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dissertation word count breakdown 15 000

Dissertation Word Count Breakdown

Dissertation Word Count and Breakdown– How To Follow The Assigned Word Limit Easily? Underwriting or overwriting; are two of the most common errors that students make while composing their dissertations. That is why it is important to know from the beginning how much the dissertation word count of each of the chapters should be. After […]

Dissertation Word Count

Table of Contents

Dissertation Word Count and Breakdown– How To Follow The Assigned Word Limit Easily?

Underwriting or overwriting; are two of the most common errors that students make while composing their dissertations..

That is why it is important to know from the beginning how much the dissertation word count of each of the chapters should be. After you have the details of the word count of each of the sections, you can then design your schedule accordingly.

The dissertation word limit is allotted by the university where you study and the Master’s Dissertation word count may vary from the undergraduate dissertation word count or the Ph.D. dissertation word count.

Mostly the dissertation word length is between 10,000 words to 15,000 words but some may even go up to the level of 30,000 words.

dissertation word count breakdown

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But despite the total dissertation word count allotted, the main problem begins when students have to break down that word ratio into the headings of the dissertation . Here they make the common error of writing more words for a section that can be explained in less count and less count for a section that deserves more words.

So what is the solution to that problem?

Well, there are many online dissertation word count breakdown calculator websites available that can help you in that aspect. One advantage that they have is that they give an option to select degree level and word count is given accordingly.

However, a disadvantage that they serve is that not all of those calculators may be accurate.

So what to do now?

Navigating the complexity of dissertation word count.

If you’re wrestling with the intricacies of managing your dissertation word count, you’re not alone. Online tools and calculators, such as our dissertation word count breakdown calculator, aim to simplify this process. However, the accuracy of these tools can vary, underscoring the importance of choosing a reliable platform.

Choosing Accuracy for Your Dissertation Word Count

When exploring solutions for your dissertation word count, it’s essential to prioritize accuracy. Our online calculator stands out by allowing you to select your degree level, offering a tailored and more precise estimation of your word count.

Understanding the Dissertation Word Count Breakdown

For a more detailed breakdown based on a 10,000-word limit, let’s delve deeper into the word count allocation for each section of your dissertation:

Introduction (10% – 1000 words):

The introduction lays the groundwork for your dissertation, addressing the ‘whys’ behind your research. Dedicate 10% of your word count, equivalent to 1000 words, to this crucial section.

Literature Review (25% – 2500 words):

Analyzing past issues, the literature review is a substantial component, constituting 25% of your total word count, translating to 2500 words.

Methodology (15-20% – 1500 to 2000 words):

Answering the ‘how’ of your research, the methodology section encompasses 15-20% of your word count, ranging from 1500 to 2000 words.

Data Presentation (15% – 1500 words):

Presenting collected data, this section occupies 15% of your word count, totaling 1500 words.

Discussion, Analysis, And Data Interpretation (15-20% – 1500 to 2000 words):

Offering insights into your findings, this segment covers 15-20% of your word count, spanning from 1500 to 2000 words.

Summary, Conclusion, And Recommendations (15% – 1500 words):

Concluding your dissertation, this final section constitutes 15% of your entire dissertation or 1500 words.

Strategizing Your Dissertation Word Count

By adhering to the prescribed word count percentages for each section, you can efficiently manage your dissertation. This structured approach ensures that you allocate the appropriate word count to each vital component, facilitating a well-organized and coherent dissertation.

Ready to Take the Next Step?

If you’re ready to streamline your dissertation word count management, consider using our dissertation word count breakdown calculator. For personalized assistance, feel free to reach out to our expert team . We’re here to help you navigate the challenges of dissertation writing and ensure your success. Don’t let the word count complexities hold you back—empower your dissertation journey today!

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15000 Words Dissertation

How Many Words Per Section in a 15000 Words Dissertation?

In the majority of the cases, a dissertation is required by colleges or universities at the Masters' level and is based on primary research. Students need to know exactly the word count breakdown of this dissertation for the accurate completion of this important task. Here in this informative post, our writers answer the question, "how many words per section in a 15000 words dissertation"?

15000 Words Dissertation Structure:

Dissertation introduction:, dissertation literature review: , dissertation research methodology:, dissertation result section:, analysis or discussion section:, conclusion:, references:, are you ready to ace your degree with distinction.

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15000 Words Dissertation – Word count Breakdown and Structure

15000 Words Dissertation

Are you tackling an upcoming 15000 words dissertation? If so, don’t worry – we’ve got you enclosed. This blog will go through breaking down and structuring your 15000-words dissertation.

What Is A Dissertation?

A dissertation is an academic document students must complete during their master’s degree. ‘Dissertation’ originates from the Latin ‘Dissertates’, which means ‘ to discuss ‘. Therefore, a dissertation investigates a certain subject and offers a unique perspective. You must complete this lengthy academic paper; your degree will be insufficient without your final dissertation.

Dissertation Structure For 15000 Words Count;

The structure of a dissertation depends on the subject and the specific requirements of the university or institution.

However, a general structure or chapter distribution for a 15000 words dissertation could be as follows:

1) Introduction (about 10% of the word count):

  • Introduce the topic and provide background information on the research problem.
  • State the research question(s) and the aim(s) of the study.
  • Explain the significance of the research and its contribution to the field.

2) Literature Review (about 30% of the word count):

  • Review the existing literature on the topic and identify the research gaps.
  • Analyse and synthesize the literature to support the research question(s).
  • Critically evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the literature.

3) Methodology (about 15% of the word count):

  • Describe the research design, including the research approach, data collection methods, and data analysis techniques.
  • Justify the chosen methodology and explain how it relates to the research question(s).

4) Results (about 5% of the word count):

  • Present the research findings using tables, graphs, and charts where appropriate.
  • Describe the key results and their significance.
  • Discuss any unexpected results and their implications.

5) Discussion (about 30% of the word count):

  • Interpret the results and relate them to the research question(s).
  • Discuss the implications of the findings for the field and identify any study limitations.
  • Make recommendations for future research.

6) Conclusion (about 10% of the word count):

  • Summarize the key points of the Dissertation.
  • Restate the research question(s) and the aim(s) of the study.
  • Discuss the overall significance of the research and its contribution to the field.

7) References:

  • List all the sources cited in the dissertation, following a consistent referencing style .

Word Count Breakdown of a 15000 Words Dissertation;

A dissertation is a significant piece of academic writing that involves independent research. It presents a student’s findings on a particular topic or subject.

A dissertation of 15000 words usually consists of the following sections with a specific word count:

Introduction

The introduction is the first section of a dissertation that sets the stage for the research. It provides background information about the topic, outlines the research questions or hypotheses, and explains the significance of the study. The introductory chapter should contain 1500 words. The introduction also provides an overview of the structure of the dissertation and its key sections.

Literature Review

The literature review analyses existing research related to the Dissertation topic. It should provide an overview of the major themes and theories related to the topic. It identifies existing research gaps and explains how the proposed study will address them. This chapter should consist of 4500 words. The dissertation literature review demonstrates the student’s understanding and ability to critically evaluate the relevant literature.

Methodology

The methodology section outlines the methods and procedures used to conduct the research. It should explain the research design, sampling strategy, data collection methods, and data analysis techniques. The methodology section should consist of 2250 words for 15000 words dissertation. The methodology section should explain the study’s limitations and any potential ethical considerations.

The results section presents the findings of the research. It should be presented clearly and concisely and include tables, graphs, and other visual aids to help readers understand the data. The results section should consist of 750 words for 15000 words dissertation. The results section should also discuss the implications for the research questions or hypotheses.

The discussion section provides implications for the research questions or hypotheses. The discussion section should make a word count of 4500 words for 15000 words dissertation.

The conclusion section provides an interpretation of the findings. The conclusion section should make a word count of 1500 words for 15000 words dissertation.

Disciplines for 15000 Words Count Dissertation;

The choice of disciplines for a 15,000-word dissertation writing task depends on the research topic, research question, and the academic level of the Dissertation. However, some possible disciplines for a 15,000-word dissertation are:

  • Business: A dissertation in the field of business focus on various topics such as management, marketing, accounting, and finance.
  • Education: A dissertation in education focuses on educational policy, teacher training, and pedagogy.
  • Psychology: A psychology dissertation relates to cognitive, social, and developmental psychology.
  • Sociology: A dissertation in sociology works on topics such as social inequality, culture, and social change.
  • Law: A law dissertation focuses on human rights, criminal law, and international law.
  • Health sciences: A dissertation in health sciences covers topics such as public health, epidemiology, and healthcare management.
  • Environmental sciences: A dissertation in environmental sciences focuses on topics such as climate change, environmental policy, and sustainability.
  • Engineering: A dissertation in engineering focus on mechanical, civil, and electrical engineering.
  • Literature: A dissertation in the literature focuses on topics such as literary analysis, literary theory, and comparative literature.
  • History: A dissertation in history covers topics such as political history

Dissertation Topics with 15000 Word Count – Examples

Conclusion:.

The word count and structure of a 15,000-word dissertation should be adjusted according to subject, institution, and guidelines. A general structure for a 15000 words dissertation has shown above with all characteristics. Review the guidelines provided by the institution and the supervisor. Breaking down the word count for each section can help to manage time. This helps focus the big picture while accomplishing individual tasks faster and better. Ensure that each section receives the attention it deserves. Ultimately, the dissertation’s success depends on the research’s depth and quality and the ability to present it coherently and logically. You can take help from dissertation writing services if you want to get it done in a more professional way.

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Dissertation Word Count Breakdown

Dissertation Word Count Breakdown

3. Word count breakdown for dissertations

Introduction (800 to 1,000 words)

Literature review (2,500 to 3,000 words), methodology (1,500 to 2,000 words), results (2,500 to 3,000 words), discussion (2,500 to 3,000 words), conclusion (500 to 800 words).

4. Conclusion

5. About the Author

Writing a dissertation is one of the most challenging tasks you will ever undertake as a graduate student. It’s a significant academic work requiring much research, analysis, and critical thinking. Determining the word count is one of the most important aspects of writing a dissertation. This article will discuss the dissertation word count breakdown for dissertations ranging from 10,000 to 15,000 words.

Mostly the dissertation word length is between 10,000 words to 15,000 words but some may even go up to the level of 30,000 words

Before we dive into the dissertation word count breakdown, it’s essential to understand what a dissertation is and what it entails. A dissertation is a lengthy academic writing usually required for a doctoral degree. It is an original piece of research that contributes to a particular field of study. Dissertations typically require an extensive literature review, research methodology, analysis of data, and a discussion of the findings.

The breakdown of word count for a dissertation can differ based on the field of study, the academic institution, and the research subject. Nonetheless, a typical dissertation usually consists of 10,000 to 15,000 words. In the following paragraphs, we will analyze the word count allocation for each chapter of a dissertation.

The initial chapter of a dissertation is called the introduction, and it plays a crucial role in establishing the paper’s tone. It should give an outline of the research topic and research questions and explain the significance of the study. Additionally, it should provide a brief review of the relevant literature and describe the methodology used in the research.

It’s essential to make the introduction clear, engaging, and brief. The primary goal is to capture the reader’s attention and persuade them of the research’s importance and relevance. 800 to 1,000 words are recommended word count for the introduction.

The literature review is an essential component of your dissertation, as it presents an overview of the current research on your chosen topic. This chapter requires you to analyze and assess the literature to determine where research gaps exist and how your study can contribute to filling them. Additionally, you need to explain the theoretical foundation of your research and validate the research methodology.

The literature review should be comprehensive, and you should use credible sources to support your arguments. You should also organize the literature review logically and coherently. The word count for the literature review should be between 2,500 to 3,000 words.

In the methodology chapter of your dissertation, you will outline the details of how you carried out your research. This portion will detail your research approach, methods for collecting data, and procedures for analyzing data. You should also discuss the limitations of your research and explain how you addressed them.

The methodology should be detailed, and you should provide a rationale for each decision you made in the research process. You should also discuss the ethical considerations of your research. The methodology chapter’s word count should be 1,500 to 2,000 words.

The section of your dissertation that showcases the outcomes of your study is referred to as the results chapter. Here, you need to present your data in a well-structured and comprehensible way. You should also include a description of the importance of your results and how they are relevant to your research queries.

Where appropriate, the results should be presented using tables, graphs, and figures. You should also interpret the data and discuss any unexpected or contradictory results. The word count for the results chapter should be between 2,500 to 3,000 words.

The dissertation’s discussion chapter is responsible for analyzing and interpreting the research results, forming conclusions, and establishing their relevance in the context of existing literature. It is important to relate the research outcomes to the field of study and explore their contributions while acknowledging any limitations. The discussion should also provide suggestions for future research and gaps that need to be addressed. To structure the discussion, it is important to focus on the research questions and hypotheses and provide a comprehensive analysis of the findings.

The conclusion is the final chapter of your dissertation, and it summarizes the key findings of your research. In this section, restate your research questions and hypotheses and summarise your results. You should also discuss the implications of your findings for the field and provide recommendations for future research.

The conclusion should be concise and well-written. You should also avoid introducing new information in this section. The word count for the conclusion should be between 500 to 800 words.

The references section of your dissertation lists all the sources you cited in your paper. It should be organized alphabetically by the author’s last name and follow the citation style required by your university. You should include all sources you cited in the text of your dissertation, and the references section should be comprehensive.

The appendices section in your dissertation is an optional part that provides supplementary information that backs up your research but isn’t essential to include in the main body of your dissertation. This section may include raw data, transcripts, survey questionnaires, and other supporting materials. 

You should label each appendix and refer to it in the text of your dissertation where appropriate.

In conclusion, crafting a dissertation is a demanding and time-consuming undertaking, but it can also be a fulfilling one. The breakdown of word count for a dissertation may differ based on the academic field and research topic, but it usually involves an introduction, literature review, methodology, results, discussion, conclusion, references, and appendices.

It’s important to plan and organize your dissertation carefully and to give yourself enough time to conduct thorough research, analysis, and writing. By following the dissertation word count breakdown and using the appropriate structure, you can create a well-written and compelling dissertation contributes to your field of study.

About the Author:  Mark Edmonds is an experienced academic writer and researcher at Academic Assignments, a leading provider of high-quality assignment writing services . With over 10 years of experience in the academic writing industry, Mark has helped numerous students achieve their academic goals through his exceptional writing skills and attention to detail.

Mark has a strong background in research and has written dissertations, research papers, and other academic assignments across various disciplines. He is committed to providing students with top-notch dissertation help tailored to their unique needs and requirements.

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How Many Words In A Dissertation? [A Word Count Guide]

/ By Alan Reiner

/ September 6, 2022

When students begin writing a dissertation, the first thing they look for is the dissertation’s structure and breakdown.

It can be much easier to write a dissertation if you are aware of how many words each chapter should contain. 

One of the most frequent mistakes students make when writing their dissertations is underwriting or overwriting. 

Because of this, it’s critical to establish up front the recommended word count for each chapter of the dissertation. 

Because it gives you the foundation for writing a dissertation, the format and breakdown of the number of words are as crucial to dissertation writing as a building’s plan or a map.

Each institution also has its own standards and regulations.

Your professor should provide you a dissertation writing prompt or dissertation template if you are required to write a dissertation. 

You may then create your schedule taking into account the specifics of the word count for each of the sections.

The university where you are enrolled sets the dissertation word limit, and the length of a master’s dissertation may differ from that of a doctoral dissertation or an undergraduate dissertation.

Most dissertations have a word count of between 10,000 and 15,000 words, however some can exceed 30,000 words.

This article will discuss how to format and complete your dissertation according to word count guidelines based on a 10,000 word dissertation.

What Is A Dissertation?

In comparison to essays or reports, a dissertation is a longer piece of writing that calls for more research and wider reading.

The dissertation gives you the chance to explore a subject that interests you from planning to conclusion. 

Additionally, it will provide you the chance to show off and develop particular abilities that are highly valued by both prospective companies and university admissions.

Along with critical thinking and writing skills, this also involves problem-solving and time-management abilities.

There are two main sorts of dissertations: those with primary research components, which call for you to collect your own data, and those with secondary research components, which rely on data gathered by other researchers.

You get the chance to conduct study on a subject that interests you in a dissertation.

You can get ideas from a variety of places, such as a recent news story you watched, recent advancements in your area of study, an experience at work, or a personal agenda. 

Whatever the subject, you need to make absolutely sure it will hold your interest for a long time, that you can finish it by the deadline, and that you are able to contribute something unique to your industry. 

Now you know the basics of what a dissertation is, let’s look at how to structure it in terms of the word count.

Introduction: 1000 Words

An introduction is the first major chapter of a dissertation. A dissertation’s initial chapter makes up 10% of the entire document.

The first section of the dissertation should be 1000 words long if it will be 10,000 words in length. 

You must establish your study topic, present your research questions, declare the dissertation’s aims, and give a general summary of the dissertation’s structure in these 1000 words.

Literature Review: 3000 Words

A dissertation’s literature review chapter makes up 30% of the entire document.

The dissertation’s chapter on literature review will be 3000 words long in a 10,000 word dissertation. 

You must explore the gap in the existing literature, adopt a methodological stance toward the subject, suggest potential answers to unanswered issues, and, with the aid of the new data, strengthen the body of current knowledge pertinent to the dissertation topic idea in these 3000 words.

Research Methodology: 1500 Words

A dissertation’s research technique chapter makes up 15% of the entire document.

The research technique chapter of a 10,000 word dissertation should be 1500 words long. 

You must describe the dissertation’s overall format and organization in around 1500 words, as well as examine the data in great detail and give a thorough explanation of how the research techniques were evaluated.

Results: 500 Words

A dissertation’s results or findings chapter makes up 5% of the entire document.

The conclusions or results part of a 10,000 word dissertation is 500 words long.

A student’s analysis of a dissertation’s findings must go into great detail in these 500 words.

Analysis/Discussion: 3000 Words

A dissertation’s analysis and discussion chapter makes up 30% of the entire document.

The analysis and discussion chapter of the dissertation should be 3000 words long, just like the literature review.

You must give a thorough overview of the consequences of the findings that are pertinent to the dissertation’s central issue in these 3000 words.

Conclusion And Suggestions: 1000 Words

A dissertation’s conclusions and suggestions chapter makes up 10% of the entire dissertation.

The conclusions and suggestions chapter of a 10,000 word dissertation is 1000 words long.

You must summarize your dissertation’s main ideas in these 1000 words. The dissertation’s last chapter should leave the reader with a clear comprehension of the thesis.

References Section

To prevent plagiarism, students must cite reliable sources in their writing. The references section is not usually included in the word count specified by the university. 

The amount of references is typically not capped by universities because it relies on the body of literature on a particular subject. 

You shouldn’t, however, overlook any study or research project in your field.

To support your theory and demonstrate the importance and necessity of your study topic, you must verify the most recent references. 

For the literature review chapter, you also require books, journals, research papers, and previously published pieces.

Final Thoughts

A major and extensive research project on a particular subject is the dissertation.

A dissertation is typically required of a student during his final year of study. The topic for the student’s dissertation might be chosen in accordance with his interests. 

After deciding on a topic for your dissertation, you must thoroughly research it. Working with an advisor is essential for students completing undergraduate dissertations. 

The requirements and instructions of the advisor must therefore be followed by the students as they create their dissertation, including the word count limitations. 

When you’re asked to complete a dissertation, instructions on how to do so are given. The word limit of the dissertation is mentioned in these recommendations. 

Reading your advisor’s prerequisites and guidelines and following the structure outlined above is the best way to adhere to the word count specified.

Alan Reiner

Alan Reiner

Hi, my name is Alan Reiner and I have been in the writing industry for almost seven years. I write articles that can span from 200 words all the way to 20,000 words every single day. How do I do it? With a lot of determination. All my way through school and college, I hated long-form assignments. I could never get into the groove of working on one piece for an extended period of time. My pieces were always late because I didn’t have the motivation to type them, let alone edit them.

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Guide For 15000 Words Dissertation Structure

  • Posted on September 28, 2021

The Dissertation Component 

Masters showed certificate programs incorporate accommodation of a dissertation which might be the composed yield of a viable or investigational project. Students should utilize the experience and direction of staff individuals and plan their advancement through the Dissertation with staff assistance, particularly the director. 

The Dissertation is discernable from surveyed courses by the more noteworthy profundity of examination, analysis, understanding, and investigation illustrated. Masters students are not relied upon to investigate their work as thoroughly as a higher exploration degree is ordinary. Students, administrators and analysts ought to know that the masters dissertation is essentially an educating, learning and analyzing medium, not a vehicle for introducing examination results to the public and friends. The Dissertation might change in the expansiveness of inclusion; however, it should have an unmistakable concentration with quantifiable targets and limits, feasible in the time and word limit accessible. The overall significance of hypothetical and investigational content additionally changes. A few projects expect students to direct essential experimental work; others don’t. Investigational work should add something to the review which isn’t accessible in writing and be sensible since time is running short and assets accessible. 

Suppose you have questions or worries about the dissertation interaction, the distribution of management, or the degree of help you are getting during the writing of your oversight. In that case, you should contact your Program Director/Subject Officer. 

Dissertation Supervision 

Bosses are regularly chosen because they have mastery in the field or subject picked for the Dissertation and are accessible and able to help the student during the time of the study. Explicit aptitude may not generally be accessible for all dissertation themes; however, broad ability in the wide space of the Dissertation usually is satisfactory for a Masters dissertation. Students and managers are relied upon to concur a schedule in writing; this will determine what focuses student and boss will be in touch with. There ought to be at least 3 management gatherings held during the dissertation time frame. 

A short composed proposition or idea note ought to be ready ahead of your first gathering with your administrator, demonstrating the points and legitimization of the Dissertation, detailed exploration questions, writing and insightful work to be covered and a temporary layout of part titles and sub-headings. There ought to likewise be a composed arrangement or plan demonstrating how the work will be embraced and recognizing basic focuses when the director and student should meet or, in any case, be in touch with one another. 

Students have the liabilities to meet their chiefs consistently and to deliver material at concurred times. Students encountering hardships in gathering with managers, or other staff individuals, should contact the Program Director/Subject Officer right away. 

Administrators have to react speedily and fittingly by making useful ideas both at the arranging stage and because of the submitted material. The obligation regarding the scholarly nature of the Dissertation is, at last, the student’s separated from everyone else. 

Students ought to be mindful that an administrator’s endorsement and the accompanying of the exhortation and direction of the chief convey no assurance of achievement at assessment. Any such endorsing or directing remarks can’t establish the reason for ensuing allure. 

Students ought to know about the specific significance of recognizing crafted by others and avoid plagiarism. 

Students ought to consistently reach out to their dissertation manager and additionally Program Director when any issues arise. 

Dissertation Submission 

Printed duplicates of the Dissertation are not needed. Students should present their Dissertation electronically  only  using Learn no later than 4 pm on Thursday twelfth August 2021, except if you have gotten affirmation of an elective cutoff time from the School. You should check the Learn site to affirm your cutoff time and any direction explicit to your program. You ought to present the Dissertation to the pertinent drop enclose Learn. Kindly guarantee that you incorporate your assessment number for the sake of the report that you transfer to Learn. You should finish a Declaration of Own Work on Learning before you want to get to the dissertation dropbox, so make sure to permit time for this before the cutoff time. 

Each work ought to be made to stick to cutoff times. In case of late accommodation, the School of Literatures, Languages and Cultures maintains the University’s standard punishment for late accommodation of coursework. 

On the off chance that uncommon conditions forestall you fulfilling the time constraint, you ought to apply online for an expansion before the cutoff time. 

Word Count 

The Dissertation will be 15,000 words for most projects; nonetheless, a few projects have varieties in word counts, so you should follow the bearings of your Program Director if you have been given a dissertation length other than 15,000 words. The School doesn’t allow an edge of 10% one or the other way. Extraordinary consent is needed from the Program Director, in dissertation writing that stretch out past the expressed word limit. The word count for dissertations excludes the list of sources, cover sheet, theoretical (whenever required) or supplements; the word count incorporates in-text references, tables of substance, citations, commentaries, rundown of figures, subtitles, etc. any remaining components of your submitted Dissertation. 

Dissertation Formatting 

Since the dissertations are checked secretly, it is fundamental that you guarantee that your name doesn’t appear in the Dissertation. 

  • You should exclude any affirmations as these might think twice about the obscurity of the stamping system. 
  • For your report settings, use A4 paper size with standard edges and a 12-point text style, ideally Times or Garamond; twofold space and page number the whole record. Fundamentally, line dispersing is 1.5, aside from sonnets, which ought to be single divided. 
  • You ought to incorporate a cover sheet (gave on Learn). 
  • In-text cites under 40 words need to show up in rearranged commas followed by their reference. Any statement above 40 words ought to be introduced as indented statements, without modified commas, in-text style 11, trailed by the reference. 
  • On the off chance that you reworded a researcher’s idea, you need to give the reference in sections in-text. 
  • To ease cross-referencing inside your Dissertation, if it’s not too much trouble, number the lines on your ST and TT if you decide to do interpretation and editorial. 
  • Spell-check and language structure take a look at the Dissertation. In case this isn’t adequate to create comprehensible and exact English, have your Dissertation proofread. If you have decided to compose an interpretation and editorial, just the analysis can be proofread. 
  • Except if you are given explicit guidance else, you are free to utilize British or American spelling as long as the picked spelling is applied efficiently and reliably all through your work. 
  • A program might have a required referencing style; kindly counsel your director or individual coach to check whether a specific referencing style is required. For the most part, something else suggested referencing framework is Harvard; be that as it may, you are permitted and are allowed to utilize another framework (like MLA) as long as it is applied methodically and reliably all through your Dissertation.

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How Many Words is a University Dissertation?

In University by Think Student Editor April 18, 2021 Leave a Comment

Nations that use a British academic system require a body of work to be produced during the end of an ‘undergraduate’ or ‘masters degree’. The contents of a dissertation are used to help determine your final grade at the end of your degree.

A dissertation will also test your abilities to research and create work in response to a topic explored independently – overall, it can showcase the skills you’ve acquired during your time at university. So, how should you approach your dissertation?

The dissertation word count for most university programmes is between 15,000 and 20,000 words, however, these can alternate significantly solely based upon the course and what university you are attending. Whilst this can be used as a guide, dissertation lengths will depend on the subject you are researching and the depth that the subject area can be explored to you should aim to contain as much detail and research as possible. To reach your word count, you should make sure that your work is divided into around 4-5 chapters, including a clear introduction to your topic and a conclusion to round up the contents of what you’ve written.

Now that you’re familiar with the word count and structure of a dissertation, you may be considering what topic you’d like to explore. Read on further for some tips and ideas to help strengthen your piece.

Table of Contents

How can you choose a dissertation topic?

The first thing you need to do when writing a dissertation is to choose a topic. By becoming familiar with your topic or question area it will allow your researching and writing to flow effortlessly. When you choose your topic there are a few factors you will need to consider, such as:

  • Your department’s requirements.
  • Your areas of interest and pre-existing knowledge.
  • The relevance (social, scientific and practical).
  • Availability of resources to research.
  • Your time schedule.

It’s vastly important to stick to the requirements of your module for your dissertation. Whilst some programmes may have stricter requirements, for example: providing you with a restricted list of topics and questions to consider, other programmes may have just provided you with a deadline and word count.

Before delving into a niche field of research, it will help to choose a broader field that you know of, researching into it and choosing something within that to focus upon . For example:( The broad area is ‘Economic History’, you will narrow it down to ‘European Economic History’.

You could also make this even more in-depth by focusing upon one place in Europe and their personal assets.) It is important to choose a small area, that is still large enough to have lots of resources like books, websites and alternate research to build a case around.

How do you create an interesting dissertation?

Choosing a topic for your dissertation can be difficult but some key factors will give you the ability to navigate around your subject area and narrow your ideas down. Once you have an idea it’s important to follow certain patterns and rules to make your work interesting. To start with, you should select a topic that you find interesting , that is also unique and different.

Once you have a topic you are passionate about, you’ll find that your motivation to complete the work will be increased. By choosing a unique research topic, it allows you to develop your original ideas and opinions which will make your dissertation more enjoyable to read.

Another major importance to deliver an interesting dissertation is to do your research . Delve deeper into the subject and don’t just include surface-level information. Research your question and topic areas before you begin writing to ensure it can not be answered with a simple ‘yes’ or ‘no’ as this will make you struggle with reaching your word count.

You may also want to change the methods that you’re using to write up your dissertation. If you’re typing, try switching to handwriting some ideas. A change in the presentation of your work may help to get your ideas flowing again. Don’t be afraid to use your resources to plan and edit work.

During writing, one of the most important tips to create a high standard piece of academic work is to not be too vague or narrow during your explanations. This links in with the importance of research and thorough planning before you commit to a topic area, you want something that can be explored in-depth and have many different viewpoints and subcategories that you can include.

Each sentence and paragraph that you write should be a contribution to the overall piece. Depending on the topic you’ve chosen, it should aim to either, answer your question, contribute to your research or strengthen both or one side of an argument.

What should you do if you’re struggling with your dissertation?

When writing your dissertation, you’re bound to hit a point where you struggle with writing- be that in the beginning, middle or end, you’re not alone in the difficulties of this assignment. Many students that are required to write a dissertation will hit difficulties but still manage to complete and triumph with their writing.

Whilst you can research and deepen your ideas through reading other pieces and articles, there are also other ways to get over your writer’s block, such as taking time out to focus upon yourself and creating a work plan on when to add and study your dissertation.

Having a plan and a schedule allows you to separate your education and home life so that you’re not engulfed in the pressures and stress of turning in your work on time.

There are many websites and resources online that can help you create and plan your time to help boost motivation and mood. If you’re needing help with time management, check out this useful website . Alternatively, if you’re looking for a template on how to create a study schedule, press here.

For example, you could use post notes and flashcards for small snippets of information you might want to include later, write down any thoughts in rough notes, ensuring you won’t forget.

You can also draw, create mind maps and plans, colour coordinate any ideas you want to research and write about. Making your work seem ‘fun’ will boost your motivation to work significantly and will help you get back to writing.

If you struggle to connect or make contact with other students for whatever reason, there are resources online that are easily accessible, for example, ‘The Student Room’ which creates a platform for other young people to chat and ask each other questions. Also, make sure to check out any other articles on ‘Think Student’ .

The last thing that you can do is to contact your mentor or course tutor for their advice. Don’t be afraid to ask for help, as they aren’t there to punish you, they will help you get back on track and guide you to a good piece of work.

What can you do if you fail your dissertation?

Once you have submitted your dissertation, it will be sent to be marked and evaluated. The pass mark for your piece of work is 50%, as with all modules and academic work. However, if under any circumstances your dissertation doesn’t reach the pass mark, you will be given an opportunity to revisit your work and resubmit a new, updated version.

Despite your opportunity to resubmit your dissertation, there are a few significant implications that will affect you. As resubmission occurs during the end of the programme you’re studying, if you’re a student studying in the UK with a Visa then this may impact you and cause a few problems.

If this applies to you, whether you are working on your dissertation or have already submitted it, make sure to contact your supervisor/tutors to explore your options and possible issues beforehand.

Alternatively, if you are studying without a Visa and there are no other possible issues regarding your educational background, resubmission could still have an impact on you.

Resubmitting will mean that your university graduation will be delayed – unless an improved version can be submitted very quickly. With all resubmissions, the highest mark that you can achieve for the new dissertation is 50%.

Remember – if you have fallen behind, work out if there is anything that can be worked out to get you caught up, if not the deadline may be able to be adapted to give more work time. It’s important to remember that your tutors and university want you to succeed , meaning they’ll do anything that is in their power to help you.

Advice for new dissertation writers.

After reading this article, I hope that you have clarity over the subject of dissertations. They can be tricky to approach and to achieve the grade you’re aiming for, but with a clear topic, confidence and managing your time appropriately you will be able to create a great piece of work .

Whilst you should still remain aware of deadlines and word counts, you should make your key focus upon writing about a topic you are passionate about, wording your dissertation in a clear, easy to read way. Write and research a piece that you would enjoy reading yourself, if you’re not happy with and passionate about the subject you have chosen it will show within your work.

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Dissertations 1: getting started: starting your dissertation.

  • Starting Your Dissertation
  • Choosing A Topic and Researching
  • Devising An Approach/Method
  • Thinking Of A Title
  • Writing A Proposal

What is a Dissertation?

A dissertation is a research project completed as part of an undergraduate or postgraduate degree. Typically, a dissertation will enable you to present your findings in response to a question that you propose yourself. It is probably the longest piece of academic work you will produce. At undergraduate level, word count requirements can range anywhere from 5,000 to 8,000 words while a Masters level dissertation can be 10,000 to 15,000 words long! 

Why are you required to write a dissertation? 

A dissertation is a core requirement of most university degrees. 

The dissertation will enhance your employability. For instance, you will develop transferable skills in inter-personal communication, data collection and analysis, report writing and effective time-management.  

While it is demanding, writing a dissertation is your chance to explore, in depth, a topic that interests you. Therefore, ensuring you choose a topic you are passionate about will make your experience more rewarding and even enjoyable! 

Supervision Advice

A supervisor will be assigned to you to assist with guidance on how to prepare, produce and improve your dissertation.  

The supervisor’s role is to: 

Assist in the organisation of the project in the early stages of preparation 

Advise you on the feasibility of what you plan to do 

Advise on methods and ethics of your research  

The supervisor is not expected to: 

Proofread your work 

Provide you with a topic or research question 

Direct the research  

Ensure that a dissertation is of sufficient quality to pass: this is your responsibility 

To get the best out of your time with your supervisor, you should: 

Check formal requirements early 

Check arrangements for supervisions and how your supervisor likes to work 

Organise regular supervision meetings and prepare work for each one 

Let your supervisor know how you work best 

Using Dissertation Marking Criteria

Your dissertation, like your previous assessments, will be marked against a set of assessment criteria which is published in your module or course handbook and posted on Blackboard.  

Assessment criteria are intended to: 

Ensure you meet the learning outcomes. 

Help you understand how your work is assessed. 

Allow tutors to focus their feedback. They will let you know what you are doing well and what needs improvement. 

Dissertation assessment criteria usually specifies what the tutor expects in terms of: 

Clarity: have you expressed your ideas clearly? 

Relevance: does your work fit into/fill a gap in existing research/literature on similar topics? 

Originality: does it offer a fresh perspective on a topic? 

Meeting course requirements: does it meet the word count / deadlines, for example? 

Before starting your dissertation, it is essential that you check what is expected of you and how your work will be graded. It is also useful to regularly check what you have written every few weeks and after you have finished to see if you are on track to meet the assessment criteria.  

First Steps

Ready to get started but uncertain how to begin? These are normally the first steps of dissertation writing:  

Choose a topic 

Conduct a literature search 

Devise research question(s) / hypotheses 

Devise your approach (e.g. if undertaking primary research, you will need to devise your methodology, methods, etc.) 

Think of a title 

Plan your time 

Write a proposal (if requested)

These steps are addressed in the tabs of this guide.

  • Next: Choosing A Topic and Researching >>
  • Last Updated: Aug 1, 2023 2:36 PM
  • URL: https://libguides.westminster.ac.uk/starting-your-dissertation

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Frequently asked questions

How long is a dissertation.

Dissertation word counts vary widely across different fields, institutions, and levels of education:

  • An undergraduate dissertation is typically 8,000–15,000 words
  • A master’s dissertation is typically 12,000–50,000 words
  • A PhD thesis is typically book-length: 70,000–100,000 words

However, none of these are strict guidelines – your word count may be lower or higher than the numbers stated here. Always check the guidelines provided by your university to determine how long your own dissertation should be.

Frequently asked questions: Knowledge Base

Methodology refers to the overarching strategy and rationale of your research. Developing your methodology involves studying the research methods used in your field and the theories or principles that underpin them, in order to choose the approach that best matches your objectives.

Methods are the specific tools and procedures you use to collect and analyse data (e.g. interviews, experiments , surveys , statistical tests ).

In a dissertation or scientific paper, the methodology chapter or methods section comes after the introduction and before the results , discussion and conclusion .

Depending on the length and type of document, you might also include a literature review or theoretical framework before the methodology.

Quantitative research deals with numbers and statistics, while qualitative research deals with words and meanings.

Quantitative methods allow you to test a hypothesis by systematically collecting and analysing data, while qualitative methods allow you to explore ideas and experiences in depth.

Reliability and validity are both about how well a method measures something:

  • Reliability refers to the  consistency of a measure (whether the results can be reproduced under the same conditions).
  • Validity   refers to the  accuracy of a measure (whether the results really do represent what they are supposed to measure).

If you are doing experimental research , you also have to consider the internal and external validity of your experiment.

A sample is a subset of individuals from a larger population. Sampling means selecting the group that you will actually collect data from in your research.

For example, if you are researching the opinions of students in your university, you could survey a sample of 100 students.

Statistical sampling allows you to test a hypothesis about the characteristics of a population. There are various sampling methods you can use to ensure that your sample is representative of the population as a whole.

There are several reasons to conduct a literature review at the beginning of a research project:

  • To familiarise yourself with the current state of knowledge on your topic
  • To ensure that you’re not just repeating what others have already done
  • To identify gaps in knowledge and unresolved problems that your research can address
  • To develop your theoretical framework and methodology
  • To provide an overview of the key findings and debates on the topic

Writing the literature review shows your reader how your work relates to existing research and what new insights it will contribute.

A literature review is a survey of scholarly sources (such as books, journal articles, and theses) related to a specific topic or research question .

It is often written as part of a dissertation , thesis, research paper , or proposal .

The literature review usually comes near the beginning of your  dissertation . After the introduction , it grounds your research in a scholarly field and leads directly to your theoretical framework or methodology .

Harvard referencing uses an author–date system. Sources are cited by the author’s last name and the publication year in brackets. Each Harvard in-text citation corresponds to an entry in the alphabetised reference list at the end of the paper.

Vancouver referencing uses a numerical system. Sources are cited by a number in parentheses or superscript. Each number corresponds to a full reference at the end of the paper.

A Harvard in-text citation should appear in brackets every time you quote, paraphrase, or refer to information from a source.

The citation can appear immediately after the quotation or paraphrase, or at the end of the sentence. If you’re quoting, place the citation outside of the quotation marks but before any other punctuation like a comma or full stop.

In Harvard referencing, up to three author names are included in an in-text citation or reference list entry. When there are four or more authors, include only the first, followed by ‘ et al. ’

A bibliography should always contain every source you cited in your text. Sometimes a bibliography also contains other sources that you used in your research, but did not cite in the text.

MHRA doesn’t specify a rule about this, so check with your supervisor to find out exactly what should be included in your bibliography.

Footnote numbers should appear in superscript (e.g. 11 ). You can use the ‘Insert footnote’ button in Word to do this automatically; it’s in the ‘References’ tab at the top.

Footnotes always appear after the quote or paraphrase they relate to. MHRA generally recommends placing footnote numbers at the end of the sentence, immediately after any closing punctuation, like this. 12

In situations where this might be awkward or misleading, such as a long sentence containing multiple quotations, footnotes can also be placed at the end of a clause mid-sentence, like this; 13 note that they still come after any punctuation.

When a source has two or three authors, name all of them in your MHRA references . When there are four or more, use only the first name, followed by ‘and others’:

Note that in the bibliography, only the author listed first has their name inverted. The names of additional authors and those of translators or editors are written normally.

A citation should appear wherever you use information or ideas from a source, whether by quoting or paraphrasing its content.

In Vancouver style , you have some flexibility about where the citation number appears in the sentence – usually directly after mentioning the author’s name is best, but simply placing it at the end of the sentence is an acceptable alternative, as long as it’s clear what it relates to.

In Vancouver style , when you refer to a source with multiple authors in your text, you should only name the first author followed by ‘et al.’. This applies even when there are only two authors.

In your reference list, include up to six authors. For sources with seven or more authors, list the first six followed by ‘et al.’.

The words ‘ dissertation ’ and ‘thesis’ both refer to a large written research project undertaken to complete a degree, but they are used differently depending on the country:

  • In the UK, you write a dissertation at the end of a bachelor’s or master’s degree, and you write a thesis to complete a PhD.
  • In the US, it’s the other way around: you may write a thesis at the end of a bachelor’s or master’s degree, and you write a dissertation to complete a PhD.

The main difference is in terms of scale – a dissertation is usually much longer than the other essays you complete during your degree.

Another key difference is that you are given much more independence when working on a dissertation. You choose your own dissertation topic , and you have to conduct the research and write the dissertation yourself (with some assistance from your supervisor).

At the bachelor’s and master’s levels, the dissertation is usually the main focus of your final year. You might work on it (alongside other classes) for the entirety of the final year, or for the last six months. This includes formulating an idea, doing the research, and writing up.

A PhD thesis takes a longer time, as the thesis is the main focus of the degree. A PhD thesis might be being formulated and worked on for the whole four years of the degree program. The writing process alone can take around 18 months.

References should be included in your text whenever you use words, ideas, or information from a source. A source can be anything from a book or journal article to a website or YouTube video.

If you don’t acknowledge your sources, you can get in trouble for plagiarism .

Your university should tell you which referencing style to follow. If you’re unsure, check with a supervisor. Commonly used styles include:

  • Harvard referencing , the most commonly used style in UK universities.
  • MHRA , used in humanities subjects.
  • APA , used in the social sciences.
  • Vancouver , used in biomedicine.
  • OSCOLA , used in law.

Your university may have its own referencing style guide.

If you are allowed to choose which style to follow, we recommend Harvard referencing, as it is a straightforward and widely used style.

To avoid plagiarism , always include a reference when you use words, ideas or information from a source. This shows that you are not trying to pass the work of others off as your own.

You must also properly quote or paraphrase the source. If you’re not sure whether you’ve done this correctly, you can use the Scribbr Plagiarism Checker to find and correct any mistakes.

In Harvard style , when you quote directly from a source that includes page numbers, your in-text citation must include a page number. For example: (Smith, 2014, p. 33).

You can also include page numbers to point the reader towards a passage that you paraphrased . If you refer to the general ideas or findings of the source as a whole, you don’t need to include a page number.

When you want to use a quote but can’t access the original source, you can cite it indirectly. In the in-text citation , first mention the source you want to refer to, and then the source in which you found it. For example:

It’s advisable to avoid indirect citations wherever possible, because they suggest you don’t have full knowledge of the sources you’re citing. Only use an indirect citation if you can’t reasonably gain access to the original source.

In Harvard style referencing , to distinguish between two sources by the same author that were published in the same year, you add a different letter after the year for each source:

  • (Smith, 2019a)
  • (Smith, 2019b)

Add ‘a’ to the first one you cite, ‘b’ to the second, and so on. Do the same in your bibliography or reference list .

To create a hanging indent for your bibliography or reference list :

  • Highlight all the entries
  • Click on the arrow in the bottom-right corner of the ‘Paragraph’ tab in the top menu.
  • In the pop-up window, under ‘Special’ in the ‘Indentation’ section, use the drop-down menu to select ‘Hanging’.
  • Then close the window with ‘OK’.

Though the terms are sometimes used interchangeably, there is a difference in meaning:

  • A reference list only includes sources cited in the text – every entry corresponds to an in-text citation .
  • A bibliography also includes other sources which were consulted during the research but not cited.

It’s important to assess the reliability of information found online. Look for sources from established publications and institutions with expertise (e.g. peer-reviewed journals and government agencies).

The CRAAP test (currency, relevance, authority, accuracy, purpose) can aid you in assessing sources, as can our list of credible sources . You should generally avoid citing websites like Wikipedia that can be edited by anyone – instead, look for the original source of the information in the “References” section.

You can generally omit page numbers in your in-text citations of online sources which don’t have them. But when you quote or paraphrase a specific passage from a particularly long online source, it’s useful to find an alternate location marker.

For text-based sources, you can use paragraph numbers (e.g. ‘para. 4’) or headings (e.g. ‘under “Methodology”’). With video or audio sources, use a timestamp (e.g. ‘10:15’).

In the acknowledgements of your thesis or dissertation, you should first thank those who helped you academically or professionally, such as your supervisor, funders, and other academics.

Then you can include personal thanks to friends, family members, or anyone else who supported you during the process.

Yes, it’s important to thank your supervisor(s) in the acknowledgements section of your thesis or dissertation .

Even if you feel your supervisor did not contribute greatly to the final product, you still should acknowledge them, if only for a very brief thank you. If you do not include your supervisor, it may be seen as a snub.

The acknowledgements are generally included at the very beginning of your thesis or dissertation, directly after the title page and before the abstract .

In a thesis or dissertation, the acknowledgements should usually be no longer than one page. There is no minimum length.

You may acknowledge God in your thesis or dissertation acknowledgements , but be sure to follow academic convention by also thanking the relevant members of academia, as well as family, colleagues, and friends who helped you.

All level 1 and 2 headings should be included in your table of contents . That means the titles of your chapters and the main sections within them.

The contents should also include all appendices and the lists of tables and figures, if applicable, as well as your reference list .

Do not include the acknowledgements or abstract   in the table of contents.

To automatically insert a table of contents in Microsoft Word, follow these steps:

  • Apply heading styles throughout the document.
  • In the references section in the ribbon, locate the Table of Contents group.
  • Click the arrow next to the Table of Contents icon and select Custom Table of Contents.
  • Select which levels of headings you would like to include in the table of contents.

Make sure to update your table of contents if you move text or change headings. To update, simply right click and select Update Field.

The table of contents in a thesis or dissertation always goes between your abstract and your introduction.

An abbreviation is a shortened version of an existing word, such as Dr for Doctor. In contrast, an acronym uses the first letter of each word to create a wholly new word, such as UNESCO (an acronym for the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization).

Your dissertation sometimes contains a list of abbreviations .

As a rule of thumb, write the explanation in full the first time you use an acronym or abbreviation. You can then proceed with the shortened version. However, if the abbreviation is very common (like UK or PC), then you can just use the abbreviated version straight away.

Be sure to add each abbreviation in your list of abbreviations !

If you only used a few abbreviations in your thesis or dissertation, you don’t necessarily need to include a list of abbreviations .

If your abbreviations are numerous, or if you think they won’t be known to your audience, it’s never a bad idea to add one. They can also improve readability, minimising confusion about abbreviations unfamiliar to your reader.

A list of abbreviations is a list of all the abbreviations you used in your thesis or dissertation. It should appear at the beginning of your document, immediately after your table of contents . It should always be in alphabetical order.

Fishbone diagrams have a few different names that are used interchangeably, including herringbone diagram, cause-and-effect diagram, and Ishikawa diagram.

These are all ways to refer to the same thing– a problem-solving approach that uses a fish-shaped diagram to model possible root causes of problems and troubleshoot solutions.

Fishbone diagrams (also called herringbone diagrams, cause-and-effect diagrams, and Ishikawa diagrams) are most popular in fields of quality management. They are also commonly used in nursing and healthcare, or as a brainstorming technique for students.

Some synonyms and near synonyms of among include:

  • In the company of
  • In the middle of
  • Surrounded by

Some synonyms and near synonyms of between  include:

  • In the space separating
  • In the time separating

In spite of   is a preposition used to mean ‘ regardless of ‘, ‘notwithstanding’, or ‘even though’.

It’s always used in a subordinate clause to contrast with the information given in the main clause of a sentence (e.g., ‘Amy continued to watch TV, in spite of the time’).

Despite   is a preposition used to mean ‘ regardless of ‘, ‘notwithstanding’, or ‘even though’.

