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“The Lottery” by Shirley Jackson: A Critical Analysis

“The Lottery” by Shirley Jackson first published in 1948 takes place in a small, seemingly idyllic town in rural America, where the townspeople gather every year to participate in a ritual lottery.

"The Lottery" by Shirley Jackson: A Critical Analysis

Introduction: “The Lottery” by Shirley Jackson

Table of Contents

“The Lottery” by Shirley Jackson first published in 1948 takes place in a small, seemingly idyllic town in rural America, where the townspeople gather every year to participate in a ritual lottery. The lottery, which involves randomly selecting a winner from the townspeople, takes a dark and disturbing turn, revealing the hidden cruelty and brutality that lies beneath the surface of the seemingly peaceful community. The story has become a classic of American literature and is often studied for its exploration of themes such as tradition, ritual, and the dark side of human nature.

Main Events in “The Lottery” by Shirley Jackson

  • The story opens on a beautiful summer morning in a small town where the residents are gathering in the town square for the annual lottery.
  • Mr. Summers and Mr. Graves, the town leaders, arrive with the black box that contains slips of paper for each household in the town.
  • The townspeople draw papers from the box, with the head of each household going first, and the person who selects the slip of paper with a black dot on it is declared the “winner” of the lottery.
  • Tessie Hutchinson, a housewife, is declared the winner of the lottery and protests that the process was not fair.
  • The other townspeople ignore Tessie’s protests and start gathering stones, which are used in the second half of the ritual.
  • As Tessie is surrounded by the angry townspeople and pelted with stones, the reader is made to understand that this is a long-standing and accepted part of the community’s culture.
  • The stoning continues until Tessie is dead.
  • The villagers return to their daily routines as if nothing has happened, indicating that the event has become normalized in their society.
  • Some of the younger townspeople seem uneasy with the violence, but they do not speak out.
  • The story ends with the chilling description of the pile of stones left at the scene of the murder, as well as the shocking realization that this is a community-wide event that has been happening for generations.

Literary Devices in “The Lottery” by Shirley Jackson

  • Allusion : The names of some of the characters in the story have symbolic significance, such as Mr. Summers and Mr. Graves, which allude to the nature of the event they oversee.
  • Hyperbole : Jackson uses hyperbole to emphasize the villagers’ excitement about the lottery, describing it as “the one day of the year that was desirable.”
  • Imagery : Jackson uses vivid imagery to describe the setting, creating a contrast between the idyllic summer day and the brutal violence of the lottery.
  • Irony : The story is full of irony, such as the fact that the villagers who are supposed to care for each other end up stoning one of their own.
  • Metaphor : The black box used in the lottery is a metaphor for the town’s history and tradition, as well as the darkness that lies beneath the surface.
  • Personification : The black box is personified as a character with its own history and significance, as well as the power to choose the “winner” of the lottery.
  • Point of View : The story is told from a third-person point of view, which allows the reader to see the events from the perspective of multiple characters.
  • Satire : Jackson uses satire to criticize the blind acceptance of tradition and the cruelty of mob mentality.
  • Simile : Jackson uses similes to create vivid descriptions, such as comparing the black box to a “joke.”
  • Social commentary: The story is a commentary on the dangers of blind acceptance of tradition and the power of mob mentality.
  • Symbolism : The black box represents the history and tradition of the lottery, as well as the community’s willingness to sacrifice one of its own.
  • Tone: The story has a dark and ominous tone, which creates a sense of foreboding and tension.
  • Verbal irony : Jackson uses verbal irony to create a sense of tension and unease, such as when the villagers cheer for the winner of the lottery.
  • Situational irony : The outcome of the story is a clear example of situational irony, as the person who wins the lottery is also the victim of the stoning.
  • Dramatic irony : The reader knows more than the characters in the story, which creates dramatic irony, such as when Tessie protests that the lottery was not fair, even though the reader knows that she will be the victim.

Characterization in “The Lottery” by Shirley Jackson

Major characters:.

  • Tessie Hutchinson: The central character, Tessie is initially portrayed as a concerned wife and mother, arguing with her husband about a missing household item (“Wouldn’t these stones hurt all over?”). However, as the story progresses, her character gains depth through her growing unease and eventual defiance (“It isn’t fair, it isn’t right”).
  • Mr. Hutchinson: Tessie’s husband, Bill, serves as a foil to her. He blindly follows tradition, even when it turns against his family (“All right, Tessie. That’s enough of that”). This highlights the conflict between blind tradition and individual survival.

Minor Characters:

  • Old Man Warner: The oldest villager, Warner represents the unwavering adherence to tradition. He defends the lottery’s importance (“Lottery in June, corn be heavy soon”) despite its brutality.
  • Mr. Summers: The lottery official, Summers, embodies a disturbing normalcy. He treats the event as a routine task, using a cheerful tone (“Good morning, everyone!”) to mask the ceremony’s sinister nature.

