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Researching the 1920's Era

  • Books & Videos
  • Databases & Journals

Searching by Subject Headings

To identify materials about a particular type of literature, consider the following subject headings: These might be good for historical research on the era.

Reference Sources (Encyclopedias & Dictionaries

American decades / edited by Richard Layman Detroit : Gale Research, c1994-2001 LOCATION: Reference Collection E169.12 .A419 1920-29

American decades primary sources / edited by Cynthia Rose Detroit : Gale, c2004 LOCATION: Reference Collection E169.1 .A471977 2004 v.3 

Bowling, beatniks, and bell-bottoms : pop culture of 20th-century America / Sara Pendergast and Tom Pendergast, editors  Detroit : U X L, c2002 LOCATION: Reference Collection E169.1 .B7825 2002

Books about the 1920's: Literary, Social and Cultural Histories

American Heritage History of the 1920's & 1930's / Ralph K. Andrist (Editor) New York: Crown Publishers, 1987 LOCATION: General Collection E784.A67 1987

Daily Life in the United States, 1920-1939: Decades of Promise and Pain / David E. Kyvig Westport, CT : Greenwood Press, c2002 LOCATION: General Collection E169.K985 2002

Fitzgerald, Hemingway, and the Twenties / Ronald Berman Tuscaloosa : University of Alabama Press, c2001 LOCATION: General Collection PS3511.I9 Z55774 2001

The great trials of the twenties: the watershed decade in America's courtrooms / by Robert Grant and Joseph Katz Rockville Centre, NY: Sarpedon, 1998 LOCATION: General Collection KF220.G73 1998

The jazz age: the 20s / by the editors of Time-Life Books Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books, 1998 LOCATION: General Collection E784.J39 1998

The Lawless Decade / Paul Sann New York: Crown Publishers, 1961 LOCATION: General Collection E784.S3

New world coming : the 1920s and the making of modern America / Nathan Miller  New York : Scribner, c2003 LOCATION: General Collection E784.M555 2003

The Roaring Twenties Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press, 2004 LOCATION: General Collection E784.R63 2004

Sacco & Vanzetti: [Italian immigrants and anarchists, framed by the State and executed for murder in Boston during the Red Scare of the 1920s] / edited by John Davis New York: Ocean Press, 2004 LOCATION: General Collection HX843.7.S23 A97 2004

Saying it's so: a cultural history of the Black Sox scandal / Daniel A. Nathan Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2003 LOCATION: General Collection GV875.C58 N38 2003


The Great Gatsby [videorecording] / produced by David Merrick ; directed by Jack Clayton ; screenplay by Francis Ford Coppola 1 videocassette (146 min.) Based on the novel by F. Scott Fitzgerald, the story concerns a mysterious American millionaire whose efforts to recapture the sweetheart of his youth results in tragedy. LOCATION: Popular Collection ZZT 2345

The Twenties [videorecording] / produced by Richard Petrow ; written by Bill Moyers, Richard Petrow. 1 videocassette (58 min.) Journalist Bill Moyers looks at the 1920's, usually seen as the age of speakeasies, flappers and high living. The age also saw millions of workers struggling for better wages. He explores the decade when old America was vanishing and a new urban nation was being formed. Includes reminiscences of Americans who lived during the period. LOCATION: Circulation Desk E784 .T9 1988 (In Library Use)

Click here to go to databases.

Academic Search Complete

Academic Search Complete contains indexing and some full text for 1,837 journals. This scholarly collection provides journal coverage for nearly all academic areas of study - including social sciences, humanities, education, computer sciences, engineering, physics, chemistry, language and linguistics, arts & literature, medical sciences and ethnic studies. 

Chicago Tribune Historical

Digital image of every issue of the Chicago Tribune from 1890-1956, cover-to-cover. Use this database to find not only news, editorials, letters to the editor, obituaries, and birth and marriage announcements but also historical photos, stock photos, and advertisements. By utilizing software enhancements, the original microfilm image can frequently be improved for a cleaner, more readable image. And the date range searching tool lets users search on, before, or between two dates. On completion, the Chicago Tribune Historical database will cover the years 1849-1984. It currently holds the years 1890-1946.

History Study Center

History Study Center provides access to primary and secondary American history sources, full text articles, video, research guides, and reference materials.

New York Times Historical

Digital image of every issue of the New York Times from 1851-1999, cover-to-cover. Use this database to find not only news, editorials, letters to the editor, obituaries, and birth and marriage announcements but also historical photos, stock photos, and advertisements. By utilizing software enhancements, the original microfilm image can frequently be improved for a cleaner, more readable image. And the date range searching tool lets users search on, before, or between two dates. 

JSTOR is an archive of digitized journal articles ranging in date from the 1700's to the early 2000's. These collections span a variety of subjects in the Humanities, Social Sciences and Physical Sciences.

Project Muse

"Project MUSE is a leading provider of digital humanities and social sciences content; since 1995, its electronic journal collections have supported a wide array of research needs at academic, public, special, and school libraries worldwide. MUSE books and journals, from leading university presses and scholarly societies, are fully integrated for search and discovery." (From the website)

American Experience: Monkey Trial Hosted by PBS, the American Experience series chronicles major events in US history. This site provides good background information about the Scopes trial, including: timelines, speeches, and links to further reading. An excellent background source to assist in developing a thesis topic.

The 1920's This is a remarkably well constructed website about the 1920's era. This Digital History site comes from the University of Houston.