It’s used in a subordinate clause to contrast with information given in the main clause of a sentence (e.g., ‘Despite the stress, Joe loves his job’).

‘Log in’ is a phrasal verb meaning ‘connect to an electronic device, system, or app’. The preposition ‘to’ is often used directly after the verb; ‘in’ and ‘to’ should be written as two separate words (e.g., ‘ log in to the app to update privacy settings’).

‘Log into’ is sometimes used instead of ‘log in to’, but this is generally considered incorrect (as is ‘login to’).

Some synonyms and near synonyms of ensure include:

  • Make certain

Some synonyms and near synonyms of assure  include:

Rest assured is an expression meaning ‘you can be certain’ (e.g., ‘Rest assured, I will find your cat’). ‘Assured’ is the adjectival form of the verb assure , meaning ‘convince’ or ‘persuade’.

Some synonyms and near synonyms for council include:

There are numerous synonyms and near synonyms for the two meanings of counsel :

AI writing tools can be used to perform a variety of tasks.

Generative AI writing tools (like ChatGPT ) generate text based on human inputs and can be used for interactive learning, to provide feedback, or to generate research questions or outlines.

These tools can also be used to paraphrase or summarise text or to identify grammar and punctuation mistakes. Y ou can also use Scribbr’s free paraphrasing tool , summarising tool , and grammar checker , which are designed specifically for these purposes.

Using AI writing tools (like ChatGPT ) to write your essay is usually considered plagiarism and may result in penalisation, unless it is allowed by your university. Text generated by AI tools is based on existing texts and therefore cannot provide unique insights. Furthermore, these outputs sometimes contain factual inaccuracies or grammar mistakes.

However, AI writing tools can be used effectively as a source of feedback and inspiration for your writing (e.g., to generate research questions ). Other AI tools, like grammar checkers, can help identify and eliminate grammar and punctuation mistakes to enhance your writing.

The Scribbr Knowledge Base is a collection of free resources to help you succeed in academic research, writing, and citation. Every week, we publish helpful step-by-step guides, clear examples, simple templates, engaging videos, and more.

The Knowledge Base is for students at all levels. Whether you’re writing your first essay, working on your bachelor’s or master’s dissertation, or getting to grips with your PhD research, we’ve got you covered.

As well as the Knowledge Base, Scribbr provides many other tools and services to support you in academic writing and citation:

  • Create your citations and manage your reference list with our free Reference Generators in APA and MLA style.
  • Scan your paper for in-text citation errors and inconsistencies with our innovative APA Citation Checker .
  • Avoid accidental plagiarism with our reliable Plagiarism Checker .
  • Polish your writing and get feedback on structure and clarity with our Proofreading & Editing services .

Yes! We’re happy for educators to use our content, and we’ve even adapted some of our articles into ready-made lecture slides .

You are free to display, distribute, and adapt Scribbr materials in your classes or upload them in private learning environments like Blackboard. We only ask that you credit Scribbr for any content you use.

We’re always striving to improve the Knowledge Base. If you have an idea for a topic we should cover, or you notice a mistake in any of our articles, let us know by emailing [email protected] .

The consequences of plagiarism vary depending on the type of plagiarism and the context in which it occurs. For example, submitting a whole paper by someone else will have the most severe consequences, while accidental citation errors are considered less serious.

If you’re a student, then you might fail the course, be suspended or expelled, or be obligated to attend a workshop on plagiarism. It depends on whether it’s your first offence or you’ve done it before.

As an academic or professional, plagiarising seriously damages your reputation. You might also lose your research funding or your job, and you could even face legal consequences for copyright infringement.

Paraphrasing without crediting the original author is a form of plagiarism , because you’re presenting someone else’s ideas as if they were your own.

However, paraphrasing is not plagiarism if you correctly reference the source . This means including an in-text referencing and a full reference , formatted according to your required citation style (e.g., Harvard , Vancouver ).

As well as referencing your source, make sure that any paraphrased text is completely rewritten in your own words.

Accidental plagiarism is one of the most common examples of plagiarism . Perhaps you forgot to cite a source, or paraphrased something a bit too closely. Maybe you can’t remember where you got an idea from, and aren’t totally sure if it’s original or not.

These all count as plagiarism, even though you didn’t do it on purpose. When in doubt, make sure you’re citing your sources . Also consider running your work through a plagiarism checker tool prior to submission, which work by using advanced database software to scan for matches between your text and existing texts.

Scribbr’s Plagiarism Checker takes less than 10 minutes and can help you turn in your paper with confidence.

The accuracy depends on the plagiarism checker you use. Per our in-depth research , Scribbr is the most accurate plagiarism checker. Many free plagiarism checkers fail to detect all plagiarism or falsely flag text as plagiarism.

Plagiarism checkers work by using advanced database software to scan for matches between your text and existing texts. Their accuracy is determined by two factors: the algorithm (which recognises the plagiarism) and the size of the database (with which your document is compared).

To avoid plagiarism when summarising an article or other source, follow these two rules:

  • Write the summary entirely in your own words by   paraphrasing the author’s ideas.
  • Reference the source with an in-text citation and a full reference so your reader can easily find the original text.

Plagiarism can be detected by your professor or readers if the tone, formatting, or style of your text is different in different parts of your paper, or if they’re familiar with the plagiarised source.

Many universities also use   plagiarism detection software like Turnitin’s, which compares your text to a large database of other sources, flagging any similarities that come up.

It can be easier than you think to commit plagiarism by accident. Consider using a   plagiarism checker prior to submitting your essay to ensure you haven’t missed any citations.

Some examples of plagiarism include:

  • Copying and pasting a Wikipedia article into the body of an assignment
  • Quoting a source without including a citation
  • Not paraphrasing a source properly (e.g. maintaining wording too close to the original)
  • Forgetting to cite the source of an idea

The most surefire way to   avoid plagiarism is to always cite your sources . When in doubt, cite!

Global plagiarism means taking an entire work written by someone else and passing it off as your own. This can include getting someone else to write an essay or assignment for you, or submitting a text you found online as your own work.

Global plagiarism is one of the most serious types of plagiarism because it involves deliberately and directly lying about the authorship of a work. It can have severe consequences for students and professionals alike.

Verbatim plagiarism means copying text from a source and pasting it directly into your own document without giving proper credit.

If the structure and the majority of the words are the same as in the original source, then you are committing verbatim plagiarism. This is the case even if you delete a few words or replace them with synonyms.

If you want to use an author’s exact words, you need to quote the original source by putting the copied text in quotation marks and including an   in-text citation .

Patchwork plagiarism , also called mosaic plagiarism, means copying phrases, passages, or ideas from various existing sources and combining them to create a new text. This includes slightly rephrasing some of the content, while keeping many of the same words and the same structure as the original.

While this type of plagiarism is more insidious than simply copying and pasting directly from a source, plagiarism checkers like Turnitin’s can still easily detect it.

To avoid plagiarism in any form, remember to reference your sources .

Yes, reusing your own work without citation is considered self-plagiarism . This can range from resubmitting an entire assignment to reusing passages or data from something you’ve handed in previously.

Self-plagiarism often has the same consequences as other types of plagiarism . If you want to reuse content you wrote in the past, make sure to check your university’s policy or consult your professor.

If you are reusing content or data you used in a previous assignment, make sure to cite yourself. You can cite yourself the same way you would cite any other source: simply follow the directions for the citation style you are using.

Keep in mind that reusing prior content can be considered self-plagiarism , so make sure you ask your instructor or consult your university’s handbook prior to doing so.

Most institutions have an internal database of previously submitted student assignments. Turnitin can check for self-plagiarism by comparing your paper against this database. If you’ve reused parts of an assignment you already submitted, it will flag any similarities as potential plagiarism.

Online plagiarism checkers don’t have access to your institution’s database, so they can’t detect self-plagiarism of unpublished work. If you’re worried about accidentally self-plagiarising, you can use Scribbr’s Self-Plagiarism Checker to upload your unpublished documents and check them for similarities.

Plagiarism has serious consequences and can be illegal in certain scenarios.

While most of the time plagiarism in an undergraduate setting is not illegal, plagiarism or self-plagiarism in a professional academic setting can lead to legal action, including copyright infringement and fraud. Many scholarly journals do not allow you to submit the same work to more than one journal, and if you do not credit a coauthor, you could be legally defrauding them.

Even if you aren’t breaking the law, plagiarism can seriously impact your academic career. While the exact consequences of plagiarism vary by institution and severity, common consequences include a lower grade, automatically failing a course, academic suspension or probation, and even expulsion.

Self-plagiarism means recycling work that you’ve previously published or submitted as an assignment. It’s considered academic dishonesty to present something as brand new when you’ve already gotten credit and perhaps feedback for it in the past.

If you want to refer to ideas or data from previous work, be sure to cite yourself.

Academic integrity means being honest, ethical, and thorough in your academic work. To maintain academic integrity, you should avoid misleading your readers about any part of your research and refrain from offences like plagiarism and contract cheating, which are examples of academic misconduct.

Academic dishonesty refers to deceitful or misleading behavior in an academic setting. Academic dishonesty can occur intentionally or unintentionally, and it varies in severity.

It can encompass paying for a pre-written essay, cheating on an exam, or committing plagiarism . It can also include helping others cheat, copying a friend’s homework answers, or even pretending to be sick to miss an exam.

Academic dishonesty doesn’t just occur in a classroom setting, but also in research and other academic-adjacent fields.

Consequences of academic dishonesty depend on the severity of the offence and your institution’s policy. They can range from a warning for a first offence to a failing grade in a course to expulsion from your university.

For those in certain fields, such as nursing, engineering, or lab sciences, not learning fundamentals properly can directly impact the health and safety of others. For those working in academia or research, academic dishonesty impacts your professional reputation, leading others to doubt your future work.

Academic dishonesty can be intentional or unintentional, ranging from something as simple as claiming to have read something you didn’t to copying your neighbour’s answers on an exam.

You can commit academic dishonesty with the best of intentions, such as helping a friend cheat on a paper. Severe academic dishonesty can include buying a pre-written essay or the answers to a multiple-choice test, or falsifying a medical emergency to avoid taking a final exam.

Plagiarism means presenting someone else’s work as your own without giving proper credit to the original author. In academic writing, plagiarism involves using words, ideas, or information from a source without including a citation .

Plagiarism can have serious consequences , even when it’s done accidentally. To avoid plagiarism, it’s important to keep track of your sources and cite them correctly.

Common knowledge does not need to be cited. However, you should be extra careful when deciding what counts as common knowledge.

Common knowledge encompasses information that the average educated reader would accept as true without needing the extra validation of a source or citation.

Common knowledge should be widely known, undisputed, and easily verified. When in doubt, always cite your sources.

Most online plagiarism checkers only have access to public databases, whose software doesn’t allow you to compare two documents for plagiarism.

However, in addition to our Plagiarism Checker , Scribbr also offers an Self-Plagiarism Checker . This is an add-on tool that lets you compare your paper with unpublished or private documents. This way you can rest assured that you haven’t unintentionally plagiarised or self-plagiarised .

Compare two sources for plagiarism

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The research methods you use depend on the type of data you need to answer your research question .

  • If you want to measure something or test a hypothesis , use quantitative methods . If you want to explore ideas, thoughts, and meanings, use qualitative methods .
  • If you want to analyse a large amount of readily available data, use secondary data. If you want data specific to your purposes with control over how they are generated, collect primary data.
  • If you want to establish cause-and-effect relationships between variables , use experimental methods. If you want to understand the characteristics of a research subject, use descriptive methods.

Methodology refers to the overarching strategy and rationale of your research project . It involves studying the methods used in your field and the theories or principles behind them, in order to develop an approach that matches your objectives.

Methods are the specific tools and procedures you use to collect and analyse data (e.g. experiments, surveys , and statistical tests ).

In shorter scientific papers, where the aim is to report the findings of a specific study, you might simply describe what you did in a methods section .

In a longer or more complex research project, such as a thesis or dissertation , you will probably include a methodology section , where you explain your approach to answering the research questions and cite relevant sources to support your choice of methods.

In mixed methods research , you use both qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis methods to answer your research question .

Data collection is the systematic process by which observations or measurements are gathered in research. It is used in many different contexts by academics, governments, businesses, and other organisations.

There are various approaches to qualitative data analysis , but they all share five steps in common:

  • Prepare and organise your data.
  • Review and explore your data.
  • Develop a data coding system.
  • Assign codes to the data.
  • Identify recurring themes.

The specifics of each step depend on the focus of the analysis. Some common approaches include textual analysis , thematic analysis , and discourse analysis .

There are five common approaches to qualitative research :

  • Grounded theory involves collecting data in order to develop new theories.
  • Ethnography involves immersing yourself in a group or organisation to understand its culture.
  • Narrative research involves interpreting stories to understand how people make sense of their experiences and perceptions.
  • Phenomenological research involves investigating phenomena through people’s lived experiences.
  • Action research links theory and practice in several cycles to drive innovative changes.

Hypothesis testing is a formal procedure for investigating our ideas about the world using statistics. It is used by scientists to test specific predictions, called hypotheses , by calculating how likely it is that a pattern or relationship between variables could have arisen by chance.

Operationalisation means turning abstract conceptual ideas into measurable observations.

For example, the concept of social anxiety isn’t directly observable, but it can be operationally defined in terms of self-rating scores, behavioural avoidance of crowded places, or physical anxiety symptoms in social situations.

Before collecting data , it’s important to consider how you will operationalise the variables that you want to measure.

Triangulation in research means using multiple datasets, methods, theories and/or investigators to address a research question. It’s a research strategy that can help you enhance the validity and credibility of your findings.

Triangulation is mainly used in qualitative research , but it’s also commonly applied in quantitative research . Mixed methods research always uses triangulation.

These are four of the most common mixed methods designs :

  • Convergent parallel: Quantitative and qualitative data are collected at the same time and analysed separately. After both analyses are complete, compare your results to draw overall conclusions. 
  • Embedded: Quantitative and qualitative data are collected at the same time, but within a larger quantitative or qualitative design. One type of data is secondary to the other.
  • Explanatory sequential: Quantitative data is collected and analysed first, followed by qualitative data. You can use this design if you think your qualitative data will explain and contextualise your quantitative findings.
  • Exploratory sequential: Qualitative data is collected and analysed first, followed by quantitative data. You can use this design if you think the quantitative data will confirm or validate your qualitative findings.

An observational study could be a good fit for your research if your research question is based on things you observe. If you have ethical, logistical, or practical concerns that make an experimental design challenging, consider an observational study. Remember that in an observational study, it is critical that there be no interference or manipulation of the research subjects. Since it’s not an experiment, there are no control or treatment groups either.

The key difference between observational studies and experiments is that, done correctly, an observational study will never influence the responses or behaviours of participants. Experimental designs will have a treatment condition applied to at least a portion of participants.

Exploratory research explores the main aspects of a new or barely researched question.

Explanatory research explains the causes and effects of an already widely researched question.

Experimental designs are a set of procedures that you plan in order to examine the relationship between variables that interest you.

To design a successful experiment, first identify:

  • A testable hypothesis
  • One or more independent variables that you will manipulate
  • One or more dependent variables that you will measure

When designing the experiment, first decide:

  • How your variable(s) will be manipulated
  • How you will control for any potential confounding or lurking variables
  • How many subjects you will include
  • How you will assign treatments to your subjects

There are four main types of triangulation :

  • Data triangulation : Using data from different times, spaces, and people
  • Investigator triangulation : Involving multiple researchers in collecting or analysing data
  • Theory triangulation : Using varying theoretical perspectives in your research
  • Methodological triangulation : Using different methodologies to approach the same topic

Triangulation can help:

  • Reduce bias that comes from using a single method, theory, or investigator
  • Enhance validity by approaching the same topic with different tools
  • Establish credibility by giving you a complete picture of the research problem

But triangulation can also pose problems:

  • It’s time-consuming and labour-intensive, often involving an interdisciplinary team.
  • Your results may be inconsistent or even contradictory.

A confounding variable , also called a confounder or confounding factor, is a third variable in a study examining a potential cause-and-effect relationship.

A confounding variable is related to both the supposed cause and the supposed effect of the study. It can be difficult to separate the true effect of the independent variable from the effect of the confounding variable.

In your research design , it’s important to identify potential confounding variables and plan how you will reduce their impact.

In a between-subjects design , every participant experiences only one condition, and researchers assess group differences between participants in various conditions.

In a within-subjects design , each participant experiences all conditions, and researchers test the same participants repeatedly for differences between conditions.

The word ‘between’ means that you’re comparing different conditions between groups, while the word ‘within’ means you’re comparing different conditions within the same group.

A quasi-experiment is a type of research design that attempts to establish a cause-and-effect relationship. The main difference between this and a true experiment is that the groups are not randomly assigned.

In experimental research, random assignment is a way of placing participants from your sample into different groups using randomisation. With this method, every member of the sample has a known or equal chance of being placed in a control group or an experimental group.

Quasi-experimental design is most useful in situations where it would be unethical or impractical to run a true experiment .

Quasi-experiments have lower internal validity than true experiments, but they often have higher external validity  as they can use real-world interventions instead of artificial laboratory settings.

Within-subjects designs have many potential threats to internal validity , but they are also very statistically powerful .

Advantages:

  • Only requires small samples
  • Statistically powerful
  • Removes the effects of individual differences on the outcomes

Disadvantages:

  • Internal validity threats reduce the likelihood of establishing a direct relationship between variables
  • Time-related effects, such as growth, can influence the outcomes
  • Carryover effects mean that the specific order of different treatments affect the outcomes

Yes. Between-subjects and within-subjects designs can be combined in a single study when you have two or more independent variables (a factorial design). In a mixed factorial design, one variable is altered between subjects and another is altered within subjects.

In a factorial design, multiple independent variables are tested.

If you test two variables, each level of one independent variable is combined with each level of the other independent variable to create different conditions.

While a between-subjects design has fewer threats to internal validity , it also requires more participants for high statistical power than a within-subjects design .

  • Prevents carryover effects of learning and fatigue.
  • Shorter study duration.
  • Needs larger samples for high power.
  • Uses more resources to recruit participants, administer sessions, cover costs, etc.
  • Individual differences may be an alternative explanation for results.

Samples are used to make inferences about populations . Samples are easier to collect data from because they are practical, cost-effective, convenient, and manageable.

Probability sampling means that every member of the target population has a known chance of being included in the sample.

Probability sampling methods include simple random sampling , systematic sampling , stratified sampling , and cluster sampling .

In non-probability sampling , the sample is selected based on non-random criteria, and not every member of the population has a chance of being included.

Common non-probability sampling methods include convenience sampling , voluntary response sampling, purposive sampling , snowball sampling , and quota sampling .

In multistage sampling , or multistage cluster sampling, you draw a sample from a population using smaller and smaller groups at each stage.

This method is often used to collect data from a large, geographically spread group of people in national surveys, for example. You take advantage of hierarchical groupings (e.g., from county to city to neighbourhood) to create a sample that’s less expensive and time-consuming to collect data from.

Sampling bias occurs when some members of a population are systematically more likely to be selected in a sample than others.

Simple random sampling is a type of probability sampling in which the researcher randomly selects a subset of participants from a population . Each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected. Data are then collected from as large a percentage as possible of this random subset.

The American Community Survey  is an example of simple random sampling . In order to collect detailed data on the population of the US, the Census Bureau officials randomly select 3.5 million households per year and use a variety of methods to convince them to fill out the survey.

If properly implemented, simple random sampling is usually the best sampling method for ensuring both internal and external validity . However, it can sometimes be impractical and expensive to implement, depending on the size of the population to be studied,

If you have a list of every member of the population and the ability to reach whichever members are selected, you can use simple random sampling.

Cluster sampling is more time- and cost-efficient than other probability sampling methods , particularly when it comes to large samples spread across a wide geographical area.

However, it provides less statistical certainty than other methods, such as simple random sampling , because it is difficult to ensure that your clusters properly represent the population as a whole.

There are three types of cluster sampling : single-stage, double-stage and multi-stage clustering. In all three types, you first divide the population into clusters, then randomly select clusters for use in your sample.

  • In single-stage sampling , you collect data from every unit within the selected clusters.
  • In double-stage sampling , you select a random sample of units from within the clusters.
  • In multi-stage sampling , you repeat the procedure of randomly sampling elements from within the clusters until you have reached a manageable sample.

Cluster sampling is a probability sampling method in which you divide a population into clusters, such as districts or schools, and then randomly select some of these clusters as your sample.

The clusters should ideally each be mini-representations of the population as a whole.

In multistage sampling , you can use probability or non-probability sampling methods.

For a probability sample, you have to probability sampling at every stage. You can mix it up by using simple random sampling , systematic sampling , or stratified sampling to select units at different stages, depending on what is applicable and relevant to your study.

Multistage sampling can simplify data collection when you have large, geographically spread samples, and you can obtain a probability sample without a complete sampling frame.

But multistage sampling may not lead to a representative sample, and larger samples are needed for multistage samples to achieve the statistical properties of simple random samples .

In stratified sampling , researchers divide subjects into subgroups called strata based on characteristics that they share (e.g., race, gender, educational attainment).

Once divided, each subgroup is randomly sampled using another probability sampling method .

You should use stratified sampling when your sample can be divided into mutually exclusive and exhaustive subgroups that you believe will take on different mean values for the variable that you’re studying.

Using stratified sampling will allow you to obtain more precise (with lower variance ) statistical estimates of whatever you are trying to measure.

For example, say you want to investigate how income differs based on educational attainment, but you know that this relationship can vary based on race. Using stratified sampling, you can ensure you obtain a large enough sample from each racial group, allowing you to draw more precise conclusions.

Yes, you can create a stratified sample using multiple characteristics, but you must ensure that every participant in your study belongs to one and only one subgroup. In this case, you multiply the numbers of subgroups for each characteristic to get the total number of groups.

For example, if you were stratifying by location with three subgroups (urban, rural, or suburban) and marital status with five subgroups (single, divorced, widowed, married, or partnered), you would have 3 × 5 = 15 subgroups.

There are three key steps in systematic sampling :

  • Define and list your population , ensuring that it is not ordered in a cyclical or periodic order.
  • Decide on your sample size and calculate your interval, k , by dividing your population by your target sample size.
  • Choose every k th member of the population as your sample.

Systematic sampling is a probability sampling method where researchers select members of the population at a regular interval – for example, by selecting every 15th person on a list of the population. If the population is in a random order, this can imitate the benefits of simple random sampling .

Populations are used when a research question requires data from every member of the population. This is usually only feasible when the population is small and easily accessible.

A statistic refers to measures about the sample , while a parameter refers to measures about the population .

A sampling error is the difference between a population parameter and a sample statistic .

There are eight threats to internal validity : history, maturation, instrumentation, testing, selection bias , regression to the mean, social interaction, and attrition .

Internal validity is the extent to which you can be confident that a cause-and-effect relationship established in a study cannot be explained by other factors.

Attrition bias is a threat to internal validity . In experiments, differential rates of attrition between treatment and control groups can skew results.

This bias can affect the relationship between your independent and dependent variables . It can make variables appear to be correlated when they are not, or vice versa.

The external validity of a study is the extent to which you can generalise your findings to different groups of people, situations, and measures.

The two types of external validity are population validity (whether you can generalise to other groups of people) and ecological validity (whether you can generalise to other situations and settings).

There are seven threats to external validity : selection bias , history, experimenter effect, Hawthorne effect , testing effect, aptitude-treatment, and situation effect.

Attrition bias can skew your sample so that your final sample differs significantly from your original sample. Your sample is biased because some groups from your population are underrepresented.

With a biased final sample, you may not be able to generalise your findings to the original population that you sampled from, so your external validity is compromised.

Construct validity is about how well a test measures the concept it was designed to evaluate. It’s one of four types of measurement validity , which includes construct validity, face validity , and criterion validity.

There are two subtypes of construct validity.

  • Convergent validity : The extent to which your measure corresponds to measures of related constructs
  • Discriminant validity: The extent to which your measure is unrelated or negatively related to measures of distinct constructs

When designing or evaluating a measure, construct validity helps you ensure you’re actually measuring the construct you’re interested in. If you don’t have construct validity, you may inadvertently measure unrelated or distinct constructs and lose precision in your research.

Construct validity is often considered the overarching type of measurement validity ,  because it covers all of the other types. You need to have face validity , content validity, and criterion validity to achieve construct validity.

Statistical analyses are often applied to test validity with data from your measures. You test convergent validity and discriminant validity with correlations to see if results from your test are positively or negatively related to those of other established tests.

You can also use regression analyses to assess whether your measure is actually predictive of outcomes that you expect it to predict theoretically. A regression analysis that supports your expectations strengthens your claim of construct validity .

Face validity is about whether a test appears to measure what it’s supposed to measure. This type of validity is concerned with whether a measure seems relevant and appropriate for what it’s assessing only on the surface.

Face validity is important because it’s a simple first step to measuring the overall validity of a test or technique. It’s a relatively intuitive, quick, and easy way to start checking whether a new measure seems useful at first glance.

Good face validity means that anyone who reviews your measure says that it seems to be measuring what it’s supposed to. With poor face validity, someone reviewing your measure may be left confused about what you’re measuring and why you’re using this method.

It’s often best to ask a variety of people to review your measurements. You can ask experts, such as other researchers, or laypeople, such as potential participants, to judge the face validity of tests.

While experts have a deep understanding of research methods , the people you’re studying can provide you with valuable insights you may have missed otherwise.

There are many different types of inductive reasoning that people use formally or informally.

Here are a few common types:

  • Inductive generalisation : You use observations about a sample to come to a conclusion about the population it came from.
  • Statistical generalisation: You use specific numbers about samples to make statements about populations.
  • Causal reasoning: You make cause-and-effect links between different things.
  • Sign reasoning: You make a conclusion about a correlational relationship between different things.
  • Analogical reasoning: You make a conclusion about something based on its similarities to something else.

Inductive reasoning is a bottom-up approach, while deductive reasoning is top-down.

Inductive reasoning takes you from the specific to the general, while in deductive reasoning, you make inferences by going from general premises to specific conclusions.

In inductive research , you start by making observations or gathering data. Then, you take a broad scan of your data and search for patterns. Finally, you make general conclusions that you might incorporate into theories.

Inductive reasoning is a method of drawing conclusions by going from the specific to the general. It’s usually contrasted with deductive reasoning, where you proceed from general information to specific conclusions.

Inductive reasoning is also called inductive logic or bottom-up reasoning.

Deductive reasoning is a logical approach where you progress from general ideas to specific conclusions. It’s often contrasted with inductive reasoning , where you start with specific observations and form general conclusions.

Deductive reasoning is also called deductive logic.

Deductive reasoning is commonly used in scientific research, and it’s especially associated with quantitative research .

In research, you might have come across something called the hypothetico-deductive method . It’s the scientific method of testing hypotheses to check whether your predictions are substantiated by real-world data.

A dependent variable is what changes as a result of the independent variable manipulation in experiments . It’s what you’re interested in measuring, and it ‘depends’ on your independent variable.

In statistics, dependent variables are also called:

  • Response variables (they respond to a change in another variable)
  • Outcome variables (they represent the outcome you want to measure)
  • Left-hand-side variables (they appear on the left-hand side of a regression equation)

An independent variable is the variable you manipulate, control, or vary in an experimental study to explore its effects. It’s called ‘independent’ because it’s not influenced by any other variables in the study.

Independent variables are also called:

  • Explanatory variables (they explain an event or outcome)
  • Predictor variables (they can be used to predict the value of a dependent variable)
  • Right-hand-side variables (they appear on the right-hand side of a regression equation)

A correlation is usually tested for two variables at a time, but you can test correlations between three or more variables.

On graphs, the explanatory variable is conventionally placed on the x -axis, while the response variable is placed on the y -axis.

  • If you have quantitative variables , use a scatterplot or a line graph.
  • If your response variable is categorical, use a scatterplot or a line graph.
  • If your explanatory variable is categorical, use a bar graph.

The term ‘ explanatory variable ‘ is sometimes preferred over ‘ independent variable ‘ because, in real-world contexts, independent variables are often influenced by other variables. This means they aren’t totally independent.

Multiple independent variables may also be correlated with each other, so ‘explanatory variables’ is a more appropriate term.

The difference between explanatory and response variables is simple:

  • An explanatory variable is the expected cause, and it explains the results.
  • A response variable is the expected effect, and it responds to other variables.

There are 4 main types of extraneous variables :

  • Demand characteristics : Environmental cues that encourage participants to conform to researchers’ expectations
  • Experimenter effects : Unintentional actions by researchers that influence study outcomes
  • Situational variables : Eenvironmental variables that alter participants’ behaviours
  • Participant variables : Any characteristic or aspect of a participant’s background that could affect study results

An extraneous variable is any variable that you’re not investigating that can potentially affect the dependent variable of your research study.

A confounding variable is a type of extraneous variable that not only affects the dependent variable, but is also related to the independent variable.

‘Controlling for a variable’ means measuring extraneous variables and accounting for them statistically to remove their effects on other variables.

Researchers often model control variable data along with independent and dependent variable data in regression analyses and ANCOVAs . That way, you can isolate the control variable’s effects from the relationship between the variables of interest.

Control variables help you establish a correlational or causal relationship between variables by enhancing internal validity .

If you don’t control relevant extraneous variables , they may influence the outcomes of your study, and you may not be able to demonstrate that your results are really an effect of your independent variable .

A control variable is any variable that’s held constant in a research study. It’s not a variable of interest in the study, but it’s controlled because it could influence the outcomes.

In statistics, ordinal and nominal variables are both considered categorical variables .

Even though ordinal data can sometimes be numerical, not all mathematical operations can be performed on them.

In scientific research, concepts are the abstract ideas or phenomena that are being studied (e.g., educational achievement). Variables are properties or characteristics of the concept (e.g., performance at school), while indicators are ways of measuring or quantifying variables (e.g., yearly grade reports).

The process of turning abstract concepts into measurable variables and indicators is called operationalisation .

There are several methods you can use to decrease the impact of confounding variables on your research: restriction, matching, statistical control, and randomisation.

In restriction , you restrict your sample by only including certain subjects that have the same values of potential confounding variables.

In matching , you match each of the subjects in your treatment group with a counterpart in the comparison group. The matched subjects have the same values on any potential confounding variables, and only differ in the independent variable .

In statistical control , you include potential confounders as variables in your regression .

In randomisation , you randomly assign the treatment (or independent variable) in your study to a sufficiently large number of subjects, which allows you to control for all potential confounding variables.

A confounding variable is closely related to both the independent and dependent variables in a study. An independent variable represents the supposed cause , while the dependent variable is the supposed effect . A confounding variable is a third variable that influences both the independent and dependent variables.

Failing to account for confounding variables can cause you to wrongly estimate the relationship between your independent and dependent variables.

To ensure the internal validity of your research, you must consider the impact of confounding variables. If you fail to account for them, you might over- or underestimate the causal relationship between your independent and dependent variables , or even find a causal relationship where none exists.

Yes, but including more than one of either type requires multiple research questions .

For example, if you are interested in the effect of a diet on health, you can use multiple measures of health: blood sugar, blood pressure, weight, pulse, and many more. Each of these is its own dependent variable with its own research question.

You could also choose to look at the effect of exercise levels as well as diet, or even the additional effect of the two combined. Each of these is a separate independent variable .

To ensure the internal validity of an experiment , you should only change one independent variable at a time.

No. The value of a dependent variable depends on an independent variable, so a variable cannot be both independent and dependent at the same time. It must be either the cause or the effect, not both.

You want to find out how blood sugar levels are affected by drinking diet cola and regular cola, so you conduct an experiment .

  • The type of cola – diet or regular – is the independent variable .
  • The level of blood sugar that you measure is the dependent variable – it changes depending on the type of cola.

Determining cause and effect is one of the most important parts of scientific research. It’s essential to know which is the cause – the independent variable – and which is the effect – the dependent variable.

Quantitative variables are any variables where the data represent amounts (e.g. height, weight, or age).

Categorical variables are any variables where the data represent groups. This includes rankings (e.g. finishing places in a race), classifications (e.g. brands of cereal), and binary outcomes (e.g. coin flips).

You need to know what type of variables you are working with to choose the right statistical test for your data and interpret your results .

Discrete and continuous variables are two types of quantitative variables :

  • Discrete variables represent counts (e.g., the number of objects in a collection).
  • Continuous variables represent measurable amounts (e.g., water volume or weight).

You can think of independent and dependent variables in terms of cause and effect: an independent variable is the variable you think is the cause , while a dependent variable is the effect .

In an experiment, you manipulate the independent variable and measure the outcome in the dependent variable. For example, in an experiment about the effect of nutrients on crop growth:

  • The  independent variable  is the amount of nutrients added to the crop field.
  • The  dependent variable is the biomass of the crops at harvest time.

Defining your variables, and deciding how you will manipulate and measure them, is an important part of experimental design .

Including mediators and moderators in your research helps you go beyond studying a simple relationship between two variables for a fuller picture of the real world. They are important to consider when studying complex correlational or causal relationships.

Mediators are part of the causal pathway of an effect, and they tell you how or why an effect takes place. Moderators usually help you judge the external validity of your study by identifying the limitations of when the relationship between variables holds.

If something is a mediating variable :

  • It’s caused by the independent variable
  • It influences the dependent variable
  • When it’s taken into account, the statistical correlation between the independent and dependent variables is higher than when it isn’t considered

A confounder is a third variable that affects variables of interest and makes them seem related when they are not. In contrast, a mediator is the mechanism of a relationship between two variables: it explains the process by which they are related.

A mediator variable explains the process through which two variables are related, while a moderator variable affects the strength and direction of that relationship.

When conducting research, collecting original data has significant advantages:

  • You can tailor data collection to your specific research aims (e.g., understanding the needs of your consumers or user testing your website).
  • You can control and standardise the process for high reliability and validity (e.g., choosing appropriate measurements and sampling methods ).

However, there are also some drawbacks: data collection can be time-consuming, labour-intensive, and expensive. In some cases, it’s more efficient to use secondary data that has already been collected by someone else, but the data might be less reliable.

A structured interview is a data collection method that relies on asking questions in a set order to collect data on a topic. They are often quantitative in nature. Structured interviews are best used when:

  • You already have a very clear understanding of your topic. Perhaps significant research has already been conducted, or you have done some prior research yourself, but you already possess a baseline for designing strong structured questions.
  • You are constrained in terms of time or resources and need to analyse your data quickly and efficiently
  • Your research question depends on strong parity between participants, with environmental conditions held constant

More flexible interview options include semi-structured interviews , unstructured interviews , and focus groups .

The interviewer effect is a type of bias that emerges when a characteristic of an interviewer (race, age, gender identity, etc.) influences the responses given by the interviewee.

There is a risk of an interviewer effect in all types of interviews , but it can be mitigated by writing really high-quality interview questions.

A semi-structured interview is a blend of structured and unstructured types of interviews. Semi-structured interviews are best used when:

  • You have prior interview experience. Spontaneous questions are deceptively challenging, and it’s easy to accidentally ask a leading question or make a participant uncomfortable.
  • Your research question is exploratory in nature. Participant answers can guide future research questions and help you develop a more robust knowledge base for future research.

An unstructured interview is the most flexible type of interview, but it is not always the best fit for your research topic.

Unstructured interviews are best used when:

  • You are an experienced interviewer and have a very strong background in your research topic, since it is challenging to ask spontaneous, colloquial questions
  • Your research question is exploratory in nature. While you may have developed hypotheses, you are open to discovering new or shifting viewpoints through the interview process.
  • You are seeking descriptive data, and are ready to ask questions that will deepen and contextualise your initial thoughts and hypotheses
  • Your research depends on forming connections with your participants and making them feel comfortable revealing deeper emotions, lived experiences, or thoughts

The four most common types of interviews are:

  • Structured interviews : The questions are predetermined in both topic and order.
  • Semi-structured interviews : A few questions are predetermined, but other questions aren’t planned.
  • Unstructured interviews : None of the questions are predetermined.
  • Focus group interviews : The questions are presented to a group instead of one individual.

A focus group is a research method that brings together a small group of people to answer questions in a moderated setting. The group is chosen due to predefined demographic traits, and the questions are designed to shed light on a topic of interest. It is one of four types of interviews .

Social desirability bias is the tendency for interview participants to give responses that will be viewed favourably by the interviewer or other participants. It occurs in all types of interviews and surveys , but is most common in semi-structured interviews , unstructured interviews , and focus groups .

Social desirability bias can be mitigated by ensuring participants feel at ease and comfortable sharing their views. Make sure to pay attention to your own body language and any physical or verbal cues, such as nodding or widening your eyes.

This type of bias in research can also occur in observations if the participants know they’re being observed. They might alter their behaviour accordingly.

As a rule of thumb, questions related to thoughts, beliefs, and feelings work well in focus groups . Take your time formulating strong questions, paying special attention to phrasing. Be careful to avoid leading questions , which can bias your responses.

Overall, your focus group questions should be:

  • Open-ended and flexible
  • Impossible to answer with ‘yes’ or ‘no’ (questions that start with ‘why’ or ‘how’ are often best)
  • Unambiguous, getting straight to the point while still stimulating discussion
  • Unbiased and neutral

The third variable and directionality problems are two main reasons why correlation isn’t causation .

The third variable problem means that a confounding variable affects both variables to make them seem causally related when they are not.

The directionality problem is when two variables correlate and might actually have a causal relationship, but it’s impossible to conclude which variable causes changes in the other.

Controlled experiments establish causality, whereas correlational studies only show associations between variables.

  • In an experimental design , you manipulate an independent variable and measure its effect on a dependent variable. Other variables are controlled so they can’t impact the results.
  • In a correlational design , you measure variables without manipulating any of them. You can test whether your variables change together, but you can’t be sure that one variable caused a change in another.

In general, correlational research is high in external validity while experimental research is high in internal validity .

A correlation coefficient is a single number that describes the strength and direction of the relationship between your variables.

Different types of correlation coefficients might be appropriate for your data based on their levels of measurement and distributions . The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (Pearson’s r ) is commonly used to assess a linear relationship between two quantitative variables.

A correlational research design investigates relationships between two variables (or more) without the researcher controlling or manipulating any of them. It’s a non-experimental type of quantitative research .

A correlation reflects the strength and/or direction of the association between two or more variables.

  • A positive correlation means that both variables change in the same direction.
  • A negative correlation means that the variables change in opposite directions.
  • A zero correlation means there’s no relationship between the variables.

Longitudinal studies can last anywhere from weeks to decades, although they tend to be at least a year long.

The 1970 British Cohort Study , which has collected data on the lives of 17,000 Brits since their births in 1970, is one well-known example of a longitudinal study .

Longitudinal studies are better to establish the correct sequence of events, identify changes over time, and provide insight into cause-and-effect relationships, but they also tend to be more expensive and time-consuming than other types of studies.

Longitudinal studies and cross-sectional studies are two different types of research design . In a cross-sectional study you collect data from a population at a specific point in time; in a longitudinal study you repeatedly collect data from the same sample over an extended period of time.

Cross-sectional studies cannot establish a cause-and-effect relationship or analyse behaviour over a period of time. To investigate cause and effect, you need to do a longitudinal study or an experimental study .

Cross-sectional studies are less expensive and time-consuming than many other types of study. They can provide useful insights into a population’s characteristics and identify correlations for further research.

Sometimes only cross-sectional data are available for analysis; other times your research question may only require a cross-sectional study to answer it.

A hypothesis states your predictions about what your research will find. It is a tentative answer to your research question that has not yet been tested. For some research projects, you might have to write several hypotheses that address different aspects of your research question.

A hypothesis is not just a guess. It should be based on existing theories and knowledge. It also has to be testable, which means you can support or refute it through scientific research methods (such as experiments, observations, and statistical analysis of data).

A research hypothesis is your proposed answer to your research question. The research hypothesis usually includes an explanation (‘ x affects y because …’).

A statistical hypothesis, on the other hand, is a mathematical statement about a population parameter. Statistical hypotheses always come in pairs: the null and alternative hypotheses. In a well-designed study , the statistical hypotheses correspond logically to the research hypothesis.

Individual Likert-type questions are generally considered ordinal data , because the items have clear rank order, but don’t have an even distribution.

Overall Likert scale scores are sometimes treated as interval data. These scores are considered to have directionality and even spacing between them.

The type of data determines what statistical tests you should use to analyse your data.

A Likert scale is a rating scale that quantitatively assesses opinions, attitudes, or behaviours. It is made up of four or more questions that measure a single attitude or trait when response scores are combined.

To use a Likert scale in a survey , you present participants with Likert-type questions or statements, and a continuum of items, usually with five or seven possible responses, to capture their degree of agreement.

A questionnaire is a data collection tool or instrument, while a survey is an overarching research method that involves collecting and analysing data from people using questionnaires.

A true experiment (aka a controlled experiment) always includes at least one control group that doesn’t receive the experimental treatment.

However, some experiments use a within-subjects design to test treatments without a control group. In these designs, you usually compare one group’s outcomes before and after a treatment (instead of comparing outcomes between different groups).

For strong internal validity , it’s usually best to include a control group if possible. Without a control group, it’s harder to be certain that the outcome was caused by the experimental treatment and not by other variables.

An experimental group, also known as a treatment group, receives the treatment whose effect researchers wish to study, whereas a control group does not. They should be identical in all other ways.

In a controlled experiment , all extraneous variables are held constant so that they can’t influence the results. Controlled experiments require:

  • A control group that receives a standard treatment, a fake treatment, or no treatment
  • Random assignment of participants to ensure the groups are equivalent

Depending on your study topic, there are various other methods of controlling variables .

Questionnaires can be self-administered or researcher-administered.

Self-administered questionnaires can be delivered online or in paper-and-pen formats, in person or by post. All questions are standardised so that all respondents receive the same questions with identical wording.

Researcher-administered questionnaires are interviews that take place by phone, in person, or online between researchers and respondents. You can gain deeper insights by clarifying questions for respondents or asking follow-up questions.

You can organise the questions logically, with a clear progression from simple to complex, or randomly between respondents. A logical flow helps respondents process the questionnaire easier and quicker, but it may lead to bias. Randomisation can minimise the bias from order effects.

Closed-ended, or restricted-choice, questions offer respondents a fixed set of choices to select from. These questions are easier to answer quickly.

Open-ended or long-form questions allow respondents to answer in their own words. Because there are no restrictions on their choices, respondents can answer in ways that researchers may not have otherwise considered.

Naturalistic observation is a qualitative research method where you record the behaviours of your research subjects in real-world settings. You avoid interfering or influencing anything in a naturalistic observation.

You can think of naturalistic observation as ‘people watching’ with a purpose.

Naturalistic observation is a valuable tool because of its flexibility, external validity , and suitability for topics that can’t be studied in a lab setting.

The downsides of naturalistic observation include its lack of scientific control , ethical considerations , and potential for bias from observers and subjects.

You can use several tactics to minimise observer bias .

  • Use masking (blinding) to hide the purpose of your study from all observers.
  • Triangulate your data with different data collection methods or sources.
  • Use multiple observers and ensure inter-rater reliability.
  • Train your observers to make sure data is consistently recorded between them.
  • Standardise your observation procedures to make sure they are structured and clear.

The observer-expectancy effect occurs when researchers influence the results of their own study through interactions with participants.

Researchers’ own beliefs and expectations about the study results may unintentionally influence participants through demand characteristics .

Observer bias occurs when a researcher’s expectations, opinions, or prejudices influence what they perceive or record in a study. It usually affects studies when observers are aware of the research aims or hypotheses. This type of research bias is also called detection bias or ascertainment bias .

Data cleaning is necessary for valid and appropriate analyses. Dirty data contain inconsistencies or errors , but cleaning your data helps you minimise or resolve these.

Without data cleaning, you could end up with a Type I or II error in your conclusion. These types of erroneous conclusions can be practically significant with important consequences, because they lead to misplaced investments or missed opportunities.

Data cleaning involves spotting and resolving potential data inconsistencies or errors to improve your data quality. An error is any value (e.g., recorded weight) that doesn’t reflect the true value (e.g., actual weight) of something that’s being measured.

In this process, you review, analyse, detect, modify, or remove ‘dirty’ data to make your dataset ‘clean’. Data cleaning is also called data cleansing or data scrubbing.

Data cleaning takes place between data collection and data analyses. But you can use some methods even before collecting data.

For clean data, you should start by designing measures that collect valid data. Data validation at the time of data entry or collection helps you minimize the amount of data cleaning you’ll need to do.

After data collection, you can use data standardisation and data transformation to clean your data. You’ll also deal with any missing values, outliers, and duplicate values.

Clean data are valid, accurate, complete, consistent, unique, and uniform. Dirty data include inconsistencies and errors.

Dirty data can come from any part of the research process, including poor research design , inappropriate measurement materials, or flawed data entry.

Random assignment is used in experiments with a between-groups or independent measures design. In this research design, there’s usually a control group and one or more experimental groups. Random assignment helps ensure that the groups are comparable.

In general, you should always use random assignment in this type of experimental design when it is ethically possible and makes sense for your study topic.

Random selection, or random sampling , is a way of selecting members of a population for your study’s sample.

In contrast, random assignment is a way of sorting the sample into control and experimental groups.

Random sampling enhances the external validity or generalisability of your results, while random assignment improves the internal validity of your study.

To implement random assignment , assign a unique number to every member of your study’s sample .

Then, you can use a random number generator or a lottery method to randomly assign each number to a control or experimental group. You can also do so manually, by flipping a coin or rolling a die to randomly assign participants to groups.

Exploratory research is often used when the issue you’re studying is new or when the data collection process is challenging for some reason.

You can use exploratory research if you have a general idea or a specific question that you want to study but there is no preexisting knowledge or paradigm with which to study it.

Exploratory research is a methodology approach that explores research questions that have not previously been studied in depth. It is often used when the issue you’re studying is new, or the data collection process is challenging in some way.

Explanatory research is used to investigate how or why a phenomenon occurs. Therefore, this type of research is often one of the first stages in the research process , serving as a jumping-off point for future research.

Explanatory research is a research method used to investigate how or why something occurs when only a small amount of information is available pertaining to that topic. It can help you increase your understanding of a given topic.

Blinding means hiding who is assigned to the treatment group and who is assigned to the control group in an experiment .

Blinding is important to reduce bias (e.g., observer bias , demand characteristics ) and ensure a study’s internal validity .

If participants know whether they are in a control or treatment group , they may adjust their behaviour in ways that affect the outcome that researchers are trying to measure. If the people administering the treatment are aware of group assignment, they may treat participants differently and thus directly or indirectly influence the final results.

  • In a single-blind study , only the participants are blinded.
  • In a double-blind study , both participants and experimenters are blinded.
  • In a triple-blind study , the assignment is hidden not only from participants and experimenters, but also from the researchers analysing the data.

Many academic fields use peer review , largely to determine whether a manuscript is suitable for publication. Peer review enhances the credibility of the published manuscript.

However, peer review is also common in non-academic settings. The United Nations, the European Union, and many individual nations use peer review to evaluate grant applications. It is also widely used in medical and health-related fields as a teaching or quality-of-care measure.

Peer assessment is often used in the classroom as a pedagogical tool. Both receiving feedback and providing it are thought to enhance the learning process, helping students think critically and collaboratively.

Peer review can stop obviously problematic, falsified, or otherwise untrustworthy research from being published. It also represents an excellent opportunity to get feedback from renowned experts in your field.

