The Importance of Being Earnest
What is the most accurate conclusion that can be drawn about Algernon based on Jack’s words?
Read the excerpt from Act III of The Importance of Being Earnest .
Jack . I fear there can be no possible doubt about the matter. This afternoon during my temporary absence in London on an important question of romance, he obtained admission to my house by means of the false pretence of being my brother. Under an assumed name he drank, I’ve just been informed by my butler, an entire pint bottle of my Perrier-Jouet, Brut, ’89; wine I was specially reserving for myself. Continuing his disgraceful deception, he succeeded in the course of the afternoon in alienating the affections of my only ward.
From this scene, we can inger that Algernon is less than honorable.... he is deceitful and manipulative. He's also not the best person to choose for a friend.
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Lara's Honors English Blog
Welcome to my blog. This is solely for my honors English world literature class.
Monday, May 25, 2015
Lotf chapter 10 core questions.
- Ralph keeps repeating, "That was Simon," and said, "That was murder." (Golding 156). He remembered the hunters' dance and how they encircled Simon and beat him to death. He even said, "P'raps he was only pretending," but he truly felt guilty about Simon's death. (Golding 157)
- Piggy was unable to clearly see what was happening to Simon within the circle because he was outside of the circle. Not only that, but he can only see from one eye because of his glasses. (Golding 155). Piggy kept insisting that what happened to Simon was an accident and that they needed to move on and forget about the event. (Golding 157).
- SamnEric were tired last night, so they left the dance and the feast with the other boys early. They stated, "Yes. We were very tired, so we left early. Was it a good dance?" (Golding 158).
- Who is the chief now and how do we know? The scene where Jack and his friends attack Ralph's camp is both violent and comical. Write a script that includes actions (very few words necessary) for each of the following characters: Piggy, Ralph, Sam, Eric, Jack, and Roger during the raid .
Post a comment.
What this handout is about.
This handout will explain the functions of conclusions, offer strategies for writing effective ones, help you evaluate conclusions you’ve drafted, and suggest approaches to avoid.
Introductions and conclusions can be difficult to write, but they’re worth investing time in. They can have a significant influence on a reader’s experience of your paper.
Just as your introduction acts as a bridge that transports your readers from their own lives into the “place” of your analysis, your conclusion can provide a bridge to help your readers make the transition back to their daily lives. Such a conclusion will help them see why all your analysis and information should matter to them after they put the paper down.
Your conclusion is your chance to have the last word on the subject. The conclusion allows you to have the final say on the issues you have raised in your paper, to synthesize your thoughts, to demonstrate the importance of your ideas, and to propel your reader to a new view of the subject. It is also your opportunity to make a good final impression and to end on a positive note.
Your conclusion can go beyond the confines of the assignment. The conclusion pushes beyond the boundaries of the prompt and allows you to consider broader issues, make new connections, and elaborate on the significance of your findings.
Your conclusion should make your readers glad they read your paper. Your conclusion gives your reader something to take away that will help them see things differently or appreciate your topic in personally relevant ways. It can suggest broader implications that will not only interest your reader, but also enrich your reader’s life in some way. It is your gift to the reader.
Strategies for writing an effective conclusion
One or more of the following strategies may help you write an effective conclusion:
- Play the “So What” Game. If you’re stuck and feel like your conclusion isn’t saying anything new or interesting, ask a friend to read it with you. Whenever you make a statement from your conclusion, ask the friend to say, “So what?” or “Why should anybody care?” Then ponder that question and answer it. Here’s how it might go: You: Basically, I’m just saying that education was important to Douglass. Friend: So what? You: Well, it was important because it was a key to him feeling like a free and equal citizen. Friend: Why should anybody care? You: That’s important because plantation owners tried to keep slaves from being educated so that they could maintain control. When Douglass obtained an education, he undermined that control personally. You can also use this strategy on your own, asking yourself “So What?” as you develop your ideas or your draft.