F. Scott Fitzgerald Centenary Website This website, published by the University of South Carolina, provides a wealth of biographical and critical information regarding F. Scott Fitzgerald, "The Great Gatsby," and many of Fitzgerald other works as well.

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1920s Research Project (Ms. Gerry): Home

  • Works Cited
  • Sample MLA 8 Paper

Directions :

1. Choose one topic from the upper tab.

2. Search in the databases for your topic. (Note: you need to use two articles)

3. Take notes in the Note-Taking Sheet .  Look for helpful quotations and facts. Copy and paste the citations into the Note-Taking Sheet (in Schoology) AND MyBib.com .

4. Develop a strong  thesis   statement  about your topic. How did (your topic) reflect or change the 1920s? Or why was (your topic) important in the 1920s? See examples to the right.  Support your claim with  factual information  from your research. You should have three subtopics .

5. Draft a minimum five paragraph essay about your topic. (You may want make an outline first).  Include an introduction , at least  three body paragraphs (three subtopics) , and a conclusion .

6. Use MyBib for citations and attach your Works Cited to the last page.

Video Tutorials!

Did you miss something?  View the video of today's class:

Overview MyBib.com

1920s research paper thesis

Gale Virtual Reference Library  is a collection of 336 reference encyclopedias. Type in  your topic  and  1920s .  Home login:   montytech1     

Short Analysis Template

For a copy of the short analysis template,  click here.

How to Write the Short Analysis Essay

  • React personally, however, do no use personal pronouns. Never write: “In my opinion…” Or “I think…”
  • Put order to your argument, starting with the least compelling evidence and building to the most impressive point. 
  • Use evidence from all articles to support your opinion. 

Short analysis format:

Introduction Paragraph:

  • Write an interesting “hook” sentence that makes the reader want to read on.
  • Briefly state the main points of your essay. Provide some background for your thesis.
  • Strong statement of thesis. What you argue in your essay?

Examples of the beginnings of thesis statements:

  • The Great Depression transformed American society in fundamental ways such...
  • The 1930s witnessed a complete change in the way women worked due to ....
  • Harper Lee was instrumental in breaking barriers in ... and .... with her classic novel, To Kill a Mockingbird.

Supporting Paragraphs:

  • For each supporting paragraph bring down a briefly stated main point & then elaborate.
  • Use your voice to discuss the prompt and the main point.
  • Use evidence from the article to support your ideas.
  • Discuss one point per supporting paragraph.
  • Use both articles in your essay.  Choose one that you feel more strongly about.  Use the other article to dismiss 
  • Incorporate in-text citations from the article.  Use  lead-in words  such as "According to," "As stated by," etc.  
  • Use transition words to make the supporting paragraphs flow such as furthermore, in addition, moreover, first, second, third, finally, again, also, and, besides, further, in the first place, last, likewise, next, then.

Conclusion Paragraph:

  • Restate your thesis / main idea.
  • Summarize your main points. (Tie up any loose ends.)
  • Create an strongly worded “clincher” sentence to end your conclusion.
  • Never introduce new information in the conclusion.

Works Cited:

  • A Works Cited is mandatory. (2 references required).  Use  MyBib.com
  • Include citation information from both articles.
  • Next: Topic List >>
  • Last Updated: Feb 6, 2024 9:35 AM
  • URL: https://montytech.libguides.com/1920sGerry

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The Roaring 20s

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Related Research Guides

Subject-focused encyclopedias.

Need to select a research topic or find background information?  

The Reference Collection includes a variety of different sources, such as: subject-focused encyclopedias, handbooks, almanacs, maps/atlases, statistical compendiums, dictionaries, and more.   Look here to find introductory articles on subject-related topics. The broad perspective offered by such articles often proves helpful for narrowing research topics before pursuing more in-depth information.  

This guide provides some recommendations for encyclopedias and other reference resources that might provide helpful information relating to your topic.

Recommended Subject-Focused Encyclopedias

1920s research paper thesis

The 1920s (1920-1929)

Electronic Resource

1920s research paper thesis

Columbia Companion to American History on Film

1920s research paper thesis

Encyclopedia of Women's History in America

Reference Collection Annex - 2nd Floor

1920s research paper thesis

Family in Society: Essential Primary Sources

Main Collection (Second Floor)

1920s research paper thesis

Flappers: A Guide to an American Subculture

1920s research paper thesis

Great Depression: The Jazz Age, Prohibition, and the Great Depression, 1921-1937

1920s research paper thesis

Immigration in U. S. History

Reference Collection (Second Floor) Volumes 1-2

1920s research paper thesis

Jazz Age: Popular Music in the 1920s

1920s research paper thesis

Roaring 20's and the Wall Street Crash

1920s research paper thesis

Social History of the United States: The 1920s

Reference Collection (Second Floor)

1920s research paper thesis

Twenties in America

1920s research paper thesis

Twenties in America: Politics and History

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Recommended Multimedia Databases

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  • Last Updated: Apr 19, 2024 2:53 PM
  • URL: https://libguides.kean.edu/roaringtwwenties

Sociological Studies of American Life in the 1920s

  • First Online: 22 August 2018

Cite this chapter

1920s research paper thesis

  • Robert C. Hauhart 2  

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The 1920s in the USA was an era characterized by the conflicting social themes epitomized by Prohibition and its polar incarnation—the Jazz Age. Mainstream American sociology was also drawn to divergent styles. Pitirim Sorokin of Harvard wrote his seminal Social Mobility in an attempt to generalize about patterns of inequality and ranking in society, establishing the groundwork for studies in social stratification ever since. Robert and Helen Lynd, invited to study religion in American life, expanded their inquiry into two heralded accounts of the American way of life in a small, Midwestern city—Muncie, IN. Together, these works established a recognition that the American Dream encapsulated different experiences, but often the same dreams, for Americans from different classes.