Characterization Techniques:

  • Dialogue: Dialogue reveals characters’ personalities and motivations. Tessie’s arguments expose her growing fear, while Bill’s acceptance highlights the danger of unquestioning tradition.
  • Actions: Characters’ actions speak volumes. Old Man Warner’s insistence on following the rules, despite the potential for his family to be chosen, showcases the tradition’s grip on the community.
  • Indirect Characterization: Descriptions of characters and their surroundings paint a picture of their roles and the story’s atmosphere. The seemingly idyllic setting (“The morning of June 27th was clear and warm”) contrasts sharply with the dark lottery ritual.

Impact of Characterization:

The characterization in “The Lottery” creates a sense of unease and foreshadows the horrifying climax. The villagers’ casual acceptance of the lottery (“Mr. Summers.. used the same stone year after year”) makes the ritual even more disturbing.

By focusing on the characters’ blind adherence to tradition and Tessie’s desperate rebellion, Jackson critiques the dangers of unquestioning authority and the potential for barbarity hidden within seemingly normal traditions.

Major Themes in “The Lottery” by Shirley Jackson

1. The Power of Tradition:

  • Description: The story emphasizes the deeply ingrained tradition of the lottery. Phrases like “Lottery in June, corn be heavy soon” (Old Man Warner) highlight its connection to the harvest and a perceived necessity for good fortune.
  • Impact: The villagers blindly follow the ritual, even Mr. Summers uses the “same stone year after year” despite its horrifying outcome. This unwavering adherence to tradition, regardless of its purpose, becomes a central theme.

2. Danger of Blind Conformity:

  • Description: The villagers act as a unified group, unquestioningly participating in the lottery. Even children like Dave Hutchinson are expected to participate, highlighting the pressure to conform.
  • Impact: Tessie’s eventual rebellion (“It isn’t fair, it isn’t right”) stands out against the conformity. Her fate emphasizes the danger of blindly following tradition without questioning its consequences.

3. Juxtaposition of Peace and Violence:

  • Description: The story establishes a peaceful setting (“The morning of June 27th was clear and warm”) with children playing and families gathering. This normalcy is shattered by the violent act of the lottery.
  • Impact: The contrast between the idyllic setting and the brutal ritual creates a sense of unease and exposes the potential for violence lurking beneath the surface of seemingly normal traditions.

4. The Randomness of Persecution:

  • Description: The lottery chooses its victim at random, with each villager having an equal chance of being selected (“each head of a household reached forward…).
  • Impact: This randomness heightens the fear factor. No one is safe, showcasing the senselessness and cruelty of the tradition. The lottery doesn’t punish wrongdoing, it simply chooses a scapegoat.

Writing Style in “The Lottery” by Shirley Jackson

  • Deceptive Simplicity and Understated Horror: Jackson uses plain language and a straightforward narrative style to lull the reader into a false sense of security, making the shocking conclusion all the more unsettling.
  • Foreshadowing and Symbolism: She employs foreshadowing and symbolism to hint at the story’s darker themes. Examples include the black box and the ominous gathering of stones.
  • Vivid Imagery and Sensory Detail: Her use of vivid imagery and sensory detail, particularly in the description of the stoning, creates a visceral and disturbing effect on the reader.
  • Effective Theme Conveyance: Overall, Jackson’s writing style in “The Lottery” effectively conveys the story’s themes of blind conformity, the dangers of tradition, and the potential for violence lurking beneath the surface of normalcy. It leaves a lasting impression on the reader.

Literary Theories and Interpretation of “The Lottery” by Shirley Jackson

Topics, questions, and thesis statements about “the lottery” by shirley jackson.

  • Topic: The Power of Tradition
  • Question: How does Shirley Jackson portray the power of tradition in “The Lottery”?
  • Thesis Statement: In “The Lottery,” Shirley Jackson utilizes the unwavering adherence to the annual ritual to highlight the dangers of blindly following tradition, even when it leads to violence and injustice.
  • Question: To what extent does “The Lottery” explore the conflict between blind conformity and individual survival?
  • Thesis Statement: Jackson’s “The Lottery” exposes the dangers of blind conformity through the villagers’ unquestioning participation in the lottery, contrasting it with Tessie’s desperate rebellion, which ultimately highlights the importance of individuality in the face of oppressive traditions.
  • Question: How does Shirley Jackson utilize symbolism and foreshadowing to create suspense and hint at the dark themes in “The Lottery”?
  • Thesis Statement: In “The Lottery,” Jackson employs powerful symbols like the black box and the gathering of stones, alongside subtle foreshadowing, to create a sense of unease and gradually reveal the story’s horrifying climax.
  • Question: How does Jackson challenge the idyllic small-town setting in “The Lottery” to expose a darker reality?
  • Thesis Statement: Shirley Jackson’s “The Lottery” dismantles the idyllic facade of a seemingly peaceful town by unveiling the brutal lottery ritual, highlighting the potential for violence and barbarity lurking beneath the surface of normalcy.

