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Expert Commentary

White papers, working papers, preprints, journal articles: What’s the difference?

In this updated piece, we explain the most common types of research papers journalists will encounter, noting their strengths and weaknesses.

Stacks of open books

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by Denise-Marie Ordway, The Journalist's Resource February 25, 2022

This <a target="_blank" href="https://journalistsresource.org/media/working-papers-research-articles/">article</a> first appeared on <a target="_blank" href="https://journalistsresource.org">The Journalist's Resource</a> and is republished here under a Creative Commons license.<img src="https://journalistsresource.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/cropped-jr-favicon-150x150.png" style="width:1em;height:1em;margin-left:10px;">

This tip sheet, originally published in May 2018, has been updated to include preprint research, a type of research featured often in news coverage of the coronavirus pandemic.

Journalists rely most often on four types of research in their work. White papers, working papers, preprints and peer-reviewed journal articles.

How are they different? And which is best?

Below, we explain each, pointing out its strengths and weaknesses. As always, we urge journalists to use care in selecting any research to ground their coverage and fact-check claims.

Peer-reviewed article

Peer-reviewed research — the kind that appears in academic journals and that we highlight here at The Journalist’s Resource — has undergone a detailed critique by scholars with expertise in the field. While peer-reviewed research is generally the most reliable, journalists should keep in mind that publication in a prestigious journal is no guarantee of quality and that no single university or research organization always does the best research on a given topic.

It is safe to assume, however, that articles published in top-tier journals have been reviewed and given a stamp of approval by a number of accomplished scholars. For journalists who are uncertain, we’ve put together a list of 13 questions  to ask to gauge the quality of a research article.

Keep in mind that not everything that appears in a scholarly journal has been peer reviewed. Journals publish various types of content, including book reviews, editorials, letters to the editor and, sometimes, even poetry.

Working paper

This broad category describes research papers that have not been peer reviewed or published in a journal. Working papers can be in various stages of completion. One might be ready for publication in a prestigious journal while another requires significant editing and other changes that could actually alter its main findings. Sometimes, working paper findings are so preliminary, authors will advise against citing their work .

Even so, working papers are a great way for journalists to gain access to new research quickly. The peer-review and publication process can take months to a year or longer, which means that by the time studies get published, their findings are sometimes not as useful or the data are old.

In choosing working papers, journalists should communicate with scholars about the progress of their research and how confident they are in their findings. It’s a good idea to seek corroboration from peer-reviewed research and to ask other researchers for help assessing a study.

A preprint is similar to a working paper in that it has not been vetted through a formal peer-review process. However, preprints tend to be more complete . Also, preprints submitted to public servers such as the Social Science Research Network and the health sciences server medRxiv get a cursory screening before they’re published online for public view.

Preprints, like academic journal articles, are assigned a Digital Object Identifier , or DOI, and become a permanent part of the scientific record.

White paper

A white paper is a report, often compiled by government agencies, businesses and nonprofit organizations, that outlines an issue and often explores possible solutions to a problem. For example, in November 2021, the federal Office of Community Oriented Policing Services released a white paper looking at factors that help or hinder law enforcement recruitment of Black Americans. Earlier in the year, the Advanced Technology Academic Research Center published a white paper on the American Rescue Plan ‘s widespread implications for government agencies.

In the business world, white papers also are used for marketing purposes — to describe a new product or approach, for instance, or diagnose a problem.

While a white paper can help journalists get up to speed quickly on an issue, it’s important to note some white papers advocate a specific position or policy change. Some rely on incomplete research or research that has not been peer reviewed.

Looking for more guidance on writing about research? Check out our tip sheets on covering biomedical research preprints amid the coronavirus and what journalists should know about peer review .

The Journalist’s Resource would like to thank Matthew Baum , the Marvin Kalb professor of global communications and professor of public policy at Harvard Kennedy School, for his help preparing this tip sheet.

About The Author

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Denise-Marie Ordway

The what, why, and how of preprints and peer review

Preprints: what they are how they can help improve your research skills..

Preprint servers have been around for almost three decades [ 1 ], so if you’re a researcher, chances are you’ve heard of these by now.

Preprint servers were created to speed up scholarly publishing and allow authors to receive peer feedback on their preprint manuscripts before they submit it to a journal [ 2 ]. Some journals don’t allow for this: they don’t want any version of a manuscript to have been printed elsewhere even as a preprint. Other journals, however, don’t mind or even welcome it [ 3 ].

We’re a big fan of preprints at Publons. We see these servers as a great way to advance research,  boost discoverability , and to improve the professional development of researchers and reviewers.

With that in mind, this blog post will demonstrate how you can use preprints to get ahead in job and funding applications, and to enhance your writing, research, and reviewing skills in our free online  Publons Academy .

preprint vs working paper

Let’s start off by taking a look at the preprint landscape and seeing which servers are currently out there for you to benefit from.

What are the different preprint servers?

The most well-known preprint server is probably  arXiv  (pronounced like ‘archive’). It started as a server for preprints in physics and has since expanded out to various subjects, including mathematics, computer science, and economics. The arXiv server is now run by the Cornell University Library and contains 1.37 million preprints so far.

The  Open Science Framework  provides an open source framework to help researchers and institutions set up their own preprint servers. One such example is  SocArXiv  for the Social Sciences. On their website you can browse more than 2 million preprints, including preprints on arXiv, and many of them have their own preprint digital object identifier (DOI). In cases where the preprint has now been published it also links to the publication’s DOI.

Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory set up  bioaRxiv , a preprint server for Biology in 2013 to complement arXiv. The bioaRxiv server has a direct transfer service to several journals such as Science and PNAS [ 4 ,  5 ] and a bit over 60% of papers in bioaRxiv end up published in peer reviewed journals [ 6 ].

In more recent years a lot of new servers have popped up covering almost every field including the social sciences, arts, and humanities fields. Here’s a quick overview of some of the rest:

  • EngrXiv  – Engineering
  • ChemRxiv  – Chemical sciences
  • PsyArXiv  – Psychological sciences
  • SportaRxiv  – Sport and exercise science
  • PaleoarXiv  – Paleontology
  • LawArXiv  – Law
  • AgriXiv  – Agricultural sciences
  • NutriXiv  – Nutritional sciences
  • MarXiv  – Ocean and marine-climate sciences
  • EarthArXiv  – Earth sciences

What about the medical and health sciences?

The medical and health sciences is the only field lacking a dedicated preprint server at the moment. The reason behind this is in part due to the implications of sharing non-peer reviewed research with the general public [ 7 ].

Imagine a popular news outlet running a headline story based on research that has not yet been peer reviewed, or a patient wanting to try a new therapeutic drug they have read about without understanding the difference between something being screened for a preprint server and actually being peer reviewed?

Yale University are in talks with Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory who run bioaRxiv to set up a  MedaRxiv  server but the announcement has had mixed feedback [ 8 ]. One thing is for certain to garner a positive respose: it needs to be clear to the wider public what a preprint server is and why peer review is the recognized standard for maintaining the quality and integrity of research.

The benefits of preprints

Showcasing your expertise

Now we’ve learned a bit about which preprint servers are out there, it’s time to look at how they can benefit you.

Since 2017, the  Wellcome Trust  in the UK has allowed researchers to cite preprints in grant applications and end-of-grant review reports [ 9 ]. This means that they recognize preprints as a valid early form of publication.

That’s great news for researchers and reviewers!

That’s because it can help you:

  • Bulk up your publications list:  if you’re applying for funding or a new job it might make a lot of sense to be able to add more items to your ‘published publications list’ rather than under ‘submitted’ or ‘in print’.
  • Showcase your expertise:  following on from the point above, if you have not reviewed a whole lot yet you could link to open reviews you’ve written on preprints to highlight your skills.
  • Make your research more discoverable:  you may want a larger readership and to release your research without the typical wait with a journal. If you publish a piece of research as a preprint you can start sharing it on social media and get traction and citations before it’s formally published in a journal.

There are a bunch more benefits we can add to this list, including using preprints to provide a timestamp for your ideas or method, and making a home for scholarly content that would otherwise be lost (particularly pertinent with replication studies and negative results). You can find more on these points  in this article .

Sharpening your research and review skills

Last year we launched the free, online  Publons Academy  because training in peer review was lacking. We heard as much from researchers across all career stages – especially reviewers new to the scene. Many told us they were not confident enough to accept those first review invitations, while others said they did not know how to get into reviewing and connect with journal editors.

This is a key reason why peer review training courses are essential to the health of the system – and central to the theme for this year’s  Peer Review Week  in September: diversity and inclusion in peer review.

Preprints help to bridge that gap in learning. We actively encourage researchers to benefit from this movement during the Publons Academy because they offer:

  • New research to learn from and critique
  • A way to showcase your skills and expertise in your field
  • A chance to connect with researchers in your line of work
  • Insight into how other researchers are looking at and learning from new research

To review a preprint on Publons:  simply go to your private dashboard and under Review Records select ‘Add review’. Preprints are considered published on Publons so click the post-publication review option, then simply add in the title and the DOI or arXiv ID, and then write your review. Publons also has an integration with preprints.org allowing any comments written on their site to be optionally added as a post-publication review on submission.