- Return to the theme or themes in the introduction. This strategy brings the reader full circle. For example, if you begin by describing a scenario, you can end with the same scenario as proof that your essay is helpful in creating a new understanding. You may also refer to the introductory paragraph by using key words or parallel concepts and images that you also used in the introduction.
- Synthesize, don’t summarize. Include a brief summary of the paper’s main points, but don’t simply repeat things that were in your paper. Instead, show your reader how the points you made and the support and examples you used fit together. Pull it all together.
- Include a provocative insight or quotation from the research or reading you did for your paper.
- Propose a course of action, a solution to an issue, or questions for further study. This can redirect your reader’s thought process and help her to apply your info and ideas to her own life or to see the broader implications.
- Point to broader implications. For example, if your paper examines the Greensboro sit-ins or another event in the Civil Rights Movement, you could point out its impact on the Civil Rights Movement as a whole. A paper about the style of writer Virginia Woolf could point to her influence on other writers or on later feminists.
Strategies to avoid
- Beginning with an unnecessary, overused phrase such as “in conclusion,” “in summary,” or “in closing.” Although these phrases can work in speeches, they come across as wooden and trite in writing.
- Stating the thesis for the very first time in the conclusion.
- Introducing a new idea or subtopic in your conclusion.
- Ending with a rephrased thesis statement without any substantive changes.
- Making sentimental, emotional appeals that are out of character with the rest of an analytical paper.
- Including evidence (quotations, statistics, etc.) that should be in the body of the paper.
Four kinds of ineffective conclusions
- The “That’s My Story and I’m Sticking to It” Conclusion. This conclusion just restates the thesis and is usually painfully short. It does not push the ideas forward. People write this kind of conclusion when they can’t think of anything else to say. Example: In conclusion, Frederick Douglass was, as we have seen, a pioneer in American education, proving that education was a major force for social change with regard to slavery.
- The “Sherlock Holmes” Conclusion. Sometimes writers will state the thesis for the very first time in the conclusion. You might be tempted to use this strategy if you don’t want to give everything away too early in your paper. You may think it would be more dramatic to keep the reader in the dark until the end and then “wow” him with your main idea, as in a Sherlock Holmes mystery. The reader, however, does not expect a mystery, but an analytical discussion of your topic in an academic style, with the main argument (thesis) stated up front. Example: (After a paper that lists numerous incidents from the book but never says what these incidents reveal about Douglass and his views on education): So, as the evidence above demonstrates, Douglass saw education as a way to undermine the slaveholders’ power and also an important step toward freedom.
- The “America the Beautiful”/”I Am Woman”/”We Shall Overcome” Conclusion. This kind of conclusion usually draws on emotion to make its appeal, but while this emotion and even sentimentality may be very heartfelt, it is usually out of character with the rest of an analytical paper. A more sophisticated commentary, rather than emotional praise, would be a more fitting tribute to the topic. Example: Because of the efforts of fine Americans like Frederick Douglass, countless others have seen the shining beacon of light that is education. His example was a torch that lit the way for others. Frederick Douglass was truly an American hero.
- The “Grab Bag” Conclusion. This kind of conclusion includes extra information that the writer found or thought of but couldn’t integrate into the main paper. You may find it hard to leave out details that you discovered after hours of research and thought, but adding random facts and bits of evidence at the end of an otherwise-well-organized essay can just create confusion. Example: In addition to being an educational pioneer, Frederick Douglass provides an interesting case study for masculinity in the American South. He also offers historians an interesting glimpse into slave resistance when he confronts Covey, the overseer. His relationships with female relatives reveal the importance of family in the slave community.
We consulted these works while writing this handout. This is not a comprehensive list of resources on the handout’s topic, and we encourage you to do your own research to find additional publications. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial . We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback.
Douglass, Frederick. 1995. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, Written by Himself. New York: Dover.
Hamilton College. n.d. “Conclusions.” Writing Center. Accessed June 14, 2019. https://www.hamilton.edu//academics/centers/writing/writing-resources/conclusions .