Short Question-Answer about “The Lottery” by Shirley Jackson

  • What is the purpose of the black box in “The Lottery” by Shirley Jackson?
  • The black box in “The Lottery” is a symbol of tradition and the power it holds over the people in the community. The box has been used for generations to hold the slips of paper that determine who will be the annual sacrifice, and the people in the community are afraid to change it. They even refer to the box as “the tradition,” and it serves as a physical manifestation of the hold that tradition has over their lives.
  • How does Shirley Jackson use foreshadowing in “The Lottery”?
  • Shirley Jackson uses foreshadowing in “The Lottery” to create a sense of unease and anticipation in the reader. She drops hints throughout the story that the lottery is not going to have a happy ending, such as the ominous description of the villagers gathering and the reference to the “bad” lottery in nearby towns. By doing so, Jackson builds tension and a sense of dread that culminates in the shocking and violent conclusion.
  • What does “The Lottery” by Shirley Jackson say about human nature?
  • “The Lottery” by Shirley Jackson suggests that humans have a tendency to blindly follow tradition and groupthink, even when it goes against their morals and values. The people in the community are willing to sacrifice one of their own every year because that’s what they’ve always done, and they’re afraid to break from tradition. Jackson’s story shows how easily people can be swayed by group dynamics and the power of tradition, even when it leads to violence and harm.
  • How does “The Lottery” by Shirley Jackson critique society?
  • “The Lottery” by Shirley Jackson is a critique of society’s tendency to blindly follow tradition and the harm it can cause. Jackson’s story shows how easily people can be controlled by tradition and the pressure to conform, even when it goes against their own morals and values. By depicting the violent and ritualized sacrifice of a community member, Jackson exposes the darker side of societal norms and traditions and the danger of blindly accepting them.

Literary Works Similar to “The Lottery” by Shirley Jackson

  • Works with Similar Themes:
  • “ The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas ” by Ursula K. Le Guin: Explores the concept of a utopian society built upon the suffering of one individual.
  • “ Harrison Bergeron ” by Kurt Vonnegut Jr.: Satirizes the dangers of enforced equality and conformity in a dystopian future.
  • “ A Good Man Is Hard To Find ” by Flannery O’Connor: Explores themes of violence, morality, and the grotesque in the American South.
  • “ The Yellow Wallpaper” by Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Uses a first-person narrative to create a sense of psychological horror and societal expectations.
  • “ We Have Always Lived in the Castle” by Shirley Jackson: Explores the isolation and unsettling family dynamics within a seemingly normal setting.
  • The Veldt by Ray Bradbury: Creates a chilling atmosphere with a focus on technology, childhood desires, and the darkness within seemingly perfect families.

Suggested Readings: “The Lottery” by Shirley Jackson

  • Westlake, Sarah. “Shirley Jackson’s ‘The Lottery’: An Allegory of Our Times?”. Studies in Short Fiction , vol. 21, no. 3, 1984, pp. 363-369. JSTOR: [invalid URL removed]
  • Melville, Dana. “Shirley Jackson’s ‘The Lottery’: The Logic of Sacrifice.” The Kenyon Review , n.s., vol. 9, no. 4, 1997, pp. 127-141. JSTOR: [invalid URL removed]
  • Burlingame, Sandra K. Shirley Jackson: A Literary Life . Viking, 1997.
  • Franklin, H. Bruce. The Lottery: A Social History of Gambling in America . Knopf, 1999.
  • SparkNotes . “The Lottery” by Shirley Jackson. SparkNotes:
  • Shmoop Editorial Team. “The Lottery by Shirley Jackson: Themes.” Shmoop University . Shmoop: ([This is a free resource])

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a thesis statement for the lottery

a thesis statement for the lottery

The Lottery

Shirley jackson, ask litcharts ai: the answer to your questions.