Top tips to critically review a preprint

Ready to start reviewing your first preprint? A little while back we asked Publons Academy Advisor,  Elisabeth Bik  for advice on how to read a manuscript critically. As her advice almost directly relates to preprints as well, we thought we’d share it here, too:

  • Do you have a conflict of interest when reviewing this paper? Do you collaborate with these authors, are they your personal friends, or are they direct competitors? Have you reviewed (and rejected) this paper before? If so, you need to let the editors know.
  • Do the title and abstract cover the main aspects of the work, would it spark interest to the right audience?
  • Is the Introduction easy to follow for most readers of this particular journal? Does it cite the appropriate papers? Does it provide a hypothesis or aim of the study?
  • Does the Methods section provide enough details for the general reader to repeat the experiments?
  • If you skip the Methods, does the Results section give the right amount of detail to understand the basic details of the experiments?
  • Do the Results refer to the figures in a logical order? Do the numbers in the tables add up correctly? Are any figures/tables mislabeled or unclear?
  • Given the data that was obtained in this study, did the authors perform all the logical analyses? Did they include the proper controls?
  • Does the Discussion address the main findings, and does it give proper recognition to similar work in this field?
  • In general, is the paper easy to follow and does it have a logical flow? Are there any language issues?
  • Did the authors make all their data (e.g. sequence reads, code, questionnaires used) available for the readers?
  • Is this paper novel and an advancement of the field, or have other people done very similar work?
  • Finally (and hopefully you will never have to answer yes to any of these questions): Does the paper raise any ethical concerns? Any suspicion of plagiarism (text or experiments), duplicated or tampered images, lack of IRB approval, unethical animal experiments, or “dual use of research concern”?

You can read our full blog post with Elisabeth,  here .

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preprint vs working paper

Preprints: What is a Preprint?

What is a preprint.

  • Posting and Reviewing Preprints
  • Finding and Using Preprints

A preprint is version of a research manuscript that is disseminated prior to the peer review process. Preprints are frequently posted in an electronic format and often made available to the public on a preprint server such as bioRxiv  or medRxiv . Most preprints are assigned a digital object identifier (DOI) so that it is possible to cite them in other research papers. Preprints are often associated with a push towards Open Access (OA) as well as efforts to expedite the dissemination of scientific content.  While preprints have been around for several decades, the Covid-19 global pandemic has led to a dramatic increase in the number of publications archived in preprint servers. A 2020 Nature article entitled " Will the pandemic permanently alter scientific publishing " explores the potential impacts of preprints on the scholarly publications life cycle. 

Pros of archiving preprints include:

  • fast dissemination/discussion of research results
  • feedback from the research community prior to submission to a scientific journal
  • earlier documentation of the originality of research based on DOI
  • exposure of research to a potentially larger group
  • availability of articles that might otherwise not be published
  • availability to researchers without library access

Cons of archiving preprints include: 

  • dissemination of inaccurate information
  • misuse of preprints by media and news outlets
  • contribution to "information overload"
  • refusal of some publishers to publish items that have been archived as preprints
  • What are preprints? (ASAPbio)

Preprints from ASAPBio

Preprints and Peer Review in a Pandemic: Video from JHU

Preprints, NLM, and PubMed

  • Preprints: Accelerating Research NLM Tutorial that provides information about Preprints.
  • NIH Preprint Pilot
  • NIH Preprint Pilot FAQs
  • NIH Preprint Pilot: A Librarian's Toolkit
  • Next: Posting and Reviewing Preprints >>

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When you choose to publish with PLOS, your research makes an impact. Make your work accessible to all, without restrictions, and accelerate scientific discovery with options like preprints and published peer review that make your work more Open.

  • PLOS Biology
  • PLOS Climate
  • PLOS Complex Systems
  • PLOS Computational Biology
  • PLOS Digital Health
  • PLOS Genetics
  • PLOS Global Public Health
  • PLOS Medicine
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  • PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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  • PLOS Sustainability and Transformation
  • PLOS Collections

A preprint is a version of a scientific manuscript posted on a public server prior to formal peer review. As soon as it’s posted, your preprint becomes a permanent part of the scientific record, citable with its own unique DOI.

Ready. Set. Share.

We make it easy to take control of your scientific communications and share your research when you’re ready. 

Use preprints to establish priority, broadcast results, and seek community feedback. Increase readership. Bolster grant, job or tenure applications.

preprint vs working paper

Three ways to get started

Direct Transfer from bioRxiv and medRxiv Have you already posted to bioRxiv and medRxiv? You can choose to have your preprint forwarded for consideration at the PLOS journal of your choice via Direct Transfer.

Post on bioRxiv, medRxiv, or EarthArXiv during PLOS submission process Want to post a preprint to one of our partner servers? We’ll take care of it for you! During initial submission, just opt-in to have your manuscript posted on your behalf. It will appear on the site in less than 5 days.

Post directly to the preprint server most relevant for your field Is there a more appropriate or more specialized server for your research? Post to the relevant preprint server and share the DOI with us when you submit.

Benefits of preprints

Preprints help to create a more efficient and open peer review process—open in terms of access, transparency, and inclusivity., rapid dissemination of your results.

Whether you’re applying for grants or tenure, working on time-sensitive research, or simply eager to share your latest work, preprints are a free, easy option for communicating your research on your own timeline without compromising potential future publication.

Increased Attention

The sooner your research becomes available, the sooner it can begin to attract attention. Share sooner with preprints and ensure that your research achieves its full potential—for readership, for citations, and for change.

Career Advancement

Post a preprint to establish priority in a competitive field, or showcase your work for grant, hiring, or tenure committees. A link to a publicly posted preprint is more illustrative and compelling than a title on a CV with the annotation “in development” or “under review.”

Community Feedback

Preliminary feedback helps authors improve manuscripts. Collegial discussion can lead to new ideas, follow-up studies, or collaborations with other research groups. Plus, you can cite your preprint in your letters of inquiry.

Preprints free all researchers to participate in the scientific discourse. Any author can share their latest advances on their own terms, and any interested researcher can read and provide feedback without waiting for an invitation from a journal.

Unlimited and Timely Updates

From the moment a preprint appears online to the day that the article is published in a peer reviewed journal, you can make as many updates as you want or need. Each version is numbered and incorporated into the preprint record.

Read more about Preprints

SAN FRANCISCO —The Public Library of Science (PLOS) today announced that it has partnered with EarthArXiv, which enables authors submitting to PLOS Climate , PLOS Sustainability and Transformation , and PLOS Water to post preprints with ease.

All PLOS journals welcome submission of papers that have been shared as preprints. PLOS was amongst the first publishers to adopt this policy, as we recognise the value in early sharing of community-curated research, a value borne out in the COVID pandemic.

Preprints are here!!! Starting today authors submitting their manuscript to most PLOS journals* can also choose to post their article on bioRxiv, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory’s preprint server for the life sciences.

Innovation through collaboration

PLOS (Public Library of Science) and CSHL(Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory) have partnered to help researchers in the medical and life sciences share preprints with ease and freedom.

The PLOS Open Science Toolbox

The future is open.

The PLOS Open Science Toolbox is your source for sci-comm tips and best-practice. Learn practical strategies and hands-on tips to improve reproducibility, increase trust, and maximize the impact of your research through Open Science.

Sign up to have new issues delivered to your inbox every week.

Ready to post your preprint?

Explore your options for facilitated posting at the PLOS journals.

Learn more about the benefits of Open Science.  

White papers, working papers, preprints, journal articles: What’s the difference?

By denise-marie ordway.

journal-articles-papers

White papers, working papers, preprints and peer-reviewed journal articles are different from one another. Which is best?

Below is an explanation of each, pointing out their strengths and weaknesses. As always, use care in selecting any research to ground your coverage and fact-check claims.

 Peer-reviewed article

Peer-reviewed research — the kind that appears in academic journals and that is highlighted in The Journalist’s Resource — has undergone a detailed critique by scholars with expertise in the field. While peer-reviewed research is generally the most reliable, journalists should keep in mind that publication in a prestigious journal is no guarantee of quality and that no single university or research organisation always does the best research on a given topic.

It is safe to assume, however, that articles published in top-tier journals have been reviewed and given a stamp of approval by a number of accomplished scholars. For journalists who are uncertain, we’ve put together a list of 13 questions  to ask to gauge the quality of a research article.

Keep in mind that not everything that appears in a scholarly journal has been peer-reviewed. Journals publish various types of content, including book reviews, editorials, letters to the editor and, sometimes, even poetry.

Working paper

This broad category describes research papers that have not been peer-reviewed or published in a journal. Working papers can be in various stages of completion. One might be ready for publication in a prestigious journal while another requires significant editing and other changes that could actually alter its main findings. Sometimes, working paper findings are so preliminary, authors will advise against citing their work .

Even so, working papers are a great way for journalists to gain access to new research quickly. The peer-review and publication process can take months to a year or longer, which means that by the time studies get published, their findings are sometimes not as useful or the data are old.

In choosing working papers, journalists should communicate with scholars about the progress of their research and how confident they are in their findings. It’s a good idea to seek corroboration from peer-reviewed research and to ask other researchers for help assessing a study.

A preprint is similar to a working paper in that it has not been vetted through a formal peer-review process. However, preprints tend to be more complete . Also, preprints submitted to public servers such as the Social Science Research Network and the health sciences server medRxiv get a cursory screening before they’re published online for public view.

Preprints, like academic journal articles, are assigned a Digital Object Identifier , or DOI, and become a permanent part of the scientific record.

White paper

A white paper is a report, often compiled by government agencies, businesses and nonprofit organizations, that outlines an issue and often explores possible solutions to a problem. For example, in November 2021, the federal Office of Community Oriented Policing Services released a white paper looking at factors that help or hinder law enforcement recruitment of Black Americans. Earlier in the year, the Advanced Technology Academic Research Center published a white paper on the American Rescue Plan ‘s widespread implications for government agencies.

In the business world, white papers also are used for marketing purposes — to describe a new product or approach, for instance, or diagnose a problem.

While a white paper can help journalists get up to speed quickly on an issue, it’s important to note some white papers advocate a specific position or policy change. Some rely on incomplete research or research that has not been peer-reviewed.

This article first appeared on The Journalist’s Resource and is republished here under a Creative Commons license.

Liberals’ Dan Andrews questions are a perfect case study in how to manufacture fake news

mm

Denise-Marie Ordway is a journalist at the Journalist's Resource, a publication of the Harvard Kennedy School's Shorenstein Center on Media, Politics, and Public Policy.

Tags: American Rescue Plan Digital Object Identifier journal articles peer-review and publication process peer-reviewed preprints research papers Social Science Research Network top-tier journals working papers

preprint vs working paper

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preprint vs working paper

Open Access Publishing

  • Common Open Access Myths
  • Supporting Open Access

What are Preprints?