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Hauhart, R.C. (2016). Sociological Studies of American Life in the 1920s. In: Seeking the American Dream. Palgrave Macmillan, New York. https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-54025-6_3

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DOI : https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-54025-6_3

Published : 22 August 2018

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US History: Resources by Decade: 1920s

1920s: resources from database u.s. history in context (gale).

  • U.S. History in Context (Gale): 1920s This link contains a variety of content (e.g. an overview, academic journals, primary sources, images, references) on the 1920s.

1920s research paper thesis

Barnett, Thomas P. (American architect, 1870-1929), Role: painter. (Work: 1922, Era: CE, Image Date: 1989). Riches of the Mines, detail view. [mural paintings (visual works)].  https://library.artstor.org/public/SS7732236_7732236_12897144

Ebooks and Print Books: USA in 1920s

Cover Art

  • << Previous: 1910s
  • Next: 1930s >>
  • Last Updated: Jan 19, 2024 11:50 AM
  • URL: https://libguides.polk.edu/usabydecade

Polk State College is committed to equal access/equal opportunity in its programs, activities, and employment. For additional information, visit polk.edu/compliance .

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The Other Side of the 1920s

Students will research in a group setting and prepare a written report or a PowerPoint presentation (complete with notes) about some aspect of the 1920s that does not fit the stereotype this era. Specifically they can research the conditions of African-Americans or women.

Although the "Roaring Twenties" or the "Jazz Age" may accurately represent part of the America of the 1920s, it certainly did not reflect the experience of all Americans. Students need to examine the experiences of the "other America" to get as complete a view of the history of the time as possible.

  • Research and analyze one aspect of the 1920s (African-Americans or women) that is outside of the stereotype.
  • Use primary and secondary sources in discovering history.
  • MO CLE 6 L Analyze how the roles of class, ethnic, racial, gender and age groups have changed in society, including causes and effects
  • MO CLE 7 A Distinguish between and analyze primary sources and secondary sources
  • AP US History 1920's New Era: The ongoing struggle for equality: African Americans and women

Missouri Standards

2. Continuity and change in the history of Missouri, the United States and the world

6. Relationships of the individual and groups to institutions and cultural traditions

Kansas Standards

Benchmark 1: The student uses a working knowledge and understanding of individuals, groups, ideas, developments, and turning points in the era of the emergence of the modern United States (1890-1930).

8. (K) retraces the progress of the women’s suffrage movement from the state to the national arena (e.g., Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Alice Paul, states granting voting rights in the 19th Amendment).

9. (A) analyzes factors that contributed to changes in work, production and the rise of a consumer culture during the 1920’s (e.g., leisure time, technology, communication, travel, assembly line, credit buying).

Benchmark 5: The student engages in historical thinking skills.

1. (A) analyzes a theme in United States history to explain patterns of continuity and change over time.

  • Any AP or college text.
  • Postage Stamp Image - image of US postage stamp with an African-American jazz ban.

Below is a partial list of some websites that might be useful in research if the teachers choose to help students narrow their search.

  • General 1920s
  • Tulsa Race Riots
  • Living Conditions during Coolidge era (some are complex)
  • African-Americans
  • Oral histories of working men
  • Sacco v. Vanzetti
  • Women’s Lives
  • Working Women Image
  • Working Class Image
  • AA family image
  • Image of African-American children from the 1920s
  • Image of women working in office in 1920s
  • This assignment is designed for AP students in the third quarter of the year. They should be relatively self-directed by this point.
  • After students have completed reading the chapter in their text on the 1920s, use the pictures in the text as the jumping off point for the assignment. Every American history text has a picture of flappers and a picture of an African-American jazz band. If you have trouble with the African-American jazz band, an image location is listed above.
  • The challenge to the AP students now is to find out how accurate these images are in representing the real situation of women and African-Americans. They are to research using both primary and secondary sources to assess the validity of these images as representing not the ideal but the reality of these groups during the 1920s. Do these images reflect the reality of the majority of the populations (remind students that all women should be considered and not just WASP’s)? If not then, what were the realities for women and African-Americans during the 1920s in America?
  • Students should be divided into groups of 3 or 4.
  • They have the option of presenting their findings in either a PowerPoint, with extensive notes added to the notes section or as a paper that would include graphics. Either way, I like students to hand their work in electronically so that it can be posted on drives with student access.
  • Minimum of 4 primary sources (only 2 photos may count towards this total) and 2 secondary sources (textbook does not count)—fully documented.
  • Students should use electronic and print resources.
  • Should be "stand-alone"when done, meaning that another student can pick up the paper or the PowerPoint and fully understand the message without any further explanation.
  • Although a partial list of websites is provided by me below, I would probably not provided these to my AP students—these are AP students who have been trained in research.
  • No predetermined length, but the questions should be fully addressed (AP students should have a feel at this point in the year of what is expected.). A clear thesis is expected at the beginning of the assignment.
  • Teachers can allow students to present their work if time permits or simply to turn them in and make them available to other students. Presentations would be ideal, but realistically sometimes in AP time is not available.
  • The points would vary based on the point-value the teacher would assign to the project.
  • Obviously the categories could also be weighted if a teacher wanted to emphasize one particular aspect of the project.