The Juxtaposition of Peace and Violence Theme Icon

The Juxtaposition of Peace and Violence

“The Lottery” begins with a description of a particular day, the 27th of June, which is marked by beautiful details and a warm tone that strongly contrast with the violent and dark ending of the story. The narrator describes flowers blossoming and children playing, but the details also include foreshadowing of the story’s resolution, as the children are collecting stones and three boys guard their pile against the “raids of the other boys.” These details…

The Juxtaposition of Peace and Violence Theme Icon

Human Nature

Jackson examines the basics of human nature in “The Lottery,” asking whether or not all humans are capable of violence and cruelty, and exploring how those natural inclinations can be masked, directed, or emphasized by the structure of society. Philosophers throughout the ages have similarly questioned the basic structure of human character: are humans fundamentally good or evil? Without rules and laws, how would we behave towards one another? Are we similar to animals in…

Human Nature Theme Icon

Family Structure and Gender Roles

The ritual of the lottery itself is organized around the family unit, as, in the first round, one member of a family selects a folded square of paper. The members of the family with the marked slip of paper must then each select another piece of paper to see the individual singled out within that family. This process reinforces the importance of the family structure within the town, and at the same time creates a…

Family Structure and Gender Roles Theme Icon

The Power of Tradition

The villagers in the story perform the lottery every year primarily because they always have—it’s just the way things are done. The discussion of this traditional practice, and the suggestion in the story that other villages are breaking from it by disbanding the lottery, demonstrates the persuasive power of ritual and tradition for humans. The lottery, in itself, is clearly pointless: an individual is killed after being randomly selected. Even the original ritual has been…

The Power of Tradition Theme Icon

Dystopian Society and Conformity

Jackson’s “The Lottery” was published in the years following World War II, when the world was presented with the full truth about Nazi Germany and the Holocaust. In creating the dystopian society of her story, Jackson was clearly responding to the fact that “dystopia” is not only something of the imagination—it can exist in the real world as well. Jackson thus meditates on human cruelty—especially when it is institutionalized, as in a dystopian society—and the…

Dystopian Society and Conformity Theme Icon


Critique of “The Lottery” by Shirley Jackson

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A critique of Shirley Jackson’s “The Lottery” would delve into the story’s chilling portrayal of conformity, the power of tradition, and the darkness lurking beneath the surface of everyday life. Here’s how such a critique might be structured and articulated:

Title and Author: “The Lottery” by Shirley Jackson

Overview: First published in 1948 in The New Yorker, “The Lottery” is a short story set in a small American town. On a serene summer day, the entire community gathers for an annual lottery. However, the initially quaint scene belies the violent conclusion, where the lottery winner is stoned to death. This shocking twist serves as a powerful critique of societal norms.

Themes: The primary theme of “The Lottery” is the danger of blindly following traditions. The townsfolk adhere to the lottery ritual without question, even though the original purpose of the lottery is no longer known. Jackson challenges readers to consider how traditions can often perpetuate arbitrary cruelty and social injustice. Another crucial theme is the individual’s role within society, explored through the community’s collective responsibility in the brutal act.

Characters: The characters in “The Lottery” are portrayed as typical townspeople, which makes the story’s conclusion even more disturbing. Jackson effectively uses the characters as symbols of societal compliance. Tessie Hutchinson, who becomes the lottery’s victim, initially joins in the lottery without question. Her eventual rebellion and futile protests against the tradition only when her own safety is threatened underscore the hypocrisy and inherent selfishness in the social human condition.

Setting: The setting of a small town is integral to the story, symbolizing the universality of the themes Jackson addresses. The sunny day and casual atmosphere of the lottery event contrast starkly with its horrific outcome, enhancing the shock and horror experienced by the reader.

Symbolism: Jackson uses symbolism effectively throughout the story. The black box from which the lots are drawn represents tradition. It is old, shabby, and even splintered—yet no one in the town feels the need to replace it, symbolizing their blind adherence to tradition. The stones collected by the townspeople, especially the children, symbolize the violence and cruelty hidden in plain sight within the community.

Writing Style: Jackson’s straightforward narrative style and her control over the pacing create a building tension that culminates in the story’s shocking end. Her ability to weave dialogue, setting, and action together maintains a superficial normalcy that makes the final revelation more impactful.

Impact and Reception: Upon its publication, “The Lottery” was met with public outrage, leading to canceled subscriptions for The New Yorker and a deluge of hate mail to Jackson. Yet, it has since become a seminal work in American literature, widely studied for its profound commentary on societal and psychological themes.

Criticism: While “The Lottery” is celebrated for its incisive look at the dark aspects of human nature and societal traditions, it has also faced criticism for its bleak outlook and the perceived simplicity of its message that tradition is blindly followed. Some critics argue that the characters are too flat, serving more as vessels for the story’s message than as fully realized individuals.

Conclusion: “The Lottery” by Shirley Jackson remains a powerful, unsettling story that forces readers to reflect on their own societal traditions and the potential for cruelty those traditions can harbor. Its enduring relevance speaks to Jackson’s mastery in capturing the complexities of human nature and social conformity.