It acts as a first defence, helping you ensure your argument is clear and that there are no gaps, vague terms, or unanswered questions for readers who weren’t involved in the research process.

Peer-reviewed articles are considered a highly credible source due to this stringent process they go through before publication.

In general, the peer review process follows the following steps:

  • First, the author submits the manuscript to the editor.
  • Reject the manuscript and send it back to author, or
  • Send it onward to the selected peer reviewer(s)
  • Next, the peer review process occurs. The reviewer provides feedback, addressing any major or minor issues with the manuscript, and gives their advice regarding what edits should be made.
  • Lastly, the edited manuscript is sent back to the author. They input the edits, and resubmit it to the editor for publication.

Peer review is a process of evaluating submissions to an academic journal. Utilising rigorous criteria, a panel of reviewers in the same subject area decide whether to accept each submission for publication.

For this reason, academic journals are often considered among the most credible sources you can use in a research project – provided that the journal itself is trustworthy and well regarded.

Anonymity means you don’t know who the participants are, while confidentiality means you know who they are but remove identifying information from your research report. Both are important ethical considerations .

You can only guarantee anonymity by not collecting any personally identifying information – for example, names, phone numbers, email addresses, IP addresses, physical characteristics, photos, or videos.

You can keep data confidential by using aggregate information in your research report, so that you only refer to groups of participants rather than individuals.

Research misconduct means making up or falsifying data, manipulating data analyses, or misrepresenting results in research reports. It’s a form of academic fraud.

These actions are committed intentionally and can have serious consequences; research misconduct is not a simple mistake or a point of disagreement but a serious ethical failure.

Research ethics matter for scientific integrity, human rights and dignity, and collaboration between science and society. These principles make sure that participation in studies is voluntary, informed, and safe.

Ethical considerations in research are a set of principles that guide your research designs and practices. These principles include voluntary participation, informed consent, anonymity, confidentiality, potential for harm, and results communication.

Scientists and researchers must always adhere to a certain code of conduct when collecting data from others .

These considerations protect the rights of research participants, enhance research validity , and maintain scientific integrity.

A systematic review is secondary research because it uses existing research. You don’t collect new data yourself.

The two main types of social desirability bias are:

  • Self-deceptive enhancement (self-deception): The tendency to see oneself in a favorable light without realizing it.
  • Impression managemen t (other-deception): The tendency to inflate one’s abilities or achievement in order to make a good impression on other people.

Demand characteristics are aspects of experiments that may give away the research objective to participants. Social desirability bias occurs when participants automatically try to respond in ways that make them seem likeable in a study, even if it means misrepresenting how they truly feel.

Participants may use demand characteristics to infer social norms or experimenter expectancies and act in socially desirable ways, so you should try to control for demand characteristics wherever possible.

Response bias refers to conditions or factors that take place during the process of responding to surveys, affecting the responses. One type of response bias is social desirability bias .

When your population is large in size, geographically dispersed, or difficult to contact, it’s necessary to use a sampling method .

This allows you to gather information from a smaller part of the population, i.e. the sample, and make accurate statements by using statistical analysis. A few sampling methods include simple random sampling , convenience sampling , and snowball sampling .

Stratified and cluster sampling may look similar, but bear in mind that groups created in cluster sampling are heterogeneous , so the individual characteristics in the cluster vary. In contrast, groups created in stratified sampling are homogeneous , as units share characteristics.

Relatedly, in cluster sampling you randomly select entire groups and include all units of each group in your sample. However, in stratified sampling, you select some units of all groups and include them in your sample. In this way, both methods can ensure that your sample is representative of the target population .

A sampling frame is a list of every member in the entire population . It is important that the sampling frame is as complete as possible, so that your sample accurately reflects your population.

Convenience sampling and quota sampling are both non-probability sampling methods. They both use non-random criteria like availability, geographical proximity, or expert knowledge to recruit study participants.

However, in convenience sampling, you continue to sample units or cases until you reach the required sample size.

In quota sampling, you first need to divide your population of interest into subgroups (strata) and estimate their proportions (quota) in the population. Then you can start your data collection , using convenience sampling to recruit participants, until the proportions in each subgroup coincide with the estimated proportions in the population.

Random sampling or probability sampling is based on random selection. This means that each unit has an equal chance (i.e., equal probability) of being included in the sample.

On the other hand, convenience sampling involves stopping people at random, which means that not everyone has an equal chance of being selected depending on the place, time, or day you are collecting your data.

Stratified sampling and quota sampling both involve dividing the population into subgroups and selecting units from each subgroup. The purpose in both cases is to select a representative sample and/or to allow comparisons between subgroups.

The main difference is that in stratified sampling, you draw a random sample from each subgroup ( probability sampling ). In quota sampling you select a predetermined number or proportion of units, in a non-random manner ( non-probability sampling ).

Snowball sampling is best used in the following cases:

  • If there is no sampling frame available (e.g., people with a rare disease)
  • If the population of interest is hard to access or locate (e.g., people experiencing homelessness)
  • If the research focuses on a sensitive topic (e.g., extra-marital affairs)

Snowball sampling relies on the use of referrals. Here, the researcher recruits one or more initial participants, who then recruit the next ones. 

Participants share similar characteristics and/or know each other. Because of this, not every member of the population has an equal chance of being included in the sample, giving rise to sampling bias .

Snowball sampling is a non-probability sampling method , where there is not an equal chance for every member of the population to be included in the sample .

This means that you cannot use inferential statistics and make generalisations – often the goal of quantitative research . As such, a snowball sample is not representative of the target population, and is usually a better fit for qualitative research .

Snowball sampling is a non-probability sampling method . Unlike probability sampling (which involves some form of random selection ), the initial individuals selected to be studied are the ones who recruit new participants.

Because not every member of the target population has an equal chance of being recruited into the sample, selection in snowball sampling is non-random.

Reproducibility and replicability are related terms.

  • Reproducing research entails reanalysing the existing data in the same manner.
  • Replicating (or repeating ) the research entails reconducting the entire analysis, including the collection of new data . 
  • A successful reproduction shows that the data analyses were conducted in a fair and honest manner.
  • A successful replication shows that the reliability of the results is high.

The reproducibility and replicability of a study can be ensured by writing a transparent, detailed method section and using clear, unambiguous language.

Convergent validity and discriminant validity are both subtypes of construct validity . Together, they help you evaluate whether a test measures the concept it was designed to measure.

  • Convergent validity indicates whether a test that is designed to measure a particular construct correlates with other tests that assess the same or similar construct.
  • Discriminant validity indicates whether two tests that should not be highly related to each other are indeed not related

You need to assess both in order to demonstrate construct validity. Neither one alone is sufficient for establishing construct validity.

Construct validity has convergent and discriminant subtypes. They assist determine if a test measures the intended notion.

Content validity shows you how accurately a test or other measurement method taps  into the various aspects of the specific construct you are researching.

In other words, it helps you answer the question: “does the test measure all aspects of the construct I want to measure?” If it does, then the test has high content validity.

The higher the content validity, the more accurate the measurement of the construct.

If the test fails to include parts of the construct, or irrelevant parts are included, the validity of the instrument is threatened, which brings your results into question.

Construct validity refers to how well a test measures the concept (or construct) it was designed to measure. Assessing construct validity is especially important when you’re researching concepts that can’t be quantified and/or are intangible, like introversion. To ensure construct validity your test should be based on known indicators of introversion ( operationalisation ).

On the other hand, content validity assesses how well the test represents all aspects of the construct. If some aspects are missing or irrelevant parts are included, the test has low content validity.

Face validity and content validity are similar in that they both evaluate how suitable the content of a test is. The difference is that face validity is subjective, and assesses content at surface level.

When a test has strong face validity, anyone would agree that the test’s questions appear to measure what they are intended to measure.

For example, looking at a 4th grade math test consisting of problems in which students have to add and multiply, most people would agree that it has strong face validity (i.e., it looks like a math test).

On the other hand, content validity evaluates how well a test represents all the aspects of a topic. Assessing content validity is more systematic and relies on expert evaluation. of each question, analysing whether each one covers the aspects that the test was designed to cover.

A 4th grade math test would have high content validity if it covered all the skills taught in that grade. Experts(in this case, math teachers), would have to evaluate the content validity by comparing the test to the learning objectives.

  • Discriminant validity indicates whether two tests that should not be highly related to each other are indeed not related. This type of validity is also called divergent validity .

Criterion validity and construct validity are both types of measurement validity . In other words, they both show you how accurately a method measures something.

While construct validity is the degree to which a test or other measurement method measures what it claims to measure, criterion validity is the degree to which a test can predictively (in the future) or concurrently (in the present) measure something.

Construct validity is often considered the overarching type of measurement validity . You need to have face validity , content validity , and criterion validity in order to achieve construct validity.

Attrition refers to participants leaving a study. It always happens to some extent – for example, in randomised control trials for medical research.

Differential attrition occurs when attrition or dropout rates differ systematically between the intervention and the control group . As a result, the characteristics of the participants who drop out differ from the characteristics of those who stay in the study. Because of this, study results may be biased .

Criterion validity evaluates how well a test measures the outcome it was designed to measure. An outcome can be, for example, the onset of a disease.

Criterion validity consists of two subtypes depending on the time at which the two measures (the criterion and your test) are obtained:

  • Concurrent validity is a validation strategy where the the scores of a test and the criterion are obtained at the same time
  • Predictive validity is a validation strategy where the criterion variables are measured after the scores of the test

Validity tells you how accurately a method measures what it was designed to measure. There are 4 main types of validity :

  • Construct validity : Does the test measure the construct it was designed to measure?
  • Face validity : Does the test appear to be suitable for its objectives ?
  • Content validity : Does the test cover all relevant parts of the construct it aims to measure.
  • Criterion validity : Do the results accurately measure the concrete outcome they are designed to measure?

Convergent validity shows how much a measure of one construct aligns with other measures of the same or related constructs .

On the other hand, concurrent validity is about how a measure matches up to some known criterion or gold standard, which can be another measure.

Although both types of validity are established by calculating the association or correlation between a test score and another variable , they represent distinct validation methods.

The purpose of theory-testing mode is to find evidence in order to disprove, refine, or support a theory. As such, generalisability is not the aim of theory-testing mode.

Due to this, the priority of researchers in theory-testing mode is to eliminate alternative causes for relationships between variables . In other words, they prioritise internal validity over external validity , including ecological validity .

Inclusion and exclusion criteria are typically presented and discussed in the methodology section of your thesis or dissertation .

Inclusion and exclusion criteria are predominantly used in non-probability sampling . In purposive sampling and snowball sampling , restrictions apply as to who can be included in the sample .

Scope of research is determined at the beginning of your research process , prior to the data collection stage. Sometimes called “scope of study,” your scope delineates what will and will not be covered in your project. It helps you focus your work and your time, ensuring that you’ll be able to achieve your goals and outcomes.

Defining a scope can be very useful in any research project, from a research proposal to a thesis or dissertation . A scope is needed for all types of research: quantitative , qualitative , and mixed methods .

To define your scope of research, consider the following:

  • Budget constraints or any specifics of grant funding
  • Your proposed timeline and duration
  • Specifics about your population of study, your proposed sample size , and the research methodology you’ll pursue
  • Any inclusion and exclusion criteria
  • Any anticipated control , extraneous , or confounding variables that could bias your research if not accounted for properly.

To make quantitative observations , you need to use instruments that are capable of measuring the quantity you want to observe. For example, you might use a ruler to measure the length of an object or a thermometer to measure its temperature.

Quantitative observations involve measuring or counting something and expressing the result in numerical form, while qualitative observations involve describing something in non-numerical terms, such as its appearance, texture, or color.

The Scribbr Reference Generator is developed using the open-source Citation Style Language (CSL) project and Frank Bennett’s citeproc-js . It’s the same technology used by dozens of other popular citation tools, including Mendeley and Zotero.

You can find all the citation styles and locales used in the Scribbr Reference Generator in our publicly accessible repository on Github .

To paraphrase effectively, don’t just take the original sentence and swap out some of the words for synonyms. Instead, try:

  • Reformulating the sentence (e.g., change active to passive , or start from a different point)
  • Combining information from multiple sentences into one
  • Leaving out information from the original that isn’t relevant to your point
  • Using synonyms where they don’t distort the meaning

The main point is to ensure you don’t just copy the structure of the original text, but instead reformulate the idea in your own words.

Plagiarism means using someone else’s words or ideas and passing them off as your own. Paraphrasing means putting someone else’s ideas into your own words.

So when does paraphrasing count as plagiarism?

  • Paraphrasing is plagiarism if you don’t properly credit the original author.
  • Paraphrasing is plagiarism if your text is too close to the original wording (even if you cite the source). If you directly copy a sentence or phrase, you should quote it instead.
  • Paraphrasing  is not plagiarism if you put the author’s ideas completely into your own words and properly reference the source .

To present information from other sources in academic writing , it’s best to paraphrase in most cases. This shows that you’ve understood the ideas you’re discussing and incorporates them into your text smoothly.

It’s appropriate to quote when:

  • Changing the phrasing would distort the meaning of the original text
  • You want to discuss the author’s language choices (e.g., in literary analysis )
  • You’re presenting a precise definition
  • You’re looking in depth at a specific claim

A quote is an exact copy of someone else’s words, usually enclosed in quotation marks and credited to the original author or speaker.

Every time you quote a source , you must include a correctly formatted in-text citation . This looks slightly different depending on the citation style .

For example, a direct quote in APA is cited like this: ‘This is a quote’ (Streefkerk, 2020, p. 5).

Every in-text citation should also correspond to a full reference at the end of your paper.

In scientific subjects, the information itself is more important than how it was expressed, so quoting should generally be kept to a minimum. In the arts and humanities, however, well-chosen quotes are often essential to a good paper.

In social sciences, it varies. If your research is mainly quantitative , you won’t include many quotes, but if it’s more qualitative , you may need to quote from the data you collected .

As a general guideline, quotes should take up no more than 5–10% of your paper. If in doubt, check with your instructor or supervisor how much quoting is appropriate in your field.

If you’re quoting from a text that paraphrases or summarises other sources and cites them in parentheses , APA  recommends retaining the citations as part of the quote:

  • Smith states that ‘the literature on this topic (Jones, 2015; Sill, 2019; Paulson, 2020) shows no clear consensus’ (Smith, 2019, p. 4).

Footnote or endnote numbers that appear within quoted text should be omitted.

If you want to cite an indirect source (one you’ve only seen quoted in another source), either locate the original source or use the phrase ‘as cited in’ in your citation.

A block quote is a long quote formatted as a separate ‘block’ of text. Instead of using quotation marks , you place the quote on a new line, and indent the entire quote to mark it apart from your own words.

APA uses block quotes for quotes that are 40 words or longer.

A credible source should pass the CRAAP test  and follow these guidelines:

  • The information should be up to date and current.
  • The author and publication should be a trusted authority on the subject you are researching.
  • The sources the author cited should be easy to find, clear, and unbiased.
  • For a web source, the URL and layout should signify that it is trustworthy.

Common examples of primary sources include interview transcripts , photographs, novels, paintings, films, historical documents, and official statistics.

Anything you directly analyze or use as first-hand evidence can be a primary source, including qualitative or quantitative data that you collected yourself.

Common examples of secondary sources include academic books, journal articles , reviews, essays , and textbooks.

Anything that summarizes, evaluates or interprets primary sources can be a secondary source. If a source gives you an overview of background information or presents another researcher’s ideas on your topic, it is probably a secondary source.

To determine if a source is primary or secondary, ask yourself:

  • Was the source created by someone directly involved in the events you’re studying (primary), or by another researcher (secondary)?
  • Does the source provide original information (primary), or does it summarize information from other sources (secondary)?
  • Are you directly analyzing the source itself (primary), or only using it for background information (secondary)?

Some types of sources are nearly always primary: works of art and literature, raw statistical data, official documents and records, and personal communications (e.g. letters, interviews ). If you use one of these in your research, it is probably a primary source.

Primary sources are often considered the most credible in terms of providing evidence for your argument, as they give you direct evidence of what you are researching. However, it’s up to you to ensure the information they provide is reliable and accurate.

Always make sure to properly cite your sources to avoid plagiarism .

A fictional movie is usually a primary source. A documentary can be either primary or secondary depending on the context.

If you are directly analysing some aspect of the movie itself – for example, the cinematography, narrative techniques, or social context – the movie is a primary source.

If you use the movie for background information or analysis about your topic – for example, to learn about a historical event or a scientific discovery – the movie is a secondary source.

Whether it’s primary or secondary, always properly cite the movie in the citation style you are using. Learn how to create an MLA movie citation or an APA movie citation .

Articles in newspapers and magazines can be primary or secondary depending on the focus of your research.

In historical studies, old articles are used as primary sources that give direct evidence about the time period. In social and communication studies, articles are used as primary sources to analyse language and social relations (for example, by conducting content analysis or discourse analysis ).

If you are not analysing the article itself, but only using it for background information or facts about your topic, then the article is a secondary source.

In academic writing , there are three main situations where quoting is the best choice:

  • To analyse the author’s language (e.g., in a literary analysis essay )
  • To give evidence from primary sources
  • To accurately present a precise definition or argument

Don’t overuse quotes; your own voice should be dominant. If you just want to provide information from a source, it’s usually better to paraphrase or summarise .

Your list of tables and figures should go directly after your table of contents in your thesis or dissertation.

Lists of figures and tables are often not required, and they aren’t particularly common. They specifically aren’t required for APA Style, though you should be careful to follow their other guidelines for figures and tables .

If you have many figures and tables in your thesis or dissertation, include one may help you stay organised. Your educational institution may require them, so be sure to check their guidelines.

Copyright information can usually be found wherever the table or figure was published. For example, for a diagram in a journal article , look on the journal’s website or the database where you found the article. Images found on sites like Flickr are listed with clear copyright information.

If you find that permission is required to reproduce the material, be sure to contact the author or publisher and ask for it.

A list of figures and tables compiles all of the figures and tables that you used in your thesis or dissertation and displays them with the page number where they can be found.

APA doesn’t require you to include a list of tables or a list of figures . However, it is advisable to do so if your text is long enough to feature a table of contents and it includes a lot of tables and/or figures .

A list of tables and list of figures appear (in that order) after your table of contents, and are presented in a similar way.

A glossary is a collection of words pertaining to a specific topic. In your thesis or dissertation, it’s a list of all terms you used that may not immediately be obvious to your reader. Your glossary only needs to include terms that your reader may not be familiar with, and is intended to enhance their understanding of your work.

Definitional terms often fall into the category of common knowledge , meaning that they don’t necessarily have to be cited. This guidance can apply to your thesis or dissertation glossary as well.

However, if you’d prefer to cite your sources , you can follow guidance for citing dictionary entries in MLA or APA style for your glossary.

A glossary is a collection of words pertaining to a specific topic. In your thesis or dissertation, it’s a list of all terms you used that may not immediately be obvious to your reader. In contrast, an index is a list of the contents of your work organised by page number.

Glossaries are not mandatory, but if you use a lot of technical or field-specific terms, it may improve readability to add one to your thesis or dissertation. Your educational institution may also require them, so be sure to check their specific guidelines.

A glossary is a collection of words pertaining to a specific topic. In your thesis or dissertation, it’s a list of all terms you used that may not immediately be obvious to your reader. In contrast, dictionaries are more general collections of words.

The title page of your thesis or dissertation should include your name, department, institution, degree program, and submission date.

The title page of your thesis or dissertation goes first, before all other content or lists that you may choose to include.

Usually, no title page is needed in an MLA paper . A header is generally included at the top of the first page instead. The exceptions are when:

  • Your instructor requires one, or
  • Your paper is a group project

In those cases, you should use a title page instead of a header, listing the same information but on a separate page.

When you mention different chapters within your text, it’s considered best to use Roman numerals for most citation styles. However, the most important thing here is to remain consistent whenever using numbers in your dissertation .

A thesis or dissertation outline is one of the most critical first steps in your writing process. It helps you to lay out and organise your ideas and can provide you with a roadmap for deciding what kind of research you’d like to undertake.

Generally, an outline contains information on the different sections included in your thesis or dissertation, such as:

  • Your anticipated title
  • Your abstract
  • Your chapters (sometimes subdivided into further topics like literature review, research methods, avenues for future research, etc.)

While a theoretical framework describes the theoretical underpinnings of your work based on existing research, a conceptual framework allows you to draw your own conclusions, mapping out the variables you may use in your study and the interplay between them.

A literature review and a theoretical framework are not the same thing and cannot be used interchangeably. While a theoretical framework describes the theoretical underpinnings of your work, a literature review critically evaluates existing research relating to your topic. You’ll likely need both in your dissertation .

A theoretical framework can sometimes be integrated into a  literature review chapter , but it can also be included as its own chapter or section in your dissertation . As a rule of thumb, if your research involves dealing with a lot of complex theories, it’s a good idea to include a separate theoretical framework chapter.

An abstract is a concise summary of an academic text (such as a journal article or dissertation ). It serves two main purposes:

  • To help potential readers determine the relevance of your paper for their own research.
  • To communicate your key findings to those who don’t have time to read the whole paper.

Abstracts are often indexed along with keywords on academic databases, so they make your work more easily findable. Since the abstract is the first thing any reader sees, it’s important that it clearly and accurately summarises the contents of your paper.

The abstract is the very last thing you write. You should only write it after your research is complete, so that you can accurately summarize the entirety of your thesis or paper.

Avoid citing sources in your abstract . There are two reasons for this:

  • The abstract should focus on your original research, not on the work of others.
  • The abstract should be self-contained and fully understandable without reference to other sources.

There are some circumstances where you might need to mention other sources in an abstract: for example, if your research responds directly to another study or focuses on the work of a single theorist. In general, though, don’t include citations unless absolutely necessary.

The abstract appears on its own page, after the title page and acknowledgements but before the table of contents .

Results are usually written in the past tense , because they are describing the outcome of completed actions.

The results chapter or section simply and objectively reports what you found, without speculating on why you found these results. The discussion interprets the meaning of the results, puts them in context, and explains why they matter.

In qualitative research , results and discussion are sometimes combined. But in quantitative research , it’s considered important to separate the objective results from your interpretation of them.

Formulating a main research question can be a difficult task. Overall, your question should contribute to solving the problem that you have defined in your problem statement .

However, it should also fulfill criteria in three main areas:

  • Researchability
  • Feasibility and specificity
  • Relevance and originality

The best way to remember the difference between a research plan and a research proposal is that they have fundamentally different audiences. A research plan helps you, the researcher, organize your thoughts. On the other hand, a dissertation proposal or research proposal aims to convince others (e.g., a supervisor, a funding body, or a dissertation committee) that your research topic is relevant and worthy of being conducted.

A noun is a word that represents a person, thing, concept, or place (e.g., ‘John’, ‘house’, ‘affinity’, ‘river’). Most sentences contain at least one noun or pronoun .

Nouns are often, but not always, preceded by an article (‘the’, ‘a’, or ‘an’) and/or another determiner such as an adjective.

There are many ways to categorize nouns into various types, and the same noun can fall into multiple categories or even change types depending on context.

Some of the main types of nouns are:

  • Common nouns and proper nouns
  • Countable and uncountable nouns
  • Concrete and abstract nouns
  • Collective nouns
  • Possessive nouns
  • Attributive nouns
  • Appositive nouns
  • Generic nouns

Pronouns are words like ‘I’, ‘she’, and ‘they’ that are used in a similar way to nouns . They stand in for a noun that has already been mentioned or refer to yourself and other people.

Pronouns can function just like nouns as the head of a noun phrase and as the subject or object of a verb. However, pronouns change their forms (e.g., from ‘I’ to ‘me’) depending on the grammatical context they’re used in, whereas nouns usually don’t.

Common nouns are words for types of things, people, and places, such as ‘dog’, ‘professor’, and ‘city’. They are not capitalised and are typically used in combination with articles and other determiners.

Proper nouns are words for specific things, people, and places, such as ‘Max’, ‘Dr Prakash’, and ‘London’. They are always capitalised and usually aren’t combined with articles and other determiners.

A proper adjective is an adjective that was derived from a proper noun and is therefore capitalised .

Proper adjectives include words for nationalities, languages, and ethnicities (e.g., ‘Japanese’, ‘Inuit’, ‘French’) and words derived from people’s names (e.g., ‘Bayesian’, ‘Orwellian’).

The names of seasons (e.g., ‘spring’) are treated as common nouns in English and therefore not capitalised . People often assume they are proper nouns, but this is an error.

The names of days and months, however, are capitalised since they’re treated as proper nouns in English (e.g., ‘Wednesday’, ‘January’).

No, as a general rule, academic concepts, disciplines, theories, models, etc. are treated as common nouns , not proper nouns , and therefore not capitalised . For example, ‘five-factor model of personality’ or ‘analytic philosophy’.

However, proper nouns that appear within the name of an academic concept (such as the name of the inventor) are capitalised as usual. For example, ‘Darwin’s theory of evolution’ or ‘ Student’s t table ‘.

Collective nouns are most commonly treated as singular (e.g., ‘the herd is grazing’), but usage differs between US and UK English :

  • In US English, it’s standard to treat all collective nouns as singular, even when they are plural in appearance (e.g., ‘The Rolling Stones is …’). Using the plural form is usually seen as incorrect.
  • In UK English, collective nouns can be treated as singular or plural depending on context. It’s quite common to use the plural form, especially when the noun looks plural (e.g., ‘The Rolling Stones are …’).

The plural of “crisis” is “crises”. It’s a loanword from Latin and retains its original Latin plural noun form (similar to “analyses” and “bases”). It’s wrong to write “crisises”.

For example, you might write “Several crises destabilized the regime.”

Normally, the plural of “fish” is the same as the singular: “fish”. It’s one of a group of irregular plural nouns in English that are identical to the corresponding singular nouns (e.g., “moose”, “sheep”). For example, you might write “The fish scatter as the shark approaches.”

If you’re referring to several species of fish, though, the regular plural “fishes” is often used instead. For example, “The aquarium contains many different fishes , including trout and carp.”

The correct plural of “octopus” is “octopuses”.

People often write “octopi” instead because they assume that the plural noun is formed in the same way as Latin loanwords such as “fungus/fungi”. But “octopus” actually comes from Greek, where its original plural is “octopodes”. In English, it instead has the regular plural form “octopuses”.

For example, you might write “There are four octopuses in the aquarium.”

The plural of “moose” is the same as the singular: “moose”. It’s one of a group of plural nouns in English that are identical to the corresponding singular nouns. So it’s wrong to write “mooses”.

For example, you might write “There are several moose in the forest.”

Bias in research affects the validity and reliability of your findings, leading to false conclusions and a misinterpretation of the truth. This can have serious implications in areas like medical research where, for example, a new form of treatment may be evaluated.

Observer bias occurs when the researcher’s assumptions, views, or preconceptions influence what they see and record in a study, while actor–observer bias refers to situations where respondents attribute internal factors (e.g., bad character) to justify other’s behaviour and external factors (difficult circumstances) to justify the same behaviour in themselves.

Response bias is a general term used to describe a number of different conditions or factors that cue respondents to provide inaccurate or false answers during surveys or interviews . These factors range from the interviewer’s perceived social position or appearance to the the phrasing of questions in surveys.

Nonresponse bias occurs when the people who complete a survey are different from those who did not, in ways that are relevant to the research topic. Nonresponse can happen either because people are not willing or not able to participate.

In research, demand characteristics are cues that might indicate the aim of a study to participants. These cues can lead to participants changing their behaviors or responses based on what they think the research is about.

Demand characteristics are common problems in psychology experiments and other social science studies because they can bias your research findings.

Demand characteristics are a type of extraneous variable that can affect the outcomes of the study. They can invalidate studies by providing an alternative explanation for the results.

These cues may nudge participants to consciously or unconsciously change their responses, and they pose a threat to both internal and external validity . You can’t be sure that your independent variable manipulation worked, or that your findings can be applied to other people or settings.

You can control demand characteristics by taking a few precautions in your research design and materials.

Use these measures:

  • Deception: Hide the purpose of the study from participants
  • Between-groups design : Give each participant only one independent variable treatment
  • Double-blind design : Conceal the assignment of groups from participants and yourself
  • Implicit measures: Use indirect or hidden measurements for your variables

Some attrition is normal and to be expected in research. However, the type of attrition is important because systematic research bias can distort your findings. Attrition bias can lead to inaccurate results because it affects internal and/or external validity .

To avoid attrition bias , applying some of these measures can help you reduce participant dropout (attrition) by making it easy and appealing for participants to stay.

  • Provide compensation (e.g., cash or gift cards) for attending every session
  • Minimise the number of follow-ups as much as possible
  • Make all follow-ups brief, flexible, and convenient for participants
  • Send participants routine reminders to schedule follow-ups
  • Recruit more participants than you need for your sample (oversample)
  • Maintain detailed contact information so you can get in touch with participants even if they move

If you have a small amount of attrition bias , you can use a few statistical methods to try to make up for this research bias .

Multiple imputation involves using simulations to replace the missing data with likely values. Alternatively, you can use sample weighting to make up for the uneven balance of participants in your sample.

Placebos are used in medical research for new medication or therapies, called clinical trials. In these trials some people are given a placebo, while others are given the new medication being tested.

The purpose is to determine how effective the new medication is: if it benefits people beyond a predefined threshold as compared to the placebo, it’s considered effective.

Although there is no definite answer to what causes the placebo effect , researchers propose a number of explanations such as the power of suggestion, doctor-patient interaction, classical conditioning, etc.

Belief bias and confirmation bias are both types of cognitive bias that impact our judgment and decision-making.

Confirmation bias relates to how we perceive and judge evidence. We tend to seek out and prefer information that supports our preexisting beliefs, ignoring any information that contradicts those beliefs.

Belief bias describes the tendency to judge an argument based on how plausible the conclusion seems to us, rather than how much evidence is provided to support it during the course of the argument.

Positivity bias is phenomenon that occurs when a person judges individual members of a group positively, even when they have negative impressions or judgments of the group as a whole. Positivity bias is closely related to optimism bias , or the e xpectation that things will work out well, even if rationality suggests that problems are inevitable in life.

Perception bias is a problem because it prevents us from seeing situations or people objectively. Rather, our expectations, beliefs, or emotions interfere with how we interpret reality. This, in turn, can cause us to misjudge ourselves or others. For example, our prejudices can interfere with whether we perceive people’s faces as friendly or unfriendly.

There are many ways to categorize adjectives into various types. An adjective can fall into one or more of these categories depending on how it is used.

Some of the main types of adjectives are:

  • Attributive adjectives
  • Predicative adjectives
  • Comparative adjectives
  • Superlative adjectives
  • Coordinate adjectives
  • Appositive adjectives
  • Compound adjectives
  • Participial adjectives
  • Proper adjectives
  • Denominal adjectives
  • Nominal adjectives

Cardinal numbers (e.g., one, two, three) can be placed before a noun to indicate quantity (e.g., one apple). While these are sometimes referred to as ‘numeral adjectives ‘, they are more accurately categorised as determiners or quantifiers.

Proper adjectives are adjectives formed from a proper noun (i.e., the name of a specific person, place, or thing) that are used to indicate origin. Like proper nouns, proper adjectives are always capitalised (e.g., Newtonian, Marxian, African).

The cost of proofreading depends on the type and length of text, the turnaround time, and the level of services required. Most proofreading companies charge per word or page, while freelancers sometimes charge an hourly rate.

For proofreading alone, which involves only basic corrections of typos and formatting mistakes, you might pay as little as £0.01 per word, but in many cases, your text will also require some level of editing , which costs slightly more.

It’s often possible to purchase combined proofreading and editing services and calculate the price in advance based on your requirements.

Then and than are two commonly confused words . In the context of ‘better than’, you use ‘than’ with an ‘a’.

  • Julie is better than Jesse.
  • I’d rather spend my time with you than with him.
  • I understand Eoghan’s point of view better than Claudia’s.

Use to and used to are commonly confused words . In the case of ‘used to do’, the latter (with ‘d’) is correct, since you’re describing an action or state in the past.

  • I used to do laundry once a week.
  • They used to do each other’s hair.
  • We used to do the dishes every day .

There are numerous synonyms and near synonyms for the various meanings of “ favour ”:

There are numerous synonyms and near synonyms for the two meanings of “ favoured ”:

No one (two words) is an indefinite pronoun meaning ‘nobody’. People sometimes mistakenly write ‘noone’, but this is incorrect and should be avoided. ‘No-one’, with a hyphen, is also acceptable in UK English .

Nobody and no one are both indefinite pronouns meaning ‘no person’. They can be used interchangeably (e.g., ‘nobody is home’ means the same as ‘no one is home’).

Some synonyms and near synonyms of  every time include:

  • Without exception

‘Everytime’ is sometimes used to mean ‘each time’ or ‘whenever’. However, this is incorrect and should be avoided. The correct phrase is every time   (two words).

Yes, the conjunction because is a compound word , but one with a long history. It originates in Middle English from the preposition “bi” (“by”) and the noun “cause”. Over time, the open compound “bi cause” became the closed compound “because”, which we use today.

Though it’s spelled this way now, the verb “be” is not one of the words that makes up “because”.

Yes, today is a compound word , but a very old one. It wasn’t originally formed from the preposition “to” and the noun “day”; rather, it originates from their Old English equivalents, “tō” and “dæġe”.

In the past, it was sometimes written as a hyphenated compound: “to-day”. But the hyphen is no longer included; it’s always “today” now (“to day” is also wrong).

IEEE citation format is defined by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and used in their publications.

It’s also a widely used citation style for students in technical fields like electrical and electronic engineering, computer science, telecommunications, and computer engineering.

An IEEE in-text citation consists of a number in brackets at the relevant point in the text, which points the reader to the right entry in the numbered reference list at the end of the paper. For example, ‘Smith [1] states that …’

A location marker such as a page number is also included within the brackets when needed: ‘Smith [1, p. 13] argues …’

The IEEE reference page consists of a list of references numbered in the order they were cited in the text. The title ‘References’ appears in bold at the top, either left-aligned or centered.

The numbers appear in square brackets on the left-hand side of the page. The reference entries are indented consistently to separate them from the numbers. Entries are single-spaced, with a normal paragraph break between them.

If you cite the same source more than once in your writing, use the same number for all of the IEEE in-text citations for that source, and only include it on the IEEE reference page once. The source is numbered based on the first time you cite it.

For example, the fourth source you cite in your paper is numbered [4]. If you cite it again later, you still cite it as [4]. You can cite different parts of the source each time by adding page numbers [4, p. 15].

A verb is a word that indicates a physical action (e.g., ‘drive’), a mental action (e.g., ‘think’) or a state of being (e.g., ‘exist’). Every sentence contains a verb.

Verbs are almost always used along with a noun or pronoun to describe what the noun or pronoun is doing.

There are many ways to categorize verbs into various types. A verb can fall into one or more of these categories depending on how it is used.

Some of the main types of verbs are:

  • Regular verbs
  • Irregular verbs
  • Transitive verbs
  • Intransitive verbs
  • Dynamic verbs
  • Stative verbs
  • Linking verbs
  • Auxiliary verbs
  • Modal verbs
  • Phrasal verbs

Regular verbs are verbs whose simple past and past participle are formed by adding the suffix ‘-ed’ (e.g., ‘walked’).

Irregular verbs are verbs that form their simple past and past participles in some way other than by adding the suffix ‘-ed’ (e.g., ‘sat’).

The indefinite articles a and an are used to refer to a general or unspecified version of a noun (e.g., a house). Which indefinite article you use depends on the pronunciation of the word that follows it.

  • A is used for words that begin with a consonant sound (e.g., a bear).
  • An is used for words that begin with a vowel sound (e.g., an eagle).

Indefinite articles can only be used with singular countable nouns . Like definite articles, they are a type of determiner .

Editing and proofreading are different steps in the process of revising a text.

Editing comes first, and can involve major changes to content, structure and language. The first stages of editing are often done by authors themselves, while a professional editor makes the final improvements to grammar and style (for example, by improving sentence structure and word choice ).

Proofreading is the final stage of checking a text before it is published or shared. It focuses on correcting minor errors and inconsistencies (for example, in punctuation and capitalization ). Proofreaders often also check for formatting issues, especially in print publishing.

Whether you’re publishing a blog, submitting a research paper , or even just writing an important email, there are a few techniques you can use to make sure it’s error-free:

  • Take a break : Set your work aside for at least a few hours so that you can look at it with fresh eyes.
  • Proofread a printout : Staring at a screen for too long can cause fatigue – sit down with a pen and paper to check the final version.
  • Use digital shortcuts : Take note of any recurring mistakes (for example, misspelling a particular word, switching between US and UK English , or inconsistently capitalizing a term), and use Find and Replace to fix it throughout the document.

If you want to be confident that an important text is error-free, it might be worth choosing a professional proofreading service instead.

There are many different routes to becoming a professional proofreader or editor. The necessary qualifications depend on the field – to be an academic or scientific proofreader, for example, you will need at least a university degree in a relevant subject.

For most proofreading jobs, experience and demonstrated skills are more important than specific qualifications. Often your skills will be tested as part of the application process.

To learn practical proofreading skills, you can choose to take a course with a professional organisation such as the Society for Editors and Proofreaders . Alternatively, you can apply to companies that offer specialised on-the-job training programmes, such as the Scribbr Academy .

Though they’re pronounced the same, there’s a big difference in meaning between its and it’s .

  • ‘The cat ate its food’.
  • ‘It’s almost Christmas’.

Its and it’s are often confused, but its (without apostrophe) is the possessive form of ‘it’ (e.g., its tail, its argument, its wing). You use ‘its’ instead of ‘his’ and ‘her’ for neuter, inanimate nouns.

Then and than are two commonly confused words with different meanings and grammatical roles.

  • Then (pronounced with a short ‘e’ sound) refers to time. It’s often an adverb , but it can also be used as a noun meaning ‘that time’ and as an adjective referring to a previous status.
  • Than (pronounced with a short ‘a’ sound) is used for comparisons. Grammatically, it usually functions as a conjunction , but sometimes it’s a preposition .

Use to and used to are commonly confused words . In the case of ‘used to be’, the latter (with ‘d’) is correct, since you’re describing an action or state in the past.

  • I used to be the new coworker.
  • There used to be 4 cookies left.
  • We used to walk to school every day .

A grammar checker is a tool designed to automatically check your text for spelling errors, grammatical issues, punctuation mistakes , and problems with sentence structure . You can check out our analysis of the best free grammar checkers to learn more.

A paraphrasing tool edits your text more actively, changing things whether they were grammatically incorrect or not. It can paraphrase your sentences to make them more concise and readable or for other purposes. You can check out our analysis of the best free paraphrasing tools to learn more.

Some tools available online combine both functions. Others, such as QuillBot , have separate grammar checker and paraphrasing tools. Be aware of what exactly the tool you’re using does to avoid introducing unwanted changes.

Good grammar is the key to expressing yourself clearly and fluently, especially in professional communication and academic writing . Word processors, browsers, and email programs typically have built-in grammar checkers, but they’re quite limited in the kinds of problems they can fix.

If you want to go beyond detecting basic spelling errors, there are many online grammar checkers with more advanced functionality. They can often detect issues with punctuation , word choice, and sentence structure that more basic tools would miss.

Not all of these tools are reliable, though. You can check out our research into the best free grammar checkers to explore the options.

Our research indicates that the best free grammar checker available online is the QuillBot grammar checker .

We tested 10 of the most popular checkers with the same sample text (containing 20 grammatical errors) and found that QuillBot easily outperformed the competition, scoring 18 out of 20, a drastic improvement over the second-place score of 13 out of 20.

It even appeared to outperform the premium versions of other grammar checkers, despite being entirely free.

A teacher’s aide is a person who assists in teaching classes but is not a qualified teacher. Aide is a noun meaning ‘assistant’, so it will always refer to a person.

‘Teacher’s aid’ is incorrect.

A visual aid is an instructional device (e.g., a photo, a chart) that appeals to vision to help you understand written or spoken information. Aid is often placed after an attributive noun or adjective (like ‘visual’) that describes the type of help provided.

‘Visual aide’ is incorrect.

A job aid is an instructional tool (e.g., a checklist, a cheat sheet) that helps you work efficiently. Aid is a noun meaning ‘assistance’. It’s often placed after an adjective or attributive noun (like ‘job’) that describes the specific type of help provided.

‘Job aide’ is incorrect.

There are numerous synonyms for the various meanings of truly :

Yours truly is a phrase used at the end of a formal letter or email. It can also be used (typically in a humorous way) as a pronoun to refer to oneself (e.g., ‘The dinner was cooked by yours truly ‘). The latter usage should be avoided in formal writing.

It’s formed by combining the second-person possessive pronoun ‘yours’ with the adverb ‘ truly ‘.

A pathetic fallacy can be a short phrase or a whole sentence and is often used in novels and poetry. Pathetic fallacies serve multiple purposes, such as:

  • Conveying the emotional state of the characters or the narrator
  • Creating an atmosphere or set the mood of a scene
  • Foreshadowing events to come
  • Giving texture and vividness to a piece of writing
  • Communicating emotion to the reader in a subtle way, by describing the external world.
  • Bringing inanimate objects to life so that they seem more relatable.

AMA citation format is a citation style designed by the American Medical Association. It’s frequently used in the field of medicine.

You may be told to use AMA style for your student papers. You will also have to follow this style if you’re submitting a paper to a journal published by the AMA.

An AMA in-text citation consists of the number of the relevant reference on your AMA reference page , written in superscript 1 at the point in the text where the source is used.

It may also include the page number or range of the relevant material in the source (e.g., the part you quoted 2(p46) ). Multiple sources can be cited at one point, presented as a range or list (with no spaces 3,5–9 ).

An AMA reference usually includes the author’s last name and initials, the title of the source, information about the publisher or the publication it’s contained in, and the publication date. The specific details included, and the formatting, depend on the source type.

References in AMA style are presented in numerical order (numbered by the order in which they were first cited in the text) on your reference page. A source that’s cited repeatedly in the text still only appears once on the reference page.

An AMA in-text citation just consists of the number of the relevant entry on your AMA reference page , written in superscript at the point in the text where the source is referred to.

You don’t need to mention the author of the source in your sentence, but you can do so if you want. It’s not an official part of the citation, but it can be useful as part of a signal phrase introducing the source.

On your AMA reference page , author names are written with the last name first, followed by the initial(s) of their first name and middle name if mentioned.

There’s a space between the last name and the initials, but no space or punctuation between the initials themselves. The names of multiple authors are separated by commas , and the whole list ends in a period, e.g., ‘Andreessen F, Smith PW, Gonzalez E’.

The names of up to six authors should be listed for each source on your AMA reference page , separated by commas . For a source with seven or more authors, you should list the first three followed by ‘ et al’ : ‘Isidore, Gilbert, Gunvor, et al’.

In the text, mentioning author names is optional (as they aren’t an official part of AMA in-text citations ). If you do mention them, though, you should use the first author’s name followed by ‘et al’ when there are three or more : ‘Isidore et al argue that …’

Note that according to AMA’s rather minimalistic punctuation guidelines, there’s no period after ‘et al’ unless it appears at the end of a sentence. This is different from most other styles, where there is normally a period.

Yes, you should normally include an access date in an AMA website citation (or when citing any source with a URL). This is because webpages can change their content over time, so it’s useful for the reader to know when you accessed the page.

When a publication or update date is provided on the page, you should include it in addition to the access date. The access date appears second in this case, e.g., ‘Published June 19, 2021. Accessed August 29, 2022.’

Don’t include an access date when citing a source with a DOI (such as in an AMA journal article citation ).

Some variables have fixed levels. For example, gender and ethnicity are always nominal level data because they cannot be ranked.

However, for other variables, you can choose the level of measurement . For example, income is a variable that can be recorded on an ordinal or a ratio scale:

  • At an ordinal level , you could create 5 income groupings and code the incomes that fall within them from 1–5.
  • At a ratio level , you would record exact numbers for income.

If you have a choice, the ratio level is always preferable because you can analyse data in more ways. The higher the level of measurement, the more precise your data is.

The level at which you measure a variable determines how you can analyse your data.

Depending on the level of measurement , you can perform different descriptive statistics to get an overall summary of your data and inferential statistics to see if your results support or refute your hypothesis .

Levels of measurement tell you how precisely variables are recorded. There are 4 levels of measurement, which can be ranked from low to high:

  • Nominal : the data can only be categorised.
  • Ordinal : the data can be categorised and ranked.
  • Interval : the data can be categorised and ranked, and evenly spaced.
  • Ratio : the data can be categorised, ranked, evenly spaced and has a natural zero.

Statistical analysis is the main method for analyzing quantitative research data . It uses probabilities and models to test predictions about a population from sample data.

The null hypothesis is often abbreviated as H 0 . When the null hypothesis is written using mathematical symbols, it always includes an equality symbol (usually =, but sometimes ≥ or ≤).

The alternative hypothesis is often abbreviated as H a or H 1 . When the alternative hypothesis is written using mathematical symbols, it always includes an inequality symbol (usually ≠, but sometimes < or >).

As the degrees of freedom increase, Student’s t distribution becomes less leptokurtic , meaning that the probability of extreme values decreases. The distribution becomes more and more similar to a standard normal distribution .

When there are only one or two degrees of freedom , the chi-square distribution is shaped like a backwards ‘J’. When there are three or more degrees of freedom, the distribution is shaped like a right-skewed hump. As the degrees of freedom increase, the hump becomes less right-skewed and the peak of the hump moves to the right. The distribution becomes more and more similar to a normal distribution .

‘Looking forward in hearing from you’ is an incorrect version of the phrase looking forward to hearing from you . The phrasal verb ‘looking forward to’ always needs the preposition ‘to’, not ‘in’.

  • I am looking forward in hearing from you.
  • I am looking forward to hearing from you.

Some synonyms and near synonyms for the expression looking forward to hearing from you include:

  • Eagerly awaiting your response
  • Hoping to hear from you soon
  • It would be great to hear back from you
  • Thanks in advance for your reply

People sometimes mistakenly write ‘looking forward to hear from you’, but this is incorrect. The correct phrase is looking forward to hearing from you .

The phrasal verb ‘look forward to’ is always followed by a direct object, the thing you’re looking forward to. As the direct object has to be a noun phrase , it should be the gerund ‘hearing’, not the verb ‘hear’.

  • I’m looking forward to hear from you soon.
  • I’m looking forward to hearing from you soon.

Traditionally, the sign-off Yours sincerely is used in an email message or letter when you are writing to someone you have interacted with before, not a complete stranger.

Yours faithfully is used instead when you are writing to someone you have had no previous correspondence with, especially if you greeted them as ‘ Dear Sir or Madam ’.

Just checking in   is a standard phrase used to start an email (or other message) that’s intended to ask someone for a response or follow-up action in a friendly, informal way. However, it’s a cliché opening that can come across as passive-aggressive, so we recommend avoiding it in favor of a more direct opening like “We previously discussed …”

In a more personal context, you might encounter “just checking in” as part of a longer phrase such as “I’m just checking in to see how you’re doing”. In this case, it’s not asking the other person to do anything but rather asking about their well-being (emotional or physical) in a friendly way.

“Earliest convenience” is part of the phrase at your earliest convenience , meaning “as soon as you can”. 

It’s typically used to end an email in a formal context by asking the recipient to do something when it’s convenient for them to do so.

ASAP is an abbreviation of the phrase “as soon as possible”. 

It’s typically used to indicate a sense of urgency in highly informal contexts (e.g., “Let me know ASAP if you need me to drive you to the airport”).