Rubric for 1920s Project

Student Name(s)_____________________________Final Grade________

  • Bibliography
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Dissertations / Theses on the topic '1920s American History'

Create a spot-on reference in apa, mla, chicago, harvard, and other styles.

Consult the top 50 dissertations / theses for your research on the topic '1920s American History.'

Next to every source in the list of references, there is an 'Add to bibliography' button. Press on it, and we will generate automatically the bibliographic reference to the chosen work in the citation style you need: APA, MLA, Harvard, Chicago, Vancouver, etc.

You can also download the full text of the academic publication as pdf and read online its abstract whenever available in the metadata.

Browse dissertations / theses on a wide variety of disciplines and organise your bibliography correctly.

Holbrook, Joseph. "Catholic Student Movements in Latin America: Cuba and Brazil, 1920s to 1960s." FIU Digital Commons, 2013. http://digitalcommons.fiu.edu/etd/1013.

Hernandez, Miguel. "Fighting fraternities : the Ku Klux Klan and Freemasonry in 1920s America." Thesis, University of Exeter, 2014. http://hdl.handle.net/10871/16509.

Turnbull, Lindsey. "White and Black Womanhoods and Their Representations in 1920s American Advertising." Master's thesis, University of Central Florida, 2012. http://digital.library.ucf.edu/cdm/ref/collection/ETD/id/5544.

Thomas, Brandy S. "“Give the Women Their Due”: Black Female Missionaries and the South African-American Nexus, 1920s-1930s." The Ohio State University, 2011. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1294339297.

Slonaker, Randall Scott. "THE FAILED CRUSADE: THE KU KLUX KLAN AND PUBLIC EDUCATION REFORM IN THE 1920s." Kent State University Honors College / OhioLINK, 2016. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=ksuhonors1462807359.

Whitehead, Aaron T. "The “Fatty” Arbuckle Scandal, Will Hays, and Negotiated Morality in 1920s America." TopSCHOLAR®, 2015. http://digitalcommons.wku.edu/theses/1469.

Viglio, Steve Anthony. "The Ku Klux Klan in Northeast Ohio: The Crusade of White Supremacy in the 1920s." Youngstown State University / OhioLINK, 2021. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=ysu1629396642103053.

Glennon, Jenny L. "American ways and their meaning : Edith Wharton's post-war fiction and American history, ideology, and national identity." Thesis, University of Oxford, 2011. http://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:59954615-29ff-4da4-8632-b9887c24c218.

Dickey, Chandra. "Bridges Not Pedestals: Purpose, Reactions, and Benefits of Three Black Liberal Arts Institutions in Atlanta, 1880s-1920s." Scholarship @ Claremont, 2016. http://scholarship.claremont.edu/scripps_theses/873.

Engren, Jimmy. "Railroading and Labor Migration : Class and Ethnicity in Expanding Capitalism in Northern Minnesote, the 1880s to the mid 1920s." Doctoral thesis, Växjö universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, 2007. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:vxu:diva-1636.

Sparks, Emily. "The "Dangerous Chance of Being a Flapper:" The Black Flapper's Challenge to Respectability in the Chicago Defender , 1920-1929." Case Western Reserve University School of Graduate Studies / OhioLINK, 2018. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=case1523038600884478.

Antonucci, Ryan J. "Changing Perceptions of il DuceTracing Political Trends in the Italian-American Media during the Early Years of Fascism." Youngstown State University / OhioLINK, 2013. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=ysu1379111698.

Zampogna, Ashley Marie. "America May not Perish: The Italian-American Fight against the Ku Klux Klan in the Mahoning Valley." Connect to resource online, 2008. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=ysu1210862076.

Viscardi, Roberta Fabbri. "A posição do narrador em The Great Gatsby de F. Scott Fitzgerald." Universidade de São Paulo, 2011. http://www.teses.usp.br/teses/disponiveis/8/8147/tde-14072011-144245/.

Kinser, Jonathan A. "Beneath the Smoke of the Flaming Circle: Extinguishing the Fiery Cross of the 1920s Klan in the North." Case Western Reserve University School of Graduate Studies / OhioLINK, 2017. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=case1491564321579784.

Svensson, Albin. "Facklan - gemenskap över gränser : Tidningen som verktyg för att förstärka banden inom Skandinaviska Socialistförbundet i Chicago 1921-1922." Thesis, Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för kulturvetenskaper (KV), 2021. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-101308.

Kirshner, Eli Martin. "Race, Mines and Picket Lines: The 1925-1928 Western Pennsylvania Bituminous Coal Strike." Oberlin College Honors Theses / OhioLINK, 2020. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=oberlin158825965126023.

Kim, Esther Songie. "Asian American Theatre History From the 1960s to 1990s: Actors, Playwrights, Communities, and Producers." The Ohio State University, 2000. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1392814758.

Ruhl, Melissa. ""Forward You Must Go": Chemawa Indian Boarding School and Student Activism in the 1960s and 1970s." Thesis, University of Oregon, 2011. http://hdl.handle.net/1794/11484.

Yee, Alfred. "The rise, dominance, and passing of Chinese American supermarkets in Northern California, 1930s-1970s /." The Ohio State University, 2000. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1488192447428213.

Grannis, Emily R. "Hard Pressed: The Paraguayan Media and Democratic Transition, 1980s-1990s." Ohio University Honors Tutorial College / OhioLINK, 2010. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=ouhonors1274923325.