A preprint is an early version of an academic article that has been made available by the author for others to read for free online before it has been peer reviewed or published in an academic journal.

What are the Benefits of Preprints?

Publishing an article as a preprint serves several important purposes:

  • It allows the information contained in the article to be shared with the academic community more rapidly and openly than traditional publication. The formal journal publication process is often lengthy, and it can take many months for an article to be reviewed and published.
  • Research has shown that publishing a journal article as a preprint can  increase citations  to the final peer reviewed article.
  • By posting a freely accessible version of an article online, the author has the opportunity to receive comments and reviews by readers that might lead to changes and improvements in the final published draft.
  • It can be used by researchers to provide evidence of productivity when applying for jobs or submitting grant proposals, and it can also generally help to establish priority of discovery and ideas.
  • Posting an article as a preprint can also particularly  benefit early career researchers  by helping then to find research collaborators, and helping to improving their professional network, which can lead to more opportunities for these researchers.

Things to Keep in Mind About Preprints

  • Preprints have not been peer reviewed : While preprints are scholarly articles, they have not yet been formally peer reviewed. Some preprint servers may do a rudimentary check to ensure that submitted content is legitimate scientific/academic research, but they are not checking the reliability and accuracy of information in the article. It is important that those reading and using preprints keep this in mind.
  • Some journals might not accept article submissions that were published as preprints: While an increasing number of publishers and journals welcome the submissions of articles that have been released as a preprint, some journals might not accept them. It is important to check the policies of any journal you may wish to submit to before releasing a preprint. The Sherpa Romeo database can be used to learn if publishers and journal support preprinting, and the  Transpose  database provides even more details about journal policies toward preprints. 

Selected Preprint Servers

Below are a few selected preprint servers of relevance to the Longwood community. A comprehensive list of preprint servers (and one that compares server policies) can be found on the ASAPbio website .

Discipline-Specific

  • bioRxiv : biology and life sciences (informative  article about bioRxiv , including statistics and a history of the preprint server)
  • medRxiv : health sciences/clinical research
  • arXiv : physics, mathematics, computer science, quantitative biology, quantitative finance, statistics, electrical engineering and systems science, and economics ​
  • NutriXiv : nutritional sciences (note: NutriXiv is no longer accepting new submissions) ​

Multidisciplinary

  • Google Scholar : Indexes preprints from many popular servers, including some of the ones mentioned here.
  • OSF Preprints : Supported by the Center for Open Science, OSF is a free and open platform that supports a variety of discipline-specific preprint servers. The OSF search aggregator allows users to search through its own preprint collections and those of other organizations.
  • Preprints.org : Multidisciplinary preprint server.
  • PrePubMed : An independent effort to index preprints from a variety of sources (including ones mentioned above) that fit the profile of articles which would appear in PubMed, once published.

Preprints and the NIH

The National Institutes of Health specifically  supports the use  and citation of preprints as "interim research projects" to "speed the dissemination and enhance the rigor" of an author's work. NIH notice NOT-OD-17-050 discusses the benefits of preprints and provides guidance for authors on selecting a reliable preprint server to post their articles to. This NIH  blog post also offers additional explanation related to this notice. In brief:

  • Authors are encouraged by the NIH to include preprints in their "My Bibliography."
  • Authors can then associate grant awards with those preprints by logging on through ERA Commons.
  • Authors are asked by the NIH to choose a Creative Commons license to release their preprint under, so that it is easily identified as an openly accessible article. Learn more about different CC licenses from ASAPBio .

To learn about other funder's policies towards preprints, you can consult  https://asapbio.org/funder-policies

Common Questions About Preprints

  • "These concerns are valid, but there is good reason to believe that they can be mitigated and managed...[with]...attention and inspection from our scientific community....preprints can be screened before posting to block attempts to propagate misinformation. Furthermore, some preprint servers display disclaimers on the top of each article to make clear that preprints are not validated through peer-review." ( ASAPBio )
  • Preprint servers should include a "timestamp indicating when the article appeared, which is usually within 24 hours of submission. This date, along with the preprint itself, is made open access... and thus, anyone can determine the order of priority relative to other published work or, indeed, other preprints. While journals provide an important service of validation through peer review, establishment of priority can be significantly delayed because the work is not public during the process of peer review in most journals." ( Ten Simple Rules )
  • "As jobs and grants become very competitive, there is increasing worry...about scooping, ie that their ideas/results will be published by others and that they will not receive proper attribution....Our argument is that this is unlikely, and indeed there is likely be to greater protection and overall fairness in establishing credit for work by submitting both to a preprint server (for fair and timely disclosure) and to a journal (for validation by peer review)." ( ASAPBio )
  • "Certainly, the peer review process can add significant value to the work, pointing out errors or areas for improvement. Nevertheless, authors must stand behind their submitted preprint, because it is a public disclosure (and hence a citable entity), albeit a non-peer-reviewed one. Even without peer review, their scientific colleagues will be reading and judging the work, and the authors’ reputations are at stake." ( Ten Simple Rules )
  • This will help the journal and preprint repositories connect your preprint to the final published article.
  • Also, since plagiarism detection software will pick up preprints as a match, the journal will more easily be able to review those reports if they know you have published a preprint. 
  • << Previous: Supporting Open Access
  • Last Updated: May 13, 2022 9:28 AM
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What are Preprints, and How Do They Benefit Authors?

  • Research Process

Preprints are research papers shared before peer review. Here we discuss the benefits to authors including rapid credit, visibility & feedback.

Updated on March 29, 2018

a graph listing the bengits of preprints

Most researchers don't share their work until after it's been published in a journal. Due to lengthy publication times, this can result in delays of months, sometimes years. Authors are understandably frustrated by the amount of time it takes to share their research & reap the benefits of a published, citable research article.

But what if you could put post your manuscript online while it's going through peer review so that your peers and colleagues can see what you're working on? That's the idea behind preprints, and more and more researchers are using them for exactly this purpose.

Definition of a preprint

A preprint is a full draft research paper that is shared publicly before it has been peer reviewed. Most preprints are given a digital object identifier (DOI) so they can be cited in other research papers.

A preprint is a full draft of a research paper that is shared publicly before it has been peer reviewed.

Benefits of preprints

Preprints achieve many of the goals of journal publishing, but within a much shorter time frame. The biggest benefits fall into 3 areas: credit , feedback , and visibility .

When you post a preprint with your research results, you can firmly stake a claim to the work you've done. If there is any subsequent discussion of who found a particular result first, you can point to the preprint as a public, conclusive record of your data. Most preprints are assigned a digital object identifier (DOI), which allows your work to become a permanent part of the scholarly record - one that can be referenced in any dispute over who discovered something first.

For these reasons, the US National Institutes of Health and Wellcome Trust , among other funders, allow researchers to cite preprints in their grant applications.

For a complete list of funder policies see here .

In the traditional system, a submitted manuscript receives feedback from 2 or 3 peer reviewers before publication. With a preprint, other researchers can discover your work sooner, potentially pointing out critical flaws or errors, suggest new studies or data that strengthen your argument or even recommend a collaboration that could lead to publication in a more prestigious journal. The feedback can be provided publicly through commenting, or privately through email. Here is one scientist's story about the benefit of sharing his work as a preprint:

Last year I posted a preprint. Doing this set off a chain of events that convinced me I should post a preprint for ALL my manuscripts.Here's my story (1/17)— Dan Quintana (@dsquintana) February 10, 2018

Here's another author's journey from skepticism to loving preprints. By posting a preprint, this author was able to share their research 10 months earlier & it was viewed over 1,500 times in the first 2 months.

“To all researchers out there, I encourage you to stop worrying and love the preprint. Submit your manuscripts, but also read preprints and make comments.”

Visibility (and citations)

Preprints are not the final form of a research paper for most authors. Thankfully, preprints and infrastructure providers like Crossref link to the final published article whenever possible, meaning that your preprint can serve to bring new readers to your published paper. A study in the Journal of the American Medical Association saw notable increases in citations and Altmetric scores when authors had posted their work first as a preprint.

Posting a preprint led to a significant increase in Altmetric attention scores and citations for the final published paper.

The citation effect is small, and more studies will be needed to confirm this finding, but the evidence for more attention in news and social media is strong (nearly a 3-fold increase in Altmetric attention scores). The more places you can be discovered by your peers and the public, the more attention your research is likely to get.

Conclusions

Preprints are a small but rapidly growing piece of scholarly communication. They present several strong advantages to improve the way research is shared - including credit for your work, early feedback & increased visibility - and we hope you will consider giving them a try.

A note to readers: AJE is a division of Research Square Company . Our colleagues built and operate the Research Square preprint platform. For more author resources on preprints we encourage you to browse the content on the Research Square Blog .

This article was updated by our team February 2020 .

Ben Mudrak, Senior Product Manager at American Chemical Society/ChemRxiv, PhD, Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University

Ben Mudrak, PhD

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What is a preprint paper and how can you benefit from it?

In this straightforward article, you’ll learn more about preprint papers, how they might aid your research, and how crucial they are.

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It is difficult to publish a research paper since the procedure is slow and can take a long time. Since the research paper must be properly evaluated and analyzed, the process might be delayed for months or even years. Researchers are naturally upset by the amount of time it requires to communicate their research and to enjoy the perks of a published, citation-worthy research publication.

A preprint paper is a material that has been produced for publishing as a journal article but has not yet been peer-reviewed by a journal. Publishing preprints allows the quick dissemination of research findings, which saves the searcher time in learning about previously conducted research that hasn’t yet been published owing to the time-consuming procedure of obtaining journal publication.

This Mind The Graph article will teach you more about preprint papers and how you may benefit from publishing research that has not yet been peer-reviewed for journal publication.

What is preprint paper?

Preprints, also known as Author’s Original Manuscripts (AOM), are versions of your paper that have not yet been sent to a journal for review. A preprint may not be treated with the same esteem as a published journal research paper, but it will be publicly available, cannot be removed from the server, and will almost certainly garner more attention than your published paper.  Even though it is not for publication, you must treat your preprint paper seriously to make a good impression, attract your audience’s attention, and generate interest in your research.