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The Lottery: Essay Topics & Samples

The Lottery is one of those stories that can be interpreted in a million different ways. The author brings up many cultural, social, and even political issues for discussion. It is so controversial that the readers were sending hate mails to Jackson!

Did you receive a writing assignment on The Lottery by Shirley Jackson? Have no idea where to start? Don’t panic! Sometimes you can find it hard to decide on one topic when there are so many options. This short story also has many Easter eggs to analyze. Custom-Writing.org experts created this list of the best ideas for the essay and The Lottery essay questions to help you out!

  • 💡 Essay Topics
  • ✒️ Essay Samples

💡 The Lottery: Essay Topics

Don’t know where to start your essay on The Lottery by Shirley Jackson? Check out the prompts to help you write a successful paper!

  • Literary analysis essay on The Lottery by Shirley Jackson . For this task, you would need to work through the main themes of the story . However, to make it easier, you might want to focus on one topic at a time. For instance, write about the role of tradition and how powerful it can be.
  • How are gender roles represented in the story? Look closer to how the roles are divided in this fictional society. There is violence against women, but it doesn’t seem like they are allowed to play victims. Can you catch a glimpse of sexism in some situations? You might as well draw some parallels with the real world.
  • How much do traditions affect our lives? The Lottery as an example . In this analysis essay on The Lottery , you are asked to elaborate on the central theme of the story. Shirley Jackson shows tradition to be so strong and powerful in this society that the rational mind can’t even bring others to reason.
  • Social classes in The Lottery . Are there any characters in the short story that may seem a bit more privileged than the others? All villagers seem to be in the same boat with equal rights. What about Mr. Summers? His name is on the list, and he draws with everybody else, but doesn’t he have more powers?
  • The psychology of the crowd in the short story . You are asked to write an argumentative essay on The Lottery by Shirley Jackson. Look for some strong arguments to support the idea. However, there is no need to come up with complicated psychoanalytic theories. Focus on your personal opinion and add some quotes.
  • Hidden symbols in Shirley Jackson’s story . Here, it would help if you worked on literary analysis for a little bit. There are some apparent symbols, such as the black box and the stones. But how many more can you find? For example, look at the importance of households and write a symbolism essay on The Lottery .
  • Investigate the phenomenon of hypocrisy in The Lottery . The villagers can be friendly and kind to their neighbors before the ritual begins . However, as soon as they know the results, they immediately turn against “the winner.” Tessie seems like she would do the same, but when she appears to be the chosen one, it doesn’t please her at all.
  • Tessie Hutchinson as a scapegoat in The Lottery . What can make you think that the main character serves as a scapegoat for the villagers? She might not have a good reputation among them. What do you think drives them to stone her to death? Start a debate on this issue, and don’t forget to use our literature study guide!
  • The significance of names in Shirley Jackson’s story . You might have noticed the specifics of the main characters’ names. For instance, Mr. Summers fits perfectly in the setting of a beautiful summer day. Mr. Delacroix, in his turn, carries some hidden religious meaning if you look up the translation. Can you find any other meaningful names?
  • What is the central message of The Lottery ? You might have thought about it after reading the summary of the short story. Well, there is no specific answer because everything depends on your perspective. It may concern social or political issues or whatever you prefer. It is what makes your essay so unique, isn’t it?

✒️ The Lottery: Essay Samples

Below you’ll find a collection of The Lottery essay examples. You are welcome to use them for inspiration!

  • Point of View in “The Lottery” by Shirley Jackson
  • The Lottery Analysis: Essay on Shirley Jackson’s Short Story
  • The Lottery: Literary Analysis
  • Groupthink Notion in “The Lottery” by Shirley Jackson
  • Gothic Horror in “The Lottery”
  • Foreshadowing in The Lottery by Shirley Jackson
  • Crowd Impersonation in “The Lottery” by Shirley Jackson
  • Gender Equality in Jackson’s “The Lottery”
  • Herd Behavior in “The Lottery” by Shirley Jackson
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The Lottery Study Guide

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"The Lottery" Modern Day Examples: Works by Shirley Jackson

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a thesis statement for the lottery

a thesis statement for the lottery

Uttarakhand Jr Doctor Found Dead In Hostel, 'Days After Professor Rejected Thesis, Demanded Rs 5 Lakh'

Police have filed an 'abetment to suicide' fir against the head of the paediatrics department at shri guru ram rai institute of medical and health sciences, among others..

Uttarakhand Jr Doctor Found Dead In Hostel, 'Days After Professor Rejected Thesis, Demanded Rs 5 Lakh' Uttarakhand Jr Doctor Found Dead In Hostel, 'Days After Professor Rejected Thesis, Demanded Rs 5 Lakh'

New Delhi: A junior doctor at a private medical college and hospital in Uttarakhand was found dead in his hostel, just days after his thesis was twice rejected by a professor. His family claims that persistent harassment by his professors led him to die by suicide. His batchmates pointed to the "toxic" environment on campus, citing the gruelling 20-hour workdays for junior doctors.