“ASAP” should be avoided in more formal correspondence. Instead, use an alternative like at your earliest convenience .

Some synonyms and near synonyms of the verb   compose   (meaning “to make up”) are:

People increasingly use “comprise” as a synonym of “compose.” However, this is normally still seen as a mistake, and we recommend avoiding it in your academic writing . “Comprise” traditionally means “to be made up of,” not “to make up.”

Some synonyms and near synonyms of the verb comprise are:

  • Be composed of
  • Be made up of

People increasingly use “comprise” interchangeably with “compose,” meaning that they consider words like “compose,” “constitute,” and “form” to be synonymous with “comprise.” However, this is still normally regarded as an error, and we advise against using these words interchangeably in academic writing .

A fallacy is a mistaken belief, particularly one based on unsound arguments or one that lacks the evidence to support it. Common types of fallacy that may compromise the quality of your research are:

  • Correlation/causation fallacy: Claiming that two events that occur together have a cause-and-effect relationship even though this can’t be proven
  • Ecological fallacy : Making inferences about the nature of individuals based on aggregate data for the group
  • The sunk cost fallacy : Following through on a project or decision because we have already invested time, effort, or money into it, even if the current costs outweigh the benefits
  • The base-rate fallacy : Ignoring base-rate or statistically significant information, such as sample size or the relative frequency of an event, in favor of  less relevant information e.g., pertaining to a single case, or a small number of cases
  • The planning fallacy : Underestimating the time needed to complete a future task, even when we know that similar tasks in the past have taken longer than planned

The planning fallacy refers to people’s tendency to underestimate the resources needed to complete a future task, despite knowing that previous tasks have also taken longer than planned.

For example, people generally tend to underestimate the cost and time needed for construction projects. The planning fallacy occurs due to people’s tendency to overestimate the chances that positive events, such as a shortened timeline, will happen to them. This phenomenon is called optimism bias or positivity bias.

Although both red herring fallacy and straw man fallacy are logical fallacies or reasoning errors, they denote different attempts to “win” an argument. More specifically:

  • A red herring fallacy refers to an attempt to change the subject and divert attention from the original issue. In other words, a seemingly solid but ultimately irrelevant argument is introduced into the discussion, either on purpose or by mistake.
  • A straw man argument involves the deliberate distortion of another person’s argument. By oversimplifying or exaggerating it, the other party creates an easy-to-refute argument and then attacks it.

The red herring fallacy is a problem because it is flawed reasoning. It is a distraction device that causes people to become sidetracked from the main issue and draw wrong conclusions.

Although a red herring may have some kernel of truth, it is used as a distraction to keep our eyes on a different matter. As a result, it can cause us to accept and spread misleading information.

The sunk cost fallacy and escalation of commitment (or commitment bias ) are two closely related terms. However, there is a slight difference between them:

  • Escalation of commitment (aka commitment bias ) is the tendency to be consistent with what we have already done or said we will do in the past, especially if we did so in public. In other words, it is an attempt to save face and appear consistent.
  • Sunk cost fallacy is the tendency to stick with a decision or a plan even when it’s failing. Because we have already invested valuable time, money, or energy, quitting feels like these resources were wasted.

In other words, escalating commitment is a manifestation of the sunk cost fallacy: an irrational escalation of commitment frequently occurs when people refuse to accept that the resources they’ve already invested cannot be recovered. Instead, they insist on more spending to justify the initial investment (and the incurred losses).

When you are faced with a straw man argument , the best way to respond is to draw attention to the fallacy and ask your discussion partner to show how your original statement and their distorted version are the same. Since these are different, your partner will either have to admit that their argument is invalid or try to justify it by using more flawed reasoning, which you can then attack.

The straw man argument is a problem because it occurs when we fail to take an opposing point of view seriously. Instead, we intentionally misrepresent our opponent’s ideas and avoid genuinely engaging with them. Due to this, resorting to straw man fallacy lowers the standard of constructive debate.

A straw man argument is a distorted (and weaker) version of another person’s argument that can easily be refuted (e.g., when a teacher proposes that the class spend more time on math exercises, a parent complains that the teacher doesn’t care about reading and writing).

This is a straw man argument because it misrepresents the teacher’s position, which didn’t mention anything about cutting down on reading and writing. The straw man argument is also known as the straw man fallacy .

A slippery slope argument is not always a fallacy.

  • When someone claims adopting a certain policy or taking a certain action will automatically lead to a series of other policies or actions also being taken, this is a slippery slope argument.
  • If they don’t show a causal connection between the advocated policy and the consequent policies, then they commit a slippery slope fallacy .

There are a number of ways you can deal with slippery slope arguments especially when you suspect these are fallacious:

  • Slippery slope arguments take advantage of the gray area between an initial action or decision and the possible next steps that might lead to the undesirable outcome. You can point out these missing steps and ask your partner to indicate what evidence exists to support the claimed relationship between two or more events.
  • Ask yourself if each link in the chain of events or action is valid. Every proposition has to be true for the overall argument to work, so even if one link is irrational or not supported by evidence, then the argument collapses.
  • Sometimes people commit a slippery slope fallacy unintentionally. In these instances, use an example that demonstrates the problem with slippery slope arguments in general (e.g., by using statements to reach a conclusion that is not necessarily relevant to the initial statement). By attacking the concept of slippery slope arguments you can show that they are often fallacious.

People sometimes confuse cognitive bias and logical fallacies because they both relate to flawed thinking. However, they are not the same:

  • Cognitive bias is the tendency to make decisions or take action in an illogical way because of our values, memory, socialization, and other personal attributes. In other words, it refers to a fixed pattern of thinking rooted in the way our brain works.
  • Logical fallacies relate to how we make claims and construct our arguments in the moment. They are statements that sound convincing at first but can be disproven through logical reasoning.

In other words, cognitive bias refers to an ongoing predisposition, while logical fallacy refers to mistakes of reasoning that occur in the moment.

An appeal to ignorance (ignorance here meaning lack of evidence) is a type of informal logical fallacy .

It asserts that something must be true because it hasn’t been proven false—or that something must be false because it has not yet been proven true.

For example, “unicorns exist because there is no evidence that they don’t.” The appeal to ignorance is also called the burden of proof fallacy .

An ad hominem (Latin for “to the person”) is a type of informal logical fallacy . Instead of arguing against a person’s position, an ad hominem argument attacks the person’s character or actions in an effort to discredit them.

This rhetorical strategy is fallacious because a person’s character, motive, education, or other personal trait is logically irrelevant to whether their argument is true or false.

Name-calling is common in ad hominem fallacy (e.g., “environmental activists are ineffective because they’re all lazy tree-huggers”).

Ad hominem is a persuasive technique where someone tries to undermine the opponent’s argument by personally attacking them.

In this way, one can redirect the discussion away from the main topic and to the opponent’s personality without engaging with their viewpoint. When the opponent’s personality is irrelevant to the discussion, we call it an ad hominem fallacy .

Ad hominem tu quoque (‘you too”) is an attempt to rebut a claim by attacking its proponent on the grounds that they uphold a double standard or that they don’t practice what they preach. For example, someone is telling you that you should drive slowly otherwise you’ll get a speeding ticket one of these days, and you reply “but you used to get them all the time!”

Argumentum ad hominem means “argument to the person” in Latin and it is commonly referred to as ad hominem argument or personal attack. Ad hominem arguments are used in debates to refute an argument by attacking the character of the person making it, instead of the logic or premise of the argument itself.

The opposite of the hasty generalization fallacy is called slothful induction fallacy or appeal to coincidence .

It is the tendency to deny a conclusion even though there is sufficient evidence that supports it. Slothful induction occurs due to our natural tendency to dismiss events or facts that do not align with our personal biases and expectations. For example, a researcher may try to explain away unexpected results by claiming it is just a coincidence.

To avoid a hasty generalization fallacy we need to ensure that the conclusions drawn are well-supported by the appropriate evidence. More specifically:

  • In statistics , if we want to draw inferences about an entire population, we need to make sure that the sample is random and representative of the population . We can achieve that by using a probability sampling method , like simple random sampling or stratified sampling .
  • In academic writing , use precise language and measured phases. Try to avoid making absolute claims, cite specific instances and examples without applying the findings to a larger group.
  • As readers, we need to ask ourselves “does the writer demonstrate sufficient knowledge of the situation or phenomenon that would allow them to make a generalization?”

The hasty generalization fallacy and the anecdotal evidence fallacy are similar in that they both result in conclusions drawn from insufficient evidence. However, there is a difference between the two:

  • The hasty generalization fallacy involves genuinely considering an example or case (i.e., the evidence comes first and then an incorrect conclusion is drawn from this).
  • The anecdotal evidence fallacy (also known as “cherry-picking” ) is knowing in advance what conclusion we want to support, and then selecting the story (or a few stories) that support it. By overemphasizing anecdotal evidence that fits well with the point we are trying to make, we overlook evidence that would undermine our argument.

Although many sources use circular reasoning fallacy and begging the question interchangeably, others point out that there is a subtle difference between the two:

  • Begging the question fallacy occurs when you assume that an argument is true in order to justify a conclusion. If something begs the question, what you are actually asking is, “Is the premise of that argument actually true?” For example, the statement “Snakes make great pets. That’s why we should get a snake” begs the question “are snakes really great pets?”
  • Circular reasoning fallacy on the other hand, occurs when the evidence used to support a claim is just a repetition of the claim itself.  For example, “People have free will because they can choose what to do.”

In other words, we could say begging the question is a form of circular reasoning.

Circular reasoning fallacy uses circular reasoning to support an argument. More specifically, the evidence used to support a claim is just a repetition of the claim itself. For example: “The President of the United States is a good leader (claim), because they are the leader of this country (supporting evidence)”.

An example of a non sequitur is the following statement:

“Giving up nuclear weapons weakened the United States’ military. Giving up nuclear weapons also weakened China. For this reason, it is wrong to try to outlaw firearms in the United States today.”

Clearly there is a step missing in this line of reasoning and the conclusion does not follow from the premise, resulting in a non sequitur fallacy .

The difference between the post hoc fallacy and the non sequitur fallacy is that post hoc fallacy infers a causal connection between two events where none exists, whereas the non sequitur fallacy infers a conclusion that lacks a logical connection to the premise.

In other words, a post hoc fallacy occurs when there is a lack of a cause-and-effect relationship, while a non sequitur fallacy occurs when there is a lack of logical connection.

An example of post hoc fallacy is the following line of reasoning:

“Yesterday I had ice cream, and today I have a terrible stomachache. I’m sure the ice cream caused this.”

Although it is possible that the ice cream had something to do with the stomachache, there is no proof to justify the conclusion other than the order of events. Therefore, this line of reasoning is fallacious.

Post hoc fallacy and hasty generalisation fallacy are similar in that they both involve jumping to conclusions. However, there is a difference between the two:

  • Post hoc fallacy is assuming a cause and effect relationship between two events, simply because one happened after the other.
  • Hasty generalisation fallacy is drawing a general conclusion from a small sample or little evidence.

In other words, post hoc fallacy involves a leap to a causal claim; hasty generalisation fallacy involves a leap to a general proposition.

The fallacy of composition is similar to and can be confused with the hasty generalization fallacy . However, there is a difference between the two:

  • The fallacy of composition involves drawing an inference about the characteristics of a whole or group based on the characteristics of its individual members.
  • The hasty generalization fallacy involves drawing an inference about a population or class of things on the basis of few atypical instances or a small sample of that population or thing.

In other words, the fallacy of composition is using an unwarranted assumption that we can infer something about a whole based on the characteristics of its parts, while the hasty generalization fallacy is using insufficient evidence to draw a conclusion.

The opposite of the fallacy of composition is the fallacy of division . In the fallacy of division, the assumption is that a characteristic which applies to a whole or a group must necessarily apply to the parts or individual members. For example, “Australians travel a lot. Gary is Australian, so he must travel a lot.”

Base rate fallacy can be avoided by following these steps:

  • Avoid making an important decision in haste. When we are under pressure, we are more likely to resort to cognitive shortcuts like the availability heuristic and the representativeness heuristic . Due to this, we are more likely to factor in only current and vivid information, and ignore the actual probability of something happening (i.e., base rate).
  • Take a long-term view on the decision or question at hand. Look for relevant statistical data, which can reveal long-term trends and give you the full picture.
  • Talk to experts like professionals. They are more aware of probabilities related to specific decisions.

Suppose there is a population consisting of 90% psychologists and 10% engineers. Given that you know someone enjoyed physics at school, you may conclude that they are an engineer rather than a psychologist, even though you know that this person comes from a population consisting of far more psychologists than engineers.

When we ignore the rate of occurrence of some trait in a population (the base-rate information) we commit base rate fallacy .

Cost-benefit fallacy is a common error that occurs when allocating sources in project management. It is the fallacy of assuming that cost-benefit estimates are more or less accurate, when in fact they are highly inaccurate and biased. This means that cost-benefit analyses can be useful, but only after the cost-benefit fallacy has been acknowledged and corrected for. Cost-benefit fallacy is a type of base rate fallacy .

In advertising, the fallacy of equivocation is often used to create a pun. For example, a billboard company might advertise their billboards using a line like: “Looking for a sign? This is it!” The word sign has a literal meaning as billboard and a figurative one as a sign from God, the universe, etc.

Equivocation is a fallacy because it is a form of argumentation that is both misleading and logically unsound. When the meaning of a word or phrase shifts in the course of an argument, it causes confusion and also implies that the conclusion (which may be true) does not follow from the premise.

The fallacy of equivocation is an informal logical fallacy, meaning that the error lies in the content of the argument instead of the structure.

Fallacies of relevance are a group of fallacies that occur in arguments when the premises are logically irrelevant to the conclusion. Although at first there seems to be a connection between the premise and the conclusion, in reality fallacies of relevance use unrelated forms of appeal.

For example, the genetic fallacy makes an appeal to the source or origin of the claim in an attempt to assert or refute something.

The ad hominem fallacy and the genetic fallacy are closely related in that they are both fallacies of relevance. In other words, they both involve arguments that use evidence or examples that are not logically related to the argument at hand. However, there is a difference between the two:

  • In the ad hominem fallacy , the goal is to discredit the argument by discrediting the person currently making the argument.
  • In the genetic fallacy , the goal is to discredit the argument by discrediting the history or origin (i.e., genesis) of an argument.

False dilemma fallacy is also known as false dichotomy, false binary, and “either-or” fallacy. It is the fallacy of presenting only two choices, outcomes, or sides to an argument as the only possibilities, when more are available.

The false dilemma fallacy works in two ways:

  • By presenting only two options as if these were the only ones available
  • By presenting two options as mutually exclusive (i.e., only one option can be selected or can be true at a time)

In both cases, by using the false dilemma fallacy, one conceals alternative choices and doesn’t allow others to consider the full range of options. This is usually achieved through an“either-or” construction and polarised, divisive language (“you are either a friend or an enemy”).

The best way to avoid a false dilemma fallacy is to pause and reflect on two points:

  • Are the options presented truly the only ones available ? It could be that another option has been deliberately omitted.
  • Are the options mentioned mutually exclusive ? Perhaps all of the available options can be selected (or be true) at the same time, which shows that they aren’t mutually exclusive. Proving this is called “escaping between the horns of the dilemma.”

Begging the question fallacy is an argument in which you assume what you are trying to prove. In other words, your position and the justification of that position are the same, only slightly rephrased.

For example: “All freshmen should attend college orientation, because all college students should go to such an orientation.”

The complex question fallacy and begging the question fallacy are similar in that they are both based on assumptions. However, there is a difference between them:

  • A complex question fallacy occurs when someone asks a question that presupposes the answer to another question that has not been established or accepted by the other person. For example, asking someone “Have you stopped cheating on tests?”, unless it has previously been established that the person is indeed cheating on tests, is a fallacy.
  • Begging the question fallacy occurs when we assume the very thing as a premise that we’re trying to prove in our conclusion. In other words, the conclusion is used to support the premises, and the premises prove the validity of the conclusion. For example: “God exists because the Bible says so, and the Bible is true because it is the word of God.”

In other words, begging the question is about drawing a conclusion based on an assumption, while a complex question involves asking a question that presupposes the answer to a prior question.

“ No true Scotsman ” arguments aren’t always fallacious. When there is a generally accepted definition of who or what constitutes a group, it’s reasonable to use statements in the form of “no true Scotsman”.

For example, the statement that “no true pacifist would volunteer for military service” is not fallacious, since a pacifist is, by definition, someone who opposes war or violence as a means of settling disputes.

No true Scotsman arguments are fallacious because instead of logically refuting the counterexample, they simply assert that it doesn’t count. In other words, the counterexample is rejected for psychological, but not logical, reasons.

The appeal to purity or no true Scotsman fallacy is an attempt to defend a generalisation about a group from a counterexample by shifting the definition of the group in the middle of the argument. In this way, one can exclude the counterexample as not being “true”, “genuine”, or “pure” enough to be considered as part of the group in question.

To identify an appeal to authority fallacy , you can ask yourself the following questions:

  • Is the authority cited really a qualified expert in this particular area under discussion? For example, someone who has formal education or years of experience can be an expert.
  • Do experts disagree on this particular subject? If that is the case, then for almost any claim supported by one expert there will be a counterclaim that is supported by another expert. If there is no consensus, an appeal to authority is fallacious.
  • Is the authority in question biased? If you suspect that an expert’s prejudice and bias could have influenced their views, then the expert is not reliable and an argument citing this expert will be fallacious.To identify an appeal to authority fallacy, you ask yourself whether the authority cited is a qualified expert in the particular area under discussion.

Appeal to authority is a fallacy when those who use it do not provide any justification to support their argument. Instead they cite someone famous who agrees with their viewpoint, but is not qualified to make reliable claims on the subject.

Appeal to authority fallacy is often convincing because of the effect authority figures have on us. When someone cites a famous person, a well-known scientist, a politician, etc. people tend to be distracted and often fail to critically examine whether the authority figure is indeed an expert in the area under discussion.

The ad populum fallacy is common in politics. One example is the following viewpoint: “The majority of our countrymen think we should have military operations overseas; therefore, it’s the right thing to do.”

This line of reasoning is fallacious, because popular acceptance of a belief or position does not amount to a justification of that belief. In other words, following the prevailing opinion without examining the underlying reasons is irrational.

The ad populum fallacy plays on our innate desire to fit in (known as “bandwagon effect”). If many people believe something, our common sense tells us that it must be true and we tend to accept it. However, in logic, the popularity of a proposition cannot serve as evidence of its truthfulness.

Ad populum (or appeal to popularity) fallacy and appeal to authority fallacy are similar in that they both conflate the validity of a belief with its popular acceptance among a specific group. However there is a key difference between the two:

  • An ad populum fallacy tries to persuade others by claiming that something is true or right because a lot of people think so.
  • An appeal to authority fallacy tries to persuade by claiming a group of experts believe something is true or right, therefore it must be so.

To identify a false cause fallacy , you need to carefully analyse the argument:

  • When someone claims that one event directly causes another, ask if there is sufficient evidence to establish a cause-and-effect relationship. 
  • Ask if the claim is based merely on the chronological order or co-occurrence of the two events. 
  • Consider alternative possible explanations (are there other factors at play that could influence the outcome?).

By carefully analysing the reasoning, considering alternative explanations, and examining the evidence provided, you can identify a false cause fallacy and discern whether a causal claim is valid or flawed.

False cause fallacy examples include: 

  • Believing that wearing your lucky jersey will help your team win 
  • Thinking that everytime you wash your car, it rains
  • Claiming that playing video games causes violent behavior 

In each of these examples, we falsely assume that one event causes another without any proof.

The planning fallacy and procrastination are not the same thing. Although they both relate to time and task management, they describe different challenges:

  • The planning fallacy describes our inability to correctly estimate how long a future task will take, mainly due to optimism bias and a strong focus on the best-case scenario.
  • Procrastination refers to postponing a task, usually by focusing on less urgent or more enjoyable activities. This is due to psychological reasons, like fear of failure.

In other words, the planning fallacy refers to inaccurate predictions about the time we need to finish a task, while procrastination is a deliberate delay due to psychological factors.

A real-life example of the planning fallacy is the construction of the Sydney Opera House in Australia. When construction began in the late 1950s, it was initially estimated that it would be completed in four years at a cost of around $7 million.

Because the government wanted the construction to start before political opposition would stop it and while public opinion was still favorable, a number of design issues had not been carefully studied in advance. Due to this, several problems appeared immediately after the project commenced.

The construction process eventually stretched over 14 years, with the Opera House being completed in 1973 at a cost of over $100 million, significantly exceeding the initial estimates.

An example of appeal to pity fallacy is the following appeal by a student to their professor:

“Professor, please consider raising my grade. I had a terrible semester: my car broke down, my laptop got stolen, and my cat got sick.”

While these circumstances may be unfortunate, they are not directly related to the student’s academic performance.

While both the appeal to pity fallacy and   red herring fallacy can serve as a distraction from the original discussion topic, they are distinct fallacies. More specifically:

  • Appeal to pity fallacy attempts to evoke feelings of sympathy, pity, or guilt in an audience, so that they accept the speaker’s conclusion as truthful.
  • Red herring fallacy attempts to introduce an irrelevant piece of information that diverts the audience’s attention to a different topic.

Both fallacies can be used as a tool of deception. However, they operate differently and serve distinct purposes in arguments.

Argumentum ad misericordiam (Latin for “argument from pity or misery”) is another name for appeal to pity fallacy . It occurs when someone evokes sympathy or guilt in an attempt to gain support for their claim, without providing any logical reasons to support the claim itself. Appeal to pity is a deceptive tactic of argumentation, playing on people’s emotions to sway their opinion.

Yes, it’s quite common to start a sentence with a preposition, and there’s no reason not to do so.

For example, the sentence “ To many, she was a hero” is perfectly grammatical. It could also be rephrased as “She was a hero to  many”, but there’s no particular reason to do so. Both versions are fine.

Some people argue that you shouldn’t end a sentence with a preposition , but that “rule” can also be ignored, since it’s not supported by serious language authorities.

Yes, it’s fine to end a sentence with a preposition . The “rule” against doing so is overwhelmingly rejected by modern style guides and language authorities and is based on the rules of Latin grammar, not English.

Trying to avoid ending a sentence with a preposition often results in very unnatural phrasings. For example, turning “He knows what he’s talking about ” into “He knows about what he’s talking” or “He knows that about which he’s talking” is definitely not an improvement.

No, ChatGPT is not a credible source of factual information and can’t be cited for this purpose in academic writing . While it tries to provide accurate answers, it often gets things wrong because its responses are based on patterns, not facts and data.

Specifically, the CRAAP test for evaluating sources includes five criteria: currency , relevance , authority , accuracy , and purpose . ChatGPT fails to meet at least three of them:

  • Currency: The dataset that ChatGPT was trained on only extends to 2021, making it slightly outdated.
  • Authority: It’s just a language model and is not considered a trustworthy source of factual information.
  • Accuracy: It bases its responses on patterns rather than evidence and is unable to cite its sources .

So you shouldn’t cite ChatGPT as a trustworthy source for a factual claim. You might still cite ChatGPT for other reasons – for example, if you’re writing a paper about AI language models, ChatGPT responses are a relevant primary source .

ChatGPT is an AI language model that was trained on a large body of text from a variety of sources (e.g., Wikipedia, books, news articles, scientific journals). The dataset only went up to 2021, meaning that it lacks information on more recent events.

It’s also important to understand that ChatGPT doesn’t access a database of facts to answer your questions. Instead, its responses are based on patterns that it saw in the training data.

So ChatGPT is not always trustworthy . It can usually answer general knowledge questions accurately, but it can easily give misleading answers on more specialist topics.

Another consequence of this way of generating responses is that ChatGPT usually can’t cite its sources accurately. It doesn’t really know what source it’s basing any specific claim on. It’s best to check any information you get from it against a credible source .

No, it is not possible to cite your sources with ChatGPT . You can ask it to create citations, but it isn’t designed for this task and tends to make up sources that don’t exist or present information in the wrong format. ChatGPT also cannot add citations to direct quotes in your text.

Instead, use a tool designed for this purpose, like the Scribbr Citation Generator .

But you can use ChatGPT for assignments in other ways, to provide inspiration, feedback, and general writing advice.

GPT  stands for “generative pre-trained transformer”, which is a type of large language model: a neural network trained on a very large amount of text to produce convincing, human-like language outputs. The Chat part of the name just means “chat”: ChatGPT is a chatbot that you interact with by typing in text.

The technology behind ChatGPT is GPT-3.5 (in the free version) or GPT-4 (in the premium version). These are the names for the specific versions of the GPT model. GPT-4 is currently the most advanced model that OpenAI has created. It’s also the model used in Bing’s chatbot feature.

ChatGPT was created by OpenAI, an AI research company. It started as a nonprofit company in 2015 but became for-profit in 2019. Its CEO is Sam Altman, who also co-founded the company. OpenAI released ChatGPT as a free “research preview” in November 2022. Currently, it’s still available for free, although a more advanced premium version is available if you pay for it.

OpenAI is also known for developing DALL-E, an AI image generator that runs on similar technology to ChatGPT.

ChatGPT is owned by OpenAI, the company that developed and released it. OpenAI is a company dedicated to AI research. It started as a nonprofit company in 2015 but transitioned to for-profit in 2019. Its current CEO is Sam Altman, who also co-founded the company.

In terms of who owns the content generated by ChatGPT, OpenAI states that it will not claim copyright on this content , and the terms of use state that “you can use Content for any purpose, including commercial purposes such as sale or publication”. This means that you effectively own any content you generate with ChatGPT and can use it for your own purposes.

Be cautious about how you use ChatGPT content in an academic context. University policies on AI writing are still developing, so even if you “own” the content, you’re often not allowed to submit it as your own work according to your university or to publish it in a journal.

ChatGPT is a chatbot based on a large language model (LLM). These models are trained on huge datasets consisting of hundreds of billions of words of text, based on which the model learns to effectively predict natural responses to the prompts you enter.

ChatGPT was also refined through a process called reinforcement learning from human feedback (RLHF), which involves “rewarding” the model for providing useful answers and discouraging inappropriate answers – encouraging it to make fewer mistakes.

Essentially, ChatGPT’s answers are based on predicting the most likely responses to your inputs based on its training data, with a reward system on top of this to incentivise it to give you the most helpful answers possible. It’s a bit like an incredibly advanced version of predictive text. This is also one of ChatGPT’s limitations : because its answers are based on probabilities, they’re not always trustworthy .

OpenAI may store ChatGPT conversations for the purposes of future training. Additionally, these conversations may be monitored by human AI trainers.

Users can choose not to have their chat history saved. Unsaved chats are not used to train future models and are permanently deleted from ChatGPT’s system after 30 days.

The official ChatGPT app is currently only available on iOS devices. If you don’t have an iOS device, only use the official OpenAI website to access the tool. This helps to eliminate the potential risk of downloading fraudulent or malicious software.

ChatGPT conversations are generally used to train future models and to resolve issues/bugs. These chats may be monitored by human AI trainers.

However, users can opt out of having their conversations used for training. In these instances, chats are monitored only for potential abuse.

Yes, using ChatGPT as a conversation partner is a great way to practice a language in an interactive way.

Try using a prompt like this one:

“Please be my Spanish conversation partner. Only speak to me in Spanish. Keep your answers short (maximum 50 words). Ask me questions. Let’s start the conversation with the following topic: [conversation topic].”

Yes, there are a variety of ways to use ChatGPT for language learning , including treating it as a conversation partner, asking it for translations, and using it to generate a curriculum or practice exercises.

AI detectors aim to identify the presence of AI-generated text (e.g., from ChatGPT ) in a piece of writing, but they can’t do so with complete accuracy. In our comparison of the best AI detectors , we found that the 10 tools we tested had an average accuracy of 60%. The best free tool had 68% accuracy, the best premium tool 84%.

Because of how AI detectors work , they can never guarantee 100% accuracy, and there is always at least a small risk of false positives (human text being marked as AI-generated). Therefore, these tools should not be relied upon to provide absolute proof that a text is or isn’t AI-generated. Rather, they can provide a good indication in combination with other evidence.

Tools called AI detectors are designed to label text as AI-generated or human. AI detectors work by looking for specific characteristics in the text, such as a low level of randomness in word choice and sentence length. These characteristics are typical of AI writing, allowing the detector to make a good guess at when text is AI-generated.

But these tools can’t guarantee 100% accuracy. Check out our comparison of the best AI detectors to learn more.

You can also manually watch for clues that a text is AI-generated – for example, a very different style from the writer’s usual voice or a generic, overly polite tone.

Our research into the best summary generators (aka summarisers or summarising tools) found that the best summariser available in 2023 is the one offered by QuillBot.

While many summarisers just pick out some sentences from the text, QuillBot generates original summaries that are creative, clear, accurate, and concise. It can summarise texts of up to 1,200 words for free, or up to 6,000 with a premium subscription.

Try the QuillBot summarizer for free

Deep learning requires a large dataset (e.g., images or text) to learn from. The more diverse and representative the data, the better the model will learn to recognise objects or make predictions. Only when the training data is sufficiently varied can the model make accurate predictions or recognise objects from new data.

Deep learning models can be biased in their predictions if the training data consist of biased information. For example, if a deep learning model used for screening job applicants has been trained with a dataset consisting primarily of white male applicants, it will consistently favour this specific population over others.

A good ChatGPT prompt (i.e., one that will get you the kinds of responses you want):

  • Gives the tool a role to explain what type of answer you expect from it
  • Is precisely formulated and gives enough context
  • Is free from bias
  • Has been tested and improved by experimenting with the tool

ChatGPT prompts are the textual inputs (e.g., questions, instructions) that you enter into ChatGPT to get responses.

ChatGPT predicts an appropriate response to the prompt you entered. In general, a more specific and carefully worded prompt will get you better responses.

Yes, ChatGPT is currently available for free. You have to sign up for a free account to use the tool, and you should be aware that your data may be collected to train future versions of the model.

To sign up and use the tool for free, go to this page and click “Sign up”. You can do so with your email or with a Google account.

A premium version of the tool called ChatGPT Plus is available as a monthly subscription. It currently costs £16 and gets you access to features like GPT-4 (a more advanced version of the language model). But it’s optional: you can use the tool completely free if you’re not interested in the extra features.

You can access ChatGPT by signing up for a free account:

  • Follow this link to the ChatGPT website.
  • Click on “Sign up” and fill in the necessary details (or use your Google account). It’s free to sign up and use the tool.
  • Type a prompt into the chat box to get started!

A ChatGPT app is also available for iOS, and an Android app is planned for the future. The app works similarly to the website, and you log in with the same account for both.

According to OpenAI’s terms of use, users have the right to reproduce text generated by ChatGPT during conversations.

However, publishing ChatGPT outputs may have legal implications , such as copyright infringement.

Users should be aware of such issues and use ChatGPT outputs as a source of inspiration instead.

According to OpenAI’s terms of use, users have the right to use outputs from their own ChatGPT conversations for any purpose (including commercial publication).

However, users should be aware of the potential legal implications of publishing ChatGPT outputs. ChatGPT responses are not always unique: different users may receive the same response.

Furthermore, ChatGPT outputs may contain copyrighted material. Users may be liable if they reproduce such material.

ChatGPT can sometimes reproduce biases from its training data , since it draws on the text it has “seen” to create plausible responses to your prompts.

For example, users have shown that it sometimes makes sexist assumptions such as that a doctor mentioned in a prompt must be a man rather than a woman. Some have also pointed out political bias in terms of which political figures the tool is willing to write positively or negatively about and which requests it refuses.

The tool is unlikely to be consistently biased toward a particular perspective or against a particular group. Rather, its responses are based on its training data and on the way you phrase your ChatGPT prompts . It’s sensitive to phrasing, so asking it the same question in different ways will result in quite different answers.

Information extraction  refers to the process of starting from unstructured sources (e.g., text documents written in ordinary English) and automatically extracting structured information (i.e., data in a clearly defined format that’s easily understood by computers). It’s an important concept in natural language processing (NLP) .

For example, you might think of using news articles full of celebrity gossip to automatically create a database of the relationships between the celebrities mentioned (e.g., married, dating, divorced, feuding). You would end up with data in a structured format, something like MarriageBetween(celebrity 1 ,celebrity 2 ,date) .

The challenge involves developing systems that can “understand” the text well enough to extract this kind of data from it.

Knowledge representation and reasoning (KRR) is the study of how to represent information about the world in a form that can be used by a computer system to solve and reason about complex problems. It is an important field of artificial intelligence (AI) research.

An example of a KRR application is a semantic network, a way of grouping words or concepts by how closely related they are and formally defining the relationships between them so that a machine can “understand” language in something like the way people do.

A related concept is information extraction , concerned with how to get structured information from unstructured sources.

Yes, you can use ChatGPT to summarise text . This can help you understand complex information more easily, summarise the central argument of your own paper, or clarify your research question.

You can also use Scribbr’s free text summariser , which is designed specifically for this purpose.

Yes, you can use ChatGPT to paraphrase text to help you express your ideas more clearly, explore different ways of phrasing your arguments, and avoid repetition.

However, it’s not specifically designed for this purpose. We recommend using a specialised tool like Scribbr’s free paraphrasing tool , which will provide a smoother user experience.

Yes, you use ChatGPT to help write your college essay by having it generate feedback on certain aspects of your work (consistency of tone, clarity of structure, etc.).

However, ChatGPT is not able to adequately judge qualities like vulnerability and authenticity. For this reason, it’s important to also ask for feedback from people who have experience with college essays and who know you well. Alternatively, you can get advice using Scribbr’s essay editing service .

No, having ChatGPT write your college essay can negatively impact your application in numerous ways. ChatGPT outputs are unoriginal and lack personal insight.

Furthermore, Passing off AI-generated text as your own work is considered academically dishonest . AI detectors may be used to detect this offense, and it’s highly unlikely that any university will accept you if you are caught submitting an AI-generated admission essay.

However, you can use ChatGPT to help write your college essay during the preparation and revision stages (e.g., for brainstorming ideas and generating feedback).

ChatGPT and other AI writing tools can have unethical uses. These include:

  • Reproducing biases and false information
  • Using ChatGPT to cheat in academic contexts
  • Violating the privacy of others by inputting personal information

However, when used correctly, AI writing tools can be helpful resources for improving your academic writing and research skills. Some ways to use ChatGPT ethically include:

  • Following your institution’s guidelines
  • Critically evaluating outputs
  • Being transparent about how you used the tool

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Yes, if your document is longer than 20,000 words, you will get a sample of approximately 2,000 words. This sample edit gives you a first impression of the editor’s editing style and a chance to ask questions and give feedback.

How does the sample edit work?

You will receive the sample edit within 24 hours after placing your order. You then have 24 hours to let us know if you’re happy with the sample or if there’s something you would like the editor to do differently.

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Yes, you can upload your document in sections.

We try our best to ensure that the same editor checks all the different sections of your document. When you upload a new file, our system recognizes you as a returning customer, and we immediately contact the editor who helped you before.

However, we cannot guarantee that the same editor will be available. Your chances are higher if

  • You send us your text as soon as possible and
  • You can be flexible about the deadline.

Please note that the shorter your deadline is, the lower the chance that your previous editor is not available.

If your previous editor isn’t available, then we will inform you immediately and look for another qualified editor. Fear not! Every Scribbr editor follows the  Scribbr Improvement Model  and will deliver high-quality work.

Yes, our editors also work during the weekends and holidays.

Because we have many editors available, we can check your document 24 hours per day and 7 days per week, all year round.

If you choose a 72 hour deadline and upload your document on a Thursday evening, you’ll have your thesis back by Sunday evening!

Yes! Our editors are all native speakers, and they have lots of experience editing texts written by ESL students. They will make sure your grammar is perfect and point out any sentences that are difficult to understand. They’ll also notice your most common mistakes, and give you personal feedback to improve your writing in English.

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For a more comprehensive edit, you can add a Structure Check or Clarity Check to your order. With these building blocks, you can customize the kind of feedback you receive.

You might be familiar with a different set of editing terms. To help you understand what you can expect at Scribbr, we created this table:

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However, our editors are language specialists, not academic experts in your field. Your editor’s job is not to comment on the content of your dissertation, but to improve your language and help you express your ideas as clearly and fluently as possible.

This means that your editor will understand your text well enough to give feedback on its clarity, logic and structure, but not on the accuracy or originality of its content.

Good academic writing should be understandable to a non-expert reader, and we believe that academic editing is a discipline in itself. The research, ideas and arguments are all yours – we’re here to make sure they shine!

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Is There A Word Limit For Dissertations?

Published by Alvin Nicolas at April 9th, 2024 , Revised On April 9, 2024

Dissertation writing is one of the hardest things to do in academic life. It takes months of hard work and meticulous research. Usually, one of the first questions that students ask about dissertations is, “Is there a word limit for a dissertation?”. Honestly, there is no one-size-fits-all for this. Several factors can impact the word limit of your thesis. This blog intends to answer this query in detail. 

Word Count Variations

While many assume a universal word count for dissertations, the reality is far more complicated. Here’s a breakdown of the key factors that determine the expected word count:

Level Of Study

Undergraduate dissertations typically fall within the range of 8,000-15,000 words, while Master’s dissertations can range from 12,000-50,000 words. PhD theses, on the other hand, are often considered book-length, with expectations hovering around 70,000-100,000 words.

In fields such as STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics), where empirical research and quantitative analysis are predominant, dissertations may tend to be more concise and focused on presenting empirical findings and statistical analyses. 

Conversely, in disciplines like the humanities and social sciences, where theoretical frameworks and qualitative research methods are prevalent, dissertations may be more extensive and encompass a broader range of literature reviews , theoretical discussions, and case studies.

University Guidelines

Every university has its specific regulations regarding dissertation word count. These guidelines are usually outlined in program handbooks, department websites, or student handbooks. It’s crucial to consult these resources as the primary source of information.

with the advent of digital publishing platforms and online repositories, there has been a growing trend towards electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs). ETDs offer several advantages, including broader accessibility, enhanced searchability, and multimedia integration. 

As a result, some academic institutions have revised their dissertation guidelines to accommodate the unique characteristics of ETDs, allowing for more flexibility in formatting and presentation.

Quality Over Quantity

While word count serves as a general framework, it’s essential to remember that quality ultimately trumps quantity. A concise, well-structured, and impactful dissertation with a lower word count can outperform a lengthy, meandering one that fails to address the research question effectively.

Here are some strategies to ensure your dissertation adheres to quality standards:

  • Focus on clarity and conciseness: Express your ideas clearly and concisely, avoiding unnecessary jargon or filler words.
  • Prioritise strong arguments and evidence: Ensure your dissertation is well-supported by relevant and credible sources , avoiding irrelevant tangents.
  • Structure your argument effectively: Organise your dissertation logically, ensuring a clear flow of information and a strong conclusion .

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Proposal and dissertation orders completed by our expert writers are

  • Formally drafted in academic style
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Pro Tip: Always Ask Your Supervisor

Your supervisor is your primary guide throughout the dissertation journey. They can provide invaluable guidance on the expected word count for your specific program and research topic .

They can also help you refine your arguments, ensure your research is on track, and offer valuable feedback on your writing style and structure.

Schedule regular meetings with your supervisor to discuss your progress, clarify any doubts regarding word count expectations, and seek expert advice on crafting a compelling and impactful dissertation.

Frequently Asked Questions

Do dissertations have word limits.

Yes, dissertations typically have word limits set by academic institutions or specific departments. These limits can vary depending on the level of study and the discipline. Adhering to word limits ensures the dissertation remains focused and manageable for both the student and the examiners.

Is it possible to write a 10k-word dissertation in 2 days?

Writing a 10,000-word dissertation in 2 days is theoretically possible but highly challenging and not advisable. It would require intense focus, organisation, and discipline. However, rushing the process may compromise the quality of research and analysis, impacting the overall academic integrity and evaluation of the work.

How long is the longest dissertation?

The length of the longest dissertation varies, but some exceed 1,000 pages. For instance, in 2015, a Norwegian student, Magnus Carlsen, submitted a mathematics dissertation spanning 500 pages, while Shing-Tung Yau’s mathematics dissertation in 1976 reportedly reached over 1,000 pages. However, such extreme lengths are rare and depend on individual requirements and fields.

How long should a dissertation be?

The length of a dissertation varies widely depending on factors such as academic discipline, institution requirements, and research complexity. Typically, they range from 10,000 to 20,000 words for undergraduate dissertations, 15,000 to 50,000 words for master’s level, and 50,000 to 100,000 words or more for doctoral dissertations.

You May Also Like

Not all doctorates require a dissertation. Many focus on practice and use projects instead. Learn more in this blog.

Discover UK doctoral dissertation format: structure, formatting, word limits. Check your university guidelines.

Find out all you need to know about paraphrasing and how paraphrasing is essential in essay and assignment writing here.

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dissertation word count breakdown 15 000

Getting to the main article

Choosing your route

Setting research questions/ hypotheses

Assessment point

Building the theoretical case

Setting your research strategy

Data collection

Data analysis

CONSIDERATION ONE

Word count issues.

Most students run out of words when writing up. At the start of the process, especially if you're an undergraduate doing a dissertation for the first time, 10,000, 12,000, or 15,000 words (and up) sound like a lot, but they soon get eaten up. Worst still, they get eaten up in the wrong places, so you have a lop-sided dissertation, with some chapters receiving more focus than they should, whilst others are relatively neglected. Your dissertation guidelines might provide some instructions or recommendations on word count per chapter, but this is not always the case. Since you're likely to run out of words at some point during the writing up process, we'd recommend the following:

Always leave extra words for your Results chapter. This chapter can be concisely written, especially when you know how to summarize data well and make good use of Appendices . However, more often than not, too much is included and it becomes excessively large. The problem is that you can suddenly find the Results chapter becoming 1,000 to 2,000 words too long (sometimes more), and it's very hard to either shorten the chapter or reduce the word count in other chapters. Leaving a little extra in terms of word count for this chapter is advisable, but when it comes down to it, knowing how to write up the Results chapter properly is important and will help you get this right first time.

Don't waste words on peripheral sections within chapters. Every chapter has a number of sections that are useful, and often have to be included to some extent, but (a) can eat into your word count and (b) won't give you lots of extra marks by themselves. Obvious examples include the Chapter Summaries section within the Introduction chapter, as well as necessary components such as Acknowledgements . In the case of Acknowledgements , this is sometimes even included in your word count, despite having no influence on the mark you are awarded, even though you would be expected to include it.

Don't waste words (a) waffling or (b) going off-point in your Literature Review , Research Strategy and Results chapters. Now there is a difference between waffling and going off-point:

Going off-point When writing a dissertation as a student, as opposed to a conference paper or journal as an academic, you have to provide a lot more explanation of possible choices you could have made, rather than simply justifying the choices you made. For example, in the Research Strategy chapter, you'll often be expected to explain the differences between research designs, research methods or sampling strategies that could have been used. This is sometimes the result of a marker needing to know that you have read up about the available options and can demonstrate this by briefly summarising these different components of research strategy. This is what we mean by going off-point , and it can be a real word hog, eating into your available word count. You need to try and avoid this by keeping these sections short, but also focusing on justifications (i.e., why you are using one research method or sampling strategy over another), which when written well, demonstrate your understanding of different components of research strategy, without having to waste words explaining each component in turn.

Waffling Ignoring waffling that comes from laziness - we know this happens! - waffling is often a problem of the Literature Review and Results chapters. Waffling is simply similar to dumping everything you know on the page, which can happen when (a) you don't know the material very well or (b) you're struggling to gauge which content is important and which can be left out, something that is a real challenge for the first-time dissertation student. As a result, you add too much content. This happens a lot in the Literature Review chapter because it is hard to be selective and critical, and in the Results chapter when you don't know (a) what analysis should be included, (b) what can be omitted entirely, and (c) what can be removed and put into the Appendix . In these chapters within the Route #1: Chapter-by-Chapter section of Lærd Dissertation, we help you to avoid this kind of waffling, which not only saves words, but makes your argument much more coherent.

Finally, there can be an obsession with word count when doing marked work. You're doing an essay of 1,500 words or 3,000 words, and you try to use every single word available. This can make sense when you have a small word count and lots of worthwhile things to say in such a small space. However, when taking on a much larger document (i.e., 10,000 words or more), it is not only important what is being said, but also what you leave out. Rather than thinking too hard about word count, focus on making sure that everything being said is worthwhile. All chapters, but especially your Literature Review and Results chapter can lose a lot of quality simply because of three or four unnecessary paragraphs that disrupt the flow and logic of your arguments and results. Despite the added word count of dissertations compared with essays, less can be more.

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How To Reduce Word Count In Your Dissertation, Thesis Or Academics Assignments

(without losing those precious marks).

If you follow some of the advice on this blog, chances are one of your biggest challenges is keeping your academic writing projects within the specified word count limits. It’s a good problem to have (at least compared to having not enough to say), and in this post, I’ll discuss 4 steps to reduce word count without risking losing marks.

how to reduce word count in a dissertation

First things first – write to think.

Before I get started, it’s worth making an important point regarding writing in general. There are essentially two ways to think about the process of writing :

  • Writing as the outcome of thinking – in other words, you think deeply first, construct your argument, and then simply transfer it to paper by way of writing. You do little revising.
  • Writing as a form of thinking – in other words, writing helps you flesh out your thinking and develop your arguments. Writing is an iterative process, wherein you might revise numerous times and even rewrite altogether, but this all contributes to a better quality of thinking.

Which side of the fence do you sit on? I’m an avid advocate of the latter perspective and approach – and I’m not alone. Numerous books and journal articles have covered the topic of “writing as thinking”. If the idea interests you, have a look at Henning’s “Finding your way in academic writing.”

In short, putting pen to paper as early as possible (i.e. before you feel “ready”) and then revising as your thoughts develop (as a result of writing) is an excellent way to improve the overall quality of your arguments and academic work. To do this, you cannot constantly fret over word count (at least not while you’re writing). Instead, you need to let the words flow onto paper, and then sort the wheat from the chaff at a later stage. Sure, you need some constraints, but forcing yourself to apply X model within 350 words is going to stifle your flow and limit your depth. Rather let your thoughts flow onto paper, and then trim them down once your thinking is fully fleshed out.

dissertation word count breakdown 15 000

What does this have to do with reducing your word count? It means that word count reduction (particularly, the techniques I’ll cover below) is something you do once you’ve wrapped up your writing, not while you write . Accordingly, all the steps I’ll propose here are to be applied after the fact.

Right, let’s get into it. Follow these 4 steps (in this order) to strategically reduce your word count without losing the “meat” of your assignment/dissertation.

Step 1: Audit for purely descriptive content.

Broadly speaking, content can fall into one of two categories – descriptive or analytical.  Simply put, descriptive content eludes to the “what”, whereas analytical content describes the impact and consequence of the event/factor/situation – in other words, the “so what”. The table below highlights some of the differences between the two:

Descriptive vs analytical writing

Ideally, you should try to keep your discussion analytical, rather than descriptive ( read more about this here ). There’s always be a need for some descriptive content, but ideally, this should be limited to only that content which forms the foundation for analytical content. Therefore, the first step of word count reduction is to audit for descriptive content which does not lead to analytical content . In other words, content which is purely descriptive, and is not required to get to the “so what?” content.

Read through your dissertation/thesis/assignment and trim out all content that doesn’t make the analytical cut , or doesn’t form a foundation for analysis. This is your first target – be aggressive with your trimming. Descriptive writing is pure fat and will not earn you marks – kill it!