Can preprints be cited?

Remember that all sections must be in good form, and the storytelling structure must make sense and be interesting. Every preprint can get a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) and can be cited. 

What are the benefits of preprint paper?

preprint vs working paper

  • Speed: preprints are a free and easy method to convey your findings on your own time, without jeopardizing potential future publication.
  • Feedback: community feedback may help you improve your work by sparking arguments that lead to new ideas, investigations, and even partnerships with other professionals. As well as refining your work before it goes through the journal’s formal peer-review system.
  • Authenticity: the preprint is a public record that your paper was released at the time it was published. Almost sure, your work will be granted a digital object identifier (DOI).
  • Visibility: the sooner you make your study public, the sooner you will gain attention and visibility. Other professionals will quickly begin referencing and expanding your work, ensuring maximum reading and citation potential.
  • Career: you can kickstart your career by submitting a preprint of your work. Including a publicly available preprint is far more enticing than stating one that is under review or in process.

Tips on preparing your preprint

  • Prepare your preprint the same way you would prepare a paper for journal publication: Your preprint will be publicly available and it will attract readers, debates and other colleagues. So do it thoroughly.
  • Choose the most appropriate copyright license for your work: When you submit your preprint to a server like bioRxiv or chemRxiv, you retain the rights to the work. You may also specify how much of the work can be reused.
  • Share and promote your preprint: Indicate that you welcome feedback and recommendations so that you may enhance your work before submitting it to publication.

Where to publish a preprint paper?

To publish a preprint, you must first locate a preprint server, which is an online repository containing data and information on several papers. When you submit your preprint paper , it is submitted to basic screening and plagiarism detection. Check below a list of open preprint servers:

  • BioRxiv: an open-access preprint repository for biological sciences by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.
  • ASAPbio: similar to BioRxiv, for biological and environmental science.
  • ChemRxiv: open access preprint repository for chemical science, operated by the American Chemical Society, the Royal Society of Chemistry, and the German Chemical Society.
  • arXiv: a physics, mathematics, computer science, quantitative biology, statistics, electrical engineering, and system sciences preprint repository.
  • PeerJ: an open-access multidisciplinary repository.
  • The Winnower: a platform for scholarly publishing online. It enables researchers and peers to engage in intellectual debates on the posted scholarly papers.
  • PrePubMed: it indexes papers from PeerJ preprints and BioRxiv.
  • psyArXiv: an open access repository for psychology, powered by OSFPreprints .
  • SocArXiv: open archive repository for social sciences, powered by OSFPreprints .

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Adding graphic assets to your paper is another fantastic method to boost its credibility. To use infographic templates and improve your research, use the Mind The Graph tool.

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About Jessica Abbadia

Jessica Abbadia is a lawyer that has been working in Digital Marketing since 2020, improving organic performance for apps and websites in various regions through ASO and SEO. Currently developing scientific and intellectual knowledge for the community's benefit. Jessica is an animal rights activist who enjoys reading and drinking strong coffee.

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Open Science: Why you should preprint your next paper

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By George Currie, Content Manager at eLife

Preprinting is the act of sharing an early version of your research, often before journal-organised review. It helps you share your research with others quickly, establishes priority for your findings and can be a way to receive feedback from your community. Many organisations, including eLife and PreReview , are starting to offer and recognise peer reviewed preprints, or allow public discussion on preprints.

But what are the advantages of preprinting your next paper? Here are our five Fs of preprinting:

Preprinting is fast

Preprinting gets your work out into the world much faster, in days not months. No waiting around for reviewer feedback or time spent making revisions, your work is out there. Citable, sharable and with a DOI. Both reviews and revisions can be extremely valuable but it comes at the cost of time and slowing down science communication. Once your work is available others can use it, they can build on your ideas, they can use them to refine their ideas. Your work is pushing science forward.

Preprinting helps you be first

Preprinting establishes priority for your findings or ideas. Waiting for publication can be anxiety inducing but preprinting puts you in control of publication. You won’t have to worry that someone else is going to publish your breakthrough while you’re still waiting for reviews. When you next think about scooping it will be time for ice cream!

Preprinting is free

Nearly all preprint servers are completely free of charge. Free to you as an author, and free to you as a reader. No subscriptions, no APCs. At no cost other than the time to submit, you can ensure that the whole world has access to your research.

Most journals* now have fairly open policies regarding preprinting ahead of publication, so even if you’re publishing behind a paywall you can make a version available for everyone.

*it’s worth checking journal or publisher websites for current policies. You can find a list of policies and links on Wikipedia.

Preprinting enables feedback

Sharing early versions of work can be daunting, but getting feedback helps refine and polish your work. Informal feedback helps start the conversation around your research and shows that people are engaging with it. Public scrutiny and feedback at this stage is far more useful than on a Version of Record as you are still able to implement changes and this could even help reduce time working through peer review feedback later. To help ensure feedback is useful to authors, the FAST framework of preprint feedback suggests feedback should be focused, appropriate, specific and transparent.

Preprinting fights inequalities

Preprints help level the playing field. It’s not about you, your institution or what you can afford to pay. Your work stands on its own merits.

Because preprinting is accessible, free and without the gatekeeping mechanisms typical of journals it makes science communication far more democratic and less prone to structural or implicit biases present in traditional publishing. This gives scientific communities more power and control over how and what they communicate.

Bonus sixth F: How do you filter preprints?

For all the positives of preprinting, it does present a new challenge: how we filter them.

There’s a lot of research out there, it can be hard to keep up as it is. Adding preprints to the mix can make this overwhelming. How can you keep up with preprint literature and how do you know you can trust it?

Some preprint servers still undertake elements of editorial screening to make sure research meets basic standards, and some journals and organisations are focused on preprint review . Beyond this, there are platforms dedicated to preprint curation, such as Sciety and Prelights .

Sciety, developed by eLife, is a free platform that helps researchers highlight and distil the vast and growing preprint literature. It’s a public space for users to comment on preprints, create shareable lists and follow other users for their recommendations. This centralises important work already happening in blogs, private slacks and listservs and makes it available to a wider audience. And helps you find trusted, recommended research that meets your interests.

Where can I read or post preprints?

For research in the biological and medical sciences, bioRxiv and medRxiv are popular preprint servers. Though many more exist , catering for different subject areas and geographies.

ASAPbio Preprint infographics: post your preprint in 5 steps, publishing process, take action in support of preprints.

Image credit: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International. Singh, Sumeet Pal, Ferguson, Christine, Ahmad, Umar, & Puebla, Iratxe. (2021). ASAPbio Preprint infographics: post your preprint in 5 steps, publishing process, take action in support of preprints. Zenodo. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5724096

What does preprinting mean (for science communication).

Preprinting has been popular in physics and maths for decades. While the uptake has been slower in biological and medical sciences it became an essential means of communication during the search for a COVID-19 vaccine.

As adoption grows, so does the potential for preprinting to radically change how we communicate science and the role publishers play in scientific discourse. It can level the playing field for researchers and accelerate scientific discoveries.

Unfortunately “preprinting” is a bit of a misnomer.

The “pre-” makes you think that something has to happen next – before it is “done”. And the “-printing” part supposes that the research is going to be made physical. Neither of these things need to be true and in today’s world they often aren’t.

Versions of record are a hangover of when research needed to be made final so a physical artefact could be created. With the technology we have now, the way we communicate science can better reflect the way science really works.

Preprints help science become a conversation among peers, sharing knowledge, iterating and self correcting faster and more fluidly. Rather than a focus on Versions of Record, final statements etched in stone, we could have a record of versions where our best current understanding is given prominence. Learn more about the benefits of preprinting with ASAPbio, and consider sharing your next biological or medical paper as a preprint.

Be the first to read new articles from eLife

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How do you cite a working paper in MLA style?

Note: This post relates to content in the eighth edition of the MLA Handbook . For up-to-date guidance, see the ninth edition of the MLA Handbook .

A working paper is a draft or an early version of a piece of writing, usually one that either has been or will be submitted for publication. Working papers submitted for publication can also be called prepublication or preprint versions, or by the term gray literature . You should either indicate that the source is a working paper in your prose or use the optional-element slot at the end of the entry to do so. The following sentence and works-cited-list entry provide an example of how to cite a working paper that is available in an online archive:

In a working paper published in  CORE , an open-access repository for humanities research, Erin Rose Glass and Micah Vandegrift argue that “[c]onnecting to the public is a key part of the mission of higher education.” Work Cited Glass, Erin Rose, and Micah Vandegrift. “Public Scholarship in Practice and Philosophy.”  CORE , 2018, dx.doi.org/10.17613/g64d-gd16. PDF download.

The following provides an example of how you would use the optional-element slot at the end of the entry to indicate that the source is a working paper (if, say, you did not mention it in your prose):  

Work Cited Conover, Kellam. “Rereading the Death of Turnus: Ritual, Time and Poetics in the Aeneid .” Princeton/Stanford Working Papers in Classics ,  www.princeton.edu/~pswpc/papers/authorAL/conover/conover.hml. Working paper.
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A preprint, in academic publishing, is considered as the author’s version of the research paper prior to the get published in any scholarly journal. Preprint papers go by many names such as; working paper, draft version, author’s version of a paper, etc. The preprint version of the research manuscript can be posted on the public server for faster and wider dissemination to the research community. The preprint is a significant footstep with incredible benefits for both, individual authors as well as the broader research community. In most cases, they are considered as final drafts or working papers. Once it is posted on a preprint server, the article will fully citable and becomes a permanent academic record. By sharing the research work early through a preprint server, researchers can accelerate the speed at which science moves forward.

Conduct research and write article with recent findings by adhering to the ethics in research.

Submit to the preprint server by following author guidelines and publication ethics.

Share the preprint & get valuable comments while research community can read, reuse, and cite your latest work with proper attribution as per licensing policy.