Dr Divesh Garg, a 26-year-old first-year paediatric student at the Shri Guru Ram Rai Institute of Medical and Health Sciences in Dehradun, was found dead in his hostel room on May 17, according to an India Today report.

The police have filed an FIR against Dr Utkarsh Sharma, the head of the paediatrics department, along with professors Ashish Sethi and Bindu Agarwal, under Section 306 (abetment to suicide) of the IPC in relation to Garg's death.

ALSO READ|Kerala: Man Dies By Suicide After Cooperative Bank's Alleged Refusal To Return Deposit

The FIR came after Divesh's father Ramesh Garg accused Sharma, Sethi, Agarwal, and the college's management committee of driving his son to suicide.

Ramesh Garg said that his son joined the college in October 2023. Shortly afterwards, he added, Utkarsh Sharma, Ashish Sethi, Bindu Agarwal, and the management committee began harassing him. They allegedly forced him to work 36-hour shifts, even when he had a 104-degree fever.

"My son told me, 'Utkarsh Sharma rejected my thesis twice and demanded Rs 5,00,000 for passing [it]. He insulted me in front of patients, and Bindu Agrawal mentally tortured me'."

'Take Me Away, Or I'll Commit Suicide'

"He had called me at 10 am on May 17 and said, 'take me away, or I'll commit suicide'. We assured him that we would come to get him the next day and urged him not to take any wrong step," Ramesh Garg said.

Later that day, he added, the family received a call informing them that Divesh had been admitted to the emergency ward.

"Around 10.40 pm, I received another call, stating that his body was in the mortuary. When we arrived, students informed us that the lights in his hostel room had been off for 15-20 minutes and the area had been cleaned," he alleged.

Speaking to India Today TV, Divesh's uncle Mohan Dutt Garg described his nephew as a "very simple, quiet, and humble boy who had completed his MBBS from Mathura". 

"He had previously mentioned facing harassment, including being denied leave for his mother's treatment. Divesh's thesis was rejected, and he was pressured with repeated demands for Rs 5 lakh," he added.

Umesh Bansal, Divesh's cousin, said they "submitted an application to the police on May 20". "We were kept waiting for hours at the station and were asked for video evidence. Some even suggested forgetting about filing an FIR," he added.

While Divesh's family awaits further details on the cause of his death, Dehradun SSP Ajay Singh told India Today TV on Wednesday that the post-mortem examination did not reveal the exact reason.

"The viscera has been sent for further examination. We have recorded statements from students, faculty, and family, but nothing has come to light so far to determine whether the death was a suicide or due to other reasons. After the viscera examination, we will proceed with the investigation based on the evidence and witness statements," he added.

ALSO READ|Telugu Actor Chandrakanth Dies By Suicide Days After Surviving Car Accident That Killed Co-Star Pavithra Jayaram

Meanwhile, the management of the Shri Guru Ram Rai Institute of Medical and Health Sciences stated that they have requested an impartial investigation in the matter and are fully cooperating with the police inquiry.

In a statement, the institute emphasised the need for a comprehensive investigation from all perspectives to uncover the truth. This includes examining Divesh Garg's phone call records, WhatsApp chats, and social media activities, it said.

The institute also announced the formation of an interim inquiry committee tasked with conducting a thorough investigation into all aspects related to the junior doctor's death and preparing a comprehensive report.

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Q1 2024 Takeaways on What Directors and Officers Need to Know

a thesis statement for the lottery

Elizabeth Bieber is a Partner and Pamela Marcogliese is Head of US Transactions at Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer LLP. This post is based on a Freshfields memorandum by Ms. Bieber, Ms. Marcogliese, and the Freshfields Corporate Advisory group.

SEC Adopts, then Stays, Final Rules on Climate-Related Disclosures

On March 6, 2024, the SEC adopted its long anticipated final rules on climate-related disclosures, which it had originally proposed in March 2022. The final rules amend Regulations S-K and Regulation S-X to set forth the climate-related information that U.S. domestic filers and FPIs are required to disclose in their annual reports and registration statements filed with the SEC.

Companies must include extensive disclosure of material climate-related matters including as they relate to risk and risk management, strategy, management- and board-level governance, targets and goals, GHG emissions (Scope 3 not explicitly required) and specified financial statement line-item impacts. Notable changes include:

  • Many of the disclosure requirements have been qualified by materiality.
  • Quantification of financial statement line-item impacts are subject to 1% and de minimis thresholds.
  • Attestation reports are only required for large accelerated filers (limited assurance, and then reasonable assurance) and accelerated filers (limited assurance only).
  • Some requirements are not applicable to EGCs or SRCs.