Step 2: Audit for content which does not contribute towards answering your research question(s).

One of the reasons that it’s so important to set unambiguous research questions in your introduction is that this practice allows you to ringfence the focus of your work. In other words, it helps you to narrow the discussion to only that which is most relevant.

That said, as you write, you will invariably produce a fair deal of content that does not contribute towards your research questions . You’ll naturally digress into an interesting but irrelevant discussion about A, B and C – this might be very intellectually satisfying, but it doesn’t contribute to answering your research question. Therefore, this sort of content is your next target. Re-read your document from start to finish through the lens of your research questions or objectives. That which does not in some way contribute to answering the research question(s) or achieving the objective(s) must go .

Step 3: Audit for overly-detailed section summaries.

A good piece of academic writing should always feature summary paragraphs that link the end of one section/chapter to the beginning of the next. They should do this by summarising the key points of the former to the direction and purpose of the latter. For example:

“In this section, the analysis revealed that the key contributors to the issue included A, B and C. Accordingly, these factors will be analysed in the next chapter.”

By stating this link very clearly, you help the reader (marker) to understand your argument (which is, after all, completely new to them), which in turn helps you earn marks. Therefore, these summary sections are important. However, they can become wordy and repetitive, and you should, therefore, audit them.

Make sure that they are summarising only the absolute highlights of your argument and providing a clear, well-justified link to the next section. Don’t restate your entire chapter. The example above is what you should aim for, namely:

  • Key observations/insights/highlights – followed by
  • Logical link to next section

If you are extremely over word count, you may even consider removing these sections altogether. After all, it is better to remove summary content than core content. This should, however, be an absolute last resort as doing so can seriously reduce the overall flow of your document and blur the “golden thread” of your argument(s).

Step 4: Audit for wordy, bloated discussion.

This is the easiest of the four steps, and typically what most students look for when trying to reduce word count – but it usually has a comparatively minor impact. Therefore, I’m positioning it as the last step.

Naturally, your dissertation, thesis or assignment document will contain sections which are just plain wordy. This is a result of “writing as thinking” (whether you agree with the approach or not!). Therefore, the last step is to audit for sentences and paragraphs which are just plain wordy and rewrite them more concisely.

How to write concisely

Some common trimming opportunities:

  • Adjectives and adverbs – although these are sometimes necessary when developing your arguments, they are often just bloat contributors. Additionally, they can create an emotive, subjective tone, which is typically not encouraged in academic writing (where objectivity is essential).
  • The word “that” – oftentimes, a sentence can communicate the same point without the inclusion of the word “that”. Use Word’s find function (Ctrl+F) to search for “that” and check where it can be omitted.
  • Spaces around mathematical operators – if you’re copying numbers from Excel, chances are there are spaces between mathematical operators which can be removed. For example, p < 0.05 (3 words) can be reduced to p<0.05 (1 word).
  • Abbreviate/acronymise repetitive phrases/names – if you’re repeatedly referring to a person(s) or organisation(s) that have multi-word names, create acronyms for them and replace all instances with the acronymised version. For example, “Blue Basket Enterprises” (3 words) can be replaced with “BBE” (1 word). Make sure you introduce the acronym early in the document and consider presenting a list of abbreviations. A word of warning – don’t overuse this tactic, as too many acronyms can make it difficult for the reader to understand what’s going on!

Wrapping up.

There you have it – four steps to reduce your word count without losing your core arguments. To recap, you need to:

  • Audit for descriptive (rather than analytical) content.
  • Audit for content which doesn’t link to the research question(s)/aim(s).
  • Audit for overly detailed section summaries.
  • Audit for general wordiness and bloat.

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dissertation word count breakdown 15 000

Breakdown of Number of Words in Each Chapter in Dissertation

  • Nancy Whitehouse
  • March 21, 2022

Breakdown of Number of Words in Each Chapter in Dissertation

Table of Contents

This is a guide for structuring a dissertation. It covers each and every aspect of dissertation structure. You won’t go wrong with this dissertation structure and breakdown of the word count for each chapter.

Do you have a clear idea about the word count of each chapter in your dissertation?

It’s important to know this information since it will give you an idea about how many words you should write in each chapter.

Your dissertation is different from all other thesis papers you’ve written before. It needs to have a well-defined structure, and that’s what this article is going to help you with.

One of the most common ways of structuring a dissertation is in the chapters and sections. This article will give you an example of how long each chapter should be and what proportion of the total word count they loosely form.

Introduction

10% of your total word count

This is the first main chapter of a dissertation. The introductory chapter of a dissertation should consist of roughly 10% of the whole dissertation. 

This chapter of the dissertation has numerous purposes. The first main chapter of a dissertation is effective in setting the stage, so to speak, for the following chapters and the major questions, ideas and methods to be used in answering these questions will be introduced in this chapter.

Literature Review

30% of your total word count

The literature review chapter is the second chapter of a dissertation or thesis and should consist of 30% of the whole dissertation. It is arguably one of the most important chapters in the whole dissertation, because it is where you state your purpose and justify its significance while referring to existing research on the topic.

The literature review chapter lays the foundation to your dissertation. It enables you to prove your idea and provides a strong rationale as to why the literature on your topic is inadequate. In addition, it allows you to justify why there is indeed a need to do this study in the first place. 

dissertation word count breakdown 15 000

Research Methodology

15% of your total word count

The research methodology chapter of a dissertation consists of 15% of the whole dissertation. This chapter describes the techniques, processes, methodologies and methods used to conduct the research project. The chapter is comprehensive and describes the theoretical framework under which data collection process was followed.

Findings/Results

5-10% of your total word count

The findings or results chapter of a dissertation consists of 5% – 10% of the whole dissertation. This is the chapter where you present your data, findings and results in a logical and clear way that is easy to follow for anyone else who wants to check your work.

25-30% of your total word count

The analysis or discussion chapter of a dissertation consists of 30% of the whole dissertation. In these words, you will have to provide a complete overview of the implications of the results which are relevant to the main theme of your dissertation.

The main purpose of this chapter is to sort out where and how do all your previous research results fit in with each other and what they might lead to, so that they can be more easily interpreted by the readers and intended audience.

The dissertation conclusion chapter is the last part of a dissertation and it’s also, arguably, the most important part of a dissertation . It sums up the problem that you have tried to solve, its nature, your methodology for completing the research and main conclusions about it in addition to your recommendations. 

In this chapter you will get to summarise the main points of your dissertation and leave the reader with no doubts as to why they should accept your arguments and find your research convincing.

Our team of proofreading and corporate copy editing experts are on hand to ensure your dissertations are the very best they can be! Find out more about our dissertation proofreading service.

dissertation word count breakdown 15 000

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dissertation word count breakdown 15 000

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10000 Word Dissertation Breakdown for New Students -Uniresearchers

Writing a lengthy dissertation can be a bit tricky task because organizing the structure and deciding the word count. It is because of this reason that there are dissertation help in the UK to provide students with correct guidance on how to write a lengthy dissertation. There are many dissertation writing services in the UK. A dissertation is required to be structured in a particular manner and the word count and the type of research topic also plays a key role in the. Of the total word count, 10% of it should be dedicated to writing the introduction part which is the first chapter of the dissertation. Since a base or platform of the entire dissertation is required to be created within this chapter, therefore, 10% of the word count is required to be allotted to this section. Within this section, the research aims and objectives, research questions, the background of the research and the outline of the research are covered. Since each of these aspects are required to be covered in small portions of words therefore, 10% of the word count is justifiable in this section. Thus, in a dissertation of 10000 words, 1000 words are required to be allotted to the introduction chapter.

The next chapter is the literature review which is one of the lengthiest chapters of the dissertation as the theoretical foundation of the dissertation is required to be build in this chapter. Of the total word count the literature review section is required to have a 30% of the total word count. In this chapter the views and the opinions of the different authors and scholars are covered and arguments are presented to understand the different perspective about the subject. Furthermore, the theories and the models related to the research subject are covered in this chapter. Since arguments and counter arguments are required to be given in all the sub headings of the literature review to enhance the overall quality, the high word count is

allotted to this section. Not only this, a sub section of research gap is also required to be covered in the literature review which although does not require majority of the word count but still, clarity of aspects is required to be considered which makes it up to a significant portion of the word count. Thus, 30% of the total word allotment for the literature review section is justifiable. Therefore, in a dissertation of 10000 words 3000-word count allotment to the literature review is apt.

The next chapter of the dissertation is research methodology which is known for providing a blueprint of information about the manner in which the research is intended to be carried out. The different research methods are discussed at a stretch in this chapter. Basically Sounder’s onion model is used in this chapter to understand the manner in which research aspects are bifurcated and the manner in which each of them is required to be selected. Furthermore, the philosophical approach and the data analysis approach is required to be presented in this chapter. Not only this, the manner in which data is to be analysed is discussed along1 with the sampling aspects. Therefore, allotting a total of 15% of the total word count to this chapter is sufficient. Data findings is the next chapter which is headed after the research methodology chapter. In this section, the collected data is simply put down in words and therefore, allotting just 5% of the total word count is sufficient. An in-depth analysis of dissertation findings is required to be provided in this section which does not cover much of word count. Critical thinking and discussion is the next chapter involved which is again the main part of the dissertation and thus a major part of the word count is required to be allotted to this section. A comprehensive overview of the results and their relevance to the dissertation is required to be covered in this dissertation. The findings are required to be discussed in congruence with the themes of the dissertation. Therefore, in a dissertation of 10000, allotting 3000 words to this chapter is justifiable. Conclusion is the last chapter of the dissertation which is required to be about 10% of the total word count. Thus, in this chapter, all the necessary information and findings from the dissertation are required to be summarised and at the same time, some recommendations are also required to be provided. Thus, in a dissertation of total 10000 words, 1000 words are justifiable for the conclusion chapter.

It is necessary to maintain the word count per section throughput the entire document as it helps in preventing from over boarding with the writing and at the same time ensures that nothing is underwritten. A 10000 word dissertation structure is given below-

Structing the dissertation

A dissertation is required to have 5 or 6 chapters. The format consists of-

  • Topic introduction
  • Analysis of existing literature for forming theoretical base
  • Outline of how conclusions were coming upon
  • In-depth analysis of findings and relevance to the field
  • Summary of results that demonstrates the value of study
  • ent id details are given

Acknowledgement – expressing the gratitude to all who contributed in the dissertation Abstract – providing a brief synopsis of work Table of contents – List of chapters along with page numbers are provided. List of figures – the figures used in dissertation along with the page number are mentioned

Introduction – Groundwork of the dissertation is presented

Literature Review – compiling the previous data from the past researches.

Methodology – the overall credibility of the research can be found out on the basis of methodology provided.

Results – the data gathered from the different sources is presented in this chapter. This chapter can be organised in different manner as per the requirements.

Discussion – the significance and application of findings of the research are discussed in this chapter. The findings are analysed and explained how they relate to the hypothesis.

Conclusion – the summary of the dissertation is presented along with the recommendations based on the findings. List of references- an exhaustive reference list of different sources used is given. Appendix – only relevant information that is in context to the information used in the dissertation is included in this section.

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Average Dissertation Length

Table of Contents

Dissertation can be influenced by many things, which one of them is the length of the work. Writing dissertation is the way to show your expertise on a certain subject, but it should maintain some courtesies in order to present them in front of a dissertation committee. The length factor could be a great impact while evaluating dissertations. So one should be careful about the length and have a fair idea what be an average length of a dissertation.

Dissertation is also identified from the term thesis which is considered as the document that is submitted in all the universities to support the candidate or the student to achieve their professional qualification or academic degree. The students select a topic and identify the relevant journal articles that will assist them in completing their dissertation by seeking guidance from the author’s finding and research. The average dissertation length is the major concern of any student who have to complete their professional or academic dissertation. It is assumed that dissertation is influenced by various factors like dissertation length or how long is the dissertation.

The student who is writing dissertation has to focus on all the factors and make sure that they present an excellent dissertation, which will symbolize their complete academic career. The average length of a dissertation is the primary factor that should be managed by the student effectively as every dissertation has an average dissertation word count and the student must stick to that word count limit with each average dissertation page length.

Plan Your Work

When you make mind to start the writing, make sure that you get a hands on a plan that you would be following in the coming months. In that way, you can get a clear picture of the entire plot, and you can estimate the total number of pages and the length approximately. If you think it is still short what you have recommended, try to do more research and reading in a way to meet your proposals. Writing less can lead you to rejection at the same time, writing more can be a mistake too. So you have to particular about the average length of a dissertation.

Before writing the dissertation the student should make sure that the dissertation is planned and the average length of dissertation proposal is made by the student initially that will help the student to understand if the dissertation work is in right direction or not. They should be clarify if they have any doubt with the dissertation work like how long should a dissertation be or how many words are required to complete the dissertation. A proper dissertation plan requires the student to invest huge amount of time as an excellent dissertation will help them to successfully complete their academic course.

The student should plan that how any words are exactly required to cover the entire plot and approximately how many pages will be covered in the dissertation. The entire dissertation will have different subtopics under the actual topics that will help the student to briefly explain the topic and focus on each individual sub-topic. The student will make sure that they have estimated the minimum dissertation length and have also identified how much words the sub-topics will cover.

The dissertation introduction length, the dissertation conclusion length and the dissertation abstract length should be identified and noted down by the student. If the student feel that the average dissertation length is short and not meeting the criteria the student will update the average dissertation length and design their work in such a way that it will meet the requirement or criteria of writing an excellent dissertation. The student should be aware of the fact that short dissertation length will lead to deduction of their marks or the dissertation might get rejected and thee student has to again work hard to receive approval for another dissertation title and start the plan all over gain.

Hence, it is very crucial that the student pay a close attention to the minimum dissertation length and average dissertation page length that will fetch them best result for their successful academic completion of course.

The Average Length Of Dissertation

The student should always be aware of their quality of work other than focusing on their average dissertation page length. The average length of the dissertation will depend on what content or matter is written or included by the student in completing the dissertation. The student should make sure that their mathematical, bio statistical and economical portion should not cover huge amount of pages as the standard length of page for these topics are very less.

The topics such as history, political science and anthropology cover huge number of pages and increases the average dissertation length, therefore, the students should accordingly plan their dissertation and identify that roughly how many pages are required for each individual topic that will further assist the student in identifying how long their dissertation will be and how much will be the final dissertation length. There is no such rule that the average dissertation introduction or average dissertation conclusion should be covered in any specific word limit, it entirely depends on the writer who is writing the research work and the content that is included by the writer with clarity, which will be helpful for fetching them high marks as the evaluator will understand the voice of the writer in a better way that will loud and clear through their writing.

The average dissertation length varies in the range of 30-40 pages to 200-300 page, depending on what is the average dissertation length and the topic that is selected by the student to complete their dissertation. Different universities have their recommendation list that is made particularly for the students, to follow, so that the students can complete the dissertation be following the standard format and standard average dissertation length with minimum chances of rejection. The student have to compulsively follow the guidelines under the recommendation list and pay highest attention to fulfil the average dissertation length criteria so that the evaluator, who is evaluating the dissertation should not find any scope of rejecting the work.

In case the student is facing any difficulty or trouble to actively finish their dissertation, the student can browse and seek help from MyAssignmentHelp.com, where the highly skilled experts will guide the students to complete their dissertation on time and with perfection and assist them in fetching highest academic score. MyAssignmentHelp.com will deliver best quality of work to the student by competing their dissertation and follows each and every instruction clearly. A complete dissertation example is also present online on MyAssignmentHelp.com that will help the student to identify how their dissertation will be written and how different universities and colleges will promote the student based on the solution provided by the MyAssignmentHelp.com.

Therefore, it is very crucial to note that average length of a dissertation and the content that is included in the dissertation is very important in completing the dissertation with best quality of work that will meet the requirement or criteria of writing an excellent dissertation for academic success.

Best Dissertation Topics Offered By Myassignmenthelp.Com

One should not be worried about the number of pages but the quality of content. The length varies depending on what subject you are working on, mainly economics, mathematics, and biostatistics presents lowest page lengths, whereas anthropology, history, and political science had the highest average page lengths. There is no rule in deciding the length of a dissertation; it relies on your research work and clarity of your stand, and through the writing the voice should be clear and loud. Keep that in mind that you don’t repeat ideas over and again, this will stretch the length of your writing. The length varies from 30-40 pages to 200-300 pages. Do refer to the recommendation list of university.

If you need more advice on length of a dissertation,  MyAssignmentHelp.com  provides quality  dissertation writing help , do not forget to go through good  dissertation examples online , by our many students from various colleges and universities have believed in MyAssignmentHelp.com.

Mark

Hi, I am Mark, a Literature writer by profession. Fueled by a lifelong passion for Literature, story, and creative expression, I went on to get a PhD in creative writing. Over all these years, my passion has helped me manage a publication of my write ups in prominent websites and e-magazines. I have also been working part-time as a writing expert for myassignmenthelp.com for 5+ years now. It’s fun to guide students on academic write ups and bag those top grades like a pro. Apart from my professional life, I am a big-time foodie and travel enthusiast in my personal life. So, when I am not working, I am probably travelling places to try regional delicacies and sharing my experiences with people through my blog. 

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  • Article A7 - Interpretation and definitions

Article A8 - Publications and authorship

Article b1 - hours of work, article b2 - shift work, article b3 - overtime, article b4 - call-back, article b5 - standby, article b6 - reporting pay, ** article b7 - designated paid holidays, article b8 - travelling time, article b9 - technological change, article b10 - safety and health, article b11 - immunization, article b12 - contracting out, article b13 - part-time employees, article b14 - compensatory leave with pay, article c1 - leave - general, article c2 - vacation leave, article c3 - sick leave, ** article c4 - bereavement leave with pay, ** article c5 - maternity leave without pay, ** article c6 - parental leave without pay, * article c7 - maternity-related reassignment or leave, ** article c8 - leave without pay for the care of immediate family, * article c9 - medical appointment for pregnant employees, * article c10 - leave without pay for personal needs, * article c11 - leave without pay for relocation of spouse, ** article c12 - leave with pay for family-related responsibilities, * article c13 - court leave with pay, * article c14 - personnel selection leave with pay, * article c15 - injury-on-duty leave with pay, * article c16 - examination leave, * article c17 - career development.

  • ** Article C18 - Leave for labour relations matters/Federal Public Sector Labour Relations and Employment Board hearings

* Article C19 - Religious observance

** article c20 - other leave with pay, * article c21 - other leave without pay, ** article d1 - union dues, article d2 - use of employer facilities, article d3 - information, article d4 - stewards, article d5 - illegal strikes, article d6 - grievance procedure, article d7 - joint consultation, article d8 - standards of discipline, article d9 - employee performance review and employee files, article d10 - employment references, article d11 - sexual harassment, article d12 - no discrimination, article d13 - interpretation of agreement, article d14 - employees on third party premises, article e1 - statement of duties, article e2 - registration fees, article e3 - wash-up time, article e4 - telephones, article f1 - severance pay, article g1 - pay.

  • * Article G2 - Functional supervisory differential
  • * Article G3 - Agreement re-opener
  • * Article G4 - National joint council agreements
  • ** Article G5 - Duration
  • ** Appendix A - Annual rates of pay
  • ** Appendix B - Employment transition appendix
  • Appendix C - Vacation conversion table
  • Appendix D - Memorandum of understanding on Red-circling

Appendix E - Archived provisions for the elimination of severance pay for voluntary separations (severance termination)

  • Appendix F - Memorandum of Agreement with respect to scientific integrity
  • ** Appendix G - Memorandum of understanding with respect to supporting employee wellness
  • ** Appendix H - Memorandum of understanding with respect to leave for union business – cost recovery
  • ** Appendix I - Memorandum of understanding with respect to workplace harassment
  • ** Appendix J - Memorandum of understanding with respect to gender inclusive language
  • ** Appendix K - Memorandum of understanding with respect to implementation of the collective agreement

* Asterisks denote renumbering from the previous Collective Agreement.

** Asterisks denote changes from the previous Collective Agreement.

Part A - General

A1.01 The purpose of this Agreement is to maintain harmonious and mutually beneficial relationships between the Employer, the employees and the Institute, to set forth certain terms and conditions of employment relating to remuneration, hours of work, employee benefits and general working conditions affecting employees covered by this Agreement.

A1.02 The parties to this Agreement share a desire to improve the quality of the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, to maintain professional standards and to promote the well-being and increased efficiency of its employees to the end that the people of Canada will be well and effectively served. Accordingly, the parties are determined to establish within the framework provided by law, an effective working relationship at all levels of the Canadian Food Inspection Agency in which members of the bargaining units are employed.

A2.01 The Employer recognizes the Institute as the exclusive Bargaining Agent for all employees described in the certificate issued by the Public Service Staff Relations Board on October 27, 1997 covering employees of the Veterinary Medicine (VM) Group in the Canadian Food Inspection Agency.

A2.02 The Employer recognizes that it is a proper function and a right of the Institute to bargain with a view to arriving at a Collective Agreement and the Employer and the Institute agree to bargain in good faith, in accordance with the provisions of the Federal Public Sector Labour Relations Act .

A3.01 The provisions of this Agreement apply to the Institute, employees and the Employer.

A3.02 In this Agreement, words importing the masculine gender shall include the feminine gender.

A4.01 All the functions, rights, powers and authority which the Employer has not specifically abridged, delegated or modified by this Agreement are recognized by the Institute as being retained by the Employer.

A5.01 Nothing in this Agreement shall be construed as an abridgement or restriction of an employee's constitutional rights or of any right expressly conferred in an Act of the Parliament of Canada.

A5.02 Employees shall have the right to express themselves on science and their research, while respecting the Values and Ethics Code for the Public Sector adopted on April 2, 2012 without being designated as an official media spokesperson.

A6.01 Both the English and French texts of this Agreement shall be official.

Article A7 - Interpretations and definitions

A7.01 For the purpose of this Agreement:

  • "bargaining unit" means the employees of the Employer as described in Article A2 - Recognition; ( unité de négociation )
  • "common-law partner" refers to a person living in a conjugal relationship with an employee for a continuous period of at least one (1) year; ( conjoint de fait )
  • "compensatory leave "means leave with pay in lieu of payment for overtime, travelling time compensated at an overtime rate, call-back, standby and reporting pay; ( congé compensatoire )
  • "continuous employment" has the same meaning as specified in the Employer's Terms and Conditions of Employment on the date of signing of this Agreement; ( emploi continu )
  • "daily rate of pay" means an employee's weekly rate of pay divided by five (5); ( taux de rémunération journalier )
  • "day of rest" in relation to an employee means a day, other than a designated paid holiday, on which that employee is not ordinarily required to perform the duties of his position other than by reason of his being on leave; ( jour de repos )
  • "designated paid holiday" means the twenty-four (24) hour period commencing at 00:01 hour of a day designated as a holiday in this Agreement; ( jour férié désigné payé )
  • "double time" means two (2) times the employee's hourly rate of pay; ( tarif double )
  • "employee" means a person so defined by the Federal Public Sector Labour Relations Act and who is a member of the bargaining unit; ( employé )
  • "Employer" means Her Majesty in right of Canada as represented by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, and includes any person authorized to exercise the authority of the Canadian Food Inspection Agency; ( Employeur )
  • "headquarters area" has the same meaning as given to the expression in the Travel Directive; ( region de lieu d'affectation )
  • "hourly rate of pay" means a full-time employee's weekly rate of pay divided by thirty-seven decimal five (37.5); ( taux de rémunération horaire )
  • "Institute" means the Professional Institute of the Public Service of Canada; ( Institut )
  • "lay-off" means the termination of an employee's employment because of lack of work or because of the discontinuance of a function; ( mise en disponibilité )
  • "leave" means authorized absence from duty; ( congé )
  • "membership dues" means the dues established pursuant to the by-laws and regulations of the Institute as the dues payable by its members as a consequence of their membership in the Institute, and shall not include any initiation fee, insurance premium, or special levy; ( cotisations syndicales )
  • "overtime" means work required by the Employer to be performed by the employee in excess of the employee's daily hours of work; ( heures supplémentaires )
  • "spouse" will, when required, be interpreted to include "common-law partner" except, for the purposes of the Foreign Service Directives, the definition of "spouse" will remain as specified in Directive 2 of the Foreign Service Directives; ( époux )
  • "time and one-half" means one and one-half (1½) times the employee's hourly rate of pay; ( tarif et demi )
  • "weekly rate of pay" means an employee's annual rate of pay divided by fifty-two decimal one seven six (52.176). ( taux de rémunération hebdomadaire )

A7.02 Except as otherwise provided in this Agreement, expressions used in this Agreement,

  • if defined in the Interpretation Act , but not defined in the Federal Public Sector Labour Relations Act , have the same meaning as given to them in the Interpretation Act .

A8.01 For the purpose of this article "Publication" shall include, for example, scientific and professional papers, articles, manuscripts, monographs, audio and visual products and computer software.

A8.02 The Employer agrees to continue the present practice of ensuring that employees have ready access to all publications considered necessary to their work by the Employer.

A8.03 The Employer agrees that publications prepared by an employee, within the scope of their employment, will be retained on appropriate Agency files for the normal life of such files. The Employer will not unreasonably withhold permission for publication. At the Employer's discretion, recognition of authorship will be given where practicable in Agency publications.

A8.04 When an employee acts as a sole or joint author or editor of a publication, the authorship or editorship shall normally be acknowledged on such publication.

  • The Employer may suggest revisions to a publication and may withhold approval to publish.
  • When approval for publication is withheld, the author(s) shall be so informed in writing of the reasons, if requested by the employee.
  • Where the Employer wishes to make changes in a publication with which the author does not agree, the employee shall not be credited publicly if the employee so requests.

Part B – Working Conditions

This Article does not apply to VM Group employees on shift work, refer to Article B2 -Shift Work.

B1.01 General

For the purpose of this Article, a work week shall consist of seven (7) consecutive days beginning at 00:01 hours Monday and ending at 24:00 hours Sunday. The day is a twenty-four (24) hour period commencing at 00:01 hours.

B1.02 Normal Work Week

Subject to Article B2, the normal work week shall be thirty-seven decimal five (37.5) hours and the normal work day shall be seven decimal five (7.5) consecutive hours, exclusive of a lunch period, between the hours of 06:00 and 18:00. The normal work week shall be Monday to Friday inclusive.

B1.03 The Employer shall make every reasonable effort to provide a meal break of at least one-half (½) hour and not exceeding one (1) hour's duration. In situations where the scheduled meal break in the plant exceeds one (1) hour, the meal break shall not exceed one decimal five (1.5) hours. Such meal break shall be as close as possible to the mid-point of the work period unless an alternate arrangement is agreed at the appropriate level between the Employer and the employee.

B1.04 Flexible Hours

Upon the request of an employee and the concurrence of the Employer, an employee may work flexible hours on a daily basis so long as the daily hours amount to seven decimal five (7.5) hours.

B1.05 Monthly Attendance Registers

Employees will submit monthly attendance registers; only those hours of overtime and absences need be specified.

B1.06 Compressed Work Week

Notwithstanding the provisions of this Article, upon request of the employee and the concurrence of the Employer, the employee may complete weekly hours of employment in a period of other than five (5) full days provided that over a period of twenty-eight (28) calendar days the employee works an average of thirty-seven decimal five (37.5) hours per week. As part of the provisions of this clause, attendance reporting shall be mutually agreed between the employee and the Employer. In every twenty-eight (28) day period such an employee shall be granted days of rest on such days as are not scheduled as a normal work day for him.

Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in this Agreement, the implementation of any variation in hours shall not result in any additional overtime work or additional payment by reason only of such variation, nor shall it be deemed to prohibit the right of the Employer to schedule any hours of work permitted by the terms of this Agreement.

B1.07 When operational requirements permit, two (2) rest periods of fifteen (15) minutes each shall be provided during each normal work day.

Premium Payment

B1.08 This clause applies to VM employees working in Slaughter Establishments only:

  • he is notified by the Employer of the change of hours after the beginning of his previous day meal break.
  • he is notified by the Employer of the scheduled meal break after the beginning of his previous day meal break.
  • total premium payment under sub-clauses B1.08(a) and (b) shall not be more than twenty dollars ($20.00) per work day.
  • When, because of operational requirement, hours of work are scheduled for employees on a rotating or irregular basis, they shall be scheduled so that employees work an average of seven decimal five (7.5) hours per day and thirty-seven decimal five (37.5) hours per week exclusive of meal breaks.
  • Shift work shall only be scheduled during the normal work week, Monday to Friday.
  • There will be no split shifts. The Employer shall not schedule more than two (2) shifts per day at the same work site. Each shift may have two (2) separate starting times scheduled within a two (2) hour period.
  • Prior to introducing an evening or a night shift at a work site, the Employer will provide the employees affected by the change a minimum of three (3) months' notice. The minimum notice can be reduced or waived by the mutual consent of the employees and the Employer.

B2.02 In this Article, "shift schedule" means the arrangement of shifts over a period of time not exceeding two (2) consecutive months and for a minimum period of twenty-eight (28) consecutive days.

B2.03 Every reasonable effort shall be made by the Employer to consider the wishes of the employees concerned in the arrangements of shifts within a shift schedule. In order to help in the consideration of the wishes of the employees concerned, a provisional shift schedule shall be prepared by the Employer and shall be posted at least one (1) month in advance.

B2.04 The Employer shall arrange shifts so that:

  • an employee's shift shall not be scheduled to commence within fifteen (15) hours of the completion of his previous shift;
  • subject to operational requirements, no employee without his consent shall be scheduled to work more than two (2) consecutive weeks on the evening or night shift without a following corresponding period on the day shift.

B2.05 When operational requirements permit, two (2) rest periods of fifteen (15) minutes each shall be provided during each normal work day.

B2.06 This clause applies to VM employees working in Slaughter Establishments only:

  • total premium payment under sub-clauses B2.06(a) and (b) shall not be more than twenty dollars ($20.00) per work day.

B2.07 Provided it will not result in additional costs to the Employer, employees at the same plant may exchange shifts with the prior permission of the Officer-in-charge. Once the exchange has been approved, the work schedule shall become the official shift schedule.

B2.08 Provisional and final shift schedules shall indicate the working hours for each shift. The final shift schedule shall be published at least one (1) week prior to the commencement of the said shift.

B2.09 If an employee is given less than seven (7) days' advance notice of a change in their shift schedule, such employee will receive compensation at the rate of time and one-half (1½) for the work performed on the first shift changed. Subsequent shifts worked on the changed schedule shall be paid for at straight-time.

B2.10 During each full shift, the Employer shall make every reasonable effort to provide a meal break of at least one-half (½) hour and not exceeding one (1) hour's duration. In situations where the scheduled meal break in the plant exceeds one (1) hour, then the meal break shall not exceed one decimal five (1.5) hours. Such meal break shall be as close as possible to the mid-point of the shift, unless an alternate arrangement is agreed at the appropriate level between the Employer and the employee.

  • on the day it terminates where more than half (½) of the hours worked fall on that day.
  • Accordingly, the first day of rest will be considered to start immediately after midnight of the calendar day on which the employee worked or is deemed to have worked his last scheduled shift; and the second day of rest will start immediately after midnight of the employee's first day of rest, or immediately after midnight of an intervening designated paid holiday if days of rest are separated thereby.

B2.12 Shift Premium

An employee will receive a shift premium for all hours worked, including hours of overtime, on shifts more than half of which are scheduled between 18:00 and 06:00, at the rate of two dollars ($2.00) per hour.

B3.01 When an employee is required by the Employer to work overtime the employee shall be compensated as follows:

  • on the employee's normal work day, at the rate of time and one-half (1½) for the first seven decimal five (7.5) overtime hours worked, and double (2) time thereafter;
  • on the employee's first day of rest, at time and one-half (1½) for the first seven decimal five (7.5) overtime hours worked and double (2) time thereafter;
  • on their second or subsequent day of rest, at double (2) time for each hour of overtime worked. Second or subsequent day of rest means the second or subsequent day in an unbroken series of consecutive and contiguous calendar days of rest.

B3.02 Calculation of Overtime

All calculations of overtime shall be based on each completed period of fifteen (15) minutes.

B3.03 Except in the cases of emergency, call-back, standby or mutual agreement, the Employer shall whenever possible give at least twelve (12) hours notice of any requirement for the performance of overtime. Where, due to operational requirements, the twelve (12) hour notice period is not feasible, a reasonable amount of notice, based on the circumstances at hand, shall be given.

B3.04 When a payment is being made as a result of the application of this Article, the Employer will endeavour to make such payment within six (6) weeks following the end of the pay period for which the employee requests payment.

  • An employee who works three (3) or more hours of overtime immediately before or immediately following such employee's scheduled hours of work shall be reimbursed for one (1) meal in the amount of ten dollars and fifty cents ($10.50), except where free meals are provided. Reasonable time with pay, to be determined by the Employer, shall be allowed the employee in order to take a meal either at or adjacent to such employee's place of work.
  • When an employee works overtime continuously extending four (4) hours or more beyond the period provided in (a) above, such employee shall be reimbursed for one (1) additional meal in the amount of ten dollars and fifty-cents ($10.50) except where free meals are provided. Reasonable time with pay, to be determined by the Employer, shall be allowed the employee in order that they may take a meal break either at or adjacent to his place of work.
  • Articles B3.05(a) and (b) shall not apply to an employee who is in travel status which entitles the employee to claim expenses for lodging and/or meals.

B4.01 When an employee is called back to work or when an employee who is on standby duty is called back to work by the Employer any time outside their normal working hours such employee shall be entitled to the greater of:

  • compensation at the applicable overtime rate for each hour worked.

B4.02 Where an employee completes a call-back requirement without leaving the location at which the employee was contacted, the minimum of three (3) hours provided in B4.01(a) shall be replaced by a minimum of one (1) hour which shall apply only once in respect of each one (1) hour period.

B4.03 When a payment is being made as a result of the application of this Article, the Employer will endeavour to make such payment within six (6) weeks following the end of the pay period for which the employee requests payment.

  • An employee designated for standby duty shall be available during their period of standby at a known telephone number and be readily able to return for duty as quickly as possible and within a reasonable time frame determined by the Employer, if called. The Employer will normally supply an electronic communications device or cellular telephone to an employee designated for standby duty.
  • Where an employee who is supplied by the Employer with an electronic communications device or cellular telephone is not required to be available to respond to contacts, the employee is not deemed to be on standby duty.

B5.02 When the Employer requires an employee to be readily available on standby during off-duty hours an employee shall be compensated at the rate of one-half (½) hour for each four (4) hour period or portion thereof for which such employee has been designated as being on standby duty.

B5.03 An employee on standby who is called in to work by the Employer and who reports for work shall be compensated in accordance with Article B4 - Call-Back.

B5.04 No standby duty payment shall be granted if any employee is unable to report for duty when required.

  • When an employee is required to report and reports to work on the employee's day of rest, the employee is entitled to a minimum of three (3) hours' compensation at the applicable overtime rate of pay;
  • The minimum payment referred to in (a) above, does not apply to part-time employees. Part-time employees will receive a minimum payment in accordance with B13.10.

B6.02 When an employee reports for work under the conditions described in clause B6.01, and is required to use transportation services other than normal public transportation services, the employee shall be reimbursed for reasonable expenses incurred as follows:

  • out-of-pocket expenses for other means of commercial transportation.

B6.03 Payments provided under Article B4 - Call-Back Pay and Article B6 - Reporting Pay shall not be pyramided; that is, an employee shall not receive more than one compensation for the same service.

A designated paid holiday shall account for seven decimal five (7.5) hours only.

** B7.01 Subject to clause B7.02, the following days shall be designated paid holidays for employees:

  • New Year's Day,
  • Good Friday,
  • Easter Monday,
  • the day fixed by proclamation of the Governor in Council for celebration of the Sovereign's birthday,
  • Canada Day,
  • Labour Day,
  • the day fixed by proclamation of the Governor in Council as a general day of Thanksgiving,
  • Remembrance Day,
  • Christmas Day,
  • Boxing Day,
  • one additional day when proclaimed by an Act of Parliament as a National Holiday.

** For greater certainty, employees who do not work on a Designated Paid Holiday are entitled to seven decimal five (7.5) hours pay at the straight-time rate.

B7.02 An employee absent without pay on both his full working day immediately preceding and their full working day immediately following a designated paid holiday, is not entitled to pay for the holiday, except in the case of an employee who is granted leave without pay under the provisions of Article C18 - Leave for Labour Relations Matters/Federal Public Sector Labour Relations and Employment Board Hearings.

B7.03 Designated Paid Holiday Falling on a Day of Rest

When a day designated as a paid holiday under Article B7.01 coincides with an employee's day of rest, the holiday shall be moved to the employee's first normal working day following their day of rest.

B7.04 When a day designated as a paid holiday for an employee is moved to another day under the provisions of Article B7.03:

  • work performed by an employee on the day to which the holiday was moved, shall be considered as work performed on a holiday.

B7.05 Compensation for Work on a Designated Paid Holiday

Compensation for work on a paid holiday shall be as follows:

  • when an employee works on a holiday, contiguous to a second day of rest on which they also worked and received overtime in accordance with Article B3.01(c), they shall be paid in addition to the pay that they would have been granted had they not worked on the holiday, two (2) times their hourly rate of pay for all time worked.

B7.06 Designated Paid Holiday Coinciding with a Day of Paid Leave

Where a day that is a designated paid holiday for an employee coincides with a day of leave with pay or is moved as a result of Article B7.03, the designated paid holiday shall not count as a day of leave.

B8.01 When the Employer requires an employee to travel outside their headquarters area for the purpose of performing duties, the employee shall be compensated in the following manner:

  • On a normal working day on which such employee travels but does not work, the employee will receive their regular pay for the day.
  • at the applicable overtime rate for additional travel time in excess of a seven decimal five (7.5) hour period of work and travel, with a maximum payment for such additional travel time not to exceed twelve (12) hours pay at the straight-time rate in any day or fifteen (15) hours pay at the straight-time rate when travelling beyond North America.
  • On a day of rest or on a designated paid holiday, the employee shall be paid at the applicable overtime rate for hours travelled to a maximum of twelve (12) hours pay at the straight time rate or fifteen (15) hours pay at the straight-time rate when travelling beyond North America.

B8.02 For the purpose of clause B8.01, the travelling time for which an employee shall be compensated is as follows:

  • For travel by public transportation, the time between the scheduled time of departure and the time of arrival at a destination, including the normal travel time to the point of departure, as determined by the Employer.
  • For travel by private means of transportation, the normal time as determined by the Employer, to proceed from the employee's place of residence or work place, as applicable, direct to such employee's destination and, upon such employee's return, direct back to their residence or work place.
  • In the event that an alternate time of departure and/or means of travel is requested by the employee, the Employer may authorize such alternate arrangements in which case compensation for travelling time shall not exceed that which would have been payable under the Employer's original determination.

B8.03 All calculations for travelling time shall be based on each completed period of fifteen (15) minutes.

B8.04 When a payment is being made as a result of the application of this Article, the Employer will endeavour to make such payment within six (6) weeks following the end of the pay period for which the employee requests payment.

B8.05 This Article does not apply to an employee required to perform work in any type of transport in which such employee is travelling. In such circumstances, the employee shall receive pay for actual hours worked in accordance with the Articles B1 - Hours of Work, B3 - Overtime, and B7 - Designated Paid Holidays.

B8.06 Travelling time shall include time necessarily spent at each stop-over en route provided that such stop-over does not include an overnight stay.

B8.07 Compensation shall not be paid for travelling time to courses, training sessions, conferences and seminars to which an employee is sent for the purpose of career development, unless the employee is required to attend by the Employer.

B8.08 Travel Status Leave

  • An employee who is required to travel outside his headquarters area on government business, as these expressions are defined by the Employer, and is away from his permanent residence for forty (40) nights during a fiscal year shall be granted fifteen (15) hours off with pay. The employee shall be credited with an additional seven decimal five (7.5) hours off for each additional twenty (20) nights that the employee is away from his permanent residence to a maximum of eighty (80) nights.
  • The maximum number of hours off earned under this clause shall not exceed thirty-seven decimal five (37.5) hours in a fiscal year and shall accumulate as compensatory leave with pay.
  • This leave with pay is deemed to be compensatory leave and is subject to clause B14.01.
  • The provisions of this clause do not apply when the employee travels in connection with courses, training sessions, professional conferences and seminars.

B9.01 The parties have agreed that in cases where, as a result of technological change, the services of an employee are no longer required beyond a specific date because of lack of work or the discontinuance of a function, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency's Employee Transition Appendix (see Appendix "B") will apply. In all other cases, the following clauses will apply:

B9.02 In this Article "Technological Change" means:

  • a major change in the Employer's operations directly related to the introduction of that equipment or material which will result in significant changes in the employment status or working conditions of the employees.

B9.03 Both parties recognize the overall advantages of technological change and will, therefore, encourage and promote technological change in the Employer's operations. Where technological change is to be implemented, the Employer will seek ways and means of minimizing adverse effects on employees which might result from such changes.

B9.04 The Employer agrees to provide as much advance notice as is practicable but, except in cases of emergency, not less than one hundred and eighty (180) days written notice to the Institute of the introduction or implementation of technological change.

B9.05 The written notice provided for in Article B9.04 will provide the following information:

  • the nature and degree of change;
  • the anticipated date or dates on which the Employer plans to effect change;
  • the location or locations involved.

B9.06 As soon as is reasonably practicable after notice is given under Article B9.04, the Employer shall consult with the Institute concerning the effects of the technological change referred to in Article B9.04 on each group of employees. Such consultation will include but not necessarily be limited to the following:

  • the approximate number, classification and location of employees likely to be affected by the change;
  • the effect the change may be expected to have on working conditions or terms and conditions of employment on employees.

B9.07 When, as a result of technological change, the Employer determines that an employee requires new skills or knowledge in order to perform the duties of such employee's substantive position, the Employer will make every reasonable effort to provide the necessary training during the employee's working hours and at no cost to the employee.

B10.01 The Employer shall continue to make all reasonable provisions for the occupational safety and health of employees. The Employer will welcome suggestions on the subject from the Institute and the parties undertake to consult with a view to adopting and expeditiously carrying out reasonable procedures and techniques designed or intended to prevent or reduce the risk of employment injury or occupational illness.

B11.01 The Employer shall provide the employee with immunization against communicable diseases where there is a risk of incurring such diseases in the performance of his duties.

B12.01 The Employer will continue past practice in giving all reasonable consideration to continued employment in the Canadian Food Inspection Agency of employees who would otherwise become redundant because work is contracted out.

B13.01 Definition

Part-time employee means a person whose normal scheduled hours of work are less than thirty-seven decimal five (37.5) hours per week, but not less than those prescribed in the Federal Public Sector Labour Relations Act .

B13.02 General

Part-time employees shall be entitled to the benefits provided under this Agreement in the same proportion as their normal scheduled weekly hours of work compared with the normal weekly hours of work of full-time employees unless otherwise specified in this Agreement.

B13.03 Part-time employees shall be paid at the hourly rate of pay for all work performed up to seven decimal five (7.5) hours in a day or thirty-seven decimal five (37.5) hours in a week unless the employee is working other daily or weekly hours of work as prescribed pursuant to Article B1 - Hours of Work.

B13.04 The days of rest provisions of this Collective Agreement apply only in a week when a part-time employee has worked five (5) days and a minimum of thirty-seven decimal five (37.5) hours in a week at the hourly rate of pay.

B13.05 Leave will only be provided:

  • where it may displace other leave as prescribed by this Agreement.

B13.06 Designated Holidays

A part-time employee shall not be paid for the designated holidays but shall instead be paid a premium of four decimal two five percent (4.25%) for all straight-time hours worked during the period of part-time employment.

B13.07 Subject to Article B3 - Overtime, when a part-time employee is required to work on a day which is prescribed as a designated paid holiday for a full-time employee in clause B7.01 of this Agreement, the employee shall be paid at time and one-half (1½) the hourly rate of pay for all hours worked on the holiday up to seven decimal five (7.5) hours and double (2) time thereafter. The provisions of Article B14 - Compensatory Leave With Pay, do not apply.

B13.08 Overtime

"Overtime" means work required by the Employer, to be performed by the employee, in excess of those hours prescribed in clause B13.03 but does not include time worked on a holiday.

B13.09 Subject to Article B3 - Overtime, a part-time employee who is required to work overtime shall be paid at time and one-half (1½) for all overtime hours worked up to seven decimal five (7.5) hours and double (2) time thereafter. The provisions of Article B14 - Compensatory Leave With Pay, do not apply.

B13.10 Reporting Pay

Subject to clause B13.04, when a part-time employee meets the requirements to receive reporting pay on a day of rest, in accordance with sub-clause B6.01(a) of this Collective Agreement, and is entitled to receive a minimum payment rather than pay for actual time worked, the part-time employee shall be paid a minimum payment of four (4) hours pay at the straight-time rate of pay.

B13.11 Vacation Leave

A part-time employee shall earn vacation leave credits for each month in which the employee receives pay for at least twice the number of hours in the employee's normal work week, at the rate for years of employment established in clause C2.02, prorated and calculated as follows:

  • when the entitlement is nine decimal three seven five (9.375) hours a month, zero decimal two five zero (0.250) multiplied by the number of hours in the employee's work week per month;
  • when the entitlement is twelve decimal five (12.5) hours a month, zero decimal three three three (0.333) multiplied by the number of hours in the employee's work week per month;
  • when the entitlement is thirteen decimal seven five (13.75) hours a month, zero decimal three six seven (0.367) multiplied by the number of hours in the employee's work week per month;
  • when the entitlement is fourteen decimal three seven five (14.375) hours a month, zero decimal three eight three (0.383) multiplied by the number of hours in the employee's work week per month;
  • when the entitlement is fifteen decimal six two five (15.625) hours a month, zero decimal four one seven (0.417) multiplied by the number of hours in the employee's work week per month;
  • when the entitlement is sixteen decimal eight seven five (16.875) hours a month, zero decimal four five zero (0.450) multiplied by the number of hours in the employee's work week per month;
  • when the entitlement is eighteen decimal seven five (18.75) hours a month, zero decimal five zero zero (0.500) multiplied by the number of hours in the employee's work week per month.

See Appendix "C" For Vacation Conversion Table

B13.12 Sick Leave

A part-time employee shall earn sick leave credits at the rate of one-quarter (¼) of the number of hours in an employee's normal work week for each calendar month in which the employee has received pay for at least twice the number of hours in the employee's normal work week.

B13.13 Vacation and Sick Leave Administration

  • For the purposes of administration of clauses B13.11 and B13.12, where an employee does not work the same number of hours each week, the normal work week shall be the weekly average of the hours worked at the straight-time rate calculated on a monthly basis.
  • An employee whose employment in any month is a combination of both full-time and part-time employment shall not earn vacation or sick leave credits in excess of the entitlement of a full-time employee.

B13.14 Severance Pay

Notwithstanding the provisions of Article F1 - Severance Pay, where the period of continuous employment in respect of which a severance benefit is to be paid consists of both full-time and part-time employment or varying levels of part-time employment, the benefit shall be calculated as follows: the period of continuous employment eligible for severance pay shall be established and the part-time portions shall be consolidated to equivalent full-time. The equivalent full-time period in years shall be multiplied by the full-time weekly pay rate for the appropriate group and level to produce the severance pay benefit.

