The Joy Luck Club Critical Essays

    A. Suyuan and Lindo's friendly rivalry. B. Ying-ying's traumas. C. Lindo and Waverly's chess maneuvers. D. Jing-mei's understanding of who she is. V. Conclusion: The narrative technique in ...

  4. The Joy Luck Club Essays and Criticism

    The Joy Luck Club is about the way the past distances itself from the present as speedily as a disappearing star on a Star Trek rerun. It's gone, gone, and yet the past holds the only keys to ...

  5. The Joy Luck Club, Amy Tan

    See also Amy Tan Criticism . The Joy Luck Club (1989) is Tan's most successful and widely acclaimed novel. It is regarded as a significant achievement in documenting the hardships and struggles of ...

  6. (Pdf) the Joy Luck Club: an Analysis on The Diasporic Problems Which

    These substantiate the third chapter of the thesis, which explains the intergenerational topics in The Joy Luck Club. There has been many researches done on the intergenerational conflicts in The Joy Luck Club, but this research in particular concentrates on how diaspora and all the different features add up to the formation of differences and ...

  7. PDF A Study of Multicultural Features in The Joy Luck Club

    The thesis aims to confirm the multicultural features in The Joy Luck Club, it is divided into four major parts: Introduction, The Multiculturalism in The Joy Luck Club, Narrative Strategies in The Joy Luck Club, Conclusion. Statement of the Problem. The problem to be addressed is, 1.

  8. PDF An Analysis of Conflict Between Mothers and Daughters in The Joy Luck Club

    The purpose of this study was to explore how different cultural backgrounds could lead to mother-daughter conflict in The Joy Luck Club. The novel shows conflicts of characters representing cultures of the two nations, China and America, which are expressed through characters of two generations; mothers and daughters.

  9. The Joy Luck Club Themes

    The Joy Luck Club shows that all actions of love require some level of sacrifice, and that women in particular sacrifice themselves for the good of others. The greatest sacrifice in the book is Suyuan 's decision to leave her twin babies in a safe spot to be rescued during the Japanese invasion of Kweilin. Nearly dead herself from dysentery ...

  10. The Joy Luck Club Study Guide

    The Joy Luck Club is Amy Tan 's first novel, published in 1989. Just two years before the book's release, Tan was succeeding as a speech writer and self-proclaimed workaholic. Feeling unfulfilled, she found her calling in fiction writing. Tan explains that she did not set out to write a novel but a series of stories.

  11. Mother-Daughter Relationships Theme in The Joy Luck Club

    The main focus in The Joy Luck Club is the complex relationship between mothers and daughters, and the inherent bond that's always between them despite generational and cultural conflicts. The novel follows June Woo 's search to understand her deceased mother Suyuan 's life, supplemented by stories from her mother's three best friends, Lindo, An-mei, and Ying-ying.

  12. The Joy Luck Club Critical Context

    The Joy Luck Club, Amy Tan's first book, is avowedly autobiographical. Like the Chinese American daughters in the book, Tan shunned her own heritage while growing up in San Francisco in the 1950 ...

  13. The Joy Luck Club: Film Analysis

    The Joy Luck Club revolves around the story of four Chinese women who migrated to America to look for new life. They all live in San Francisco, and each one of them has a Chinese-American daughter whom they love a lot and wish the best for them. At the movie's beginning, the four women, Tsai Chin, Kieu Chinh, France Nuyen, and Lisa Lu, sit ...

  14. PDF Constructive Confrontations: Concept of Yin Yang through

    The Joy Luck Club hit the New York Times best-seller list and stayed there for nine months longer than any other book that year. It had won the National Book Award and the Los Angeles Times Book Award in 1989. The novel is a collection of sixteen interrelated stories, centered the diverse

  15. Ying-ying St. Clair: The Moon Lady

    The drama in which the Moon Lady is a major character concerns the loss and reclamation of cultural and individual identities. Four-year-old Ying-ying, who has fallen overboard, is desperate to be "found" — to once again be reunited with her family — and with herself. She feels as though she has not only lost her family, but that she has ...

  16. The Joy Luck Club Critical Overview

    Critical Overview. Both critics and the reading public loved The Joy Luck Club from the minute it came off the press in 1989. The book successfully crosses cultures and joins separate generations ...

  17. The Joy Luck Club: Part 1, Chapter 2 Summary & Analysis

    Later that summer, An-mei's aunt loses her temper and reveals to An-mei that An-mei's mother had run off with a man named Wu Tsing to be his lowly fourth wife, when An-mei was four. Her re-marriage was so shameful that the family exiled her, calling her a traitor to their ancestors. An-mei realizes Popo 's stories were meant as warnings ...

  18. Thesis Statement In Amy Tan's The Joy Luck Club

    Focused: In The Joy Luck Club, Amy Tan skillfully illustrates how cultural, generational, and internal conflicts between Chinese American mothers and daughters all add to the difficulty and character of the immigrant experience. . D. Thesis statements are worthy of development in an academic paper and interest an adult audience.

  19. In Trump's racist America, The Joy Luck Club's Amy Tan turns to

    But The Joy Luck Club (1989) author began to sing a different tune when politics went awry in the United States. With the election of far-right populist Donald Trump as president, anti-Asian ...

  20. Masterpieces of Women's Literature The Joy Luck Club Analysis

    Essays and criticism on The Joy Luck Club - Masterplots II: Women's Literature Series. Select an area of the website to search. Search this site Go Start an essay Ask a question ...

  21. How The Joy Luck Club director Wayne Wang grew as a filmmaker ...

    The Joy Luck Club's Wayne Wang is probably the best-known Asian-American film director. While he made his name making films in the United States, Wang was born in Hong Kong, in 1949. He went to ...

  22. Kevin Kwan, Author of 'Crazy Rich Asians,' Talks About His New Novel

    The Author of 'Crazy Rich Asians' Can't Go Home, Except in His Books. Kevin Kwan left Singapore's opulent, status-obsessed, upper crust when he was 11. He's still writing about it. "I ...