Holewa, Randa. 2004. “Strategies for Writing a Conclusion.” LEO: Literacy Education Online. Last updated February 19, 2004. https://leo.stcloudstate.edu/acadwrite/conclude.html.
You may reproduce it for non-commercial use if you use the entire handout and attribute the source: The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
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University Writing Center
- Confounding Conclusions: Understanding and Constructing a Text’s End
by Aaron Shaki
We all know what conclusions are supposed to do, right? End paper, everyone thinks to himself or herself. But it’s not that easy is it? Just as starting a paper can be challenging, bringing a text to a conclusion can be just as tricky and even frustrating at times. While many writers consider conclusions difficult to write, they are essential to writing a strong, cohesive text. Too often, writers neglect constructing a satisfying or even sufficient conclusion, opting to instead simply restate the thesis or summarize their work. It is the quick and easy way, so why bother with anything else?
Although merely restating the thesis and other important points does the job, these quick and painless strategies cause many writers to miss the opportunity to powerfully and satisfyingly conclude their texts for their audiences. A conclusion is the final ingredient that determines whether your paper leaves readers with a taste palpable enough to remember the writing once they’ve read your last word, be it in an academic or creative piece. After all, one of the worst things you can do is leave your readers with a bad taste in their mouths because you didn’t take the time to write a better conclusion. So, let’s break conclusions down a bit more to better understand their how and what in our writing.
To write a conclusion, you must first critically think about your paper, especially with an argumentative essay. A conclusion for an argumentative piece is different than other texts, like narratives, because it must conclude an argument. Thus, a well-thought-out thesis statement is necessary for an effective conclusion. You and your readers must know what you’re arguing. Without that, your conclusion will not work. If you’re confident in your thesis statement, and you provided sufficient support for that thesis, think about what you would like to accomplish with your argument before you write the conclusion. Depending on what you are trying to accomplish, pick a type of conclusion that best closes an argument and leaves readers with something to take away from your paper.
Here are some conclusion types:
- Value Judgment
- Call to Action
While this is a limited list, most papers will have arguments that can easily incorporate the above conclusion types. For example, a student came to the writing center with a paper about sleep deprivation. She argued that Americans, on average, are sleep deprived but are not conscious of it. Furthermore, they can alleviate this sleep deprivation with better education. This is a great thesis as it is bold and clear, and it is complex, containing three different and crucial aspects of her central claim:
- Americans are sleep deprived.
- Americans are not conscious of their sleep deprivation.
- Sleep deprivation can be alleviated with better education.
The student provided studies and commentary from multiple sources to support these three arguments, so she only needed a conclusion.
Here are some tips for writing this conclusion, along with most others:
Briefly summarize big ideas and support points, then explain how they relate to your thesis, but don’t merely restate points. You must show the reader how your points fit together, conveying the bigger picture or broader implications. The student above would want to briefly remind us of her three arguments and provide the most important points from her supporting evidence if needed.
Note: Do not provide new evidence in the conclusion. You should also avoid anything uncharacteristic of the paper, such as emotions that do not match the tone of the paper.
Think about the type or types of conclusions that will allow you to expand your thesis to broader implications. Above, the student could give a value judgment for sleep deprivation. For example, sleep deprivation, based on the evidence, is a threat to the American culture. For a recommendation, the student could propose that the threat be considered a top priority, which allows her conclusion to also include a call to action, where she could incite more awareness to begin organizing support around raising money to fund more educational opportunities that combat sleep deprivation.
Another note: Good conclusions can expand the scope of your paper, giving readers a new view on your subject and a way to make new connections. However, do not introduce a completely new idea.