B13.15 The weekly rate of pay referred to in clause B13.14 shall be the weekly rate of pay to which the employee is entitled for the classification prescribed in his certificate of appointment, immediately prior to the termination of his employment.

B14.01 Upon request of an employee and at the discretion of the Employer, compensation earned under Articles B3 - Overtime, B4 - Call-back, B5 - Standby, B6 - Reporting Pay and travelling time compensated at an overtime rate under Article B8 - Travelling Time may be taken in the form of compensatory leave, which will be calculated at the premium rate laid down in the applicable Article.

B14.02 Compensatory leave earned in a fiscal year and unused as of September 30th of the following fiscal year shall be paid at the employee's hourly rate of pay on that September 30th .

B14.03 At the request of the employee and with the approval of the Employer, accumulated compensatory leave may be paid out, in whole or in part, at the employee's hourly rate of pay as calculated from the classification prescribed in the certificate of appointment at the time of the request.

B14.04 When an employee dies or otherwise ceases to be employed, he or the employee's estate shall be paid an amount equal to the product obtained by multiplying the number of hours of earned but unused compensatory leave to his credit by the hourly rate of pay as calculated from the classification prescribed in his certificate of appointment on the date of the termination of his employment.

B14.05 When a payment is being made as a result of the application of this Article, the Employer will endeavour to make such payment within six (6) weeks following the end of the pay period in which the employee requests payment, or, if the payment is required to liquidate compensatory leave unused at the end of the fiscal year, the Employer will endeavour to make such a payment within six (6) weeks of the commencement of the first pay period after September 30th of the following fiscal year.

Part C – Leave

C1.01 When the employment of an employee who has been granted more vacation, or sick leave with pay than they have earned is terminated by death or layoff, the employee is considered to have earned the amount of leave with pay granted to them.

C1.02 The amount of leave with pay credited to an employee by the Employer at the time when this Agreement is signed, or at a time when the employee becomes subject to this agreement, shall be retained by the employee.

C1.03 An employee shall not be granted two (2) different types of leave with pay in respect of the same period of time.

C1.04 An employee is not entitled to leave with pay during periods such employee is on leave without pay, on educational leave or under suspension.

C1.05 Except as otherwise specified in this Agreement:

  • where leave without pay for a period in excess of three (3) months is granted to an employee for reasons other than illness, the total period of leave granted shall be deducted from "continuous employment" for the purpose of calculating severance pay and "service" for the purpose of calculating vacation leave;
  • time spent on such leave which is for a period of more than three (3) months shall not be counted for pay increment purposes.

C1.06 Leave credits will be earned on a basis of a day being equal to seven decimal five (7.5) hours.

C1.07 When leave is granted, it will be granted on an hourly basis and the number of hours debited for each day of leave shall be the same as the hours the employee would normally have been scheduled to work on that day, except for Bereavement Leave With Pay where a day is a calendar day.

C1.08 In respect to applications for leave made pursuant to this Agreement, the employee may be required to provide satisfactory validation of the circumstances necessitating such requests.

C2.01 The vacation year shall be from April 1st to March 31st, inclusive.

C2.02 Accumulation of Vacation Leave Credits

An employee shall earn vacation leave credits for each calendar month during which he receives pay for at least seventy-five (75) hours at the following rate:

  • nine decimal three seven five (9.375) hours until the month in which his first (1st) anniversary of service occurs;
  • twelve decimal five (12.5) hours commencing with the month in which his first (1st) anniversary of service occurs;
  • thirteen decimal seven five (13.75) hours commencing with the month in which his sixteenth (16th) anniversary of service occurs;
  • fourteen decimal three seven five (14.375) hours commencing with the month in which his seventeenth (17th) anniversary of service occurs;
  • fifteen decimal six two five (15.625) hours per month commencing with the month in which his eighteenth (18th) anniversary of service occurs;
  • sixteen decimal eight seven five (16.875) hours commencing with the month in which his twenty-seventh (27th) anniversary of service occurs;
  • eighteen decimal seven five (18.75) hours per month commencing with the month in which his twenty-eighth (28th) anniversary of service occurs.

Recognition of Prior Service in Canadian Forces for Vacation Purposes

  • For the purpose of clause C2.03(a) only, effective April 1, 2012 and forward from that date, any former service in the Canadian Forces for a continuous period of six (6) months or more, either as a member of the Regular Forces or of the Reserve Force while on Class B or C service, shall also be included in the calculation of vacation leave credits.

C2.04 Entitlement to Vacation Leave with Pay

An employee is entitled to vacation leave with pay to the extent of his earned credits, but an employee who has completed six (6) months of continuous employment may receive an advance of credits equivalent to the anticipated credits for the vacation year.

C2.05 Provision for Vacation Leave

  • Employees are expected to use all of their vacation leave during the vacation year in which it is earned.
  • to provide an employee's vacation leave in an amount and at such time as the employee may request;
  • not to recall an employee to duty after he has proceeded on vacation leave.

C2.06 Replacement of Vacation Leave

Where, in respect of any period of vacation leave, an employee:

  • is granted sick leave on production of a medical certificate,

the period of vacation leave so displaced shall either be added to the vacation period, if requested by the employee and approved by the Employer, or reinstated for use at a later date.

Where in any vacation year an employee has not been granted all the vacation leave credited to him, the unused portion of such employee's vacation leave up to a maximum of two hundred and sixty-two decimal five (262.5) hours credit shall be carried over into the following vacation year. All vacation leave credits in excess of two hundred and sixty-two decimal five (262.5) hours shall be automatically paid at the employee's hourly rate of pay as calculated from the classification prescribed in his certificate of appointment of his substantive position on March 31st.

  • Notwithstanding sub-clause C2.07(a), if on the date of signing of this Agreement or on the date an employee becomes subject to this Agreement, an employee has more than two hundred and sixty-two decimal five (262.5) hours of unused vacation leave credits earned during previous years, a minimum of seventy-five (75) hours per year shall be granted, or paid by March 31st of each year, until all vacation leave credits in excess of two hundred and sixty-two decimal five (262.5) have been liquidated. Payment shall be in one installment per year, and shall be at the employee's hourly rate of pay as calculated from the classification prescribed in the employee's certificate of appointment of his substantive position on March 31st of the applicable previous vacation year.

During any vacation year, upon application by the employee and at the discretion of the Employer, earned but unused vacation leave credits shall be compensated at the employee's rate of pay as calculated from the classification prescribed in such employee's certificate of appointment of such employee's substantive position on March 31st.

C2.08 Recall From Vacation Leave

Where, during any period of vacation leave, an employee is recalled to duty, such employee shall be reimbursed for reasonable expenses, as normally defined by the Employer, that such employee incurs:

  • in proceeding to his place of duty, and
  • in returning to the place from which he was recalled if he immediately resumes his vacation upon completing the assignment for which such employee was recalled,
  • in cancelling reservations previously made, after submitting such accounts as are normally required by the Employer.

C2.09 The employee shall not be considered as being on vacation leave during any period in respect of which he is entitled under clause C2.08 to be reimbursed for reasonable expenses incurred by him.

C2.10 Cancellation or Alteration of Vacation Leave

When the Employer cancels or alters a period of vacation which it has previously approved in writing, the Employer shall reimburse the employee for the non-returnable portion of vacation contracts and reservations made by the employee in respect of that period, subject to the presentation of such documentation as the Employer may require. The employee must make every reasonable attempt to mitigate any losses incurred and will provide proof of such action, when available, to the Employer.

C2.11 Leave when Employment Terminates

When an employee dies or otherwise ceases to be employed, such employee or such employee's estate shall be paid an amount equal to the product obtained by multiplying the number of days of earned but unused vacation leave with pay to such employee's credit by the daily rate of pay as calculated from the classification prescribed in such employee's certificate of appointment on the date of the termination of such employee's employment.

C2.12 Vacation Leave Credits for Severance Pay

Where the employee requests, the Employer shall grant the employee his unused vacation leave credits prior to termination of employment if this will enable such employee, for purposes of severance pay, to complete the first (1st) year of continuous employment in the case of lay-off.

C2.13 Abandonment

Notwithstanding clause C2.12, an employee whose employment is terminated by a declaration that he abandoned his position is entitled to receive the payment referred to in clause C2.12 if he requests it within six (6) months following the date upon which his employment is terminated.

C2.14 Recovery on Termination

In the event of the termination of employment for reasons other than death or lay-off, the Employer shall recover from any monies owed the employee, an amount equivalent to unearned vacation leave taken by the employee, calculated on the basis of the rate of pay applicable to such employee's classification on the date of termination.

C2.15 Appointment to a Schedule I, IV or V Employer

Notwithstanding clause C2.13, an employee who resigns to accept employment with an organization listed in Schedule I, IV or V of the Financial Administration Act may choose not to be paid for earned but unused vacation leave credits provided that the appointing organization will accept such credits.

C2.16 Appointment from a Schedule I, IV or V Employer

The Employer agrees to accept unused vacation leave credits up to the maximum hours specified in C2.07(a) of an employee who resigns from an organization listed in Schedule I, IV or V of the Financial Administration Act in order to take a position with the Employer if the transferring employee is eligible and has chosen to have these credits transferred.

  • Employees shall be credited a one-time entitlement of thirty-seven decimal five (37.5) hours of vacation leave with pay on the first (1st) day of the month following the employee's second (2nd) anniversary of service, as defined in clause C2.03.
  • The vacation leave credits provided in clauses C2.17(a) above shall be excluded from the application of paragraph C2.07(a), (b), and (c) dealing with Carry-over and Liquidation.

C3.01 Credits

An employee shall earn sick leave credits at the rate of nine decimal three seven five (9.375) hours for each calendar month for which such employee receives pay for at least seventy-five (75) hours.

C3.02 An employee shall be granted sick leave with pay when such employee is unable to perform his duties because of illness or injury provided that:

  • such employee has the necessary sick leave credits.

C3.03 Unless otherwise informed by the Employer, a statement signed by the employee stating that because of illness or injury such employee was unable to perform his duties shall, when delivered to the Employer, be considered as meeting the requirements of sub-clause C3.02(a).

C3.04 An employee shall not be granted sick leave with pay during any period in which such employee is on leave of absence without pay, or under suspension.

C3.05 When an employee is granted sick leave with pay and injury-on-duty leave is subsequently approved for the same period, it shall be considered for the purpose of the record of sick leave credits that the employee was not granted sick leave with pay.

C3.06 Where an employee has insufficient or no credits to cover the granting of sick leave with pay under the provision of clause C3.02, sick leave with pay may, at the discretion of the Employer, be granted:

  • for a period of up to one hundred and eighty-seven decimal five (187.5) hours if such employee has not submitted an application for injury-on-duty leave,

subject to the deduction of such advanced leave from any sick leave credits subsequently earned with the Employer and, in the event of termination of employment for other than death or lay-off, the recovery of the advance from any monies owed the employee.

C3.07 Sick leave credits earned but unused by an employee during a previous period of employment in the Canadian Food Inspection Agency shall be restored to an employee whose employment was terminated by reason of lay-off and who is reappointed in the Canadian Food Inspection Agency within one (1) year from the date of lay-off.

C3.08 Sick leave credits earned but unused by an employee during a previous period of employment at the Agency shall be restored to an employee whose employment was terminated due to the end of a specified period of employment, and who is re-appointed by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency within one (1) year from the end of the specified period of employment.

** C4.01 Bereavement Leave with Pay

For the purpose of this Article, immediate family is defined as father, mother (or alternatively step-father, step-mother or foster parent), brother, sister, step-brother, step-sister, spouse (including common-law partner residing with the employee), child (including child of common-law partner), step-child, foster child or ward of the employee, grandparent, grandchild, father-in-law, mother-in-law, and any relative permanently residing in the employee's household or with whom the employee permanently resides and in addition:

  • ** a person who stands in the place of a relative for the employee whether or not there is any degree of consanguinity between such person and the employee. An employee shall be entitled to bereavement leave under C4.01(a) only once during the employee's total period of employment in the public service.
  • When a member of the employee's immediate family dies, an employee shall be entitled to bereavement leave with pay. Such bereavement leave , as determined by the employee, must include the day of the memorial commemorating the deceased or must begin within two (2) days following the death. During such period the employee shall be paid for those days which are not regularly scheduled days of rest for that employee. In addition, the employee may be granted up to three (3) days' leave with pay for the purpose of travel related to the death.
  • At the request of the employee, such bereavement leave with pay may be taken in a single period of seven (7) consecutive calendar days or may be taken in two (2) periods to a maximum of five (5) working days.
  • the first period must include the day of the memorial commemorating the deceased or must begin within two (2) days following the death, and
  • the second period must be taken no later than twelve (12) months from the date of death for the purpose of attending a ceremony.
  • The employee may be granted no more than three (3) days' leave with pay, in total, for the purposes of travel for these two (2) periods.
  • An employee is entitled to up to one (1) day's bereavement leave with pay for the purpose related to the death of such employee's son-in-law, daughter-in-law, brother-in-law , sister-in-law and grandparent of spouse.
  • * It is recognized by the parties that the circumstances which call for leave in respect of bereavement are based on individual circumstances. On request, the President or his/her authorized representative may, after considering the particular circumstances involved, grant leave with pay for a period greater than that provided for in sub-clauses C4.02(b) and (d).
  • * If, during a period of sick leave, vacation leave or compensatory leave, an employee is bereaved in circumstances under which he would have been eligible for bereavement leave with pay under sub-clauses C4.02(b) and (d), the employee shall be granted bereavement leave with pay and his paid leave credits shall be restored to the extent of any concurrent bereavement leave with pay granted.

** C5.01 Maternity Leave Without Pay

  • An employee who becomes pregnant shall, upon request, be granted maternity leave without pay for a period beginning before, on or after the termination date of pregnancy and ending not later than eighteen (18) weeks after the termination date of pregnancy.

the period of maternity leave without pay defined in paragraph (a) may be extended beyond the date falling eighteen (18) weeks after the date of termination of pregnancy by a period equal to that portion of the period of the child's hospitalization during which the employee was not on maternity leave, to a maximum of eighteen (18) weeks.

  • ** The extension described in paragraph (b) shall end not later than fifty-two (52) weeks after the termination date of pregnancy.
  • ** The Employer may require an employee to submit a medical certificate certifying pregnancy.
  • ** use earned vacation and compensatory leave credits up to and beyond the date that her pregnancy terminates;
  • ** use her sick leave credits up to and beyond the date that her pregnancy terminates, subject to the provisions set out in Article C3 - Sick Leave. For purposes of this subparagraph, the terms "illness" or "injury" used in Article C3 - Sick Leave, shall include medical disability related to pregnancy.
  • ** An employee shall inform the Employer in writing of her plans for taking leave with and without pay to cover her absence from work due to the pregnancy at least four (4) weeks in advance of the initial date of continuous leave of absence during which termination of pregnancy is expected to occur unless there is a valid reason why the notice cannot be given.
  • ** Leave granted under this clause shall be counted for the calculation of "continuous employment" for the purpose of calculating severance pay and "service" for the purpose of calculating vacation leave. Time spent on such leave shall be counted for pay increment purposes.

** C5.02 Maternity Allowance

  • ** has completed six (6) months of continuous employment before the commencement of her maternity leave without pay,
  • ** she will return to work within the federal public administration, as specified in Schedule I, Schedule IV or Schedule V of the  Financial Administration Act  on the expiry date of her maternity leave without pay unless the return to work date is modified by the approval of another form of leave;
  • ** following her return to work, as described in section (A), she will work for a period equal to the period she was in receipt of maternity allowance;

(allowance received) X (remaining period to be worked following her return to work) / [total period to be worked as specified in (B)]

however, an employee whose specified period of employment expired and who is rehired within the federal public administration as described in section (A) within a period of ninety (90) days or less is not indebted for the amount if her new period of employment is sufficient to meet the obligations specified in section (B).

  • ** For the purpose of sections (a)(iii)(B), and (C), periods of leave with pay shall count as time worked. Periods of leave without pay during the employee's return to work will not be counted as time worked but shall interrupt the period referred to in section (a)(iii)(B), without activating the recovery provisions described in section (a)(iii)(C).
  • ** Where an employee has received the full fifteen (15) weeks of maternity benefit under Employment Insurance and thereafter remains on maternity leave without pay, she is eligible to receive a further maternity allowance for a period of one (1) week, ninety-three per cent (93%) of her weekly rate of pay for each week (and the recruitment and retention "terminable allowance", if applicable), less any other monies earned during this period.
  • ** At the employee's request, the payment referred to in subparagraph C5.02(c)(i) will be estimated and advanced to the employee. Adjustments will be made once the employee provides proof of receipt of Employment Insurance or Quebec Parental Insurance maternity benefits.
  • ** The maternity allowance to which an employee is entitled is limited to that provided in paragraph (c) and an employee will not be reimbursed for any amount that she may be required to repay pursuant to the  Employment Insurance Act  or the  Parental Insurance Act  in Quebec.
  • ** for a full-time employee, the employee's weekly rate of pay on the day immediately preceding the commencement of maternity leave without pay;
  • ** for an employee who has been employed on a part-time or on a combined full-time and part-time basis during the six (6) month period preceding the commencement of maternity leave, the rate obtained by multiplying the weekly rate of pay in subparagraph (i) by the fraction obtained by dividing the employee's straight-time earnings by the straight-time earnings the employee would have earned working full-time during such period.
  • ** The weekly rate of pay referred to in paragraph (f) shall be the rate and the recruitment and retention "terminable allowance", if applicable to which the employee is entitled for her substantive level to which she is appointed.
  • ** Notwithstanding paragraph (g), and subject to subparagraph (f)(ii), if on the day immediately preceding the commencement of maternity leave without pay an employee has been on an acting assignment for at least four (4) months, the weekly rate shall be the rate and the recruitment and retention "terminable allowance", if applicable she was being paid on that day.
  • ** Where an employee becomes eligible for a pay increment or pay revision while in receipt of the maternity allowance, the allowance shall be adjusted accordingly.
  • ** Maternity allowance payments made under the SUB Plan will neither reduce nor increase an employee's deferred remuneration or severance pay.

** C5.03 Special maternity allowance for totally disabled employees

shall be paid, in respect of each week of maternity allowance not received for the reason described in subparagraph C5.03 (a)(i), the difference between ninety-three per cent (93%) of her weekly rate of pay and recruitment and retention "terminable allowance", and the gross amount of her weekly disability benefit under the DI Plan, the LTD Plan or via the Government Employees Compensation Act .

  • ** An employee shall be paid an allowance under this clause and under clause C5.02 for a combined period of no more than the number of weeks during which she would have been eligible for maternity benefits under the Employment Insurance or the Quebec Parental Insurance Plan had she not been disqualified from Employment Insurance or Quebec Parental Insurance maternity benefits for the reasons described in subparagraph C5.03(a)(i).

** C6.01 Parental Leave Without Pay

beginning on the day on which the child is born or the day on which the child comes into the employee's care

beginning on the day on which the child comes into the employee's care.

  • ** Notwithstanding paragraphs (a) and (b) above, at the request of an employee and at the discretion of the Employer, the leave referred to in paragraphs (a) and (b) above may be taken in two (2) periods.

the period of parental leave without pay specified in the original leave request may be extended by a period equal to that portion of the period of the child's hospitalization during which the employee was not on parental leave. However, the extension shall end not later than one hundred and four (104) weeks after the day on which the child comes into the employee's care.

  • ** An employee who intends to request parental leave without pay shall notify the Employer at least four (4) weeks before the commencement date of such leave.
  • ** defer the commencement of parental leave without pay at the request of the employee;
  • ** grant the employee parental leave without pay with less than four (4) weeks' notice;
  • ** require an employee to submit a birth certificate or proof of adoption of the child.
  • ** Leave granted under this clause shall count for the calculation of "continuous employment" for the purpose of calculating severance pay and "service" for the purpose of calculating vacation leave. Time spent on such leave shall count for pay increment purposes.

** C6.02 Parental Allowance

** Under the Employment Insurance (EI) benefits plan, parental allowance is payable under two (2) options, either:

  • Option 2: extended parental benefits, paragraphs C6.02(l) to (t).

Once an employee elects the standard or extended parental benefits and the weekly benefit top-up allowance is set, the decision is irrevocable and shall not be changed should the employee return to work at an earlier date than that originally scheduled.

Under the Quebec Parental Insurance Plan (QPIP), parental allowance is payable only under Option 1: standard parental benefits.

** Parental Allowance Administration

  • ** has completed six (6) months of continuous employment before the commencement of parental leave without pay,
  • ** provides the Employer with proof that he or she has applied for and is in receipt of parental, paternity or adoption benefits under the Employment Insurance Plan or the Quebec Parental Insurance Plan in respect of insurable employment with the Employer, and
  • ** the employee will return to work within the federal public administration, as specified in Schedule I, Schedule IV or Schedule V of the  Financial Administration Act , on the expiry date of his/her parental leave without pay, unless the return to work date is modified by the approval of another form of leave;
  • ** following his or her return to work, as described in section (A), the employee will work for a period equal to the period the employee was in receipt of the standard parental allowance, in addition to the period of time referred to in section C5.02(a)(iii)(B), if applicable. Where the employee has elected the extended parental allowance, following his or her return to work, as described in section (A), the employee will work for a period equal to sixty percent (60%) of the period the employee was in receipt of the extended parental allowance in addition to the period of time referred to in section C5.02 (a)(iii)(B), if applicable;

(allowance received) X (remaining period to be worked, as specified in (B), following his or her return to work) / [total period to be worked as specified in (B)]

however, an employee whose specified period of employment expired and who is rehired within the federal public administration as described in section (A), within a period of ninety (90) days or less is not indebted for the amount if his or her new period of employment is sufficient to meet the obligations specified in section (B).

** Option 1 – Standard Parental Allowance

  • ** where an employee on parental leave without pay as described in subparagraphs C6.01(a)(i) and (b)(i) has elected to receive Standard Employment Insurance parental benefits and is subject to a waiting period before receiving Employment Insurance parental benefits, ninety-three per cent (93%) of his/her weekly rate of pay (and the recruitment and retention "terminable allowance" if applicable) for the waiting period, less any other monies earned during this period;
  • ** for each week the employee receives parental, adoption or paternity benefits under the Employment Insurance or the Quebec Parental Insurance Plan, he or she is eligible to receive the difference between ninety-three per cent (93%) of his or her weekly rate (and the recruitment and retention "terminable allowance" if applicable) and the parental, adoption or paternity benefits, less any other monies earned during this period which may result in a decrease in his/her parental, adoption or paternity benefits to which he or she would have been eligible if no extra monies had been earned during this period;
  • ** where an employee has received the full eighteen (18) weeks of maternity benefit and the full thirty-two (32) weeks of parental benefit or has divided the full thirty-two (32) weeks of parental benefits with another employee in receipt of the full five (5) weeks paternity under the Quebec Parental Insurance Plan for the same child and either employee thereafter remains on parental leave without pay, that employee is eligible to receive a further parental allowance for a period of up to two (2) weeks, ninety-three per cent (93%) of their weekly rate of pay (and the recruitment and retention "terminable allowance" if applicable) for each week, less any other monies earned during this period;
  • ** where an employee has divided the full thirty-seven (37) weeks of adoption benefits with another employee under the Québec Parental Insurance Plan for the same child and either employee thereafter remains on parental leave without pay, that employee is eligible to receive a further parental allowance for a period of up to two (2) weeks, ninety-three per cent (93%) of their weekly rate of pay (and the recruitment and retention "terminable allowance" if applicable) for each week, less any other monies earned during this period;
  • ** where an employee has received the full thirty-five (35) weeks of parental benefit under the Employment Insurance Plan and thereafter remains on parental leave without pay, he or she is eligible to receive a further parental allowance for a period of one (1) week at ninety three per cent (93%) of his or her weekly rate of pay (and the recruitment and retention "terminable allowance" if applicable) for each week, less any other monies earned during this period, unless said employee has already received the one (1) week of allowance contained in subparagraph C5.02(c)(iii) for the same child;
  • ** where an employee has divided the full forty (40) weeks of parental benefits with another employee under the Employment Insurance Plan for the same child and either employee thereafter remains on parental leave without pay, that employee is eligible to receive a further parental allowance for a period of one (1) week, ninety-three per cent (93%) of their weekly rate of pay (and the recruitment and retention "terminable allowance" if applicable) for each week, less any other monies earned during this period, unless said employee has already received the one (1) week of allowance contained in subparagraphs C5.02(c)(iii) and C6.02(c)(v) for the same child.
  • ** At the employee's request, the payment referred to in subparagraph C6.02(c)(i) will be estimated and advanced to the employee. Adjustments will be made once the employee provides proof of receipt of Employment Insurance Plan parental benefits.
  • ** The parental allowance to which an employee is entitled is limited to that provided in paragraph (c) and an employee will not be reimbursed for any amount that he or she is required to repay pursuant to the  Employment Insurance Act  or the  Act Respecting Parental Insurance  in Quebec.
  • ** for a full-time employee, the employee's weekly rate of pay on the day immediately preceding the commencement of maternity or parental leave without pay;
  • ** for an employee who has been employed on a part-time or on a combined full-time and part-time basis during the six (6) month period preceding the commencement of maternity or parental leave without pay, the rate obtained by multiplying the weekly rate of pay in subparagraph (i) by the fraction obtained by dividing the employee's straight-time earnings by the straight-time earnings the employee would have earned working full-time during such period.
  • ** The weekly rate of pay referred to in paragraph (f) shall be the rate (and the recruitment and retention "terminable allowance" if applicable) to which the employee is entitled for the substantive level to which she or he is appointed.
  • ** Notwithstanding paragraph (g), and subject to subparagraph (f)(ii), if on the day immediately preceding the commencement of parental leave without pay an employee is performing an acting assignment for at least four (4) months, the weekly rate shall be the rate (and the recruitment and retention "terminable allowance" if applicable), the employee was being paid on that day.
  • ** Where an employee becomes eligible for a pay increment or pay revision while in receipt of parental allowance, the allowance shall be adjusted accordingly.
  • ** Parental allowance payments made under the SUB Plan will neither reduce nor increase an employee's deferred remuneration or severance pay.

** Option 2 - Extended Parental Allowance:

  • ** where an employee on parental leave without pay as described in subparagraphs C6.01(a)(ii) and (b)(ii), has elected to receive extended Employment Insurance parental benefits and is subject to a waiting period before receiving Employment Insurance parental benefits, fifty-five decimal eight per cent (55.8%) of his or her weekly rate of pay (and the recruitment and retention "terminable allowance" if applicable) for the waiting period, less any other monies earned during this period;
  • ** for each week the employee receives parental benefits under the Employment Insurance, he or she is eligible to receive the difference between fifty-five decimal eight per cent (55.8%) of his or her weekly rate (and the recruitment and retention "terminable allowance" if applicable) and the parental benefits, less any other monies earned during this period which may result in a decrease in his or her parental benefits to which he or she would have been eligible if no extra monies had been earned during this period;
  • ** where an employee has received the full sixty-one (61) weeks of parental benefits under the Employment Insurance and thereafter remains on parental leave without pay, he or she is eligible to receive a further parental allowance for a period of one (1) week, fifty-five decimal eight per cent (55.8%) of his or her weekly rate of pay (and the recruitment and retention "terminable allowance" if applicable) for each week, less any other monies earned during this period, unless said employee has already received the one (1) week of allowance contained in C5.02(c)(iii) for the same child;
  • ** where an employee has divided the full sixty-nine (69) weeks of parental benefits with another employee under the Employment Insurance Plan for the same child and either employee thereafter remains on parental leave without pay, that employee is eligible to receive a further parental allowance for a period of one (1) week, fifty-five decimal eight per cent (55.8%) of their weekly rate of pay (and the recruitment and retention "terminable allowance" if applicable) for each week, less any other monies earned during this period, unless said employee has already received the one (1) week of allowance contained in C5.02(c)(iii) for the same child.
  • ** At the employee's request, the payment referred to in subparagraph C6.02(l)(i) will be estimated and advanced to the employee. Adjustments will be made once the employee provides proof of receipt of Employment Insurance.
  • ** The parental allowance to which an employee is entitled is limited to that provided in paragraph (l) and an employee will not be reimbursed for any amount that he or she is required to repay pursuant to the  Employment Insurance Act .
  • ** for a full-time employee, the employee's weekly rate of pay on the day immediately preceding the commencement of parental leave without pay;
  • ** for an employee who has been employed on a part-time or on a combined full-time and part-time basis during the six (6) month period preceding the commencement of parental leave without pay, the rate obtained by multiplying the weekly rate of pay in subparagraph (i) by the fraction obtained by dividing the employee's straight time earnings by the straight time earnings the employee would have earned working full-time during such period.
  • ** The weekly rate of pay referred to in paragraph (l) shall be the rate (and the recruitment and retention "terminable allowance" if applicable) to which the employee is entitled for the substantive level to which he or she is appointed.
  • ** Notwithstanding paragraph (p), and subject to subparagraph (o)(ii), if on the day immediately preceding the commencement of parental leave without pay an employee is performing an acting assignment for at least four (4) months, the weekly rate shall be the rate (and the recruitment and retention "terminable allowance" if applicable), the employee was being paid on that day.
  • ** Where an employee becomes eligible for a pay increment or pay revision while in receipt of the allowance, the allowance shall be adjusted accordingly.
  • ** The maximum combined, shared, maternity and extended parental allowances payable shall not exceed eighty-six (86) weeks for each combined maternity and parental leave without pay.

** C6.03 Special parental allowance for totally disabled employees

  • ** has satisfied all of the other eligibility criteria specified in paragraph C6.02(a), other than those specified in sections (A) and (B) of subparagraph C6.02(a)(iii),

** shall be paid, in respect of each week of benefits under the parental allowance not received for the reason described in subparagraph C6.03(a)(i), the difference between ninety-three per cent (93%) of the employee's rate of pay and the recruitment and retention "terminable allowance", and the gross amount of his or her weekly disability benefit under the DI Plan, the LTD Plan or via the Government Employees Compensation Act .

  • ** An employee shall be paid an allowance under this clause and under clause C6.02 for a combined period of no more than the number of weeks during which the employee would have been eligible for parental, paternity or adoption benefits under the Employment Insurance or the Quebec Parental Insurance Plan, had the employee not been disqualified from Employment Insurance or Quebec Parental Insurance benefits for the reasons described in subparagraph C6.03(a)(i).
  • An employee who is pregnant or nursing may, during the period from the beginning of pregnancy to the end of the twenty-fourth (24th) week following the birth, request the Employer to modify her job functions or reassign her to another job if, by reason of the pregnancy or nursing, continuing any of her current functions may pose a risk to her health or that of the foetus or child.
  • An employee's request under clause C7.01(a) must be accompanied or followed as soon as possible by a medical certificate indicating the expected duration of the potential risk and the activities or conditions to avoid in order to eliminate the risk. Dependent upon the particular circumstances of the request, the Employer may obtain an independent medical opinion.
  • informs her in writing that it is not reasonably practicable to modify her job functions or reassign her.
  • Where reasonably practicable, the Employer shall modify the employee's job functions or reassign her.
  • Where the Employer concludes that a modification of job functions or a reassignment that would avoid the activities or conditions indicated in the medical certificate is not reasonably practicable, the Employer shall so inform the employee in writing and shall grant leave of absence without pay to the employee for the duration of the risk as indicated in the medical certificate. However, such leave shall end no later than twenty-four (24) weeks after the birth.
  • An employee whose job functions have been modified, who has been reassigned or who is on leave of absence shall give at least two (2) weeks notice in writing to the Employer of any change in duration of the risk or inability as indicated in the medical certificate, unless there is a valid reason why that notice cannot be given. Such notice must be accompanied by a new medical certificate.

** C8.01 For the purpose of this clause, immediate family is defined as spouse (or common-law partner resident with the employee), children (including step-children, foster children, ward of the employee or children of spouse or common-law partner), parents (including step-parents or foster parents), brother, sister, step-brother, step-sister, grandchild, grandparents of the employee, father-in-law, mother-in-law, or any relative permanently residing in the employee's household or with whom the employee permanently resides and in addition:

  • ** a person who stands in the place of a relative for the employee whether or not there is any degree of consanguinity between such person and the employee.

* C8.02 Subject to operational requirements, an employee shall be granted leave without pay for the care of immediate family in accordance with the following conditions:

  • An employee shall notify the Employer in writing as far in advance as possible but not less than four (4) weeks in advance of the commencement date of such leave, unless such notice cannot be given because of an urgent or unforeseeable circumstance;
  • Leave granted under this clause shall be for a minimum period of three (3) weeks;
  • The total leave granted under this clause shall not exceed five (5) years during an employee's total period of employment in the Canadian Food Inspection Agency or in the Public Service;
  • Leave granted for a period of one (1) year or less shall be scheduled in a manner which ensures continued service delivery;
  • Time spent on such leave shall not be counted for pay increment purposes.

** C8.03 Caregiving Leave

  • ** An employee who provides the Employer with proof that he or she is in receipt of or awaiting Employment Insurance (EI) benefits for Compassionate Care Benefits, Family Caregiver Benefits for Children and/or Family Caregiver Benefits for Adults may be granted leave without pay while in receipt of or awaiting these benefits.
  • ** The leave without pay described in C8.03(a) shall not exceed twenty-six (26) weeks for Compassionate Care Benefits, thirty-five (35) weeks for Family Caregiver Benefits for Children and fifteen (15) weeks for Family Caregiver Benefits for Adults, in addition to any applicable waiting period.
  • ** When notified, an employee who was awaiting benefits must provide the Employer with proof that the request for Employment Insurance (EI) Compassionate Care Benefits, Family Caregiver Benefits for Children and/or Family Caregiver Benefits for Adults has been accepted.
  • ** When an employee is notified that their request for Employment Insurance (EI) Compassionate Care Benefits, Family Caregiver Benefits for Children and/or Family Caregiver Benefits for Adults has been denied, clause C8.03(a) above ceases to apply.

* C8.04 An employee who has proceeded on leave without pay may change his return to work date if such change does not result in additional costs to the Employer.

* C8.05 All leave granted under Leave Without Pay for the Care and Nurturing of the employee's Pre-School Age Children or under Leave Without Pay for the Long-Term Care of a Parent under the terms of agreements other than the present agreement will not count towards the calculation of the maximum amount of time allowed for Care of Immediate Family during an employee's total period of employment in the Canadian Food Inspection Agency or in the Public Service.

* C9.01 Up to three decimal seven five (3.75) hours of reasonable time off with pay will be granted to pregnant employees for the purpose of attending routine medical appointments.

* C9.02 Where a series of continuing appointments are necessary for the treatment of a particular condition relating to the pregnancy, absences shall be charged to sick leave.

* C10.01 Leave without pay will be granted for personal needs, in the following manner:

  • Subject to operational requirements, leave without pay for a period of up to three (3) months will be granted to an employee for personal needs.
  • Subject to operational requirements, leave without pay of more than three (3) months but not exceeding one (1) year will be granted to an employee for personal needs.
  • An employee is entitled to leave without pay for personal needs only once under each of (a) and (b) of this clause during the total period of employment in the Public Service and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency. Leave without pay granted under this clause may not be used in combination with maternity, or parental leave without the consent of the Employer.

* C11.01 At the request of an employee, leave without pay for a period of up to one (1) year shall be granted to an employee whose spouse or common-law partner is permanently relocated and up to five (5) years to an employee whose spouse or common-law partner is temporarily relocated.

** C12.01 For the purpose of this Article, family is defined as spouse (or common-law partner resident with the employee), children (including foster children or children of legal or common-law partner and ward of the employee), parents (including step-parents or foster parents), father-in-law, mother-in-law, brother, sister, step-brother, step-sister, grandparents and grandchildren of the employee, any relative permanently residing in the employee's household or with whom the employee permanently resides, any relative for whom the employee has a duty of care, irrespective of whether they reside with the employee; or a person who stands in the place of a relative for the employee whether or not there is any degree of consanguinity between such person and the employee.

* C12.02 The total leave with pay which may be granted under this Article shall not exceed thirty-seven decimal five (37.5) hours in a fiscal year.

* C12.03 Subject to clause C12.02, the Employer shall grant leave with pay under the following circumstances:

  • to take a dependent family member for medical or dental appointments, or for appointments with school authorities or adoption agencies, if the supervisor was notified of the appointment as far in advance as possible;
  • to provide for the immediate and temporary care of a sick member of the employee's family and to provide an employee with time to make alternate care arrangements where the illness is of a longer duration;
  • to provide for the immediate and temporary care of an elderly member of the employee's family;
  • for needs directly related to the birth or to the adoption of the employee's child;
  • to attend school functions, if the supervisor was notified of the functions as far in advance as possible;
  • to provide for the employee's child in the case of an unforeseeable closure of the school or daycare facility;
  • seven decimal five (7.5) hours out of the thirty-seven decimal five (37.5) hours stipulated in clause C12.02 above may be used to attend an appointment with a legal or paralegal representative for non-employment related matters, or with a financial or other professional representative, if the supervisor was notified of the appointment as far in advance as possible.

* C13.01 Leave with pay shall be given to every employee, other than an employee already on leave without pay, on education leave, or under suspension who is required:

  • to be available for jury selection;
  • in or under the authority of a court of justice;
  • before a court, judge, justice, magistrate or coroner;
  • before the Senate or House of Commons of Canada or a committee of the Senate or House of Commons otherwise than in the performance of the duties of his or her position;
  • before an arbitrator or umpire or a person or body of persons authorized by law to make an inquiry and to compel the attendance of witnesses before it.

* C14.01 Where an employee participates in a personnel selection process, including the appeal process where applicable, for a position in the Canadian Food Inspection Agency or for positions in other agencies or departments (as defined in the Federal Public Sector Labour Relations Act ), with whom the Canadian Food Inspection Agency has agreements on areas of selection, the employee is entitled to leave with pay for the period during which the employee's presence is required for purposes of the selection process, and for such further period as the Employer considers reasonable for the employee to travel to and from the place where their presence is required.

* C15.01 An employee shall be granted injury-on-duty leave with pay for such reasonable period as may be determined by the Employer where it is determined by a Provincial Worker's Compensation Board that such employee is unable to perform their duties because of:

  • personal injury accidentally received in the performance of such employee's duties and not caused by the employee's wilful misconduct,
  • exposure to hazardous conditions in the course of such employee's employment,

if the employee agrees to pay to the Receiver General of Canada any amount received by him for loss of wages in settlement of any claim such employee may have in respect of such injury, sickness or exposure.

* C16.01 Leave with pay to take examinations or defend dissertation may be granted by the Employer to an employee who is not on education leave. Such leave will be granted only where, in the opinion of the Employer, the course of study is directly related to the employee's duties or will improve the employee's qualifications.

The parties recognize that in order to maintain and enhance professional expertise, employees, from time to time, need to have an opportunity to attend or participate in career development activities described in this Article.

* C17.01 Education Leave

  • An employee may be granted education leave without pay for varying periods up to one (1) year, which can be renewed by mutual agreement, to attend a recognized institution for additional or special studies in some field of education in which special preparation is needed to enable the employee to fill the employee's present role more adequately, or to undertake studies in some field in order to provide a service which the Employer requires or is planning to provide.
  • An employee on Education Leave without pay under this clause shall receive an allowance in lieu of salary of not less than fifty per cent (50%) of his basic salary. The percentage of the allowance is at the discretion of the Employer. Where the employee receives a grant, bursary or scholarship, the education leave allowance may be reduced. In such cases, the amount of the reduction shall not exceed the amount of the grant, bursary or scholarship.
  • Allowances already being received by the employee may, at the discretion of the Employer, be continued during the period of the education leave. The employee shall be notified when the leave is approved whether such allowances are to be continued in whole or in part.
  • fails to complete the course,

such employee shall repay the Employer all allowances paid to such employee under this clause during the education leave or such lesser sum as shall be determined by the Employer.

* C17.02 Attendance at Conferences and Conventions

  • a course given by the Employer;
  • a course offered by a recognized academic institution;
  • a seminar, convention or study session in a specialized field offered directly related to the employee's work.
  • The parties to this Agreement recognize that attendance or participation at conferences, conventions, symposia, workshops and other gatherings of a similar nature contributes to the maintenance of high professional standards.
  • In order to benefit from an exchange of knowledge and experience, an employee shall have the opportunity on occasion to attend conferences and conventions which are related to his field of specialization, subject to budgetary and operational constraints.
  • The Employer may grant leave with pay and reasonable expenses including registration fees to attend such gatherings, subject to budgetary and operational constraints.
  • An employee who attends a conference or convention at the request of the Employer to represent the interests of the Employer shall be deemed to be on duty and, as required, in travel status. The Employer shall pay the registration fees of the convention or conference the employee is required to attend.
  • An employee invited to participate in a conference or convention in an official capacity, such as to present a formal address or to give a course related to the employee's field of employment, may be granted leave with pay for this purpose and may, in addition, be reimbursed for his payment of convention or conference registration fees and reasonable travel expenses.
  • An employee shall not be entitled to any compensation under Articles B3 - Overtime or B8 - Travelling Time in respect of hours such employee is in attendance at or travelling to or from a conference or convention under the provisions of this clause, except as provided by sub-clause (e).

* C17.03 Professional Development

  • to participate in workshops, short courses or similar out-service programs to keep up to date with knowledge and skills in their respective fields,
  • to conduct research or perform work related to their normal research programs in institutions or locations other than those of the Employer,
  • to carry out research in the employee's field of specialization not specifically related to his assigned work projects when in the opinion of the Employer such research is needed to enable the employee to fill his present role more adequately.
  • Subject to the Employer's approval, an employee shall receive leave with pay in order to participate in the activities described in sub-clause C17.03(a).
  • An employee may apply at any time for professional development under this clause, and the Employer may select an employee at any time for such professional development.
  • When an employee is selected by the Employer for professional development under this clause the Employer will consult with the employee before determining the location and duration of the program of work or studies to be undertaken.
  • An employee selected for professional development under this clause shall continue to receive his normal compensation including any increase for which he may become eligible. The employee shall not be entitled to any compensation under Articles B3 - Overtime or B8 - Travelling Time while on professional development under this clause.
  • An employee on professional development under this clause may be reimbursed for reasonable travel expenses and such other additional expenses as the Employer deems appropriate.

* C17.04 Selection Criteria

  • Should the Employer establish selection criteria for granting leave under clauses C17.01 through C17.03 for a specified group, a copy of these criteria will be provided to an employee who so requests and to the Institute Representative on the CFIA Career Development Consultation Committee. The Employer, on request, will consult with the Institute Representative on the committee with regard to the selection criteria.
  • All applications for leave under clauses C17.01 through C17.03 will be reviewed by the Employer. A list of the names of the applicants to whom the Employer grants leave under clauses C17.01 through C17.03 will be provided to the Institute Representative on the CFIA's Career Development Consultation Committee.

* C17.05 Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) Career Development Committee

  • The parties to this Collective Agreement acknowledge the mutual benefits to be derived from consultation on career development. To this effect the parties agree that such consultation will be held at the Agency level either through the existing Joint Consultation Committee or through the creation of a CFIA Career Development Consultation Committee. A consultation committee, as determined by the parties, may be established at the local, regional or national level.
  • The CFIA Consultation Committee shall be composed of mutually agreeable numbers of employees and Employer representatives who shall meet at mutually satisfactory times. Committee meetings shall normally be held on the Employer's premises during working hours.
  • Employees forming the continuing membership of the CFIA Consultation Committees shall be protected against any loss of normal pay by reason of attendance at such meetings with management, including reasonable travel time where applicable.
  • The Employer recognizes the use of such committees for the purpose of providing information, discussing the application of policy, promoting understanding and reviewing problems.
  • It is understood that no commitment may be made by either party on a subject that is not within their authority or jurisdiction, nor shall any commitment made be construed as to alter, amend, add to or modify the terms of this Agreement.

** Article C18 - Leave for labour relations matters / Federal Public Sector Labour Relations and Employment Board hearings

* C18.01 Federal Public Sector Labour Relations and Employment Board Hearings

Complaints made to the Federal Public Sector Labour Relations and Employment Board Pursuant to Section 190(1) of the Federal Public Sector Labour Relations Act .

Where operational requirements permit in cases of complaints made to the Federal Public Sector Labour Relations and Employment Board (FPSLREB) pursuant to section 190(1) of the Federal Public Sector Labour Relations Act (FPSLRA) alleging a breach of sections 157, 186(1)(a), 186(1)(b), 186(2)(a)(i), 186(2)(b), 187, 188(a) or 189(1) of the FPSLRA, the Employer will grant leave with pay:

  • to an employee who acts on behalf of an employee making a complaint, or who acts on behalf of the Institute making a complaint.

** C18.02 Application for Certification, Representations and Intervention with Respect to Application for Certification

** The Employer will grant leave without pay:

  • to an employee who makes personal representations with respect to a certification.

* C18.03 Employee Called as a Witness

The Employer will grant leave with pay:

  • where operational requirements permit, to an employee called as a witness by an employee or the Institute.

* C18.04 Arbitration Board, Public Interest Commission Hearings, and Alternative Dispute Resolution Process

Where operational requirements permit, the Employer will grant leave with pay to an employee representing the Institute before an Arbitration Board, or in an Alternative Dispute Resolution process, or Public Interest Commission hearing; all of which are as defined in the Federal Public Sector Labour Relations Act .

* C18.05 Employee Called as a Witness

The Employer will grant leave with pay to an employee called as a witness by an Arbitration Board, in an Alternative Dispute Resolution process, or Conciliation Board hearing; all of which are as defined in the Federal Public Sector Labour Relations Act .

* C18.06 Adjudication

Where operational requirements permit, the Employer will grant leave with pay to an employee who is:

  • a witness called by an employee who is party to an adjudication.

* C18.07 Meetings During the Grievance Process

Employee Presenting Grievance

Where operational requirements permit, the Employer will grant to an employee:

  • where an employee who has presented a grievance seeks to meet with the Employer, leave with pay to the employee when the meeting is held in the headquarters area of such employee and leave without pay when the meeting is held outside the headquarters area of such employee.

* C18.08 Employee Who Acts as a Representative

Where an employee wishes to represent at a meeting with the Employer, an employee who has presented a grievance, the Employer will, where operational requirements permit, grant leave with pay to the representative when the meeting is held in the headquarters area of such employee and leave without pay when the meeting is held outside the headquarters area of such employee.

* C18.09 Grievance Investigations

Where an employee has asked or is obliged to be represented by the Institute in relation to the presentation of a grievance and an employee acting on behalf of the Institute wishes to discuss the grievance with that employee, the employee and the representative of the employee will, where operational requirements permit, be given reasonable leave with pay for this purpose when the discussion takes place in the headquarters area of such employee and leave without pay when it takes place outside the headquarters area of such employee.

** C18.10 Contract Negotiations Meetings

The Employer will grant leave without pay to an employee for the purpose of attending contract negotiations meetings on behalf of the Institute.

* C18.11 Preparatory Contract Negotiations Meetings

Where operational requirements permit, the Employer will grant leave without pay to an employee to attend preparatory contract negotiations meetings.

* C18.12 Meetings between the Institute and Management

Where operational requirements permit, the Employer will grant leave with pay to an employee to attend meetings with Management on behalf of the Institute.

* C18.13 Institute Executive Council Meetings and Conventions

Where operational requirements permit, the Employer will grant leave without pay to a reasonable number of employees to attend meetings and conventions provided in the constitution and by-laws of the Institute.