Update the preprint with new & improved version based on ongoing research findings.

Authors can submit to any journal allowing preprint posting & can link the DOI for pointing the preprint to journal's version.

About AIJR Preprints

AIJR Preprints is an open access, multidisciplinary preprint server from India, supported by AIJR publisher. Our mission is to publish the suitable preprints from all academic fields within 2 working days. AIJR Preprints consider early version of research work through following major sections-

  • Working paper section for publishing those work which has not yet been submitted to any journal.
  • Preprints section for the author’s version of article which already been submitted to a peer-reviewed journal.
  • Coronavirus section for publishing all articles related to Corona virus and related disease.
  • Under Review section is only for journals to submit abstracts of articles currently under review to their journal.

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How AIJR Preprints Works?

Research work.

Conduct research work and write an article by following author guidelines & publication ethics. The work shall be plagiarism free with a similarity index of less than 20% & avoid data fabrication/falsification. The table should be represented properly and the figure/image shall be of high resolution without blurred or distortion.

Publish Preprint

Submit to preprint server for publication by following author guidelines. All contributors shall be included as co-author and aware of the submission. The paper will undergo screening based on the focused objective, writing style, & ethical compliance. You may need to respond and modify as per comments. Once found satisfactory, the preprint will get published.

Cite, Share & Discuss

Your published preprint is fully citable, shareable with an option to discuss on the server. The author shall share with their network for maximum comments & feedback. The author will be able to discuss valuable comments for further improvements. Anyone can read, comment, and cite as per open access CC license. This will increase exposure to the author’s ongoing work globally.

Update & Share

Continue the research and update with significant new findings or interpretations through the preprint’s versioning feature. The author may use the feedback obtained through public discussion. The author is free for submitting to any peer-reviewed journal and can link the preprint with DOI of the published peer-reviewed version.

AIJR Preprints in Brief

AIJR Preprints is a multidisciplinary server to accept research papers for all academic fields.

Author could be a research scholar, university student, faculty member, industry employee, organization representative, professional body,  social worker, etc. having bachelor or above level qualification.

For research work of dynamic students below bachelor level, the paper can be submitted through the project guide or school principal. Visit this link for detail on submission of such work.

The authors are expected and responsible to follow the standard ethics in publication as follows-

  • Authorship: The author shall ensure to include all eligible co-authors with their complete detail in the article.
  • Originality: The article shall not be plagiarized. Content similarity shall be less than 20% by considering less than 5% from a single source.
  • Honesty in Data: Author shall ensure that the manuscript does not contain any fabricated or falsified data.

A declarations section shall be added at the end of the article to include all applicable information as mentioned below-

  • Study Limitations
  • Acknowledgement
  • Funding Source

Authors are expected to conduct research by adhering to high ethical standard. The research shall be conducted responsibly, maintaining the fundamental principles of research ethics. 

Author shall include all applicable statements under the declarations section as mentioned below-

  • Competing Interests: It is mandatory for everyone to include the conflict of interest statement.
  • Ethical approval for human and animal subjects: If the research work is related to human or animal subject, author shall include ethical approval detail obtained from the competent authority (Ethical committee).
  • Informed Consent: If research work involves human participant/respondent, author shall include informed consent statement taken from the participant/respondent.
  • Hazard Warning: If the research work involves chemicals, procedures or equipment that have any unusual hazards inherent in their use, the author must clearly identify these in the manuscript and include a hazard warning statement under the declarations section.

AIJR preprints publishes article only after a formal screening based on adherence to the author guidelines, ethical standard, article’s basic structure, writing fluency and objectivity.

All preprints are posted using an open access Creative Commons CC BY 4.0 license. This allows readers to freely download, distribute, and reuse with proper attribution to the original author and preprints. 

Published preprints are fully citable which helps authors to gain credibility while still waiting for peer-reviewing.

Readers can give feedback through embedded annotation tool available on article pdf view on the AIJR preprints server. Author can discuss and improve the article through same tool.

Author can update the preprint with new and improved version as soon as significant new work or interpretation available. 

If the preprint get published to a journal, authors are responsible to link the preprint with doi of journal’s version. 

All publications in AIJR preprints are indexed by the Google Scholar.

Authors can request for doi assignment to their preprint for higher visibility through CrossRef

AIJR Preprints is OAI-PMH compatible, interested library, repository are free to  harvest article level metadata

AIJR Preprints organised articles through dedicated major sections and subject category for convenient browsing.

Preprint withdrawal may take place due to the following reasons:

  • Misconduct by authors, including plagiarism and data fabrication.
  • Serious scientific errors that cannot be corrected by updating the paper.
  • Where leaving a paper online would constitute an illegal act, including copyright violation.

Once published, preprint becomes permanent part of the academic record and can not be fully removed. Preprint can only be updated to address any issue or withdraw as per defined withdrawal policy policy.

Preprint Screening Process

The preprint screening is carried out by AIJR Preprints screening body which consists of active researchers and the screening board members of AIJR Preprints.

 The screening process is based on the following 3 consideration-

  • Based on Author Guidelines:  The author’s complete detail, the basic structure of the paper, formatting consistency, tables representation, figures quality, and proper reference citation.
  • Ethical Compliance:  Presence of conflict of interest statement and other applicable declarations as described under guidelines as well as compliance with publication ethics such as plagiarism and data fabrication.
  • Basic Article Quality: The article should have a clear objective that must reflect in the contents including title, abstract, introduction, findings, discussion, and conclusion. The writing style should maintain fluency with appropriate recent reference citations to show the novelty of the work by comparing other’s similar work in the field.

Yes, If you are an active researcher and interested in contribution to preprints screening. As a screening member you will be eligible to avail 10% APC discount for every handled preprint when publishing your own article to any AIJR Journals. To join AIJR Preprints Screening Board, you shall fulfill following criteria-

  • A Ph.D. or above level student, or A medical doctor, or A faculty member.
  • Active in research with published article.
  • Aware of Microsoft word usage for header/footer formatting.
  • Able to complete preprint screening within 2 working days.

Initially, you will be considered as active researcher and related preprint will get assigned to you (maximum 2 preprints per month). After successful and timely screening of at least 10 preprints, you will be added to permanent screening board member.

If you fulfill the above criteria, apply through following joining form.

Preprint Screening Board Joining Form

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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

For authors.

Journal Article: It undergoes peer-reviewing which may takes months to publish and once published it can not be submit to any other journal.

Preprint: It publishes immediately without peer-reviewing. You can further submit to any journal which allows preprint posting for peer-reviewing and final publication as journal article.

Working paper section: You didn’t submit to any journal yet for peer-reviewing can be submitted to this section. You can still submit to a journal after publishing as working paper. Working paper may or may not be final draft of the research outcome.

Preprints Section:  Author’s version of article which already  been submitted to a journal for peer-reviewing can be submitted to this section. Usually preprints are final draft version of the research outcome.

For Readers

No, its not peer-reviewed. Articles on AIJR Preprints server are research work that has been submitted by the author. It is not yet scrutinize & certified through the peer reviewing process. Readers shall pay extra caution and should not consider or report in news media as established research work.

Yes, by following responsible sharing guide that focuses on clearly highlighting that the shared article/information is from a non-reviewed preprint. 

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Preprints and Working Papers

preprint vs working paper

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Preprint: how to cite in MLA (8th ed.)?

Create a spot-on reference in mla 8 and 9, basic rules.

According to the rules of MLA Style (8th ed.), to reference a preprint (working paper) in works cited, you should indicate the author(s) of the source, its title, year of publication, database, as well as URL address and date of access (for online sources).

For a source with editors, translators, and so on, the information on all such contributors should be given after the title of the preprint.

How to cite in a bibliography

Reference template :.

Author(s) . " Preprint Title ." Database , year , URL . Accessed date of access . Preprint.

Find out more about how to cite authors, editors, and translators .

Examples of references in works cited :

Feng, Jishe, and Hongtao Fan. "A Study on the Determinants of Some Hessenberg Toeplitz Bohemians." Preprints , 2020, www.preprints.org/manuscript/202008.0272/v1 . Accessed 12   Aug. 2020. Preprint.

Sheil, Meredith, and Adam Polkinghorne. "Optimal Methods of Documenting Analgesic Efficacy in Neonatal Piglets Undergoing Castration." Preprints , 2020, www.preprints.org/manuscript/202008.0090/v2 . Accessed 12   Aug. 2020. Preprint.

Karwan, Khamphee, et al. "Vainshtein Mechanism in General Purely Disformal Gravity Theory."  arXiv , 2017,  arxiv.org/pdf/1606.04465v2.pdf . Accessed 12   June 2020. Preprint.