The length of conclusions depends upon your paper’s length, the extent of your thesis and the supporting evidence, and what you are trying to accomplish with an argument and writing. The type of paper is especially important because, for example, a narrative conclusion is going to be different than a thesis-driven conclusion. Narratives often offer more creative freedom. Usually, a short narrative essay, spanning 4-7 pages, should contain a conclusion of one, maybe two, short paragraphs, or, if effective, one or two sentences. A conclusion to a thesis-driven paper depends upon the length of the paper and the complexity of the thesis. Remember, it is not about a set length, but more so about successfully accomplishing a conclusion’s purpose, or bringing a text to a fulfilling close.
Advice from University Writing Center Consultants
Meg: Conclusions have always been the hardest part of my writing process and, more than not, the weakest portion of my texts. In my younger writing days, I had this little trick where I would copy and paste the introduction of my paper right above my emerging conclusion. Then, I would let this guide my conclusion writing. Eventually, I found that my conclusions were doing their jobs, or bringing papers to a close, but they weren’t doing much else. They were also very repetitive at times and, sadly, quite boring.
From this realization, I decided to really experiment with conclusions, mainly striving to push my text’s focus or thesis further, to reveal my text’s “so what?” in this final paragraph. I decided I wanted my final message to my audience to be my writing’s significance, not just a repeated thesis or rhetorical question. With this shift, I found that I was not only producing stronger conclusions but also enjoying this part of the writing process much more. This experience was mainly with academic writing, but I was later able to bring it into my other forms of writing.
The biggest development in this evolution was the courage to take chances in my writing. At times, in my conclusions, pushing my thesis or point to another level or different perspective didn’t work, but I learned to recognize these weaker conclusions during my revision process. I also learned that a conclusion could do so much more than just restate everything you have already said, which is one of the most important writing lesson I have learned thus far.
Emily: The way I write my own conclusions is dependent on the type of writing I am asked to do. If you’re asking about a typical, reflective conclusion, I typically go back through my paper and pull three to four large points to reflect upon. In persuasive writing, I typically plan the paper, and then write my conclusion first, as it is the most crucial piece.
With students, I usually tell those who have a hard time writing conclusion to think of it as an inside-out introduction. Meaning, in an intro, you start broad, with some facts about an issue or something, and then you slowly give more specific information leading to your thesis. In conclusion writing students should tackle it oppositely. I find that making “writing formulas” is really helpful for students. I always tell them, however, that it is merely a learning tool, and that as they become more comfortable with writing, the more creative they should be with their conclusions and intros.
Allie: Like theses, I think conclusions are pretty tough to write right out of the gate. I’ve found that writing multiple drafts helps me write effective conclusions since, oftentimes, my first conclusion actually becomes my introduction. Honestly, I don’t know how I write my conclusions. I know I read through my paper and find main points, and I know I reference my thesis, but how I put it all together depends a lot on what the assignment is, how long I have to write it, and the intended audience I’m writing for.
When working with students, I always remind them that the most important thing is that the conclusion should reference your thesis, though not restate it directly, it should comment on your main points, and it should push your paper one more step. While you shouldn’t introduce any new information in your conclusion, you can still push the reader to think about what comes next, or what this new information means to the discourse community.
Cat: Writing conclusions has always been a hot topic for my students in that they have consistently been convinced that I hold some sort of “answer” in terms of what should be included and what step-by-step process they should follow to achieve the perfect conclusion to all things. I’ve never been able to provide such a template, thank God, but I have developed an opinion on how conclusions should be perceived.
In my opinion, a conclusion is not really a conclusion. What I mean is that a concluding paragraph lives outside of its definition in terms of its intended purpose. Yes, a concluding paragraph should give a nod to the thesis – but should not directly restate it. Yes, a conclusion should re-focus the reader towards some of the major points. But, in my opinion, the best conclusions give the reader a direction to follow in terms of further considerations, further research, and further applications of what has already been discussed. For example, if the essay is a thesis-driven essay about economic issues that are curtailing the growth of a local community, the concluding paragraph should reinforce this issue, but it should then take the assertions and the research provided in the essay and apply it to a different circumstance or to a larger-scale issue. In my classes I call this “adding the meta to your claim”. When I finish reading a researched essay, I like to be given hints as to where this research can take me, beyond the essay and the already-researched material. For the hypothetical economics essay, a good conclusion might conjure applications statewide that could be implicated using the conclusions drawn from this localized case study. Or perhaps the conclusion could point to socioeconomic trends nationwide that could benefit from the claims that have been proven in this essay. To me that effectively positions a research essay within a larger conversation, and I think that is ultimately what a conclusion is for. Not to restate what has already been said, but to give the reader a lead in terms of what to consider next, where to apply this idea outside of its current confines, or what needs further study in order to make a larger claim.