Companies are not permitted to substitute compliance with the final rules through disclosures made in response to requirements of other climate-related disclosure regimes.

  • Compliance date to be phased in and is dependent upon the content of the disclosure and the status of the company (as a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, non-accelerated filer, SRC or EGC).
  • Earliest compliance date relates to the financial year beginning 2025 for certain of the disclosures required to be made by large accelerated filers.

As a result of a legal challenge, on March 15, 2024, the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit stayed the final rules, which was later dissolved on March 22, 2024 after the Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation Lottery selected the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit as the venue for hearing consolidated petitions. On April 4, 2024, the SEC stayed the final rules pending the completion of judicial review by the Eighth Circuit.

Regulators Begin Scrutiny of Artificial Intelligence Risks

Generative AI has accelerated the race toward ever more innovative data-driven products and services, and regulators are not taking a “wait-and-see” approach to this new generation of technology. In the United States, regulators – including the Department of Justice (DOJ), the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), and the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) – are not waiting for new laws to be passed before tackling the risks related to AI. Each has insisted their existing power can be used to regulate AI and, unlike earlier hesitations to regulate cybersecurity, regulators are moving quickly to put a stake in the ground regarding mitigation of AI risks and abuses.

On March 7, 2024, in an address at the American Bar Association’s 39th National Institute on White Collar Crime, Deputy Attorney General Lisa Monaco made clear that the DOJ will target corporate practices related to AI. Monaco directed the DOJ Criminal Division to update its guidance on Evaluation of Corporate Compliance Programs to incorporate risks associated with AI. In her words, misuse of AI is one of the “most significant risks” for a growing number of businesses.

Boards should anticipate SEC and shareholder scrutiny of boards’ actions related to AI, including whether they are being briefed by management regarding the use of AI by the company, their assessment of risks regarding the use of AI internally and in product offerings, and discussion of risk acceptance and mitigation related to those actions.

New SEC Cybersecurity Disclosure Rule

On July 26, 2023, the Securities and Exchange Commission adopted new rules and amendments that enhance and standardize cybersecurity disclosure requirements for U.S. domestic filers and foreign private issuers. The new rules require companies to disclose and describe material cybersecurity incidents and their impacts. Material cybersecurity incident disclosures are required starting December 18, 2023, and June 15, 2024, for smaller reporting companies. In addition, annual disclosure of information about their cybersecurity governance, strategy, and risk management processes are required beginning with annual reports for fiscal years ending on or after December 15, 2023.

Incident Reporting . The SEC’s new rules require all U.S. domestic reporting companies to disclose material cybersecurity incidents on the new Item 1.05 of Form 8-K, generally within four business days of the company’s determination that they experienced such an incident and FPIs must furnish this disclosure on Form 6-K promptly after the incident is disclosed or otherwise publicized in a foreign jurisdiction, to any stock exchange or to security holders. Consistent with the definition of materiality in other disclosure contexts, the rules explain that a “material” incident is one in which “there is a substantial likelihood that a reasonable shareholder would consider it important.” The rules provide for a delay for disclosures for up to thirty days if the “Attorney General determines that the incident disclosure would pose a substantial risk to national security or public safety and notifies the Commission of such determination in writing.” The SEC is paying attention to these disclosures – the first company to file an Item 1.05 8-K also received the first comment letter. For example, the comment letter asks that the disclosures be expanded to address the scope of business operations impacted and the known material impact(s) the incident has had and the material impact(s) that are likely to continue.

Risk Management, Strategy, and Governance Disclosures . In addition to incident reporting requirements, the new rules add disclosure requirements to Form 10-K for domestic registrants and Form 20-F for FPIs. Companies must disclose information on their approach to risk management, strategy, and governance concerning material cybersecurity threats. Companies are required to describe their processes for assessing, identifying, and managing material risks from cybersecurity threats, as well as the material effects or reasonably likely material effects of risks from cybersecurity threats. Companies must also disclose their board of directors’ oversight of and management’s role and expertise in assessing and managing risks from cybersecurity threats.

Pay, Performance and Enduring Focus on Human Capital

Investor and Regulatory Focus

Shareholder proposals on labor rights and pay equity, among other matters, are poised to be continuing topics at annual shareholder meetings in 2024, despite slightly lower support in 2023 as compared to the prior year. Compensation Committees, particularly in select industries, may need to evaluate whether their company could be impacted by these proposals or other workforce dynamics and ensure proper response strategies are in place.