Other citation styles:

  • What is APA Style (7th ed.)?
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  • What is Chicago Style?
  • Examples of bibliographic references in Chicago Style – notes and bibliography (17th ed.)
  • How to format the bibliography page?
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  • Examples of bibliographic references in Chicago Style – author-date (17th ed.)
  • What is Harvard referencing style?
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preprint vs working paper

New Type of Entry: Working Paper

  • bwiernik May 10, 2019 Report or Document are good options here.
  • adamsmith May 10, 2019 I think we're relatively commited to add one more item type in this direction. I think I've resigned myself to the fact that'll probably be called preprint (even though I still think it's a stupid label). That should comfortably cover working papers as well (which are effectively preprints endorsed or published by a specific organization)
  • bothide May 12, 2019 edited May 12, 2019 I am very much in favour of this. In fact, I have been waiting for this for years. The preprint concept (as well as the name "preprint") is deeply rooted In Physics and related disciplines, where preprints have played a central rôle for a very long time. And they continue to do so to this day. With the advent of the computer and databases, where nowadays preprints (sometimes under the name eprint) can be put on line and therefore be much more accessible than in the pre-computer era, the preprint has become even more important. A preprint is neither a draft or manuscript, nor an official publication. It is a distinct entity in its own right, filling the gap between the two and playing the rôle of a kind of publication candidate. In fact, many physics journals encourage their authors to put their paper on a preprint server before submitting to the journal. Some very prestigious physics journals don't want you to submit to them directly but prefer that you put your paper up as a preprint first, exposing it to a wide audience that can provide feedback to the authors that, if deemed necessary, can upload an improved/corrected version. Only then the authors inform the journal that they want to submit the paper and the journal then downloads the paper directly from the preprint server.
  • djross3 May 12, 2019 edited May 12, 2019 In my discipline, a working paper is not the same as a preprint. It's essentially a "lesser" journal article, printed in a "lesser" working papers journal.* I wasn't aware that it would need to be cited any differently than a normal journal article. (I've been the editor my department's "working papers journal", so I have experience with this, although I realize that's just one perspective.) A preprint, on the other hand, seems like a draft, which just happens to be available somewhere officially. I've considered these "manuscripts" in Zotero and that seems to work out fine for formatting. Rather than writing "unpublished manuscript" (or similar), you could write "preprint" there. This does mean that the manuscript type should be allowed identifiers like DOI, but otherwise it seems OK. There is also a distinction between a preprint of a specific journal article (e.g., author's draft on their personal website) versus a more generic preprint (e.g., pre-submission) as described by @bothide but either way, that should either just be cited as the final published article or as a manuscript separate from that. But are there cases where a "working paper" is different from both? Or where a "preprint" is yet an additional fourth category? [*One complication would be if the "working paper" isn't associated with any sort of journal at all, or perhaps just a series, but distributed by itself, e.g. decades ago as a "mimeo" copy. In that case I'd just cite it as a manuscript as described above, or perhaps as a very informally published book if it was long and intended as such, especially if it was part of a named series. I've run into a few reports of that type published by a university department, and cited them like books, I think, especially when they're held by at least some libraries.]
  • bwiernik May 13, 2019 @djross3 Outside linguistics in the social and natural sciences, preprints or working papers generally mean what bothide described—a paper posted on a website or repository, either directly by the author or less often by a curator for an institutional repository. Things like ArXiV or SSRN papers.
  • djross3 May 13, 2019 That makes sense, but it would mean that "working paper" isn't a special category, just an alternative name sometimes used for journal articles (in a "lesser" journal) and other times for a paper-in-archive. Not that I object to having a specific category because it's so common now, but why is paper-in-archive distinct from manuscript? Or is it that some style sheets would treat them differently?
  • bwiernik May 13, 2019 I don’t actually think what you are describing is any different really from bothide. I would describe a paper posted to ArXiV and a paper posted to the “Cornell Working Paper Series” as both being posted content/working papers/preprint, rather than “journal articles”. They indicate a similar publication status.
  • djross3 May 13, 2019 edited May 13, 2019 But the "Cornell Working Paper Series" has publication information (page numbers, volume number, journal name, etc.). I don't see why you would want to treat it as the same thing as an unpublished article on an internet repository. (That is, while you're correct that they might both hold the same prestige, bibliographies are not formatted based on prestige, just information on how to locate the work. There isn't any distinction between top-tier and small journals for example.) And again I'm genuinely wondering why "manuscript" isn't appropriate for ArXiV (etc.). (My curiosity upon reading this is the reason for responding, nothing more. I'm not trying to change any outcome.)
  • angermv9 December 13, 2019 Any new development on this? Until there is a "preprint" or similar item type, what would you suggest as a placeholder? Document or report, as mentioned above?
  • bwiernik December 13, 2019 I suggest Document in general. New items types will likely be coming fairly soon to a new version of Zotero.
  • UWuttke March 5, 2023 I would like to add, that the Category working Paper, makes a lot of sense from the Humanities Point of View. We have whole working papers series, sometimes, but not always released by Journals or Organisations. It is always loss of information to use the Report workaround and they are not the same as preprints. Also, why has the ITEM TYPE REPORT no field for DOI, that totally makes no sense to me, I am wondering if you could add that too or are planning too. Thanks!
  • bwiernik March 5, 2023 Nowadays, use Preprint for working papers and the like
  • adamsmith March 5, 2023 (also, DOIs for all tem types are coming)

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Apple unveils stunning new iPad Pro with the world’s most advanced display, M4 chip, and Apple Pencil Pro

The new iPad Pro.

Thinnest Apple Product Ever

A side profile of iPad Pro showing its thinness.

World’s Most Advanced Display

The Ultra Retina XDY display showcasing beautiful landscape scenery on the new iPad Pro.

Only Possible with M4

The Octane app disabled on iPad Pro.

Outrageously Powerful Device for AI

Pro Cameras

A close up look at the pro camera system on the new iPad Pro.

Pro Connectivity

Apple Pencil Pro

The Apple Pencil Pro attached to the new iPad Pro.

All-New Magic Keyboard and Smart Folio

Powerful iPadOS Features

Reference Mode on iPad Pro.

Logic Pro for iPad 2

Session Players in Logic Pro for iPad 2 displayed on iPad Pro.

Final Cut Pro for iPad 2

Live Multicam in Final Cut Pro for iPad 2 displayed on iPad Pro.

iPad Pro and the Environment

  • Customers can order the new iPad Pro with M4 starting today, May 7, at apple.com/store , and in the Apple Store app in 29 countries and regions, including the U.S., with availability in stores beginning Wednesday, May 15.
  • The new 11-inch and 13-inch iPad Pro will be available in silver and space black finishes in 256GB, 512GB, 1TB, and 2TB configurations.
  • The 11-inch iPad Pro starts at  $999  (U.S.) for the Wi-Fi model, and  $1,199  (U.S.) for the Wi-Fi + Cellular model. The 13-inch iPad Pro starts at  $1,299  (U.S.) for the Wi-Fi model, and  $1,499  (U.S.) for the Wi-Fi + Cellular model. Additional technical specifications, including nano-texture glass options, are available at apple.com/store .
  • For education, the new 11-inch iPad Pro is available for  $899  (U.S.) and the 13-inch iPad Pro is $1,199 (U.S.). Education pricing is available to current and newly accepted college students and their parents, as well as faculty, staff, and home-school teachers of all grade levels. For more information, visit  apple.com/us-hed/shop .
  • The new Apple Pencil Pro is compatible with the new iPad Pro. It is available for $129 (U.S.). For education, Apple Pencil Pro is available for $119 (U.S.).
  • Apple Pencil (USB-C) is compatible with the new iPad Pro. It is available for $79 (U.S.) and $69 (U.S.) for education.
  • The new Magic Keyboard is compatible with the new iPad Pro. It is available in black and white finishes. The new 11-inch Magic Keyboard is available for $299 (U.S.) and the new 13-inch Magic Keyboard is available for $349 (U.S.), with layouts for over 30 languages. For education, the 11-inch Magic Keyboard is available for $279 (U.S.) and the 13-inch Magic Keyboard is available for $329 (U.S.).
  • The new Smart Folio is available for $79 (U.S.) in black, white, and denim finishes for the new 11-inch iPad Pro and $99 (U.S.) for the new 13-inch iPad Pro.
  • Logic Pro for iPad 2 is available on May 13 as a free update for existing users, and for new users, it is available on the App Store for $4.99 (U.S.) per month, or $49 (U.S.) per year, with a one-month free trial. Logic Pro for iPad 2 requires iPadOS 17.4 or later. For more information, visit apple.com/logic-pro-for-ipad .
  • Final Cut Pro for iPad 2 will be available later this spring on the App Store for $4.99 (U.S.) per month, or $49 (U.S.) per year, with a one-month free trial.
  • Apple offers great ways to save on the latest iPad. Customers can trade in their current iPad and get credit toward a new one by visiting the Apple Store online , the Apple Store app, or an Apple Store location. To see what their device is worth, and for terms and conditions, customers can visit apple.com/shop/trade-in .
  • Customers in the U.S. who shop at Apple using Apple Card can pay monthly at 0 percent APR when they choose to check out with Apple Card Monthly Installments, and they’ll get 3 percent Daily Cash back — all upfront.

Text of this article

May 7, 2024

PRESS RELEASE

Featuring a new thin and light design, breakthrough Ultra Retina XDR display, and outrageously fast M4 performance with powerful AI capabilities, the new iPad Pro takes a huge leap forward

CUPERTINO, CALIFORNIA Apple today unveiled the groundbreaking new iPad Pro in a stunningly thin and light design, taking portability and performance to the next level. Available in silver and space black finishes, the new iPad Pro comes in two sizes: an expansive 13-inch model and a super-portable 11-inch model. Both sizes feature the world’s most advanced display — a new breakthrough Ultra Retina XDR display with state-of-the-art tandem OLED technology — providing a remarkable visual experience. The new iPad Pro is made possible with the new M4 chip, the next generation of Apple silicon, which delivers a huge leap in performance and capabilities. M4 features an entirely new display engine to enable the precision, color, and brightness of the Ultra Retina XDR display. With a new CPU, a next-generation GPU that builds upon the GPU architecture debuted on M3, and the most powerful Neural Engine yet, the new iPad Pro is an outrageously powerful device for artificial intelligence. The versatility and advanced capabilities of iPad Pro are also enhanced with all-new accessories. Apple Pencil Pro brings powerful new interactions that take the pencil experience even further, and a new thinner, lighter Magic Keyboard is packed with incredible features. The new iPad Pro, Apple Pencil Pro, and Magic Keyboard are available to order starting today, with availability in stores beginning Wednesday, May 15.

“iPad Pro empowers a broad set of pros and is perfect for anyone who wants the ultimate iPad experience — with its combination of the world’s best displays, extraordinary performance of our latest M-series chips, and advanced accessories — all in a portable design. Today, we’re taking it even further with the new, stunningly thin and light iPad Pro, our biggest update ever to iPad Pro,” said John Ternus, Apple’s senior vice president of Hardware Engineering. “With the breakthrough Ultra Retina XDR display, the next-level performance of M4, incredible AI capabilities, and support for the all-new Apple Pencil Pro and Magic Keyboard, there’s no device like the new iPad Pro.”