Leib, Joelle. "How to be a Good Neighbor: Christianity's Role in Enacting Non-interventionist Policies in Latin America During the 1930s and 1940s." Scholarship @ Claremont, 2017. http://scholarship.claremont.edu/scripps_theses/1069.

Kite-Powell, Rodney. "In Search of David Paul Davis." [Tampa, Fla.] : University of South Florida, 2003. http://purl.fcla.edu/fcla/etd/SFE0000200.

Kvet, Bryan W. "Red and White on the Silver Screen: The Shifting Meaning and Use of American Indians in Hollywood Films from the 1930s to the 1970s." Kent State University / OhioLINK, 2016. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=kent1449250157.

de, los Reyes Vanessa. "From Conformity to Protest: The Evolution of Latinos in American Popular Culture, 1930s-1980s." University of Cincinnati / OhioLINK, 2017. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=ucin1505205872234436.

Bowden, Robin L. "Diagnosing Nazism U.S. perceptions of National Socialism, 1920-1933 /." [Kent, Ohio] : Kent State University, 2009. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc%5Fnum=kent1247588433.

Coretto, Elizabeth A. ""The Fountain Pen and the Typewriter": The Rise of the Homophile Press in the 1950s and 1960s." Oberlin College Honors Theses / OhioLINK, 2017. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=oberlin1495032110826066.

Ito, Emma T. "The Japanese Experience in Virginia, 1900s-1950s: Jim Crow to Internment." VCU Scholars Compass, 2017. http://scholarscompass.vcu.edu/etd/4832.

Snoyman, Natalie. ""In to Stay" : Selling Three-Strip Technicolor and Fashion in the 1930s and 1940s." Doctoral thesis, Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för mediestudier, 2017. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:su:diva-146279.

Dauterive, Jessica A. "Picturing the Cajun Revival: Swallow Records, Album Art, and Marketing an Identity of South Louisiana, 1960s-1970s." ScholarWorks@UNO, 2016. http://scholarworks.uno.edu/td/2138.

Streator, Campbell. ""Pig-Sawce" and Politics: The History of Barbecue as a Political Institution in the United States." Scholarship @ Claremont, 2018. http://scholarship.claremont.edu/cmc_theses/1920.

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Katito, George. "Pink Atlantic : American Global Power and the Construction of Gay Identities in Paris and London (1940s-1980s)." Thesis, Sorbonne université, 2020. http://www.theses.fr/2020SORUL014.

Gephardt, Dennis Marklin. "American Newsreels of the 1930s." W&M ScholarWorks, 1998. https://scholarworks.wm.edu/etd/1539626183.

Wells, Brandy Thomas. "“She Pieced and Stitched and Quilted, Never Wavering nor Doubting”:A Historical Tapestry of African American Women’s Internationalism, 1890s-1960s." The Ohio State University, 2015. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1440177494.

Bates, Toby Glenn. "The Reagan rhetoric : history and memory in 1980s America /." Full text available from ProQuest UM Digital Dissertations, 2006. http://0-proquest.umi.com.umiss.lib.olemiss.edu/pqdweb?index=0&did=1273095661&SrchMode=1&sid=1&Fmt=2&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1193075944&clientId=22256.

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1920s History in America Essay

The 1920s were years of prosperity and peace in America. This period, also known as the roaring twenties, is a decade that started with the end of the First World War and ended with the start of the great depression of the 1930s.

America came out of World War I victorious and prospered in its economic growth becoming the world’s strongest economy. In addition, there was widespread modernization and increased consumerism. The modernization made most Americans to shun their mostly traditional culture and started embracing the new culture.

The level of innovation increased in America and this led to rapid industrial growth, increased consumer demand and aspirations as well as marked changes in lifestyle. In this period, literature also flourished with artists employing different forms of literary works for different reasons and functions. Even though this period seemed to have great achievements, most Americans were disappointed in some aspects of their lifestyle and reacted in different ways.

Most American writers were disenchanted with the turn of events during this decade. Some of these events included modernization that led to abandonment of the traditional culture, consumerism, materialism, societal stratification, and racial discrimination. The modernization led to marked cultural and social changes in the lifestyles of the American people.

This made people to concentrate more on modernization, industrialization, development and wealth creation. The American people were divided into different classes depending on their economic achievements. Those who were not very successful became less significant in the society. Most American writers of this time were against materialism and this made them to be discouraged with the lifestyle that most of their fellow citizens had adopted.

Consequently, with the increase in economic growth the culture of the American people changed. There was clear cultural contrasts and conflict between modernism and traditionalism. Some were holding to the new cultural practices. On the other hand, others, represented by the American writers wanted to cling to their traditional culture. Those who were intellectuals in the society “were quick to expose the era’s hypocrisies” (Norton, Sheriff & Blight, 646). This issue made the writers to feel out of place in the society and they started to oppose any attempts of conforming to the new cultures.

Most of the Americans, especially the African Americans, expected the new era to end racial discrimination; however, this was not the case. Racial discrimination against the Negros was common in America in the 1920s. Still, there were those people who believed in white supremacy and looked down on others. Some African Americans also felt inferior and struggled to embrace the culture and lifestyle of the white people. This did not please the Negro writers who wanted the African Americans to be proud of their culture and develop it.