California’s AB 1076 took effect in January 2024, requiring employers to provide written notice to current and former employees in the state indicating that any prior non-compete agreements are unenforceable (subject to certain exceptions for transaction-based agreements). Companies are subject to a penalty of $2,500 for each instance of failure to provide the required notice. Meanwhile, the FTC voted to ban employment related non-competes at a federal level on April 23, 2024. The rule could have significant impact on talent acquisition and is likely to face legal challenge.

Proxy Advisor Guidelines

Amid fluctuating markets, adjustments from GAAP to non-GAAP figures in the determination of executive performance metrics will be carefully scrutinized by proxy advisory firms. If non-GAAP adjustments materially increase incentive payouts (particularly in years of incongruous shareholder return) the implementation of such adjustments is likely to be viewed negatively. Compensation Committees should develop a preestablished framework for addressing non-GAAP adjustments in connection with the design of performance-based awards.

Excessive payments made to executives in connection with an apparent voluntary resignation or retirement will be regarded as a “problematic pay practice” that may lead to an adverse Say-on-Pay recommendation by ISS. FAQs released for 2024 call for clear statements regarding the type of termination occurring under any applicable employment agreement and caution against disclosure indicating an executive “stepped down” or that the executive and the board have “mutually agreed” on departure, positing that such statements do not enable investors to fully evaluate severance payments.

An Increasingly Complex and Politicized Regulatory Process

Antitrust scrutiny is on the rise globally with antitrust authorities accepting fewer settlements while expanding reviews to incorporate novel theories of harm.

Increased regulatory uncertainty and expanded reviews are affecting deal terms. Outside dates expanding to account for longer regulatory reviews, hell or high water provisions are less common due to unpredictability, and break fees are more common and higher overall.

Despite this increased scrutiny and political interest, overall antitrust enforcement in the U.S. is down. While the U.S. agencies have been faced with record numbers of HSR filings, the number of Second Requests remains steady, with the agencies challenging fewer deals and winning fewer challenges relative to this increased activity.

a thesis statement for the lottery

Duties of Controlling Stockholders:

In re sears hometown & outlet stores, inc. s’holder litig..

The Delaware Chancery Court in Sears considered the fiduciary duties of controlling stockholders when they exercise stockholder-level power, such as selling their shares or voting to enact governance measures (in contrast with director-level power, such as entering into a conflict transaction with the company).

The conduct at issue was an amendment of the company’s bylaws to require two separate votes at least 30 business days apart before a liquidation plan could be approved and the removal of two directors from the board (and the special committee) whom the controlling stockholder perceived as his most vocal opponents.

The court reiterated that a controlling stockholder does not owe enforceable duties when declining to sell its shares or when voting against a change to the status quo. It noted, however, that when a controlling stockholder seeks to change the status quo, it “cannot harm the corporation knowingly or through grossly negligent action.”

The court separately observed that the applicable standard of review to address a controlling stockholder’s exercise of stockholder-level power is enhanced scrutiny, which requires considering: (1) whether the controlling stockholder acted in good faith, after a reasonable investigation, to achieve a legitimate objective and (2) whether the controlling stockholder chose reasonable means to achieve that objective.

The court ultimately held that the conduct at issue did not violate the controlling stockholder’s fiduciary duties, because he had believed in good faith (and correctly), after reasonable investigation, that the liquidation plan would not achieve the committee’s expectations, and his actions were “within the range of reasonableness” and more constrained than, for example, governance changes requiring unanimity or more drastic board composition changes.

Reincorporation of Delaware Companies:

Palkon v. maffei (tripadvisor).

The Chancery Court in TripAdvisor denied a motion to dismiss a breach of fiduciary duty claim brought by TripAdvisor stockholders concerning its conversion to a Nevada corporation but declined to enjoin that conversion.

The court reasoned that the complaint adequately pleaded that the conversion was a self-interested transaction effectuated by TripAdvisor’s 56% controlling stockholder, since TripAdvisor’s stockholders would supposedly own shares carrying a reduced set of “litigation rights” post-conversion, which necessarily “inures to the benefit of [TripAdvisor’s] stockholder controller and the directors.”

In so holding, the court rejected the defendants’ argument that entire fairness cannot apply outside of a transaction in which stockholders received cash for their shares. As to fair dealing, the court concluded that defendants “did not make any effort to replicate arm’s length bargaining”: management proposed the conversion, the board recommended it, and the controller approved it without conditioning it on special committee approval or a majority-of-the-minority vote.

As to the propriety of an injunction, however, because the standard legal remedy is money damages and because the court believed it could craft an adequate monetary remedy, it concluded that injunctive relief was “off the table.”

The Delaware Supreme Court has taken an appeal on an interlocutory basis, which likely acknowledges that it is a significant issue.

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