The new iPad Pro — the thinnest Apple product ever — features a stunningly thin and light design, taking portability to a whole new level. The 11-inch model is just 5.3 mm thin, and the 13-inch model is even thinner at a striking 5.1 mm, while both models are just as strong as the previous design. The 11-inch model weighs less than a pound, and the 13-inch model is nearly a quarter pound lighter than its predecessor — allowing pro users to extend their workflows in new ways and in more places. The new iPad Pro is available in two gorgeous finishes — silver and space black — both with 100 percent recycled aluminum enclosures.

The new iPad Pro debuts the Ultra Retina XDR, the world’s most advanced display, to provide an even more remarkable visual experience. The Ultra Retina XDR display features state-of-the-art tandem OLED technology that uses two OLED panels and combines the light from both to provide phenomenal full-screen brightness. The new iPad Pro supports an incredible 1000 nits of full-screen brightness for SDR and HDR content, and 1600 nits peak for HDR. No other device of its kind delivers this level of extreme dynamic range. Tandem OLED technology enables sub-millisecond control over the color and luminance of each pixel, taking XDR precision further than ever. Specular highlights in photos and video appear even brighter, and there’s more detail in shadows and low light than ever before on iPad — all while delivering even more responsiveness to content in motion. For pro users working in high-end, color-managed workflows or challenging lighting conditions, a new nano-texture glass option comes to iPad Pro for the first time. 1 Nano-texture glass is precisely etched at a nanometer scale, maintaining image quality and contrast while scattering ambient light for reduced glare. With its breakthrough tandem OLED technology, extreme brightness, incredibly precise contrast, brilliant colors, and nano-texture glass option, the new Ultra Retina XDR display is the world’s most advanced display, giving iPad Pro customers an unparalleled viewing experience.

The incredibly thin and light design and game-changing display of the new iPad Pro is only possible with M4, the next generation of Apple silicon that delivers a huge leap in performance. M4 is built on second-generation 3-nanometer technology that’s even more power efficient, which is perfect for the design of the new iPad Pro. With an entirely new display engine, M4 introduces pioneering technology for the stunning precision, color, and brightness of the Ultra Retina XDR display. The new CPU offers up to four performance cores and now six efficiency cores, 2 with next-generation machine learning (ML) accelerators, to deliver up to 1.5x faster CPU performance over M2 in the previous-generation iPad Pro. 3 M4 builds on the GPU architecture of M3 — the 10-core GPU includes powerful features like Dynamic Caching, and hardware-accelerated mesh shading and ray tracing, which come to iPad for the first time. Coupled with higher unified memory bandwidth, pro rendering apps like Octane will see up to 4x faster performance than M2. 3 M4 also delivers tremendous gains and industry-leading performance per watt. Compared to M2, M4 can deliver the same performance using just half the power, and compared to the latest PC chip in a thin and light laptop, M4 can deliver the same performance using just a quarter of the power. 4 A new advanced Media Engine includes support for AV1 decode, providing more power-efficient playback of high-resolution video experiences from streaming services.

The new iPad Pro with M4 features Apple’s most powerful Neural Engine ever, capable of 38 trillion operations per second, which is 60x faster than Apple’s first Neural Engine in the A11 Bionic chip. Combined with next-generation ML accelerators in the CPU, a high-performance GPU, more memory bandwidth, and intelligent features and powerful developer frameworks in iPadOS, the Neural Engine makes the new iPad Pro an outrageously powerful device for AI. With iPad Pro with M4, users can perform AI-enabled tasks even faster, like easily isolate a subject from its background in 4K video with just a tap with Scene Removal Mask in Final Cut Pro. With this advanced level of performance, the Neural Engine in M4 is more powerful than any neural processing unit in any AI PC today.

iPadOS also has advanced frameworks like Core ML that make it easy for developers to tap into the Neural Engine to deliver phenomenal AI features locally, including running powerful diffusion and generative AI models, with great performance on device. iPad Pro also supports cloud-based solutions, enabling users to run powerful productivity and creative apps that tap into the power of AI, such as Copilot for Microsoft 365 and Adobe Firefly.

The updated camera system on the new iPad Pro delivers even more versatility, and with its rich audio from four studio-quality mics, users can shoot, edit, and share all on one device. The 12MP back camera captures vibrant Smart HDR images and video with even better color, improved textures, and detail in low light. It also now features a new adaptive True Tone flash that makes document scanning on the new iPad Pro better than ever. Using AI, the new iPad Pro automatically identifies documents right in the Camera app, and if a shadow is in the way, it instantly takes multiple photos with the new adaptive flash, stitching the scan together for a dramatically better scan.

On the front, the TrueDepth camera system moves to the landscape location on the new iPad Pro. The Ultra Wide 12MP camera with Center Stage makes the experience of video conferencing in landscape orientation even better, especially when iPad is attached to a Magic Keyboard or Smart Folio.

iPad Pro includes a high-performance USB-C connector with support for Thunderbolt 3 and USB 4, delivering fast wired connectivity — up to 40Gb/s. Thunderbolt supports an extensive ecosystem of high-performance accessories, including external displays like the Pro Display XDR at its full 6K resolution, and external storage, all connected using high-performance cables and docks. iPad Pro supports Wi-Fi 6E for super-fast Wi-Fi connections for pro workflows on the go. Wi-Fi + Cellular models with 5G allow users to access their files, communicate with colleagues, and back up their data in a snap while on the go. Cellular models of the new iPad Pro are activated with eSIM, a more secure alternative to a physical SIM card, allowing users to quickly connect and transfer their existing plans digitally, and store multiple cellular plans on a single device. Customers can easily get connected to wireless data plans on the new iPad Pro in over 190 countries and regions around the world without needing to get a physical SIM card from a local carrier.

Apple Pencil Pro features even more magical capabilities and powerful new interactions that take the Apple Pencil experience even further. A new sensor in the barrel can sense a user’s squeeze, bringing up a tool palette to quickly switch tools, line weights, and colors, all without interrupting the creative process. A custom haptic engine delivers a light tap that provides confirmation when users squeeze, use double-tap, or snap to a Smart Shape for a remarkably intuitive experience. A gyroscope allows users to roll Apple Pencil Pro for precise control of the tool they’re using. Rotating the barrel changes the orientation of shaped pen and brush tools, just like pen and paper. And with Apple Pencil hover, users can visualize the exact orientation of a tool before making a mark.

With these advanced features, Apple Pencil Pro allows users to bring their ideas to life in entirely new ways, and developers can also create their own custom interactions. Apple Pencil Pro brings support for Find My for the first time to Apple Pencil, helping users locate Apple Pencil Pro if misplaced. It pairs, charges, and is stored on the side of iPad Pro through a new magnetic interface. iPad Pro also supports Apple Pencil (USB-C), ideal for note taking, sketching, annotating, journaling, and more, at an incredible value.

Designed for the new iPad Pro, an all-new thinner and lighter Magic Keyboard makes it more portable and versatile than ever. The new Magic Keyboard opens to the magical floating design that customers love, and now includes a function row for access to features like screen brightness and volume controls. It also has a gorgeous aluminum palm rest and larger trackpad that’s even more responsive with haptic feedback, so the entire experience feels just like using a MacBook. The new Magic Keyboard attaches magnetically, and the Smart Connector immediately connects power and data without the need for Bluetooth. The machined aluminum hinge also includes a USB-C connector for charging. The new Magic Keyboard comes in two colors that perfectly complement the new iPad Pro: black with a space black aluminum palm rest, and white with a silver aluminum palm rest.

The new Smart Folio for iPad Pro attaches magnetically and now supports multiple viewing angles for greater flexibility. Available in black, white, and denim, it complements the colors of the new iPad Pro.

iPadOS is packed with features that push the boundaries of what’s possible on iPad. With Reference Mode, iPadOS can precisely match color requirements of the Ultra Retina XDR display for tasks in which accurate colors and consistent image quality are critical — including review and approve, color grading, and compositing. Stage Manager enables users to work with multiple overlapping windows in a single view, resize windows, tap to switch between apps, and more. With full external display support of up to 6K, iPad Pro users can also extend their workflow, as well as use the built-in camera on an external display for enhanced video conferencing. Users can take advantage of the powerful AI capabilities in iPad Pro and intelligent features in iPadOS, including Visual Look Up, Subject Lift, Live Text, or Live Captions and Personal Voice for accessibility.

With iPadOS 17 , users can customize the Lock Screen to make it more personal — taking advantage of the larger display on iPad — and interactive widgets take glanceable information further with the ability to get tasks done right in the moment with just a tap. The Notes app gives users new ways to organize, read, annotate, and collaborate on PDFs, and working with PDFs is also easier with AutoFill, which intelligently identifies and fills fields in forms.

Logic Pro for iPad 2 , available starting Monday, May 13, introduces incredible studio assistant features that augment the music-making process and provide artists help right when they need it — all while ensuring they maintain full creative control. These features include Session Players, which expand on popular Drummer capabilities in Logic to include a new Bass Player and Keyboard Player; ChromaGlow, to instantly add warmth to tracks; and Stem Splitter, to extract and work with individual parts of a single audio recording.

Final Cut Pro for iPad 2 , available later this spring, introduces Live Multicam, a new feature that transforms iPad into a mobile production studio, allowing users to view and control up to four connected iPhone and iPad devices wirelessly. 5 To support Live Multicam, an all-new capture app also comes to iPad and iPhone, Final Cut Camera, 6 giving users control over options like white balance, ISO, and shutter speed, along with monitoring tools like overexposure indicators and focus peaking. Final Cut Camera works as a standalone capture app or with Live Multicam. Final Cut Pro for iPad 2 also allows users to create or open projects from external storage, giving editors even more flexibility, and offers new content options. 7

The new iPad Pro is designed with the environment in mind, including 100 percent recycled aluminum in the enclosure, 100 percent recycled rare earth elements in all magnets, and 100 percent recycled gold plating and tin soldering in multiple printed circuit boards. The new iPad Pro meets Apple’s high standards for energy efficiency, and is free of mercury, brominated flame retardants, and PVC. The packaging is 100 percent fiber-based, bringing Apple closer to its goal to remove plastic from all packaging by 2025.