* C18.14 Stewards Training Courses

  • Where operational requirements permit, the Employer will grant leave without pay to employees appointed as Stewards by the Institute, to undertake training sponsored by the Institute related to the duties of a Steward.
  • Where operational requirements permit, the Employer will grant leave with pay to employees appointed as Stewards by the Institute, to attend training sessions concerning Employer-employee relations sponsored by the Employer.

* C19.01 The Employer shall make every reasonable effort to accommodate an employee who requests time off to fulfill his or her religious obligations.

* C19.02 Employees may, in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement, request annual leave, compensatory leave, leave without pay for other reasons or a shift exchange (in the case of a shift worker) in order to fulfill their religious obligations.

* C19.03 Notwithstanding clause C19.02, at the request of the employee and at the discretion of the Employer, time off with pay may be granted to the employee in order to fulfill his or her religious obligations. The number of hours with pay so granted must be made up hour for hour within a period of six (6) months, at times agreed to by the Employer. Hours worked as a result of time off granted under this clause shall not be compensated nor should they result in any additional payments by the Employer.

* C19.04 An employee who intends to request leave or time off under this Article must give notice to the Employer as far in advance as possible but no later than four (4) weeks before the requested period of absence.

* C20.01 At its discretion, the Employer may grant leave with pay for purposes other than those specified in this Agreement, including military or civil defence training, emergencies affecting the community or place of work, and when circumstances not directly attributable to the employee prevent his reporting for duty.

* C20.02 Personal Leave

Subject to operational requirements as determined by the Employer and with an advance notice of at least five (5) working days, the employee shall be granted, in each fiscal year, fifteen (15) hours' leave with pay for reasons of a personal nature. This leave can be taken in periods of seven decimal five (7.5) hours or three decimal seven five (3.75) hours each.

The leave will be scheduled at times convenient both to the employee and the Employer. Nevertheless, the Employer shall make every reasonable effort to grant the leave at such a time as the employee may request.

** C20.03 Domestic Violence Leave

** For the purposes of this article domestic violence is considered to be any form of abuse or neglect that an employee or an employee's child experiences from a family member, or from someone with whom the employee has or had an intimate relationship.

  • ** The parties recognize that employees may be subject to domestic violence in their personal life that could affect their attendance at work.
  • ** to seek care and/or support for themselves or their child in respect of a physical or psychological injury or disability;
  • ** to obtain services from an organization which provides services for individuals who are subject to domestic violence;
  • ** to obtain professional counselling;
  • ** to relocate temporarily or permanently; or
  • ** to seek legal or law enforcement assistance or to prepare for or participate in any civil or criminal legal proceeding.
  • ** The total domestic violence leave with pay which may be granted under this article shall not exceed seventy-five (75) hours in a fiscal year.
  • ** Unless otherwise informed by the Employer, a statement signed by the employee stating that they meet the conditions of this article shall, when delivered to the Employer, be considered as meeting the requirements of this article.
  • ** Notwithstanding clauses C20.03(b) to C20.03(c), an employee is not entitled to domestic violence leave if the employee is charged with an offence related to that act or if it is probable, considering the circumstances, that the employee committed that act.

* C21.01 At its discretion, the Employer may grant leave without pay for purposes other than those specified in this Agreement, including enrolment in the Canadian Armed Forces and election to a full-time municipal office.

Part D – Staff relations matters

D1.01 The Employer will as a condition of employment deduct an amount equal to the amount of the membership dues from the monthly pay of all employees in the bargaining unit.

D1.02 The Institute shall inform the Employer in writing of the authorized monthly deduction to be checked off for each employee defined in clause D1.01.

D1.03 For the purpose of applying clause D1.01, deductions from pay for each employee in respect of each month will start with the first full month of employment to the extent that earnings are available.

D1.04 An employee who satisfies the Institute as to the bona fides of his or her claim and declares in an affidavit that he or she is a member of a religious organization whose doctrine prevents him or her as a matter of conscience from making financial contributions to an employee organization and that he or she will make contributions to a charitable organization registered pursuant to the Income Tax Act , equal to dues, shall not be subject to this Article. The Institute will inform the Employer accordingly.

D1.05 No employee organization, as defined in Section 2 of the Federal Public Sector Labour Relations Act , other than the Institute, shall be permitted to have membership dues and/or other monies deducted by the Employer from the pay of employees in the bargaining unit.

D1.06 The amounts deducted in accordance with clause D1.01 shall be remitted to the Institute within a reasonable period of time after deductions are made and shall be accompanied by particulars identifying each employee and the deductions made on his behalf.

* D1.07 The Institute agrees to indemnify and save the Employer harmless against any claim or liability arising out of the application of this Article, except for any claim or liability arising out of an error committed by the Employer, in which case the liability shall be limited to the amount of the error.

* D1.08 When it is mutually acknowledged that an error has been committed, the Employer shall endeavour to correct such error within the two (2) pay periods following the acknowledgment of error.

* D1.09 Where an employee does not have sufficient earnings in respect of any month to permit deductions under this Article the Employer shall not be obligated to make such deductions for that month from subsequent salary.

D2.01 Access by Institute Representatives

An accredited representative of the Institute may be permitted access to the Employer's premises on stated Institute business and to attend meetings called by management. Permission to enter the premises shall, in each case, be obtained from the Employer.

D2.02 Bulletin Boards

Reasonable space on bulletin boards, including an electronic link from the CFIA Intranet page to the Institute Web Site, will be made available to the Bargaining Agent for the posting of official notices, in convenient locations determined by the Employer and the Institute.

Notices or other material shall require the prior approval of the Employer, except notices relating to the business affairs of the Institute and social and recreational events. The Employer shall have the right to refuse the posting of any information which he considers adverse to his interests or the interests of any of his representatives.

D2.03 Institute Literature

The Employer will continue its practice of making available to the Institute a specific location on its premises for the storage and placement of a reasonable quantity of Institute files and literature.

D3.01 The Employer agrees to supply the Institute on a quarterly basis with a list of all employees in the bargaining unit. The list referred to herein shall include the name, geographical location and classification of the employees and shall be provided within one month following the termination of each quarter. As soon as practicable, the Employer agrees to add to the above list the date of appointment for new employees.

D3.02 The Employer agrees to provide each employee with access to an electronic copy of the Collective Agreement and any amendments thereto. Employees can use the Employer's equipment to a print a copy or portion thereof.

D4.01 The Employer acknowledges the right of the Institute to appoint Stewards from amongst the members of bargaining units for which the Institute is the certified Bargaining Agent.

D4.02 The Employer and the Institute shall, by mutual agreement, determine the area of jurisdiction of each Steward, having regard to the plan of organization and the distribution of employees.

D4.03 The Institute shall inform the Employer promptly and in writing of the names of its Stewards, their jurisdiction, and of any subsequent changes.

D4.04 Leave for Stewards

Operational requirements permitting, the Employer shall grant leave with pay to an employee to enable him to carry out his functions as a Steward on the Employer's premises. When the discharge of these functions require an employee who is a Steward to leave his normal place of work, the employee shall report his return to his supervisor whenever practicable.

D5.01 The Federal Public Sector Labour Relations Act provides penalties for engaging in illegal strikes. Disciplinary action may also be taken, which will include penalties up to and including discharge, for participation in an illegal strike as defined in the Federal Public Sector Labour Relations Act .

D6.01 In cases of alleged misinterpretation or misapplication arising out of Agreements on items which may be included in a Collective Agreement and which the parties to this Agreement have endorsed, the grievance procedure will be in accordance with Article D6.

D6.02 The parties recognize the value of informal discussion between employees and their supervisors to the end that problems might be resolved without recourse to a formal grievance. When an employee, within the time limits prescribed in clause D6.12, gives notice that such employee wishes to take advantage of this clause, it is agreed that the period between the initial discussion and the final response shall not count as elapsed time for the purpose of grievance time limits.

D6.03 The time limits stipulated in this procedure may be extended by mutual agreement between the Employer and the employee and, where appropriate, the Union representative.

Individual Grievances

D6.04 Subject to and as provided in section 208 of the Federal Public Sector Labour Relations Act an employee who feels that he or she has been treated unjustly or considers himself or herself aggrieved by any action or lack of action by the Employer in matters other than those arising from the classification process is entitled to present a grievance in the manner prescribed in clause D6.07 except that:

  • where there is another administrative procedure provided by or under any Act of Parliament other than the Canadian Human Rights Act to deal with the employee's specific complaint, such procedure must be followed, and
  • where the grievance relates to the interpretation or application of the Agreement or an arbitral award, the employee is not entitled to present the grievance unless he or she has the approval of and is represented by the Union.

D6.05 Except as otherwise provided in this Agreement, a grievance shall be processed by recourse to the following levels:

  • Level 1 - first (1st) level of management;
  • Level 2 - intermediate level where such level has been established by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency;
  • Final Level - President or President's authorized representative.

D6.06 The Employer shall designate a representative at each level in the grievance procedure and shall inform each employee to whom the procedure applies of the name or title of the person so designated together with the name or title and address of the immediate supervisor or local officer-in-charge to whom a grievance is to be presented. This information shall be communicated to employees by means of notices posted by the Employer in places where such notices are most likely to come to the attention of the employees to whom the grievance procedure applies, or otherwise as determined by agreement between the Employer and the Union.

D6.07 An employee who wishes to present a grievance at a prescribed level in the grievance procedure shall transmit this grievance to his or her immediate supervisor or local officer-in-charge who shall forthwith:

  • provide the employee with a receipt stating the date on which the grievance was received by him or her.

D6.08 Where it is necessary to present a grievance by mail, the grievance shall be deemed to have been presented on the day on which it is postmarked and it shall be deemed to have been received by the Employer on the date it is delivered to the appropriate office of the Agency. Similarly the Employer shall be deemed to have delivered a reply at any level on the date on which the letter containing the reply is postmarked, but the time limit within which the grievor may present his or her grievance at the next higher level shall be calculated from the date on which the Employer's reply was delivered to the address shown on the grievance form.

D6.09 A grievance of an employee shall not be deemed to be invalid by reason only that it is not in accordance with the form supplied by the Employer.

D6.10 An employee may be assisted and/or represented by the Union when presenting a grievance at any level.

D6.11 The Union shall have the right to consult with the Employer with respect to a grievance at each level of the grievance procedure. Where consultation is with the President, the President shall render the decision.

D6.12 An employee may present a grievance to the First Level of the grievance procedure in the manner prescribed in clause D6.07 not later than the thirty-fifth (35th) calendar day after the date on which he or she is notified orally or in writing or on which he or she first becomes aware of the action or circumstances giving rise to the grievance.

D6.13 The Employer shall normally reply to an employee's grievance, at any level in the grievance procedure, except the Final level, within fifteen (15) calendar days after the date the grievance is presented at that level. Where such decision or settlement is not satisfactory to the employee, he or she may submit a grievance at the next higher level in the grievance procedure within fifteen (15) calendar days after that decision or settlement has been conveyed to him or her in writing.

D6.14 If the Employer does not reply within fifteen (15) calendar days from the date that a grievance is presented at any level, except the Final level, the employee may, within the next fifteen (15) days, submit the grievance at the next higher level of the grievance procedure.

D6.15 The Employer shall normally reply to an employee's grievance at the Final Level of the grievance procedure within forty (40) calendar days after the grievance is presented at that level.

D6.16 Where an employee has been represented by the Union in the presentation of his or her grievance, the Employer will provide the appropriate representative of the Union with a copy of the Employer's decision at each level of the grievance procedure at the same time that the Employer's decision is conveyed to the employee.

D6.17 The decision given by the Employer at the Final Level in the grievance procedure shall be final and binding upon the employee unless the grievance is a class of grievance that may be referred to adjudication.

D6.18 Where it appears that the nature of the grievance is such that a decision cannot be given below a particular level of authority, any or all the levels, except the Final Level may be eliminated by agreement of the Employer and the employee and, where applicable, the Union.

D6.19 Where the Employer demotes or terminates an employee for cause pursuant to paragraph 12.(2)(c) or (d) of the Financial Administration Act , the grievance procedure set forth in this Agreement shall apply except that the grievance shall be presented at the Final Level only.

D6.20 An employee may abandon a grievance by written notice to his or her immediate supervisor or officer-in-charge.

D6.21 An employee who fails to present a grievance to the next higher level within the prescribed time limits shall be deemed to have abandoned the grievance, unless the employee was unable to comply with the prescribed time limits due to circumstances beyond his or her control.

D6.22 No person who is employed in a managerial or confidential capacity shall seek by intimidation, by threat or dismissal or by any other kind of threat to cause an employee to abandon his or her grievance or refrain from exercising his or her right to present a grievance as provided in this Agreement.

D6.23 Where an employee has presented a grievance up to and including the Final Level in the grievance procedure with respect to:

  • the interpretation or application in respect of him or her of a provision of this Agreement or a related arbitral award; or
  • disciplinary action resulting in suspension or a financial penalty; or
  • termination of employment or demotion pursuant to paragraph 12.(2)(c) or (d) of the Financial Administration Act ;

and the employee's grievance has not been dealt with to his or her satisfaction, he or she may refer the grievance to adjudication in accordance with the provisions of the Federal Public Sector Labour Relations Act and Regulations.

D6.24 Where a grievance that may be presented by an employee to adjudication is a grievance relating to the interpretation or application in respect of him or her of a provision of this Agreement or an arbitral award, the employee is not entitled to refer the grievance to adjudication unless the Union signifies in the prescribed manner:

  • its approval of the reference of the grievance to adjudication; and
  • its willingness to represent the employee in the adjudication proceedings.

D6.25 In cases of alleged misinterpretation or misapplication arising out of agreements concluded by the National Joint Council (NJC) of the Public Service on items which may be included in a collective agreement and which the parties to this Agreement have endorsed, the grievance procedure will be in accordance with Part 15 of the NJC By-Laws.

Expedited Adjudication

D6.26 The parties agree that an adjudicable grievance may be referred to the following expedited adjudication process:

  • at the request of either party, a grievance that has been referred to adjudication may be dealt with through Expedited Adjudication with the consent of both parties;
  • future cases may be identified for this process by either party, subject to the consent of the parties;
  • when the parties agree that a particular grievance will proceed through Expedited Adjudication, the Bargaining Agent will submit to the Federal Public Sector Labour Relations and Employment Board ( FPSLREB) the consent form signed by the grievor or the Bargaining Agent;
  • the parties may proceed with or without an Agreed Statement of Facts. When the parties arrive at an Agreed Statement of Facts, it will be submitted to the FPSLREB or to the Adjudicator at the hearing;
  • no witnesses will testify;
  • the Adjudicator will be appointed by the FPSLREB from among its members who have had at least three (3) years' experience as a member of the Board;
  • each Expedited Adjudication session will take place in Ottawa unless the parties and the FPSLREB otherwise agree. The cases will be scheduled jointly by the parties and the FPSLREB and will appear on the FPSLREB schedule;
  • the Adjudicator will make an oral determination at the hearing which will be recorded and initialled by the representatives of the parties. This will be confirmed in a written determination to be issued by the Adjudicator within five (5) calendar days of the hearing. The parties may, at the request of the Adjudicator, vary the above conditions in a particular case; and
  • the Adjudicator's determination will be final and binding on all the parties, but will not constitute a precedent. The parties agree not to refer the determination to the Federal Court.

Group Grievance

  • The Union may present to the Employer a group grievance on behalf of employees in the bargaining unit who feel aggrieved by the interpretation or application, common in respect of those employees, or a provision of a collective agreement or an arbitral award.
  • In order to present a group grievance, the Union must first obtain the written consent of each of the employees concerned.

D6.28 The Union shall transmit the group grievance form to the appropriate person, as identified by the Employer, who shall on receipt of a group grievance:

  • deliver to the Union a receipt stating the date on which the group grievance was received; and
  • forward the group grievance to the person whose decision constitutes the appropriate level of the group grievance process.

D6.29 Subject to and as provided in the Federal Public Sector Labour Relations Act , the Bargaining Agent may present a group grievance in the manner set out in clause D6.28, except where:

  • there is another administrative procedure provided by, or under any Act of Parliament, to deal with his or her specific complaint such procedure must be followed, other than the Canadian Human Rights Act ; or
  • an employee has availed himself or herself of a complaint procedure established by a policy of the Employer if the policy expressly provides that an employee who avails himself or herself of the complaint procedure is precluded from participating in a group grievance, that employee may not be included in the group grievance.

D6.30 There shall be no more than a maximum of three (3) steps in the group grievance procedure. The final step shall be the President, Canadian Food Inspection Agency or his delegated representatives.

D6.31 The Union may present the group grievance at the first step of the group grievance process no later than thirty-five (35) calendar days after the Union received notification of any act, omission or other matter giving rise to the group grievance.

D6.32 The Union may present a group grievance at each succeeding step in the group grievance procedure, beyond the first step either:

  • no later than fifteen (15) calendar days after the day on which the decision of the previous level was received; or
  • no later than forty (40) calendar days after the expiry of the period within which the decision was required if the Employer has not conveyed a decision to the Union within the time prescribed in clause D6.33.

D6.33 The Employer shall reply to the Union regarding a group grievance no later than twenty (20) calendar days after the day on which the group grievance was received by the person identified under clause D6.28.

D6.34 Where it appears that the nature of the grievance is such that a decision cannot be given below a particular step of authority, any or all the steps except the final step may be eliminated by agreement of the Employer and the Union.

D6.35 An employee in respect of whom a group grievance has been presented may, at any time, notify the Union that they no longer wish to be involved in the group grievance.

D6.36 The Union may refer to adjudication any group grievance that has been presented up to and including the Final Level in the grievance process and that has not been dealt with to its satisfaction.

Policy Grievance

D6.37 The policy grievance process shall consist of one (1) level.

D6.38 Both the Union and the Employer may present a policy grievance to the other in respect of the interpretation or application of the Collective Agreement as it relates to either of them or to the bargaining unit generally.

D6.39 Neither the Union nor the employer may present a policy grievance in respect of which an administrative procedure for redress is provided under any Act of Parliament, other than the Canadian Human Rights Act :

  • despite section D6.39, neither the employer nor the Bargaining Agent may present a policy grievance in respect of the right to equal pay for work of equal value.

D6.40 Both parties to this agreement shall identify the person authorized to receive a policy grievance, who on receipt of a policy grievance shall:

  • deliver a receipt to the other party stating the date on which the policy grievance was received; and
  • shall forward the policy grievance to the person whose decision constitutes the level of the policy grievance process.

D6.41 A policy grievance may be presented no later than thirty-five (35) calendar days after the earlier of the day on which notification was received and the day on which there was knowledge of any act, omission or other matter giving rise to the policy grievance.

D6.42 The person whose decision constitutes the level of the policy grievance process shall provide a decision to the other party no later than twenty (20) calendar days after the day on which the policy grievance was received by the person identified under clause D6.40.

D6.43 A policy grievance may be withdrawn at any time.

D6.44 A party that presents a policy grievance may refer it to adjudication, as provided under the Federal Public Sector Labour Relations Act .

D7.01 The parties acknowledge the mutual benefits to be derived from joint consultation and will consult on matters of common interest.

D7.02 The subjects that may be determined as appropriate for joint consultation will be by mutual agreement of the parties and shall include consultation regarding career development. Consultation may be at the local, regional or national level as determined by the parties.

D7.03 Wherever possible, the Employer shall consult with representatives of the Institute at the appropriate level about contemplated changes in conditions of employment or working conditions not governed by this Agreement.

D7.04 Joint Consultation Committee Meetings

The Consultation Committees shall be composed of Institute participants authorized by the Group Executive and representatives of the Employer who shall meet at mutually satisfactory times. Committee meetings shall normally be held on the Employer's premises during working hours.

The Institute will, on a regular basis, provide the Employer with a complete and current list of all participants authorized by the Group Executive.

D7.05 Employees forming the continuing membership of the Consultation Committees shall be protected against any loss of normal pay by reason of attendance at such meetings with management, including reasonable travel time where applicable.

D7.06 Joint Consultation Committees are prohibited from agreeing to items which would alter any provision of this Collective Agreement.

D8.01 Where written Employer standards of discipline are developed or amended, the Employer agrees to supply sufficient information on the standards of discipline to each employee and to the Institute.

D8.02 Where an employee is required to attend a meeting on disciplinary matters the employee is entitled to have a representative of the Institute attend the meeting when the representative is readily available.

D8.03 The Employer agrees not to introduce as evidence in a hearing relating to disciplinary action any document concerning the conduct or performance of an employee the existence of which the employee was not aware at the time of filing or within a reasonable time thereafter.

D8.04 Notice of disciplinary action which may have been placed on the personnel file of an employee shall be destroyed after two (2) years have elapsed since the disciplinary action was taken provided that no further disciplinary action has been recorded during this period. With the exception of written reprimands, this period will automatically be extended by the length of any single period of leave without pay in excess of six (6) months.

D9.01 For the purpose of this Article:

  • a formal assessment and/or appraisal of an employee's performance means any written assessment and/or appraisal by any supervisor of how well the employee has performed his assigned tasks during a specified period in the past;
  • formal assessment and/or appraisals of employee performance shall be recorded on a form prescribed by the Employer for this purpose.

A copy of the employee's assessment form shall be provided to him at the time the assessment is signed by the employee.

  • The Employer's representative(s) who assesses an employee's performance must have observed or been aware of the employee's performance for at least one-half (½) of the period for which the employee's performance is evaluated.

D9.03 When an employee disagrees with the assessment and/or appraisal of his work he shall have the right to present written counter arguments to the manager(s) or committee(s) responsible for the assessment and/or appraisal decision.

D9.04 Upon written request of an employee, the personnel file of that employee shall be made available once per year for his examination in the presence of an authorized representative of the Employer.

D9.05 When a report pertaining to an employee's performance or conduct is placed on that employee's personnel file, the employee concerned shall be given an opportunity to sign the report in question to indicate that its contents have been read.

D10.01 On application by an employee, the Employer shall provide personal references to the prospective Employer of such employee, indicating length of service, principal duties and responsibilities and performance of such duties. Personal references requested by a prospective Employer outside the Agency will not be provided without the written consent of the employee.

D11.01 The Institute and the Employer recognize the right of employees to work in an environment free from sexual harassment and agree that sexual harassment will not be tolerated in the work place.

  • Any level in the grievance procedure shall be waived if a person hearing the grievance is the subject of the complaint.
  • If by reason of D11.02(a) a level in the grievance procedure is waived, no other level shall be waived except by mutual agreement.

D12.01 There shall be no discrimination, interference, restriction, coercion, harassment, intimidation, or any disciplinary action exercised or practised with respect to an employee by reason of age, race, creed, colour, national origin, religious affiliation, sex, sexual orientation, family status, marital status, mental or physical disability, membership or activity in the Institute or conviction for which a pardon has been granted.

  • If by reason of D12.02(a) a level in the grievance procedure is waived, no other level shall be waived except by mutual agreement.

D13.01 The parties agree that, in the event of a dispute arising out of the interpretation of a clause or Article in this Agreement, the parties shall mutually and cooperatively seek to resolve the problem. This Article does not prevent an employee from availing himself/herself of the grievance procedure provided in this Agreement.

D14.01 Strike or Lock-Out

Employees prevented from performing their duties because of a strike or lock-out on the premises of another employer, shall report the matter to the Employer, and the Employer will make reasonable efforts to ensure, so long as work is available, that such employees are appropriately employed elsewhere and that they shall receive the regular pay and benefits to which they would normally be entitled.

D14.02 Interference in the Performance of Duties

If an employee or employees whose normal duties are performed on third party premises are interfered with, or otherwise harassed or coerced such that they are prevented from fully and effectively performing their duties on the industrial employer's premises, the employee or employees shall report the matter in writing to the Employer. The Employer will then consider appropriate measures to investigate and implement corrective action for any substantiated claims of such interference.

Part E – Other terms and conditions

E1.01 Upon written request, an employee shall be entitled to an official, complete and current statement of the duties and responsibilities of his position, including the position's classification level and the point rating allotted by factor and organization chart depicting the position's place in the organization.

E2.01 The Employer shall reimburse an employee for their membership or registration fee paid to a regulatory body governing the practice of Veterinary Medicine. This shall include registration to the Canadian Veterinary Medical Association (CVMA) when the payment of such fees is a requirement for registration to a regulatory governing body or for the continuation of the performance of the duties of their position.

E3.01 Where the Employer determines that due to the nature of the work there is a clear cut need, wash-up time up to a maximum of ten (10) minutes will be permitted before the end of the working day or immediately following and contiguous to the working day.

E3.02 Notwithstanding B3.02, wash-up time permitted pursuant to clause E3.01 and immediately following and contiguous to the working day shall be deemed to qualify for payment of overtime in accordance with clause B3.01.

E4.01 Where it is necessary to make a long distance telephone call directly related to Government business, the Employer shall reimburse the employee for the cost of such call.

Part F – Severance pay

F1.01 Under the following circumstances and subject to clause F1.05, an employee shall receive severance benefits calculated on the basis of their weekly rate of pay:

  • On the first (1st) lay-off, for the first (1st) complete year of continuous employment, two (2) weeks' pay, or three (3) weeks' pay for employees with ten (10) or more but less than twenty (20) years of continuous employment, or four (4) weeks' pay for employees with twenty (20) or more years of continuous employment, plus one (1) week's pay for each additional complete year of continuous employment.
  • On the second (2nd) or subsequent lay-off, one (1) week's pay for each complete year of continuous employment, less any period in respect of which he was granted Severance Pay under Article F1.01(a).

F1.02 Death

If an employee dies, there shall be paid to the employee's estate a severance payment in respect of the employee's complete period of continuous employment, comprised of one (1) week's pay for each complete year of continuous employment and, in the case of a partial year of continuous employment, one (1) week's pay multiplied by the number of days of continuous employment divided by three hundred and sixty-five (365), to a maximum of thirty (30) weeks' pay, regardless of any other benefit payable.

F1.03 Rejection on Probation

On rejection on probation, when an employee has completed more than one (1) year of continuous employment and ceases to be employed by reason of rejection during a probationary period, such employee shall be paid severance pay equal to one (1) week's pay for each complete year of continuous employment with a maximum benefit of twenty-seven (27) weeks.

F1.04 Release for Incapacity or Incompetence

  • When an employee has completed more than one (1) year of continuous employment and ceases to be employed by reason of termination for cause for reasons of incapacity pursuant to the provisions of section 12.(2)(d) of the Financial Administration Act , one (1) week's pay for each complete year of continuous employment with a maximum benefit of twenty-eight (28) weeks.
  • When an employee has completed more than ten (10) years of continuous employment and ceases to be employed by reason of termination for cause for reasons of incompetence pursuant to section 12.(2)(d) of the Financial Administration Act , one (1) week's pay for each complete year of continuous employment with a maximum benefit of twenty-eight (28) weeks.

F1.05 The period of continuous employment used in the calculation of severance benefits payable to an employee under this Article shall be reduced by any period of continuous employment in respect of which the employee was already granted any type of termination benefit by the Public Service, a Federal Crown Corporation, the Canadian Forces or the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Under no circumstances shall the maximum severance pay provided under clauses F1.01 to F1.04 be pyramided.

For greater certainty, payments made pursuant to F1.08 to F1.11 of Appendix E or similar provisions in other collective agreements shall be considered as a termination benefit for the administration of this clause.

F1.06 The weekly rate of pay referred to in the above clauses shall be the weekly rate of pay to which the employee is entitled for the classification prescribed in his certificate of appointment, immediately prior to the termination of his employment.

F1.07 Appointment to another Employer Organization

An employee who resigns to accept an appointment with an organization listed in Schedule I, IV or V of the Financial Administration Act shall be paid any outstanding payment in lieu of severance, if applicable under Appendix E.

F1.08 Employees who were subject to the payment in lieu of severance for the elimination of severance pay for severance termination and who opted to defer their payment, the former provisions outlining the payment in lieu are found at Appendix E.

Part G – Pay and other related matters

G1.01 Except as provided in clauses G1.01 to G1.08 inclusive, and the Notes to Appendix "A" of this Agreement, the terms and conditions governing the application of pay to employees are not affected by this Agreement.

G1.02 An employee is entitled to be paid for services rendered at:

  • the pay specified in Appendix "A" for the classification prescribed in such employee's certificate of appointment, if that classification and the classification of the position to which such employee is appointed do not coincide.

G1.03 The rates of pay set forth in Appendix "A" shall become effective on the date specified therein.

G1.04 Only rates of pay and compensation for overtime and vacation leave credits which have been paid to an employee during the retroactive period will be recomputed and the difference between the amount paid on the old rates of pay and the amount payable on the new rates of pay will be paid to the employee.

G1.05 Pay Administration

When two (2) or more of the following actions occur on the same date, namely appointment, pay increment, pay revision, the employee's rate of pay shall be calculated in the following sequence:

  • the employee shall receive his pay increment;
  • such employee's rate of pay shall be revised;
  • such employee's rate of pay on appointment shall be established in accordance with this Agreement.

G1.06 Rates of Pay

Where the rates of pay set forth in Appendix "A" have an effective date prior to the date of signing of this Agreement, the following shall apply:

  • "retroactive period" for the purpose of sub-clauses (b) to (e) means the period from the effective date of the revision up to and including the day before the collective agreement is signed or when an arbitral award is rendered therefore;
  • a retroactive upward revision in rates of pay shall apply to employees, former employees or in case of death the estates of former employees who were employees in the bargaining unit during the retroactive period;
  • for initial appointments made during the retroactive period, the rate of pay selected in the revised rates of pay is the rate which is shown immediately below the rate of pay being received prior to the revision;
  • for promotions, demotions, transfers or acting situations effective during the retroactive period, the rate of pay shall be calculated, in accordance with the Public Service Terms and Conditions of Employment Policy, using the revised rates of pay. If the recalculated rate of pay is less than the rate of pay the employee was previously receiving, the revised rate of pay shall be the rate, which is nearest to, but not less than the rate of pay being received prior to the revision. However, where the recalculated rate is at a lower step in the range, the new rate shall be the rate of pay shown immediately below the rate of pay being received prior to the revision;
  • no payment or no notification shall be made pursuant to sub-clause (b) for one dollar ($1.00) or less.

G1.07 This Article is subject to the Memorandum of Understanding signed by the Treasury Board and the Professional Institute of the Public Service of Canada dated July 21, 1982 in respect of red-circled employees until such time as the Employer and the Professional Institute of the Public Service of Canada agree to a Canadian Food Inspection Agency approach to red-circling at which time the Treasury Board memorandum of Understanding shall cease to apply.

G1.08 Acting Pay

When an employee is required by the Employer to substantially perform the duties of a higher level classification level on an acting basis for:

  • one (1) working day for level VM-1;
  • five (5) consecutive working days for levels VM-2 to VM-5;

he shall be paid acting pay calculated from the date on which he commenced to act as if he had been appointed to that higher classification level for the period in which he acts.

When a day designated as a paid holiday occurs during the qualifying period, the holiday shall be construed as a day worked for the purpose of the qualifying period.

G1.09 If, during the term of this Agreement a new classification standard for the group is established and implemented by the Employer, the Employer shall, before applying rates of pay to new levels resulting from the application of the standard, negotiate with the Institute the rates of pay and the rules affecting the pay of employees on their movement to the new levels.

*Article G2 - Functional supervisory differential

G2.01 When an employee classified at the VM-01 level is assigned functional supervisory responsibilities on the evening or night shift, during which time there is no VM-02 supervisor on site, that employee will receive a functional supervisory differential for all hours worked, including overtime hours, at the rate of four percent (4%) of his straight time hourly rate of pay.

*Article G3 - Agreement re-opener

G3.01 This agreement may be amended by mutual consent of the parties. If either party wishes to amend or vary this Agreement, it shall give to the other party notice of any amendment proposed and the parties shall meet and discuss such proposal not later than one calendar month after receipt of such notice.

*Article G4 - National joint council agreements

G4.01 Agreements concluded by the National Joint Council (NJC) of the Public Service on items which may be included in a Collective Agreement, and which the parties to this Agreement have endorsed after December 6, 1978 and as amended from time to time will form part of this Collective Agreement, subject to the Federal Public Sector Labour Relations Act (FPSLRA) and any legislation by Parliament that has been or may be, as the case may be, established pursuant to any Act specified in Section 113 of the FPSLRA.

G4.02 The NJC items which may be included in a Collective Agreement are those items which parties to the NJC Agreements have designated as such or upon which the Chairman of the Federal Public Sector Labour Relations and Employment Board has made a ruling pursuant to clause (c) of the NJC Memorandum of Understanding which became effective December 6, 1978 and as amended from time to time.

  • Bilingualism Bonus Directive;
  • Commuting Assistance Directive;
  • First Aid to the General Public – Allowance for Employees;
  • Foreign Service Directives;
  • Isolated Posts and Government Housing Directive;
  • NJC Relocation Directive;
  • Occupational Safety and Health Directive;
  • Public Service Health Care Plan Directive;
  • Travel Directive;
  • Uniform Directive.
  • During the term of this Collective Agreement, other directives may be added to the above list.
  • Grievances in regard to the above directives shall be filed in accordance with clause D6.25 of the grievance procedure in this Collective Agreement.

**Article G5 - Duration

** G5.01 The duration of this Collective Agreement shall be from the date it is signed to the 30th day of September, 2022.

G5.02 Unless otherwise expressly stipulated, the provisions of this Collective Agreement shall become effective on the date it is signed.

Signed at Ottawa, this 23rd day of the month of December, 2020.

Canadian Food Inspection Agency

Sidikka Mithani, Ph.D. Robert Ianiro Dr. Amandeep Bath Dr. Anne Lemay Kelvin Mathuik Barbara Doan Dr. Nancy Rheault Karim Bechane Karen Alexander Rubina Bhangoo Christine Gallinger Michael Jones Brenda Dagenais

The Professional Institute of the Public Service of Canada

Debi Daviau Dr. David Brown Dr. Valérie Coupal Dr. Ayman Soryal Dr. Larry M Spitzke Dr. Witold J Wince Nicholas Pernal

** Appendix A

** vm - veterinary medicine.

Rates of pay will change within 180 days after the signing of the collective agreement. In accordance with Appendix "K", rates prior to the salary change will be paid as lump sum payments:

  • Year 1: Retroactive lump sum payment equal to a 2% economic increase and 0.5% wage adjustment for a compounded total of 2.51%. Changes to the pay rates will not appear on employees' pay statements.
  • Year 2: Retroactive lump sum payment equal to year 1 increases plus a 2% economic increase for a compounded total of 4.56%. Changes to the pay rates will not appear on employees' pay statements.
  • Year 3: Retroactive lump sum payment equal to year 2 increases plus a 1.5% economic increase for a compounded total of 6.129%. These revised rates of pay will be reflected on employees' pay statements upon implementation of prospective salary increases.

Return to table note  1  referrer

Veterinary Medicine Group

** Pay Notes

** Pay Adjustments

(1) An employee shall, on the relevant effective dates of adjustments to rates of pay, be paid in the "A", "B", "C", or "D" scale of rates at the rate immediately below the employee's former rate.

** (2) Effective October 1, 2018, in the "X" scale, prior to moving to the "A" scale, an employee shall move to the rate immediately below their former rate.

** (3) Effective October 1, 2021, in the "Y" scale, prior to moving to the "D" scale, VM-03 employees shall move to the rate immediately below their former rate.

Pay Increments for Full-Time and Part-Time Employees

(4) The pay increment period for all employees is twelve (12) months and a pay increment shall be to the next rate in the scale of rates.

(5) The pay increment date for an employee, appointed after the date of signing of this Agreement, to a position in the bargaining unit upon promotion, demotion or from outside the Public Service shall be the anniversary date of such appointment.

(6) The anniversary date for an employee who was appointed to a position in the bargaining unit prior to such date of signing remains unchanged.

(7) An employee appointed to a term position shall receive an increment after having reached twelve (12) months of cumulative service. For the purposes of defining when a determinate employee will be entitled to go to the next salary increment, "cumulative" means all service, whether continuous or discontinuous, within the Canadian Food Inspection Agency at the same occupational group and level.

** Appendix B

Canadian food inspection agency employment transition.

Veterinary Medicine (VM) Group

Application

This Appendix applies to all indeterminate employees within the VM Group bargaining unit represented by the Professional Institute of the Public Service of Canada for whom the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (hereinafter known as the Agency) is the Employer.

Collective Agreement

This Appendix is deemed to form part of this Collective Agreement between the parties and employees are to be afforded ready access to it.

Notwithstanding the Job Security Article of this Collective Agreement, in the event of conflict between the present Employment Transition Appendix and that Article, the present Employment Transition Appendix will take precedence.

Effective Date

This Appendix is effective on the date of signing.

It is the policy of the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) to maximize employment opportunities for indeterminate employees facing employment transition situations, primarily through ensuring that, wherever possible, alternative employment opportunities are provided to them. This should not be construed as the continuation of a specific position or job but rather as continued employment.

Reasons for the occurrence of employment transition situations include, but are not limited to, expenditure constraints, new legislation, program changes, reorganization, technological change, productivity improvement, elimination or reduction of programs or operations in one or more locations, relocation, and, decentralization. These situations may result in a lack of work or discontinuance of function.

Indeterminate employees whose services will no longer be required because of an employment transition situation and for whom the President knows or can predict employment availability will receive a guarantee of a reasonable job offer within the Agency. Those employees for whom the President cannot provide the guarantee will have access to the transitional employment Options as per Part VI.

Definitions

Accelerated lay-off (mise en disponibilité accélérée) - occurs when a surplus employee makes a request to the President, in writing, to be laid off at an earlier date than that originally scheduled, and the President concurs. Lay-off entitlements begin on the actual date of lay-off.

Affected employee (employé touché) - is an indeterminate employee who has been informed in writing that his or her services may no longer be required because of an employment transition situation.

Agency (Agence) - means the Canadian Food Inspection Agency as defined in Schedule V of the Financial Administration Act , and the several positions in or under the jurisdiction of the Canadian Food Inspection Agency for which the Agency has the sole authority to appoint.

Alternation (échange de postes) - occurs when an opting employee, not a surplus employee, who wishes to remain in the Agency exchanges positions with a non-affected employee (the alternate) willing to leave the Agency with a Transition Support Measure or with an Education Allowance.

Education Allowance (indemnité d'études) - is one (1) of the Options provided to an indeterminate employee affected by a normal employment transition situation for whom the President cannot guarantee a reasonable job offer. The Education Allowance is a lump sum payment, equivalent to the Transition Support Measure (see Annex A), plus a reimbursement of tuition from a recognized learning institution, book and relevant equipment costs, up to a maximum of fifteen thousand dollars ($15,000.00).

Employment Transition (transition en matière d'emploi) - is a situation that occurs when the President decides that the services of one or more indeterminate employees will no longer be required beyond a specified date because of a lack of work or the discontinuance of a function within the Agency. Such situations may arise for reasons including but not limited to those identified in the Policy section above.

Guarantee of a reasonable job offer (garantie d'une offre d'emploi raisonnable) - is a guarantee of an offer of employment within the Agency provided by the President to an indeterminate employee who is affected by an employment transition situation. The President will be expected to provide a guarantee of a reasonable job offer to those affected employees for whom he/she knows or can predict employment availability within the Agency. Surplus employees in receipt of this guarantee will not have access to the Options available in Part VI of this Appendix.

Laid-off person (personne mise en disponibilité) - is a person who has been laid off pursuant to section 13 of the Canadian Food Inspection Agency Act and who still retains a re-appointment priority in accordance with staffing and other related policies of the Canadian Food Inspection Agency.

Lay-off notice (avis de mise en disponibilité) - is a written notice of lay-off to be given to a surplus employee at least one (1) month before the scheduled lay-off date. This notice period is included in the surplus period.

Lay-off priority (priorité de mise en disponibilité) - a person who has been laid off is entitled to a priority for appointment to a position in the Agency for which, in the opinion of the President, he/she is qualified. An appointment of an employee with this priority is excluded from the Agency Staffing Recourse Policy. This priority is accorded for one (1) year following the lay-off date.

Opting employee (employé optant) - is an indeterminate employee whose services will no longer be required as a result of an employment transition situation and who has not received a guarantee of a reasonable job offer from the President and who has one hundred and twenty (120) days to consider the Options of Part 6.4 of this Appendix.

Pay (rémunération) - has the same meaning as "rate of pay" in the employee's Collective Agreement.

President (Président(e)) - has the same meaning as in the definition of "President" set out in section 6 of the Canadian Food Inspection Agency Act , and also means his or her official designate.

Priority administration system (système d'administration des priorités) - is a system designed by the Agency to facilitate appointments of individuals entitled to priority status as a result of the Appendix or other staffing and related policies of the Canadian Food Inspection Agency.

Reasonable job offer (offre d'emploi raisonnable) - is an offer of indeterminate employment within the Agency, normally at an equivalent level but could include lower levels. Surplus employees must be both trainable and mobile. Where practicable, a reasonable job offer shall be within the employee's headquarters as defined in the National Joint Council Travel Directive.

Reinstatement priority (priorité de réintégration) - is an appointment priority accorded to certain individuals salary-protected under this Appendix for the purpose of assisting such persons to re-attain an appointment level equivalent to that from which they were declared surplus. An appointment of an employee with this priority is excluded from the Agency Staffing Recourse Policy.

Relocation (réinstallation) - is the authorized geographic move of a surplus employee or laid-off person from one place of duty to another place of duty, beyond what, according to local custom, is a normal commuting distance.

Relocation of work unit (réinstallation d'une unité de travail) - is the authorized move of a work unit of any size to a place of duty beyond what, according to local custom, is normal commuting distance from the former work location and from the employee's current residence.

Retraining (recyclage) - is on-the-job training or other training intended to enable affected employees, surplus employees and laid-off persons to qualify for known or anticipated vacancies within the Agency.

** Surplus employee (employé excédentaire) - is an indeterminate employee who has been provided a formal written notice declaring them surplus by the President.

Surplus priority (priorité employé excédentaire) - is a priority for an appointment accorded to surplus employees to permit them to be appointed to other positions in the Agency. An appointment of an employee with this priority is excluded from the Agency Staffing Recourse Policy.

Surplus status (statut d'employé excédentaire) - An indeterminate employee is in surplus status from the date he or she is declared surplus until the date of lay-off, until he or she is indeterminately appointed to another position, until his/her surplus status is rescinded, or until the employee resigns.

Transition Support Measure (mesure de soutien à la transition) - is one (1) of three (3) Options provided to an opting employee for whom the President cannot guarantee a reasonable job offer. The Transition Support Measure is a lump sum payment based on the opting employee's years of service as per Annex A. Years of service is the combined years of service in the Public Service including years of service with the Agency.

Twelve-month surplus priority period in which to secure a reasonable job offer (Priorité d'employé excédentaire d'une durée de douze mois pour trouver une offre d'emploi raisonnable) - is one (1) of three (3) Options provided to an opting employee for whom the President cannot guarantee a reasonable job offer.

Enquiries about this Appendix should be referred to the employee's Bargaining Agent, or to the Human Resources Advisor serving the employee's work site. Human Resources Advisors serving the employee's work site may, in turn, direct questions regarding the application of this Appendix to the Collective Bargaining and Labour Relations Directorate of the Human Resources Branch of the Agency.

Enquiries by employees pertaining to entitlements to a priority for appointment or to their status in relation to the priority appointment process should be directed to the Human Resources Advisor serving the employee's work site.

Roles and Responsibilities

1.1.1 Since indeterminate employees who are affected by employment transition situations are not themselves responsible for such situations, it is the responsibility of the Agency to ensure that they are treated equitably and, wherever possible, given every reasonable opportunity to continue their careers as Agency employees.

1.1.2 The Agency shall carry out effective human resource planning to minimize the impact of employment transition situations on indeterminate employees and on the Agency.

1.1.3 The Agency shall:

  • establish joint Union/Management employment transition committees, where appropriate, to advise and consult on employment transition situations within the Agency, and
  • notify PIPSC of the responsible officers who will administer this Appendix.

Terms of reference of such committee shall include a process for addressing alternation requests.

1.1.4 The Agency shall cooperate to the extent possible with other Employers in its efforts to market surplus employees and laid-off persons.

1.1.5 The Agency shall establish systems to facilitate the appointment of the Agency's affected employees, surplus employees, and laid-off persons.

1.1.6 When the President determines that the services of an employee are no longer required beyond a specified date due to an employment transition situation, the President shall provide the employee with a written notification to that effect. Such a communication shall also indicate if the employee:

  • is an opting employee and has access to the Options provided in section 6.4 of this Appendix as the employee is not in receipt of a guarantee of a reasonable job offer from the President.

Where applicable, written communication should also provide information relating to the employee's possible lay-off date.

1.1.7 The President will be expected to provide a guarantee of a reasonable job offer to those employees subject to an employment transition situation for whom they know or can predict employment availability within the Agency.

1.1.8 Where the President cannot provide a guarantee of a reasonable job offer, the President will provide one hundred and twenty (120) days to opting employees to consider the three (3) Options outlined in Part VI of this Appendix before a decision is required of them. If the opting employee fails to select an Option no later than the one hundred and twentieth (120th) day, the employee will be deemed to have selected Option (a); that is, the Twelve-month surplus priority period in which to secure a reasonable job offer.

1.1.9 The President shall make a determination to either provide a guarantee of a reasonable job offer or access to the Options set out in 6.4 of this Appendix, upon request of any indeterminate affected employee who can demonstrate that his or her duties have already ceased to exist.

1.1.10 The Agency shall advise and consult with the Bargaining Agent representatives as completely as possible regarding any employment transition situation as soon as possible after the decision has been made and throughout the process. The Agency will make available to the Bargaining Agent the name and work location of affected employees.

1.1.11 A recommendation will be provided to the President when an employee is not considered suitable for appointment. The Agency shall advise the employee and his/her Bargaining Agent of that recommendation. The Agency shall provide to the employee a copy of the written recommendation provided to the President, indicating the reasons for the recommendation together with any enclosures. The Agency shall also advise the employee that he/she may make oral or written submissions about the matter to the President prior to a decision being taken. Where the President does not accept the recommendation, he/she shall provide the surplus period required under this Appendix, beginning on the date the employee is advised of the decision.

1.1.12 The President shall decide whether employees are suitable for appointment. Where the President decides that an employee is not suitable, he/she shall advise the employee, and his/her representative of the decision as to whether the employee is entitled to a surplus and lay-off priority. The President shall also inform the Bargaining Agent of this decision.

1.1.13 The Agency shall provide an employee with a copy of this Appendix simultaneous with the official notification to an employee to whom this Appendix applies that he or she has become subject to an employment transition situation.

1.1.14 The Agency is responsible for counselling and advising their affected employees on their opportunities of finding continuing employment within the Agency.

1.1.15 The Agency shall apply this Appendix so as to keep actual involuntary lay-offs to a minimum.

1.1.16 Appointment of surplus employees to alternative positions, whether with or without retraining, shall normally be at a level equivalent to that previously held by the employee, but this does not preclude appointment to a lower level. The Agency shall avoid appointment to a lower level except where all other avenues have been exhausted.

1.1.17 The Agency shall appoint as many of their own surplus employees or laid-off persons as possible, or identify alternative positions (both actual and anticipated) for which individuals can be retrained.

1.1.18 Relocation of surplus employees or laid-off persons shall be undertaken to enable their appointment to an alternate position, providing that:

  • there are no available local surplus employees or laid-off persons who are interested and who could qualify with retraining.