That’s how I go about writing my own conclusions, and that’s how I frame conclusions for my students and my clients. In that spirit, I conclude this post with a suggestion. Perhaps our discussions and claims about conclusions can provide us with an avenue to discuss meta-awareness of our claims. If we know conclusions should include certain elements such as reminding the reader of the thesis and the major points, perhaps we should take that knowledge and incorporate it into how doing these things adds to the specific rhetoric and specific audience that an essay needs to cater towards. If we are going to give advice about conclusions, might we also allow that advice a venue for further contributions and guide our readers towards not only stocking their “writing tools closet” with directive assertions, but also allow our readers to consider conclusions as more than a revamp of what has been said? Conclusions can also be the venue for guiding the reader towards what hasn’t been established. Conclusions can be the beginning of the next research project, essay, short story, or even the next lab report.
Kyle: Conclusions should literally be the part where you draw conclusions. I don’t like to think of it as the paragraph where you end your paper; I like to think about it as the part of your paper that makes connections. The connections could be to the larger world/society, they could be to another relevant topic, or even to yourself. Regardless, this should be where you take all of the evidence that you’ve gathered and say something relevant about it in the context of a larger/different issue.
Part 3: Characterization in The Importance of Being Earnest (Quiz) – Flashcards
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- Knowledge Base
- How to conclude an essay | Interactive example
How to Conclude an Essay | Interactive Example
Published on January 24, 2019 by Shona McCombes . Revised on July 23, 2023.
The conclusion is the final paragraph of your essay . A strong conclusion aims to:
- Tie together the essay’s main points
- Show why your argument matters
- Leave the reader with a strong impression
Your conclusion should give a sense of closure and completion to your argument, but also show what new questions or possibilities it has opened up.
This conclusion is taken from our annotated essay example , which discusses the history of the Braille system. Hover over each part to see why it’s effective.
Braille paved the way for dramatic cultural changes in the way blind people were treated and the opportunities available to them. Louis Braille’s innovation was to reimagine existing reading systems from a blind perspective, and the success of this invention required sighted teachers to adapt to their students’ reality instead of the other way around. In this sense, Braille helped drive broader social changes in the status of blindness. New accessibility tools provide practical advantages to those who need them, but they can also change the perspectives and attitudes of those who do not.
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Table of contents
Step 1: return to your thesis, step 2: review your main points, step 3: show why it matters, what shouldn’t go in the conclusion, more examples of essay conclusions, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about writing an essay conclusion.
To begin your conclusion, signal that the essay is coming to an end by returning to your overall argument.
Don’t just repeat your thesis statement —instead, try to rephrase your argument in a way that shows how it has been developed since the introduction.
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Next, remind the reader of the main points that you used to support your argument.
Avoid simply summarizing each paragraph or repeating each point in order; try to bring your points together in a way that makes the connections between them clear. The conclusion is your final chance to show how all the paragraphs of your essay add up to a coherent whole.
To wrap up your conclusion, zoom out to a broader view of the topic and consider the implications of your argument. For example:
- Does it contribute a new understanding of your topic?
- Does it raise new questions for future study?
- Does it lead to practical suggestions or predictions?
- Can it be applied to different contexts?
- Can it be connected to a broader debate or theme?
Whatever your essay is about, the conclusion should aim to emphasize the significance of your argument, whether that’s within your academic subject or in the wider world.
Try to end with a strong, decisive sentence, leaving the reader with a lingering sense of interest in your topic.