Today, Apple is carbon neutral for global corporate operations, and by 2030, plans to be carbon neutral across the entire manufacturing supply chain and life cycle of every product.

Pricing and Availability

  • Nano-texture glass is an option on the 1TB and 2TB configurations of the 11-inch and 13-inch iPad Pro models.
  • iPad Pro models with 256GB or 512GB storage feature the Apple M4 chip with a 9‑core CPU. iPad Pro models with 1TB or 2TB storage feature the Apple M4 chip with a 10‑core CPU.
  • Testing was conducted by Apple in March and April 2024. See apple.com/ipad-pro for more information.
  • Testing was conducted by Apple in March and April 2024 using preproduction 13-inch iPad Pro (M4) units with a 10-core CPU and 16GB of RAM. Performance was measured using select industry‑standard benchmarks. PC laptop chip performance data is from testing ASUS Zenbook 14 OLED (UX3405MA) with Core Ultra 7 155H and 32GB of RAM. Performance tests are conducted using specific computer systems and reflect the approximate performance of iPad Pro.
  • Final Cut Pro for iPad 2 is compatible with iPad models with the M1 chip or later, and Logic Pro for iPad 2 will be available on iPad models with the A12 Bionic chip or later.
  • Final Cut Camera is compatible with iPhone X S and later with iOS 17.4 or later, and iPad models compatible with iPadOS 17.4 or later.
  • External project support requires iPadOS 17.5 or later.

Press Contacts

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COMMENTS

  1. White papers, working papers, preprints: What's the difference?

    Preprints, like academic journal articles, are assigned a Digital Object Identifier, or DOI, and become a permanent part of the scientific record. White paper. A white paper is a report, often compiled by government agencies, businesses and nonprofit organizations, that outlines an issue and often explores possible solutions to a problem.

  2. What's the difference between a preprint and a working paper?

    3. As per the other (current) answer, in fields I know (pure and applied math, computing, GIS, ...) a working paper is less mature than a preprint. However, there is not necessarily a progression from one to the other. The expectation is that a preprint is basically ready for submission to peer-reviewed journal or other venue, and may even ...

  3. The what, why, and how of preprints and peer review

    This is a key reason why peer review training courses are essential to the health of the system - and central to the theme for this year's Peer Review Week in September: diversity and inclusion in peer review. Preprints help to bridge that gap in learning. We actively encourage researchers to benefit from this movement during the Publons ...

  4. Preprints: What is a Preprint?

    A preprint is version of a research manuscript that is disseminated prior to the peer review process. Preprints are frequently posted in an electronic format and often made available to the public on a preprint server such as bioRxiv or medRxiv.Most preprints are assigned a digital object identifier (DOI) so that it is possible to cite them in other research papers.

  5. The Pros and Cons of Preprints

    The Pros and Cons of Preprints. Preprints are drafts of scholarly articles and research papers that are made publicly available prior to peer review, meaning that researchers can get their work out quickly and receive feedback at a relatively early stage. There's plenty more uses and benefits to them, including that they're citable and open ...

  6. What are Preprints and Why Do We Need Them?

    A preprint is a manuscript prepared for publication as a journal article that gets shared prior to peer review by a journal. Publishing preprints enables the immediate sharing of research results so the searcher doesn't have to wait so long to find out about research that's already been done. Preprint sharing has several advantages: Speeds up ...

  7. Preprint

    Typical publishing workflow for an academic journal article (preprint, postprint, and published) with open access sharing rights per SHERPA/RoMEO.In academic publishing, a preprint is a version of a scholarly or scientific paper that precedes formal peer review and publication in a peer-reviewed scholarly or scientific journal.The preprint may be available, often as a non-typeset version ...

  8. Preprints

    Post a preprint to establish priority in a competitive field, or showcase your work for grant, hiring, or tenure committees. A link to a publicly posted preprint is more illustrative and compelling than a title on a CV with the annotation "in development" or "under review."

  9. A Guide to Posting and Managing Preprints

    Posting a preprint can serve to document and time-stamp a paper or specific features of a paper, which can establish the precedence of a work (Desjardins-Proulx et al., 2013; Tennant et al., 2019) and make changes resulting from the peer-review process transparent (Bourne et al., 2017).

  10. Research types: working papers, preprints, journal articles

    Preprint. A preprint is similar to a working paper in that it has not been vetted through a formal peer-review process. However, preprints tend to be more complete.Also, preprints submitted to public servers such as the Social Science Research Network and the health sciences server medRxiv get a cursory screening before they're published online for public view.

  11. Research Guides: Open Access Publishing: Preprints

    The National Institutes of Health specifically supports the use and citation of preprints as "interim research projects" to "speed the dissemination and enhance the rigor" of an author's work. NIH notice NOT-OD-17-050 discusses the benefits of preprints and provides guidance for authors on selecting a reliable preprint server to post their articles to.

  12. What is a Preprint?

    A preprint is a full and complete draft of a research manuscript that you upload and share to a public repository (preprint server) before formal peer review. Most preprints are given a digital object identifier (DOI) so they can be cited in other research papers. The DOI provides a "public timestamp" that establishes the primacy of your work.

  13. What are preprints? Challenges and benefits of paper preprints

    Essentially, the benefits of preprints are similar to that of traditional journal articles, only they are visible much sooner. 4. Paper preprints attract reviews by a group of peers before the journal peer review. Posting a preprint allows you to gain valuable feedback on your research from multiple experts in your field.

  14. What Are Preprints, and How Do They Benefit Authors?

    Preprints are research papers shared before peer review. Here we discuss the benefits to authors including rapid credit, visibility & feedback. Updated on March 28, 2018. Most researchers don't share their work until after it's been published in a journal. Due to lengthy publication times, this can result in delays of months, sometimes years.

  15. What is a preprint paper and how can you benefit from it?

    Authenticity: the preprint is a public record that your paper was released at the time it was published. Almost sure, your work will be granted a digital object identifier (DOI). Visibility: the sooner you make your study public, the sooner you will gain attention and visibility. Other professionals will quickly begin referencing and expanding ...

  16. More researchers than ever are using preprints

    Part of that growth may simply come from more people discovering the existence of preprint servers. Part of it stems from the response to pandemic, with researchers racing against time to better understand COVID-19 and come up with treatments and vaccines. And part of it comes from the expansion of the platform; one the Social Science Research ...

  17. What are the boundaries between draft, manuscript, preprint, paper, and

    preprint; paper; article; My own take on it would be that my text is a draft until I submit it to a journal, at which point it becomes a manuscript. When the manuscript is accepted it becomes a preprint, and when it gets published it becomes a paper, which is synonymous to article. ... Working papers are papers too. - Michael Greinecker. Feb ...

  18. Open Science: Why you should preprint your next paper

    Preprinting gets your work out into the world much faster, in days not months. No waiting around for reviewer feedback or time spent making revisions, your work is out there. Citable, sharable and with a DOI. Both reviews and revisions can be extremely valuable but it comes at the cost of time and slowing down science communication.

  19. How do you cite a working paper in MLA style?

    A working paper is a draft or an early version of a piece of writing, usually one that either has been or will be submitted for publication. Working papers submitted for publication can also be called prepublication or preprint versions, or by the term gray literature.You should either indicate that the source is a working paper in your prose or use the optional-element slot at the end of the ...

  20. An Overview of Preprint & AIJR Preprint Server

    Preprint. A preprint, in academic publishing, is considered as the author's version of the research paper prior to the get published in any scholarly journal. Preprint papers go by many names such as; working paper, draft version, author's version of a paper, etc. The preprint version of the research manuscript can be posted on the public ...

  21. Preprints and Working Papers

    Preprints and Working Papers. We recently announced a change to how digital object identifiers (DOIs) are registered, based on author feedback, including allowing authors to post their work without immediately registering a DOI. - Working paper: This is a draft paper without a registered DOI that authors can withdraw at any time if they wish.

  22. Preprint (working paper): how to cite in MLA?

    Basic rules. According to the rules of MLA Style (8th ed.), to reference a preprint (working paper) in works cited, you should indicate the author (s) of the source, its title, year of publication, database, as well as URL address and date of access (for online sources). For a source with editors, translators, and so on, the information on all ...

  23. New Type of Entry: Working Paper

    In my discipline, a working paper is not the same as a preprint. It's essentially a "lesser" journal article, printed in a "lesser" working papers journal.* I wasn't aware that it would need to be cited any differently than a normal journal article. (I've been the editor my department's "working papers journal", so I have experience with this ...

  24. Oncogenic KRAS Mutations Confer a Unique Mechanotransduction ...

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) tumors start as precancerous polyps on the inner lining of the colon or rectum, where they are exposed to the mechanics of colonic peristalsis. Our previous work leveraged a custom-built peristalsis bioreactor to demonstrate that colonic peristalsis led to cancer stem cell enrichment in colorectal cancer cells. However, this malignant mechanotransductive response was ...

  25. CRISPR-GPT: An LLM Agent for Automated Design of Gene-Editing ...

    The introduction of genome engineering technology has transformed biomedical research, making it possible to make precise changes to genetic information. However, creating an efficient gene-editing system requires a deep understanding of CRISPR technology, and the complex experimental systems under investigation. While Large Language Models (LLMs) have shown promise in various tasks, they ...

  26. Apple unveils stunning new iPad Pro with M4 chip and Apple Pencil Pro

    For pro users working in high-end, color-managed workflows or challenging lighting conditions, a new nano-texture glass option comes to iPad Pro for the first time. 1 Nano-texture glass is precisely etched at a nanometer scale, maintaining image quality and contrast while scattering ambient light for reduced glare. With its breakthrough tandem ...

  27. Hindu population share fell 7.8% between 1950-2015 in India, Muslims up

    The share of the Hindu population decreased by 7.82% between 1950 and 2015 in India, while that of Muslims increased by 43.15%, suggesting that there is a conducive environment in the country to ...