1.1.19 The cost of travelling to interviews for possible appointments within the Agency and of relocation to a new location shall be borne by the Agency. Such costs shall be consistent with the NJC Travel and Relocation Directives, as amended from time to time.

1.1.20 For the purposes of the NJC Relocation Directive, surplus employees and laid-off persons who relocate under this Appendix shall be deemed to be employees on Employer-requested relocations. The general rule on minimum distances for relocation applies.

1.1.21 For the purposes of the NJC Travel Directive, laid-off persons travelling to interviews for possible appointment within the Agency are deemed to be "other persons travelling on Agency business".

1.1.22 The Agency shall protect the indeterminate status and surplus priority of a surplus indeterminate employee appointed to a term position under this Appendix.

1.1.23 The Agency shall review the use of private temporary personnel, and their use of contracted out services, employees appointed for a specified period (terms) and all other non-indeterminate employees. Where practicable, the Agency shall not engage or re-engage such temporary personnel nor renew the employment of such employees referred to above where such action would facilitate the appointment of surplus employees or laid-off persons.

1.1.24 Nothing in this Appendix shall restrict the Employer's right to engage or appoint persons to meet short-term, non-recurring requirements.

1.1.25 The President may authorize the accelerated lay-off of an employee at a date earlier than originally scheduled when a surplus employee makes such a request in writing.

1.1.26 The Agency shall provide surplus employees with a lay-off notice at least one (1) month before the proposed lay-off date, if appointment efforts have been unsuccessful. Such notice shall be sent to the President of PIPSC.

1.1.27 When a surplus employee refuses a reasonable job offer, he or she shall be subject to lay-off one (1) month following the refusal, but not before six (6) months after the surplus declaration date.

1.1.28 The Agency will presume that each employee wishes to be appointed to an alternative position unless the employee indicates the contrary in writing.

1.1.29 The Agency shall inform and counsel affected and surplus employees as early and as completely as possible and shall, in addition, assign a counsellor to each opting and surplus employee and laid-off person to work with them throughout the process. Such counselling is to include explanations and assistance concerning such issues as the following:

  • the employment transition situation and its effect on that individual;
  • the employment transition Appendix;
  • the Agency's Priority Administration System and how it works from the employee's perspective (referrals, interviews or boards, feedback to the employee, follow-up by the Agency, how the employee can obtain job information and prepare for an interview, etc.);
  • preparation of a curriculum vitae or resumé;
  • the employee's rights and obligations;
  • the employee's current situation (for example pay, benefits such as severance pay and superannuation, classification, language rights, years of service);
  • alternatives or opportunities that might be available to the employee (the alternation process, appointment, relocation, retraining, lower-level employment, term employment, retirement including possibility of waiver of penalty if entitled to an annual allowance, Transition Support Measure, Education Allowance, pay in lieu of unfulfilled surplus period, resignation, accelerated lay-off);
  • the meaning of a guarantee of reasonable job offer, a Twelve-month surplus priority period in which to secure a reasonable job offer, a Transition Support Measure, and Education Allowance;
  • repeat counselling as long as the individual is entitled to a staffing priority and has not been appointed;
  • the Human Resources Centres and their services (including a recommendation that the employee register with the nearest office as soon as possible);
  • preparation for interviews with prospective Employers;
  • advising the employee that refusal of a reasonable job offer will jeopardize both chances for retraining and overall employment continuity;
  • the options for employees not in receipt of a guarantee of a reasonable job offer, the one hundred and twenty (120) day consideration period that includes access to the alternation process;
  • advising employees of the right to be represented by the Institute in the application of this Appendix.

1.1.30 The Agency shall ensure that, when it is required to facilitate appointment, a retraining plan is prepared and agreed to in writing by the employee and the appropriate manager.

1.1.31 Any surplus employee who resigns under this Appendix shall be deemed, for the purposes of severance pay and retroactive remuneration, to be involuntarily laid off on the day the President accepts the employee's resignation in writing.

1.1.32 Severance pay and other benefits flowing from other clauses in Collective Agreements are separate from, and in addition to, those in this Appendix.

1.1.33 The Agency shall establish and modify staffing policies and procedures to ensure the most effective and efficient means of maximizing the appointment of surplus employees and laid-off persons.

1.1.34 The President shall temporarily restrict or suspend any authority delegated to managers to make appointments in specified occupational groups when the President determines such action is necessary.

1.1.35 The Agency shall actively market surplus employees and laid-off persons to all appropriate managers unless the individuals have advised the President in writing that they are not available for appointment.

1.1.36 The Agency shall determine, to the extent possible, the occupations for which there are skill shortages for which surplus employees or laid-off persons could be retrained.

1.1.37 The Agency shall provide information directly to the Bargaining Agent on the numbers and status of their members who are in the Agency Priority Administration System, through reports to the Professional Institute of the Public Service of Canada.

1.1.38 The Agency shall, wherever possible, ensure that reinstatement priority is given to all employees who are subject to salary protection as a result of action taken pursuant to this Appendix.

  • For the priority period, in cases where an offer of indeterminate employment is provided to a surplus or laid-off employee by a cooperating Employer (paragraph 1.1.4), the payment of salary costs and other authorized costs such as tuition, travel, relocation and retraining for surplus employees and laid-off persons, as provided for in the various collective agreements and directives; all authorized costs of termination; and salary protection upon lower level appointment shall be regulated by the relevant cooperating Employer agreement in effect between the Agency and a cooperating Employer.
  • The relevant agreement establishing the cooperating Employer relationship between the Agency and a cooperating Employer will apply to the payment of the costs listed in 1.1.39(a) in situations where a surplus employee is appointed by a cooperating Employer to a term position and the cooperating Employer will become the official Employer no later than one (1) year from the date of such an appointment.

1.1.40 The Agency is responsible for making the appropriate referrals and may recommend retraining where it would facilitate appointment.

1.1.41 The Agency shall inform, in a routine and timely manner, a surplus employee or laid-off person, and a representative of his or her Bargaining Agent, when he or she has been referred for consideration but will not be offered the position. The Agency shall include full details of why he or she will not be appointed to or retrained for that position.

1.2 Employees

1.2.1 Employees have the right to be represented by their Bargaining Agent in the application of this Appendix.

1.2.2 Employees who are directly affected by employment transition situations and who receive a guarantee of a reasonable job offer, or who opt, or are deemed to have opted, for Option (a) of Part VI of this Appendix are responsible for:

  • actively seeking alternative employment in co-operation with the Agency, unless they have advised the Agency, in writing, that they are not available for appointment either at all or subject to limitations detailed in the employee's response;
  • seeking information regarding their entitlements and obligations;
  • providing accurate and current information to the Agency, in a timely fashion, to assist in appointment activities (including curriculum vitae or resumés);
  • ensuring that they can be easily contacted by the Agency;
  • ensuring they attend appointments related to referrals;
  • seriously considering employment opportunities within the Agency presented to them including but not limited to retraining and relocation possibilities, specified period appointments and lower-level appointments.

1.2.3 Opting employees are responsible for:

  • considering the Options outlined in Part VI of this Appendix;
  • submitting the alternation request to management before the close of the one hundred and twenty (120) day period, if arranging an alternation with an unaffected employee.

Official Notification

2.1 In any employment transition situation which is likely to involve ten (10) or more indeterminate employees covered by this Appendix, the President shall inform, in writing and in confidence, the President of the Professional Institute of the Public Service of Canada or their delegate not less than four (4) working days before any employment transition situation is announced. This information is to include the identity and location of the work unit(s) involved; the expected date of the announcement; the anticipated timing of the situation; and the numbers of employees, by group and level, who will be affected.

Relocation of work unit

3.1 General

3.1.1 In cases where a work unit is to be relocated, the Agency shall provide all employees whose positions are to be relocated with the opportunity to choose whether they wish to move with the position or be treated as if they were subject to an employment transition situation.

3.1.2 Following written notification, employees must indicate, within a period of three (3) months, their intention to move. If the employee's intention is not to move with the relocated position, the President can either provide the employee with a guarantee of a reasonable job offer or access to the Options set out in section 6.4 of this Appendix.

3.1.3 Employees relocating with their work units shall be treated in accordance with the provisions of 1.1.18 to 1.1.20.

3.1.4 Although the Agency will endeavour to respect employee location preferences, nothing precludes the Agency from offering the relocated position to employees in receipt of a guarantee of a reasonable job offer, after having spent as much time as operations permit looking for a reasonable job offer in the employee's location preference area.

3.1.5 Employees who are not in receipt of a guarantee of a reasonable job offer shall become opting employees and have access to the Options set out in Part VI of this Appendix.

4.1 General

4.1.1 To facilitate the appointment of affected employees, surplus employees and laid-off persons, the Agency shall make every reasonable effort to retrain such persons for:

  • anticipated vacancies identified by management.

4.1.2 The Agency shall be responsible for identifying situations where retraining can facilitate the appointment of surplus employees and laid-off persons; however, this does not preclude the employee's obligation to assist in their own marketing and the identification of employment options including but not limited to retraining possibilities.

4.1.3 Subject to the provisions of 4.1.2, the President shall approve up to two (2) years of retraining.

4.2 Surplus employees

4.2.1 A surplus employee is eligible for retraining providing:

  • there are no other available priority persons who qualify for the position.

4.2.2 The Agency is responsible for ensuring that an appropriate retraining plan is prepared and is agreed to in writing by the employee and the appropriate manager.

4.2.3 Once a retraining plan has been initiated, its continuation and completion are subject to the ongoing successful performance by the employee at a learning institution or ongoing satisfactory performance if the training is "on-the-job".

4.2.4 While on retraining, a surplus employee continues to be employed by the Agency and is entitled to be paid in accordance with his or her current appointment.

4.2.5 When a retraining plan has been approved, the proposed lay-off date shall be extended to the end of the retraining period, subject to 4.2.3.

4.2.6 An employee, unsuccessful in retraining, may be laid off at the end of the surplus period, provided that the Employer has been unsuccessful in making the employee a reasonable job offer.

4.3 Laid-off persons

4.3.1 Subject to the President's approval, a laid-off person shall be offered retraining, providing:

  • retraining is needed to facilitate the appointment of the individual to a specific vacant position;
  • the individual meets the minimum requirements for appointment to the group concerned;
  • the Agency cannot justify a decision not to retrain the individual.

4.3.2 When an individual is made an offer conditional on the successful completion of retraining, a retraining plan reviewed by the President shall be included in the letter of conditional offer. If the individual accepts the conditional offer, upon successful completion of retraining, he or she will be appointed on an indeterminate basis to that position. When an individual accepts an appointment to a position with a lower maximum rate of pay than the position from which he or she was laid-off, the employee will be salary protected in accordance with Part V.

Salary Protection

5.1 Lower-level position

5.1.1 Surplus employees and laid-off persons appointed to a lower-level position under this Appendix shall have their salary and pay equity equalization payments, if any, protected in accordance with the salary protection provisions of this Collective Agreement, or, in the absence of such provisions, the appropriate provisions of the Agency's Policy respecting Pay on Reclassification or Conversion.

5.1.2 Employees whose salary is protected pursuant to section 5.1.1 will continue to benefit from salary protection until such time as they are appointed into a position with a maximum rate of pay that is equal to or higher than the maximum rate of pay of the position from which they were declared surplus or laid-off.

Options for employees

6.1 General

6.1.1 The President will be expected to provide a guarantee of a reasonable job offer to those affected employees for whom they know or can predict employment availability. Employees in receipt of this guarantee would not have access to the choice of Options below.

6.1.2 Employees who are not in receipt of a guarantee of a reasonable job offer from the President have one hundred and twenty (120) days from the date they receive written notice that they are an opting employee to consider and decide among the three (3) Options below, and The employee may also participate in the alternation process in accordance with section 6.3 of this Appendix within the one hundred and twenty (120) day window before a decision is required of them in 6.1.3.

6.1.3 The opting employee must choose, in writing, one (1) of the three (3) Options of section 6.4 of this Appendix within the one hundred and twenty (120) day opting period. The employee cannot change Options once having made a written choice. The Agency shall send a copy of the employee's choice to the President of PIPSC.

6.1.4 If the employee fails to select an Option within the one hundred and twenty (120) day window as specified in paragraph 6.1.2, the employee will be deemed to have selected Option (a), the Twelve-month surplus priority period in which to secure a reasonable job offer.

6.1.5 If a reasonable job offer which does not require a relocation is made at any time during the one hundred and twenty (120) day opting period and prior to the written acceptance of either the Twelve-Month Surplus Priority Period, the Transition Support Measure (TSM) or the Education Allowance Option, the employee becomes ineligible for the TSM, the pay in lieu of unfulfilled surplus period or the Education Allowance.

6.1.6 A copy of any letter issued by the Employer under this part or notice of lay-off pursuant to the Canadian Food Inspection Agency Act shall be sent forthwith to the President of PIPSC.

** 6.2 Voluntary Programs

** The Voluntary Departure Program supports employees in leaving the public service when placed in affected status prior to entering an Assessment and Selection of Employees for Retention process, and does not apply if the President can provide a guarantee of a reasonable job offer (GRJO) to affected employees in the work unit.

** 6.2.1 The Agency shall establish internal voluntary departure programs for all employment transition situations in which the workforce will be reduced and that involves five (5) or more affected employees working at the same group and level within the same work unit and where the President cannot provide a guarantee of a reasonable job offer.

6.2.2 When such voluntary programs are established, employees who volunteer and who are selected for employment transition will be made opting employees.

6.2.3 When the number of volunteers is larger than the required number of positions to be eliminated, volunteers will be selected based on seniority (total years of service in the Public Service, whether continuous or discontinuous).

6.3 Alternation

6.3.1 The Agency will participate in an alternation process.

6.3.2 An alternation occurs when an opting employee who wishes to remain in the Agency exchanges positions with a non-affected employee (the alternate) willing to leave the Agency under the terms of paragraph 6.4.1 (b) or (c) in Part VI of this Appendix.

  • Only opting and surplus employees who are surplus as a result of having chosen Option (a) may alternate into an indeterminate position that remains in the Agency.
  • If an alternation is proposed for a surplus employee, as opposed to an opting employee, the Transition Support Measure that is available to the alternate under 6.4.1 (b) or 6.4.1 (c) (i) shall be reduced by one (1) week for each completed week between the beginning of the employee's surplus priority period and the date the alternation is proposed.

6.3.4 An indeterminate employee wishing to leave the Agency may express an interest in alternating with an opting employee. Management will decide, however, whether a proposed alternation will result in retaining the skills required to meet the ongoing needs of the position and the Agency.

6.3.5 An alternation must permanently eliminate a function or a position.

6.3.6 The opting employee moving into the unaffected position must be, to the degree determined by the Employer, able to meet the requirements of the position, including language requirements. The alternate moving into the opting position must meet the requirements of the position, except if the alternate will not be performing the duties of the position and the alternate will be struck off strength within five (5) days of the alternation.

6.3.7 An alternation should normally occur between employees at the same group and level. When the two positions are not the same group and level, alternation can still occur when the positions can be considered equivalent. They are considered equivalent when the maximum rate of pay for the higher paid position is no more than six percent (6%) higher than the maximum rate of pay for the lower paid position.

6.3.8 An alternation must occur on a given date. The two employees involved directly exchange positions on that given date. There is no provision in alternation for a "domino" effect or for "future considerations".

For clarity, the alternation of positions shall take place on a given date after approval but may take place after the opting one hundred and twenty (120) day period, such as when the processing of the approved alternation is delayed due to administrative requirements.

6.4 Options

6.4.1 Only opting employees will have access to the choice of Options below:

  • Twelve-month surplus priority period in which to secure a reasonable job offer is time-limited. Should a reasonable job offer not be made within a period of twelve (12) months, the employee will be laid off. Employees who choose or are deemed to have chosen this Option are surplus employees.
  • At the request of the employee, this twelve (12) month surplus priority period shall be extended by the unused portion of the one hundred and twenty (120) day opting period referred to in 6.1.2 which remains once the employee has selected in writing Option (a).
  • When a surplus employee who has chosen, or is deemed to have chosen, Option (a) offers to resign before the end of the twelve-month surplus priority period, the President may authorize a lump-sum payment equal to the surplus employee's regular pay for the balance of the surplus period, up to a maximum of six (6) months. The amount of the lump sum payment for the pay in lieu cannot exceed the maximum of that which he or she would have received had they chosen Option (b) - The Transition Support Measure.
  • delay their departure date and go on leave without pay for a maximum period of two (2) years, while attending the learning institution. The TSM shall be paid in one (1) or two (2) lump-sum amounts over a maximum two (2)year period. During this period, employees could continue to be Public Service benefit plan members and contribute both Employer and employee shares to the benefits plans and the Public Service Superannuation Plan. At the end of the two (2) year leave without pay period, unless the employee has found alternate employment in the Agency, the employee will be laid off.

6.4.2 Management will establish the departure date of opting employees who choose Option (b) or Option (c) above.

6.4.3 The TSM, pay in lieu of unfulfilled surplus period and the Education Allowance cannot be combined with any other payment under the Employment Transition Appendix.

6.4.4 In the cases of pay in lieu of unfulfilled surplus period, Option (b) or Option (c)(i), the employee relinquishes any priority rights for appointment upon acceptance of his or her resignation.

6.4.5 Employees choosing Option (c)(ii) who have not provided the Agency with a proof of registration from a learning institution twelve (12) months after starting their leave without pay period will be deemed to have resigned from the Agency, and be considered to be laid off for purposes of severance pay.

6.4.6 Opting employees who choose Option (b) or Option (c) above will be entitled to up to one thousand dollars ( $1,000.00) for receipted expenses incurred in obtaining financial planning advice.

6.4.7 An opting employee who has received pay in lieu of unfulfilled surplus period, a TSM or an Education Allowance and is re-appointed to that portion of the Public Service of Canada specified from time to time in Schedule I, IV or V of the Financial Administration Act shall reimburse the Receiver General for Canada by an amount corresponding to the period from the effective date of such re-appointment or hiring, to the end of the original period for which the TSM or Education Allowance was paid.

6.4.8 The President shall ensure that pay in lieu of unfulfilled surplus period is only authorized where the employee's work can be discontinued on the resignation date and no additional costs will be incurred in having the work done in any other way during the unfulfilled surplus period.

6.4.9 If a surplus employee who has chosen, or is deemed to have chosen, Option (a) refuses a reasonable job offer at any time during the twelve-month surplus priority period, the employee is ineligible for pay in lieu of unfulfilled surplus period.

6.4.10 Approval of pay in lieu of unfulfilled surplus period is at the discretion of management, but shall not be unreasonably denied.

6.5 Retention payment

6.5.1 There are two (2) situations in which an employee may be eligible to receive a retention payment. These are total facility closures and relocation of work units.

6.5.2 All employees accepting retention payments must agree to leave the Agency without priority rights.

6.5.3 An individual who has received a retention payment and, as applicable, is either re-appointed to that portion of the Public Service of Canada specified from time to time in Schedules I, IV and V of the Financial Administration Act , or is hired by the new Employer within the six (6) months immediately following his or her resignation, shall reimburse the Receiver General for Canada by an amount corresponding to the period from the effective date of such re-appointment or hiring, to the end of the original period for which the lump sum was paid.

6.5.4 The provisions of 6.5.5 shall apply in total facility closures where Agency jobs are to cease, and:

  • prospects of reasonable alternative local employment (whether within or outside the Agency) are poor.

6.5.5 Subject to 6.5.4, the President shall pay to each employee who is asked to remain until closure of the work unit and offers a resignation from the Agency to take effect on that closure date, a sum equivalent to six (6) months' pay payable upon the day on which the Agency operation ceases, provided the employee has not separated prematurely.

6.5.6 The provisions of 6.5.7 shall apply in relocation of work units where Agency work units:

  • where the employee has opted not to relocate with the function.

6.5.7 Subject to 6.5.6, the President shall pay to each employee who is asked to remain until the relocation of the work unit and offers a resignation from the Agency to take effect on the relocation date, a sum equivalent to six (6) months' pay payable upon the day on which the Agency operation relocates, provided the employee has not separated prematurely.

For indeterminate seasonal and part-time employees, the TSM will be pro-rated in the same manner as severance pay under the terms of the Collective Agreement.

Severance pay provisions of the Collective Agreements are in addition to the TSM.

Appendix D - Memorandum of understanding Red-circling

(a) general.

  • This Memorandum of Understanding sets out conditions of employment respecting pay upon reclassification for all employees whose Bargaining Agent is the Professional Institute of the Public Service of Canada.
  • This Memorandum of Understanding shall remain in effect until amended or cancelled by mutual consent of the parties.
  • This Memorandum of Understanding supersedes the Regulations respecting Pay on Reclassification or Conversion where the Regulations are inconsistent with the Memorandum of Understanding.
  • Where the provisions of any Collective Agreement differ from those set out in the Memorandum of Understanding, the conditions set out in the Memorandum of Understanding shall prevail.
  • This Memorandum of Understanding will form part of all Collective Agreements to which the Professional Institute of the Public Service of Canada and Treasury Board are parties, with effect from December 13, 1981.

Part I of this Memorandum of Understanding shall apply to the incumbents of positions which will be reclassified to a group and/or level having a lower attainable maximum rate of pay after the date this Memorandum of Understanding becomes effective. Note: The term "attainable maximum rate of pay" means the rate attainable for fully satisfactory performance in the case of levels covered by a performance pay plan or the maximum salary rate in the case of all other groups and levels.

  • Prior to a position being reclassified to a group and/or level having a lower attainable maximum rate of pay, the incumbent shall be notified in writing.
  • Downward reclassification notwithstanding, an encumbered position shall be deemed to have retained for all purposes the former group and level. In respect to the pay of the incumbent, this may be cited as Salary Protection Status and subject to Section 3(b) below shall apply until the position is vacated or the attainable maximum of the reclassified level, as revised from time to time, becomes greater than that applicable, as revised from time to time, to the former classification level. Determination of the attainable maxima rates of pay shall be in accordance with the Retroactive Remuneration Regulations.
  • The Employer will make a reasonable effort to transfer the incumbent to a position having a level equivalent to that of the former group and/or level of the position.
  • In the event that an incumbent declines an offer of transfer to a position as in (a) above in the same geographic area, without good and sufficient reason, that incumbent shall be immediately paid at the rate of pay for the reclassified position.
  • Employees subject to Section 3, will be considered to have transferred (as defined in the Directive on Terms and Conditions of Employment) for the purpose of determining increment dates and rates of pay.

Part II of this Memorandum of Understanding shall apply to incumbents of positions who are in holding rates of pay on the date this Memorandum of Understanding becomes effective.

  • An employee whose position has been downgraded prior to the implementation of this memorandum and is being paid at a holding rate of pay on the effective date of an economic increase and continues to be paid at that rate on the date immediately prior to the effective date of a further economic increase, shall receive a lump sum payment equal to one hundred percent (100%)of the economic increase for the employee's former group and level (or where a performance pay plan applied to the incumbent, the adjustment to the attainable maximum rate of pay) calculated on his annual rate of pay.
  • An employee who is paid at a holding rate on the effective date of an economic increase, but who is removed from that holding rate prior to the effective date of a further economic increase by an amount less than he would have received by the application of paragraph 1 of Part II, shall receive a lump sum payment equal to the difference between the amount equal to the difference between the amount calculated by the application of paragraph 1 of Part II and any increase in pay resulting from his removal from the holding rate.

This Appendix is to reflect the language agreed to by the Employer and the Professional Institute of the Public Service of Canada for the elimination of severance pay for voluntary separations (resignation and retirement) on September 20, 2014. These historical provisions are being reproduced to reflect agreed language in case of deferred payment.

Part F – Severance Pay

Article f1 severance pay.

For greater certainty, payments made pursuant to F1.08 to F1.11 or similar provisions in other collective agreements shall be considered as a termination benefit for the administration of this clause.

An employee who resigns to accept an appointment with an organization listed in Schedule I, IV or V of the Financial Administration Act shall be paid all severance payments resulting from the application of F1.08 to F1.11.

F1.08 Severance Termination

  • Subject to F1.05 above, indeterminate employees on (one month from the date of signing of the agreement) shall be entitled to a severance payment equal to one (1) week's pay for each complete year of continuous employment and, in the case of a partial year of continuous employment, one (1) week's pay multiplied by the number of days of continuous employment divided by three hundred and sixty-five (365), to a maximum of thirty (30) weeks.
  • Subject to F1.05 above, term employees on (one month from the date of signing of the agreement) shall be entitled to a severance payment equal to one (1) week's pay for each complete year of continuous employment, to a maximum of thirty (30) weeks.

Terms of Payment

F1.09 Options

The amount to which an employee is entitled shall be paid, at the employee's discretion, either:

  • as a single payment at the rate of pay of the employee's substantive position as of (one month from date of signing of the agreement), or
  • as a single payment at the time of the employee's termination of employment from the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, based on the rate of pay of the employee's substantive position at the date of termination of employment from the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, or
  • as a combination of (a) and (b), pursuant to F1.10(c).

F1.10 Selection of Option

  • The Employer will advise the employee of his years of continuous employment no later than three (3) months following the date of signing of the Collective Agreement.
  • The employee shall advise the Employer of the term of payment option selected within six (6) months from the date of signing of the Collective Agreement.
  • The employee who opts for the option described in F1.09(c) must specify the number of complete weeks to be paid out pursuant to F1.09(a) and the remainder to be paid out pursuant to F1.09(b).
  • An employee who does not make a selection under F1.10(b) will be deemed to have chosen option F1.09(b).

F1.11 Appointment from a Different Bargaining Unit

This clause applies in a situation where an employee is appointed into a position in the VM bargaining unit from a position outside the VM bargaining unit where, at the date of appointment, provisions for severance pay entitlement for reasons of resignation or retirement are still in force, unless the appointment is only on an acting basis.

  • Subject to F1.05 above, on the date an indeterminate employee becomes subject to this Agreement after (one month from date of signing of agreement), he shall be entitled to a severance payment equal to one (1) week's pay for each complete year of continuous employment and, in the case of a partial year of continuous employment, one (1) week's pay multiplied by the number of days of continuous employment divided by three hundred and sixty-five (365), to a maximum of thirty (30) weeks, based on the employee's rate of pay of his substantive position on the day preceding the appointment.
  • Subject to F1.05 above, on the date a term employee becomes subject to this Agreement after (one month from the date of signing of agreement), he shall be entitled to a severance payment equal to one (1) week's pay for each complete year of continuous employment to a maximum of thirty (30) weeks, based on the employee's rate of pay of his substantive position on the day preceding the appointment.
  • An employee entitled to a severance payment under sub-paragraph (a) or (b) shall have the same choice of options outlined in F1.09, however the selection of which option must be made within three (3) months of being appointed to the bargaining unit.
  • An employee under this Article who does not make a selection of options under F1.09 will be deemed to have chosen option F1.09(b).

Appendix F - Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) and The Professional Institute of the Public Service of Canada (PIPSC) with respect to Scientific Integrity

The purpose of this MOA is to establish a framework for the joint development of a Scientific Integrity policy and guidelines between PIPSC and the CFIA

The parties to this Agreement recognize that scientific integrity constitutes an integral part of the Agency's and employee's work. Ensuring and enhancing scientific integrity is vital to the decision making process in the public administration and is the responsibility of all employees. It enables decision makers to draw upon high quality, wide-ranging and robust scientific and social scientific evidence for informed decision making. Scientific integrity involves the application of concepts of transparency, openness, high quality work, avoidance of conflict of interest and ensuring high standards of impartiality and research ethics. In this context, the parties recognize the need to promote a culture of scientific integrity within government science and research.

The Government of Canada firmly believes that government science should be publicly available and is an important part of an evidence-based decision-making process.

The Directive on the Management of Communications stipulates that spokespersons and subject matter experts may speak publicly about their own area of expertise and research, while respecting the Values and Ethics Code for the Public Sector. Along with other Deputy Heads, the CFIA's President has been asked to provide their ongoing attention to the implementation of the policy requirements within the CFIA that allow government scientists to speak publicly about their work. As part of the implementation, the President of CFIA should communicate directly with the employees of the Agency to ensure they are aware of the communications policy and how it applies to them.

The parties recognize the importance of balancing the requirements of scientific integrity and those of the Values and Ethics Code for the Public Sector as adopted April 2, 2012.

The principles and guidelines of scientific integrity include the release of scientific information and data to the public in a timely manner and in keeping with the Government of Canada's Directive on Open Government ; the attribution and acknowledgement of the contributions of Government of Canada science/scientists; where appropriate, acknowledgement in official publications or communications where a significant (meaningful) contribution to programs, policy or regulations has been made, including the names and roles of those who made significant contributions to the research.

Further, principles and guidelines on scientific integrity ensure that science is of high quality, free from political, commercial, and client interference; and ensure the education of employees of the Agency on the role of science in evidence-based decision making. The Government of Canada recognizes the importance of professional development, and the employee's role in the development of government policy or advice.

Implementation and Governance:

The CFIA shall be required to develop its own Scientific Integrity Policy and Procedures in consultation with PIPSC Representatives. Such policy shall address the principles/guidelines outlined above, including the right to speak publicly as identified in the Collective Agreement. This shall be completed within eighteen (18) months of the signing of this MOA. The parties note that departments in the core public administration, in consultation with PIPSC, will endeavour to create a common policy that can be used as a model by the CFIA when developing their own Scientific Integrity Policy.

The CFIA shall report annually at the National Union-Management Consultation Committee (NUMCC) on the progress toward implementing this MOA and a CFIA policy. In addition, the Secretary of the Treasury Board, the Chief Science Advisor, once appointed and the President of PIPSC, will meet annually to take stock of progress and decide on course correction.

The Parties agree that the deadlines in this MOU can only be extended by mutual agreement in writing.

** Appendix G - Memorandum of understanding between the Canadian Food Inspection Agency and the Professional Institute of the Public Service of Canada with respect to supporting employee wellness

The parties recognize that this agreement is conditional upon the conclusion of a renewed Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) on Supporting Employee Wellness between Treasury Board and the Professional Institute of the Public Service of Canada.

Upon signature of a revised MOA, the parties agree to take the necessary steps to implement applicable changes that will result once an agreement is reached on the Employee Wellness Support Program (EWSP).

The parties agree to continue the current practice of working collaboratively to address concerns with respect to employee wellness and the reintegration of employees into the workforce after periods of leave due to illness or injury.

** Appendix H - Memorandum of understanding between the Canadian Food Inspection Agency and the Professional Institute of the Public Service of Canada with respect to leave for union business - cost recovery

This Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) is to give effect to an agreement reached between the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (the Employer) and the Professional Institute of the Public Service of Canada (the Institute) to implement a system of cost recovery for leave for union business.

The parties agree to this MOU as a direct result of current Phoenix pay system implementation concerns related to the administration of leave without pay for union business. 

Leave granted to an employee under clauses C18.02, C18.10, C18.11, C18.13, and C18.14 of the collective agreement will be with pay for a total cumulative maximum period of three (3) months per fiscal year.

Its agreed that leave with pay granted under the above-noted clauses for union business will be paid for by the Employer, pursuant to this MOU, effective upon its signature.

The Institute shall then reimburse the Employer for the total salary paid, including allowances if applicable, for each person-day, in addition to which shall also be paid to the Employer by the Institute an amount equal to six percent (6%) of the total salary paid for each person-day, which sum represents the Employer's contribution for the benefits the employee acquired at work during the period of approved leave with pay pursuant to this MOU.

Leave with pay in excess of the total cumulative maximum period of three (3) months per fiscal year may be granted under the above noted clauses in reasonably limited circumstances. Where leave with pay is extended under such circumstances, the Institute shall reimburse the Employer for the total salary paid, including applicable allowances, for each person-day, plus an amount equal to thirteen decimal three percent (13.3%) of the total salary paid for the period exceeding three (3) months. 

Under no circumstances will leave with pay under the above noted clause be granted for any single consecutive period exceeding three (3) months, or for cumulative periods exceeding six (6) months in a twelve (12) month period.

This MOU does not alter the approval threshold for union leave. Should an employee be denied extended leave with pay exceeding three (3) cumulative months or a single consecutive three (3) month period within a fiscal year and the employee's union leave is otherwise approved pursuant to the relevant clauses at article C18, they shall take the leave as leave without pay.

On a bi-monthly basis, and within 120 days of the end of the relevant period of leave, the Agency will invoice the Institute for the amount owed to them by virtue of this understanding. The amount of the gross salaries and the number of days of leave taken for each employee will be included in the statement.

The Institute agrees to reimburse the Agency for the invoice within sixty (60) days of the date of the invoice.

This Memorandum of Understanding expires on September 30, 2022 or upon implementation of the Next Generation HR and Pay system, whichever comes first, unless otherwise agreed by the parties.

** Appendix I - Memorandum of understanding between the Canadian Food Inspection Agency and the Professional Institute of the Public Service of Canada with respect to workplace harassment

This memorandum is to give effect to the agreement reached between the Canadian Food Inspection Agency and the Professional Institute of the Public Service of Canada (the Institute).

The parties acknowledge the collaborative work and meaningful consultation between the Employer and the Institute at a national level and recognize that efforts to prevent and resolve harassment must be sustained and on-going.

Both parties share the objective of creating healthy work environments that are free from harassment and violence. In the context of the passage of Bill C-65 An Act to amend the Canada Labour Code by the Government of Canada, as well as the Clerk of the Privy Council's initiative to take action to eliminate workplace harassment, the Employer is developing a new policy covering both harassment and violence situations.

During this process, the Employer will continue to consult with the Institute through the National Occupational Safety and Health Policy Committee (NOSH PC) on the final development of the policy which will include the following:

  • mechanisms to guide and support employees through the harassment resolution process;
  • redress for the detrimental impacts on an employee resulting from an incident of harassment; and
  • ensuring that employees can report harassment without fear of reprisal.

The implementation and application of this policy do not fall within the purview of this MOU or the collective agreement.

This memorandum expires upon issuance of the new policy or September 30, 2022, whichever comes first.

** Appendix J - Memorandum of understanding between the Canadian Food Inspection Agency and the Professional Institute of the Public Service of Canada with respect to gender inclusive language

This memorandum is to give effect to the agreement reached between the Canadian Food Inspection Agency and the Professional Institute of the Public Service of Canada regarding the review of language in the VM, IN, and S&A collective agreements.

Both parties are committed to and support gender neutrality and inclusivity. To that end, the parties commit to, during the life of the above noted collective agreements, establishing a Joint Committee to review the collective agreements to identify opportunities to render the language more gender inclusive. The parties agree that any changes in language will not result in changes in application, scope or value.

Both parties acknowledge that gender inclusivity is more difficult to achieve in the French language compared to the English language, but are committed nonetheless to further supporting and increasing gender neutrality and inclusivity in the collective agreement.

The Joint Committee agrees to begin its work in 2020 and will endeavour to finalize the review by December 2021. These timelines may be extended by mutual agreement. The parties further agree that the Joint Committee will use the work completed by the Treasury Board of Canada and the Professional Institute of the Public Service of Canada on gender inclusive language, once completed, as a starting point for its review.

** Appendix K - Memorandum of understanding between the Canadian Food Inspection Agency and the Professional Institute of the Public Service of Canada with respect to implementation of the Collective Agreement

Notwithstanding the provisions of clause G1.06 on the calculation of retroactive payments, this memorandum is to give effect to the understanding reached between the Employer and the Professional Institute of the Public Service of Canada regarding a modified approach to the calculation and administration of retroactive payments for the current round of negotiations.

  • Retroactive calculations that determine amounts payable to employees for a retroactive period shall be made based on all transactions that have been entered into the pay system up to the date on which the historical salary records for the retroactive period are retrieved for the calculation of the retroactive payment.
  • Retroactive amounts will be calculated by applying the relevant percentage increases indicated in the collective agreement rather than based on pay tables in agreement annexes. The value of the retroactive payment will differ from that calculated using the traditional approach, as no rounding will be applied. The payment of retroactive amount will not affect pension entitlements or contributions relative to previous methods, except in respect of the rounding differences.
  • Substantive salary
  • Deployments
  • Extra duty pay/Overtime
  • Additional hours worked
  • Maternity leave allowance
  • Parental leave allowance
  • Vacation leave and extra duty pay cash-out
  • Severance pay
  • Salary for the month of death
  • Transition Support Measure
  • Eligible allowances and supplemental salary depending on collective agreement
  • The payment of retroactive amounts related to transactions that have not been entered in the pay system as of the date when the historical salary records are retrieved, such as acting pay, promotions, overtime and/or deployments, will not be considered in determining whether an agreement has been implemented.
  • Any outstanding pay transactions will be processed once they are entered into the pay system and any retroactive payment from the collective agreement will be issued to impacted employees.
  • All components of the agreement unrelated to pay administration will come into force on signature of agreement.
  • Changes to existing compensation elements and new compensation elements such as premiums, allowances, insurance premiums and coverage and changes to overtime rates will become effective within one-hundred and eighty (180) days after signature of agreement, on the date at which prospective elements of compensation increases will be implemented under 2(b)(i).
  • Payment of premiums, allowances, insurance premiums and coverage and overtime rates in the collective agreement will continue to be paid until changes come into force as stipulated in 2(a)(ii).
  • The prospective elements of compensation increases (such as prospective salary rate changes and other compensation elements such as premiums, allowances, changes to overtime rates) will be implemented within one-hundred and eighty (180) days after signature of agreement where there is no need for manual intervention.
  • Retroactive amounts payable to employees will be implemented within one-hundred and eighty (180) days after signature of the agreement where there is no need for manual intervention.
  • Prospective compensation increases and retroactive amounts that require manual processing by compensation advisors will be implemented within five-hundred and sixty (560) days after signature of agreement. Manual intervention is generally required for employees on an extended period of leave without pay (for example, maternity/parental leave), salary protected employees and those with transactions such as leave with income averaging, pre-retirement transition leave and employees paid below minimum, above maximum or in between steps. Manual intervention may also be required for specific accounts with complex salary history.
  • An employee who is in the bargaining unit for all or part of the period between the first day of the collective agreement (for example the day after the expiry of the previous collective agreement) and the signature date of the collective agreement will be entitled to a non-pensionable amount of five hundred dollars ($500) payable within one-hundred and eighty (180) days of signature, in recognition of extended implementation timeframes and the significant number of transactions that have not been entered in the pay system as of the date when the historical salary records are retrieved.
  • Employees in the bargaining unit for whom the collective agreement is not implemented within one-hundred and eighty one (181) days after signature will be entitled to a fifty dollar ($50) non-pensionable amount; these employees will be entitled to an additional fifty dollar ($50) non-pensionable amount for every subsequent complete period of ninety (90) days their collective agreement is not implemented. These amounts will be included in their final retroactive payment.
  • If an employee is eligible for compensation in respect of section 3 under more than one collective agreement, the following applies: the employee shall receive only one non-pensionable amount of four hundred dollars ($400); for any period under 3(b), the employee may receive one fifty dollar ($50) payment.
  • Should the Treasury Board of Canada negotiate higher amounts for 3(a) or 3(b) with any other bargaining agent representing Core Public Administration employees, CFIA will compensate PIPSC members for the difference in an administratively feasible manner.
  • Employees for whom collective agreement implementation requires manual intervention will be notified of the delay within one-hundred and eighty (180) days after signature of the agreement.
  • Employees will be provided a detailed breakdown of the retroactive payments received and may request that the departmental compensation unit or the Public Service Pay Centre verify the calculation of their retroactive payments, where they believe these amounts are incorrect. The Employer will consult with the Institute regarding the format of the detailed breakdown.
  • In such a circumstance, for employees in organizations serviced by the Pay Centre, they must first complete a Phoenix feedback form indicating what period they believe is missing from their pay.

IMAGES

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  3. Know the Numbers of Pages vs. Research in PhD

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  4. Guide For 15000 Words Dissertation Structure

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  5. Dissertation Word Length

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  1. AWR001 Academic Writing Part 1 A

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COMMENTS

  1. Dissertation Word Count Breakdown

    The dissertation word limit is allotted by the university where you study and the Master's Dissertation word count may vary from the undergraduate dissertation word count or the Ph.D. dissertation word count. Mostly the dissertation word length is between 10,000 words to 15,000 words but some may even go up to the level of 30,000 words.

  2. How Many Words Per Section in a 15000 Words Dissertation?

    The word count percentage for this essential dissertation chapter is 15%. In 15000 words dissertation, the research methodology chapter should consist of 2250 words. There are two possible methods to gather the data for a dissertation. The first is known as qualitative research methodology, and the second is quantitative research methodology.

  3. Guide For 15000 Words Dissertation

    The word count rate for the analysis or conversation part of a dissertation is 30%. In 15000 words dissertation, we need to compose 4500 words in this entire section of the dissertation. The last part of the dissertation is known as conclusions or suggestions. The word count rate for this fundamental part of a dissertation is simply 10%.

  4. 15000 Words Dissertation

    The word count and structure of a 15,000-word dissertation should be adjusted according to subject, institution, and guidelines. A general structure for a 15000 words dissertation has shown above with all characteristics. Review the guidelines provided by the institution and the supervisor. Breaking down the word count for each section can help ...

  5. Dissertation Word Count Breakdown

    The breakdown of word count for a dissertation can differ based on the field of study, the academic institution, and the research subject. Nonetheless, a typical dissertation usually consists of 10,000 to 15,000 words. In the following paragraphs, we will analyze the word count allocation for each chapter of a dissertation.

  6. Dissertation Structure & Layout 101 (+ Examples)

    Time to recap…. And there you have it - the traditional dissertation structure and layout, from A-Z. To recap, the core structure for a dissertation or thesis is (typically) as follows: Title page. Acknowledgments page. Abstract (or executive summary) Table of contents, list of figures and tables.

  7. How Many Words In A Dissertation? [A Word Count Guide]

    Research Methodology: 1500 Words. A dissertation's research technique chapter makes up 15% of the entire document. The research technique chapter of a 10,000 word dissertation should be 1500 words long. You must describe the dissertation's overall format and organization in around 1500 words, as well as examine the data in great detail and ...

  8. PDF Research Dissertation Guidelines

    Word limit. Your research dissertation should be around 10,000 words. There is an absolute maximum of 12,000 words. This includes everything apart from figure legends, tables, appendices and references. The marker will stop reading after 12,000 words, and anything after that will not be marked (except for your reference list).

  9. (PDF) Project Structure and Word Counts

    Section Word Count. Hons . Dissertation. MSc . Dissertation MPhil PhD. Introduction 1500 1500 5000 8000. Pre-theoretic overview 500 500 1000 1500. ... Total 13000 15000 40000 80000. Citations (0)

  10. Guide For 15000 Words Dissertation Structure

    Word Count. The Dissertation will be 15,000 words for most projects; nonetheless, a few projects have varieties in word counts, so you should follow the bearings of your Program Director if you have been given a dissertation length other than 15,000 words. The School doesn't allow an edge of 10% one or the other way.

  11. How Many Words is a University Dissertation?

    The dissertation word count for most university programmes is between 15,000 and 20,000 words, however, these can alternate significantly solely based upon the course and what university you are attending. Whilst this can be used as a guide, dissertation lengths will depend on the subject you are researching and the depth that the subject area ...

  12. Researching and Writing a Masters Dissertation

    It can be helpful to think of your Masters dissertation as a series of closely interlinked essays, rather than one overwhelming paper. The size of this section will depend on the overall word count for your dissertation. However, to give you a rough idea for a 15,000-word dissertation, the discussion part will generally be about 12,000 words long.

  13. Dissertations 1: Getting Started: Starting Your Dissertation

    Typically, a dissertation will enable you to present your findings in response to a question that you propose yourself. It is probably the longest piece of academic work you will produce. At undergraduate level, word count requirements can range anywhere from 5,000 to 8,000 words while a Masters level dissertation can be 10,000 to 15,000 words ...

  14. How long is a dissertation?

    An undergraduate dissertation is typically 8,000-15,000 words. A master's dissertation is typically 12,000-50,000 words. A PhD thesis is typically book-length: 70,000-100,000 words. However, none of these are strict guidelines - your word count may be lower or higher than the numbers stated here. Always check the guidelines provided ...

  15. Is There A Word Limit For Dissertations?

    From 10,000 to 20,000 words for undergraduates, 15,000 to 50,000 words for masters, and 50,000 to 100,000 words or more for PhD. ... the reality is far more complicated. Here's a breakdown of the key factors that determine the expected word count: ... well-structured, and impactful dissertation with a lower word count can outperform a lengthy ...

  16. Consideration 1: Word count issues in your dissertation write-up

    Word count issues. Most students run out of words when writing up. At the start of the process, especially if you're an undergraduate doing a dissertation for the first time, 10,000, 12,000, or 15,000 words (and up) sound like a lot, but they soon get eaten up. Worst still, they get eaten up in the wrong places, so you have a lop-sided ...

  17. DOC University of Wolverhampton

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  18. How To Reduce Word Count In A Dissertation/Thesis

    Use Word's find function (Ctrl+F) to search for "that" and check where it can be omitted. Spaces around mathematical operators - if you're copying numbers from Excel, chances are there are spaces between mathematical operators which can be removed. For example, p < 0.05 (3 words) can be reduced to p<0.05 (1 word).

  19. 12000 Word Dissertation Breakdown for New Students

    Dissertation Word Count Per Section. The dissertation word count is a critical factor for your success! This is because it will determine the quality of your research paper, as well as its length. The average dissertation word count should be between 10,000-15,000 words. However, this depends on the subject matter of your dissertation and its ...

  20. Breakdown of Number of Words in Each Chapter in Dissertation

    25-30% of your total word count. The analysis or discussion chapter of a dissertation consists of 30% of the whole dissertation. In these words, you will have to provide a complete overview of the implications of the results which are relevant to the main theme of your dissertation. The main purpose of this chapter is to sort out where and how ...

  21. 10000 Word Dissertation Breakdown for New Students -Uniresearchers

    Thus, in a dissertation of total 10000 words, 1000 words are. justifiable for the conclusion chapter. It is necessary to maintain the word count per section throughput the entire document as it. helps in preventing from over boarding with the writing and at the same time ensures that. nothing is underwritten.

  22. 15,000 words MSc dissertation

    15,000 words MSc dissertation. So I've so far done 2500 words on the intro (which includes the literature review) and am thinking I'm gonna end up with about 7200 words. 200 for abstract, 3000 for intro, 1000 for method, 1000 for results, 2000 for discussion. I'm doing a psychology course which is heavily based on evolutionary principles and I ...

  23. Average Length of a Dissertation

    The length varies from 30-40 pages to 200-300 pages. Do refer to the recommendation list of university. If you need more advice on length of a dissertation, MyAssignmentHelp.com provides quality dissertation writing help, do not forget to go through good dissertation examples online, by our many students from various colleges and universities ...

  24. Example 1

    14 rose from 1,000 orders daily to 15,000 orders in 2012 and 2015, respectively (Gabriel, Ogbuigwe and Ahiauzu, 2016). In 2020, 76.7 million Nigerians were found to be online shoppers out of an entire population of 206 million; the sales of food and toiletries rose by 56%, while the fashion and beauty sector revealed growth of over 40%.

  25. Collective Agreement between the Canadian Food Inspection Agency and

    The purpose of this Agreement is to maintain harmonious and mutually beneficial relationships between the Employer,the employees and the Institute,to set forth certain terms and conditions of employment relating to remuneration,hours of work,employee benefits and general working conditions affecting employees covered by this Agreement.; The purpose of this Agreement is to maintain harmonious ...