The easiest way to improve your conclusion is to eliminate these common mistakes.
Don’t include new evidence
Any evidence or analysis that is essential to supporting your thesis statement should appear in the main body of the essay.
The conclusion might include minor pieces of new information—for example, a sentence or two discussing broader implications, or a quotation that nicely summarizes your central point. But it shouldn’t introduce any major new sources or ideas that need further explanation to understand.
Don’t use “concluding phrases”
Avoid using obvious stock phrases to tell the reader what you’re doing:
- “In conclusion…”
- “To sum up…”
These phrases aren’t forbidden, but they can make your writing sound weak. By returning to your main argument, it will quickly become clear that you are concluding the essay—you shouldn’t have to spell it out.
Don’t undermine your argument
Avoid using apologetic phrases that sound uncertain or confused:
- “This is just one approach among many.”
- “There are good arguments on both sides of this issue.”
- “There is no clear answer to this problem.”
Even if your essay has explored different points of view, your own position should be clear. There may be many possible approaches to the topic, but you want to leave the reader convinced that yours is the best one!
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- Literary analysis
This conclusion is taken from an argumentative essay about the internet’s impact on education. It acknowledges the opposing arguments while taking a clear, decisive position.
The internet has had a major positive impact on the world of education; occasional pitfalls aside, its value is evident in numerous applications. The future of teaching lies in the possibilities the internet opens up for communication, research, and interactivity. As the popularity of distance learning shows, students value the flexibility and accessibility offered by digital education, and educators should fully embrace these advantages. The internet’s dangers, real and imaginary, have been documented exhaustively by skeptics, but the internet is here to stay; it is time to focus seriously on its potential for good.
This conclusion is taken from a short expository essay that explains the invention of the printing press and its effects on European society. It focuses on giving a clear, concise overview of what was covered in the essay.
The invention of the printing press was important not only in terms of its immediate cultural and economic effects, but also in terms of its major impact on politics and religion across Europe. In the century following the invention of the printing press, the relatively stationary intellectual atmosphere of the Middle Ages gave way to the social upheavals of the Reformation and the Renaissance. A single technological innovation had contributed to the total reshaping of the continent.
This conclusion is taken from a literary analysis essay about Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein . It summarizes what the essay’s analysis achieved and emphasizes its originality.
By tracing the depiction of Frankenstein through the novel’s three volumes, I have demonstrated how the narrative structure shifts our perception of the character. While the Frankenstein of the first volume is depicted as having innocent intentions, the second and third volumes—first in the creature’s accusatory voice, and then in his own voice—increasingly undermine him, causing him to appear alternately ridiculous and vindictive. Far from the one-dimensional villain he is often taken to be, the character of Frankenstein is compelling because of the dynamic narrative frame in which he is placed. In this frame, Frankenstein’s narrative self-presentation responds to the images of him we see from others’ perspectives. This conclusion sheds new light on the novel, foregrounding Shelley’s unique layering of narrative perspectives and its importance for the depiction of character.
If you want to know more about AI tools , college essays , or fallacies make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!
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Your essay’s conclusion should contain:
- A rephrased version of your overall thesis
- A brief review of the key points you made in the main body
- An indication of why your argument matters
The conclusion may also reflect on the broader implications of your argument, showing how your ideas could applied to other contexts or debates.
For a stronger conclusion paragraph, avoid including:
- Important evidence or analysis that wasn’t mentioned in the main body
- Generic concluding phrases (e.g. “In conclusion…”)
- Weak statements that undermine your argument (e.g. “There are good points on both sides of this issue.”)
Your conclusion should leave the reader with a strong, decisive impression of your work.
The conclusion paragraph of an essay is usually shorter than the introduction . As a rule, it shouldn’t take up more than 10–15% of the text.
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McCombes, S. (2023, July 23). How to Conclude an Essay | Interactive Example. Scribbr. Retrieved February 22, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/academic-essay/conclusion/
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