There was also social stratification in the African American community, where three classes were distinct. The lower class African Americans were poor but liked their culture. The upper class Africans Americas were rich and wanted to emulate the lifestyle and culture of the white people. The middle class African Americans comprised of African elites and the majority of the African American writers. This middle class people discouraged racism and segregation; thus, this encouraged unity in the African American community.

The American writers expressed their discontentment to the situation in their country during this decade in varied ways. Some could not bear with the situation and decided to leave while others remained in the country and expressed their discouragement and disillusionment with what they were witnessing. Writers like Ernest Hemingway, T. S. Eliot and Ezra Pound fled America and sought refuge in Europe (Norton, Sheriff & Blight, 646).

They could not stand the materialism they witnessed and instead of facing it, they decided to run away from it. The writers who remained in the country include William Faulkner and Sinclair Lewis. These were novelists and used their writings to express their disillusionment with the kind of materialism they witnessed in America.

The discontentment also inspired the middle class African Americans to form a new generation. The 1920s was a period of artistic proliferation for these African Americans in what they called the Harlem Renaissance. This group of African Americans was proud of their African heritage and rejected the culture of the white people. Their expectation was to see an end of racial discrimination and white supremacy over them.

They strongly rose against these beliefs and practices. Therefore, they made their efforts to be felt not only in the United States, but also in the rest of the world. They used their literature to communicate their feelings and wants towards the white people as well as to the black people’s community (“Clash of Cultures” para. 8). Some of the African American writers who actively participated in the Harlem Renaissance in the 1920s include Langston Hughes, Zora Neale, and Jessie Fauset among others.

In conclusion, World War I and the great recession of 1930s marked the boundaries of America’s 1920s history. This was a period of great economic growth and rapid industrialization in America. Even though America was successful then, its developments did not please some of its residents who held strongly to their traditional lifestyle.

Modernization, materialism and racism were common during this time. And “beneath the new era’s materialism, prejudice and ethnic tensions tainted the American Dream” (Norton, Sheriff & Blight, 650). This made some of the American writers to flee the country while others remained and used their literature to condemn the social, economic and political evils in their society.

Works Cited

“ Clash of Cultures ”. United States History . US Department of State , n.d. Web.

Norton, Marybeth, Sheriff, Carol, and Blight, David W. A people and a nation: a history of the United States since 1865: Volume 2. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning Inc., 2009. Print.

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Jazz in the 1920s and Its influences on america

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Good Research Paper On Flappers From The 1920s

Type of paper: Research Paper

Topic: Jazz , Generation , Fashion , Youth , Society , Women , Music , Teenagers

Words: 1600

Published: 03/08/2020


There are various features that describe the flappers form the 1920’s. Before the Roaring Twenties, women were wearing long dresses that covered their legs and arms. Women also had long hair, and women were not allowed to vote or go against the conventional behaviors in society. When the 1920’s came, things changed tremendously. In fact, the 19th Amendments that was passed in the 1920 marked the beginning of these changes. The 19th Amendments gave women the right to vote. It was during this moment that most women began to attend schools and college education. During the First World War, energetic men who worked in factories and industries went to war. Hence, women began to replace men in the workplace. After the First World War, men came back and wanted their jobs. Women, on the other hand, had tested a new life and realized how their life could go beyond homemaking and caregiving. Women were not ready to leave their jobs and the life they had tested. These marked the begging of new generation women. There are various factors that led to the rise of Flappers from the 1920’s. These factors include push for equal rights, freedom experienced in the workplace, technological innovation, greater mobility, as well as disposable income. In fact, these factors exposed individuals to new ideas, places and advanced ways of living. The flappers had viewed the older generation of women as disgraceful, wild, and boisterous and wanted nothing to do with their lifestyles. The new young generation reinvented itself and developed the flapper lifestyle that is known in the modern society. The Roaring Twenties was significantly symbolized by the new women called the flapper. The flappers are one of the enduring images of the young generation in the 20th century. Even in the 21st century, flappers are still close to the minds and hearts of many American. In the 1920’s, many people in American viewed flappers as a threat to the society. These are because the flappers were a representative of the new social and moral order. The flappers were the daughter of the middle-class in the America, but they disobeyed all the values of the middle-class. A new generation of women flirted and danced in a suggestive manner with the boys. In fact, flappers valued the pleasure over virtue, novelty over traditions, as well as style over substance. These are clear indication that flappers focused in triumphs of the modern society. From 1920’s, flappers became the cultural topic due to the many changes that came with. Flappers were single, urban, middle-calls and young women. Many of the flappers had steady jobs due to the changes in that were taking place in the American economy. The clerking jobs were many, and the consumer economy in America encouraged the changing lifestyle of flappers. The behaviors of Flappers during these periods were eccentric since it defied women roles. In fact, the media branded them as reckless, pleasure-loving, and ready to defy the conventional behaviors through sexual relationships. One of the significant changes that defined flappers form the 1920’s was fashion. In fact, they were known for their new fashion that came. As a result, if the developing French fashion. Before 1920’s, women fashion was very important, but these was at its peak during the era of flappers. The flapper's fashion style made young women and girls to look boyish. These fashion styles were characterized by flattered breasts, short hair, as well as straight waists. The fashion of flappers brought many scandals, but their appearance was fashionable and respectable older women could not resist it. The flappers the corset wore short skirts and made popular short hairstyle. In the modern society, the outer clothing style of flappers is still identified. The classify flapper’s dress code was meant to enjoy wonderful times in the city with friends. The entire outfit was fitting and showed a little skin. The dress was also accessorized with beads, lace, and loud fringe, which attracted many people. The revealing outfits were tempting and the fact that flappers enjoyed dancing meant that young men had plenty of legs to look. These were a major challenge to conventional culture and values. The older generation viewed this type of dress code as pornographic. The accessories and hair was a new style that flappers introduced. The boyish haircuts became popular, which included shingle bob, bob cut, and Eton cut. On the same, not flappers used hats and the famous styles included Cloche hat and Newsboy hat. On the same note, women favored the step in panties at the expense of corsets. During dancing, flappers wore bust bodies in order to restrain their chest movement. In addition, they introduced new type of corsets that were softer, which brought about new appearance. The use of Symington side lacer as the bra flattened their chest making most of the women envious. Flappers were iconic symbol of jazz music and the jazz age. In the 1920’s, prohibition was in effect but music and liquor were available, especially in the cities. The fashions of the flappers were driven by the urge to dance to jazz music. Hence, the flappers gave up the old-fashioned clothes and victoria clothing for more practical dancing styles, especially to jazz music. In fact, the upswept hairstyle was abandoned by the flappers. Jazz music was the best for flappers since it was syncopated and loud. In fact, jazz music was very different from the old generations for of music, which was listened to by the flappers’ patents. Despite the fact that jazz was considered evil, flappers still enjoyed dancing to it. Parents asserted that jazz music was a bad influence to the young generation and was blamed for deafness and drunkenness among the youth. Jazz became immensely popular in society. Jazz music challenged the social morality of society and even created some sense of ethnic differentiation. The flapper girls enjoyed jazz music in the clubs, and the old fashioned ideas and style had no chance. Petting parties from 1920’s became more common compared to the Victorian era, which existed in the past. Petting parties attracted many women. The petting parties took place mostly in colleges were young people enjoyed unsupervised interaction. The use of slang words was also a major characteristic among the young generation from the 1920’s. Flappers used slang words such as necking parties, “necker”, and “heavy necker”. In fact, jazz was used to represent any interesting and exciting things. The language that was used by flappers from the 1920’s reflected feelings about drinking habits, dating, as well as marriage. The layered necklace look was another crucial style for the flappers. During these eras, Coco Channel made popular these sorts of style. It encouraged young women to pile many chains, ropes, jewelry, and beads. The make-up rites also became part of fashion among the flappers. Women used more of lipsticks due to intention of the metal lipstick container. The stylish looks, lifestyles and jobs of the flappers overturned the Victorian era. Flappers focused on their jobs and challenged the societal norms by working outside home. Flappers disregarded rigid and old ideas and embraced personal choice and consumerism. The flappers’ era came to an end during the great depression. The lifestyle disappeared at the age Wall Street Crash. In the general perceptive, flappers wee the iconic symbol from the 1920’s. As a matter of fact, flapper from the 1920’s brought tremendous changes in society that is believed to have a major influence in the modern society. Being flapper girls from 1920’s entailed dress code, language, music, women roles, as well as dancing. Studies show that the flapper girls in the 1920’s flourished their unconventional behavior and dress. The flappers came from middle-class in America, but they rebelled against all the conventional behaviors and lifestyle of the middle class. Flappers wore a short dress that showed some part of their legs. Some of the crucial characteristics of flappers included jazz music, dancing, short hair, short dress, use of make-ups, apparels, lingerie, cosmetics, petting parties, as well as slang language. From the 1920’s, life seems to be moving very fast due to the changes brought about by flappers. Women began to go to work at the expense of a conventional house making. Flappers from 1920 have brought many changes in America.


"Las Pelonas" in Manuel Gamio, The Life Story of the Mexican Immigrant (New York: Dover, 1971), 308. F. Scott Fitzgerald, "Bernice Bobs Her Hair," short story, 1920 University of South Carolina Press Gourley, Catherine. 2008. Divas, flappers, and the new American woman: women's images and issues in the 1920s. Minneapolis: Twenty-First Century Books. Hudovernik, Robert. Jazz Age Beauties: The Lost Collection of Ziegfeld Photographer Alfred Cheney Johnston. 2006 Irene Castle Treman, “I Bobbed My Hair and Then—,” Ladies Home Journal, October 1921, 124; Mary Garden “Why I Bobbed My Hair,” Pictorial Review, April 1927, 8; Mary Pickford, “Why I Have Not Bobbed Mine,” Pictorial Review, April 1927, 9. Life, February 18, 1926—Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress. Revivalist Calls Modern Girls 'Hell Cats with Muddy Minds,'" The Atlanta Constitution, March 2, 1927. Bessie T. Fortson, letter to the editor, The Atlanta Constitution, March 5, 1927. Sagert, Kelly Boyer. 2010. Flappers: a guide to an American subculture. Santa Barbara, Calif: Greenwood Press.


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When Protectionism Kills Talent

We examine the repercussions of protectionist policies implemented in the United States since 2018 on the composition of workforce and career choices within the semiconductor industry. We find that the shift towards protectionism, aimed at reviving domestic manufacturing and employment, paradoxically resulted in a significant drop in hiring domestic talent. The effect is stronger for entry-level and junior positions, indicating a disproportionate impact on newcomers to the workforce. Additionally, we trace the trajectories of undergraduate and graduate cohorts possessing chip-related skills over time, and document significant shifts away from the chip industry.

We are grateful to Alex Butler, John Griffin, Ahmet Gulek, Tom Meling, Jungu Myung, René Stulz, Yufeng Wu, Alminas Zaldokas, and seminar participants at the Pennsylvania State University for helpful feedback. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Bureau of Economic Research.


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    Consult the top 50 dissertations / theses for your research on the topic '1920s American History.' ... interactions will help us comprehend how the Ku Klux Klan managed to become the foremost fraternal movement of the 1920s. This thesis will analyse a number of different aspects about the Ku Klux Klan, from their ideology and rituals to their ...

  16. A History of the Roaring 20s Era: [Essay Example], 721 words

    Get original essay. The 1920's, also known as the Roaring Twenties or Jazz age, were an age of dramatic technological, economical, political, and social change. This decade of change that followed World War I was filled with liberated women known as flappers, speakeasies that violated the laws of Prohibition, and a rising stock market.

  17. 1920s History in America

    Exclusively available on IvyPanda. Updated: Dec 20th, 2023. The 1920s were years of prosperity and peace in America. This period, also known as the roaring twenties, is a decade that started with the end of the First World War and ended with the start of the great depression of the 1930s. We will write a custom essay on your topic.

  18. PDF 1920's Research Topics

    1920's writers. T.S. Eliot Eugene O'Neill. H.L. Mencken. F. Scott Fitzgerald Sherwood Anderson Edith Wharton Claude McKay John Dos Passos Ernest Hemingway Sinclair Lewis Willa Cather Langston Hughes Lost Generation of writers Advertising (cigarettes, etc.) Radio broadcasting 1920's art Edward Hopper Movie industry Charles Lindbergh Harlem ...

  19. PDF 1920s Research Topics(2)

    1920s Research Poster & Presentation Project Topics Choose a 1920s topic to research from the list below. 1. Prohibition 2. 19th Amendment 3. Scopes Monkey Trial 4. Sacco Vanzetti Case 5. Movies of the 1920s 6. Radio in the 1920s KDKA 7. Jazz Music - 1920s 8. Al Capone 9. Speakeasies 10. Flappers 11. Dance Styles 12. Golden Age of Sports 13 ...

  20. 1920s Essays: Examples, Topics, & Outlines

    minimum sources... research 1920 sport write ... A thesis, attention catcher, topic sentence? 1920s sport: Swimming The 1920s was called the 'Roaring 20s' in America. It was accompanied by expanded prosperity for many middle class Americans and the rise of the 'flapper,' the sexually liberated and independent young woman.

  21. The Dynamic Transformation of Sports in the Roaring Twenties Free Essay

    1080. The "Roaring Twenties" marked a transformative era for sports, witnessing significant changes, expansions, and the emergence of new sporting heroes. As the country emerged from the shadows of war, sports played a pivotal role in uplifting the spirits of Americans and fostering a sense of unity. This essay delves into the dynamic changes ...

  22. Jazz in the 1920s and Its influences on america

    The birth of jazz literally trumpeted the birth of a new, modern philosophy of changing things that need to be changed. The jazz age closed the door to needless traditions of old thinking and opened the door to freethinking for all Americans. In short, the jazz age was one more step in making America truly equal in the fight for civil rights.

  23. School Equalization in the Shadow of Jim Crow: Causes and Consequences

    A school finance equalization program established in Mississippi in 1920 failed to help many of the state's Black students—an outcome that was typical in the segregated U.S. South (Horace Mann Bond, 1934). ... This paper describes workers' opportunities to switch establishments within multi-establishment firms and assesses their impact on ...

  24. Good Research Paper On Flappers From The 1920s

    Some of the crucial characteristics of flappers included jazz music, dancing, short hair, short dress, use of make-ups, apparels, lingerie, cosmetics, petting parties, as well as slang language. From the 1920's, life seems to be moving very fast due to the changes brought about by flappers.

  25. The Macroeconomic Impact of Climate Change: Global vs. Local

    Working Paper 32450. DOI 10.3386/w32450. Issue Date May 2024. This paper estimates that the macroeconomic damages from climate change are six times larger than previously thought. We exploit natural variability in global temperature and rely on time-series variation. A 1°C increase in global temperature leads to a 12% decline in world GDP.

  26. Cities as Engines of Opportunities: Evidence from Brazil

    Working Paper 32426. DOI 10.3386/w32426. Issue Date May 2024. Are developing-world cities engines of opportunities for low-wage earners? In this study, we track a cohort of young low-income workers in Brazil for thirteen years to explore the contribution of factors such as industrial structure and skill segregation on upward income mobility. We ...

  27. PDF Academic Phrasebank

    The central thesis of this paper is that …. The aim of the paper is to provide a conceptual theoretical framework based on…. The purpose of this paper is to review recent research into the …. Stating the purpose of research The major objective of this study was to investigate ….. The aim of this study was to clarify several aspects of ….

  28. What Went Wrong with Federal Student Loans?

    Founded in 1920, the NBER is a private, non-profit, non-partisan organization dedicated to conducting economic research and to disseminating research findings among academics, public policy makers, and business professionals. ... Working Paper 32469 DOI 10.3386/w32469

  29. When Protectionism Kills Talent

    Founded in 1920, the NBER is a private, ... Research; Working Papers; When Protectionism Kills Talent When Protectionism Kills Talent. Mehmet I. Canayaz, Isil Erel & Umit G. Gurun. Share. X LinkedIn Email. Working Paper 32466 DOI 10.3386/w32466 Issue Date May 2024. We examine the repercussions of protectionist policies implemented in the United ...