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By submitting my email address. i certify that i am 13 years of age or older, agree to recieve marketing email messages from the princeton review, and agree to terms of use., tips for applying to md-phd programs.

If you can’t imagine a medical career without helping patients and participating in research, you’ve probably considered the MD-PhD track. Learn all about applying to MD-PhD programs and get our expert tips for strengthening your application.

Is an MD-PhD Program right for you?

The MD-PhD is a dual doctorate degree program for students who are interested in careers as “physician-scientists." By graduation, you’ll have fulfilled requirements for both the MD and PhD degrees. The MD-PhD takes about 8 years to complete during which you receive medical training AND become an expert in a specific research field. The program also requires dissertation research in your field of graduate study, which can range from biomedical laboratory disciplines like biochemistry or genetics to fields like economics, sociology, or anthropology . After graduation, MD-PhD students usually work as researchers or as faculty members at medical schools and universities.

Learn more about MD combined degree programs .

md phd programs

What are Medical Scientist Training Programs?

Medical Scientist Training Programs (MSTP) are MD-PhD programs that are funded by the National Institute of Health. Students who are admitted to these highly-competitive programs receive full tuition coverage, living expenses, and a stipend. There are currently 45  NIH-funded MSTP programs .

Are all MD-PhD programs free?

Over 60 medical and osteopathic medical schools  maintain their own MD-PhD or DO-PhD programs that are not funded by the NIH. Depending on the school, these programs offer full or partial financial support for their students.

Applying to MD-PhD Programs

Nearly all MD-PhD programs use the same application process as MD admissions—via the American Medical College Application Service (AMCAS) application . One key difference? MD-PhD applicants submit two additional essays: the MD-PhD Essay and the Significant Research Experience Essay:

  • The MD-PhD Essay asks you to explain your reasons for pursuing the combined degree program.
  • The  Significant Research Experience Essay asks you to describe your key research experiences, including your research supervisor's name and affiliation, the duration of the experience, the nature of the problem studied, and your contributions to the project.

Read More: Guide to Your Med School Applications

Do you need to take the GRE Test to apply for the Md-Phd Program?

Programs have different policies, so some schools may require both the MCAT and the GRE for combined degree applicants. For example, an MD-Phd in Anthropology at one school may require the GRE, while the MD-PhD in Immunology may not. Check with your prospective med schools to make sure you’re covered.

Timeline for MD-PhD Admissions

The MD-PHD application timeline is virtually the same as for MD admissions. (Remember you are using the same application service!) Here are the important dates for MD-PHD admissions:

  • Early May: AMCAS opens and begins accepting transcripts
  • Early June:  AMCAS begins accepting application submissions
  • October–March: MD-PhD applicant interviews
  • December–March: Admissions decisions sent to applicants
  • March–April: Md-PhD applicants make their final decisions
  • June–August: MD-PHD programs begin!

Tips for Boosting Your Md-Phd Application

Competition for MD-PhD applicants is fierce. After all, you have to convince medical schools to invest significant time and financial resources in you. Of the total 1,936 MD-PhD applicants in 2016–17, only 649 matriculated in a U.S. med school. Here’s what you can do to strengthen your overall application.

1. You need strong MCAT scores and a high GPA

If your grades and scores aren’t where they need to be, address it before you apply!  Check out these admissions stats for MD-PhD matriculants to U.S. medical schools from 2016-2017:

SOURCE:  Association of American Medical Colleges

Make a smart MCAT prep plan and retake the exam if necessary. Consider completing additional grad school work to raise your GPA and take advantage of our online tutors for pre-med requirements!

2. You need sustained research background + a clear picture of your future in research

3. you need the right recommenders.

Most letters of recommendation should come for your research mentors, professors who run the labs you work in, and the postdoctoral fellows you work with. Make sure your recommenders know that you are applying to MD-PhD programs as this will affect the letters they write.

Want to get an edge over the crowd?

Our admissions experts know what it takes it get into med school. Get the customized strategy and guidance you need to help achieve your goals.

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MD-PhD, Combined Degree

School of medicine, md - phd, combined degree program.

From its inception, the physician-scientist has been a hallmark of Johns Hopkins medicine and the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. Indeed, the Hopkins tri-emblem represents the three core values of the institution: teaching, patient care, and research.

The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine offers a variety of opportunities for the training of medical scientists. A combined curriculum leading to both MD and PhD degrees enables students who aspire to careers in academic medicine to obtain intensive training in specialized areas of the biomedical sciences in addition to top-flight medical training. The traditional diversity and flexibility of the educational opportunities at Johns Hopkins permit the design of individualized programs to meet the needs of students with a variety of interests, educational backgrounds, and career goals.

To accomplish our training goals, we expect students to fully commit to medical training while in medical school and research training while in graduate school.  However, we also take important steps to ensure that students are exposed to the intersection of both worlds early in their training, as well as given the professional and career development advice they need to succeed.

In a word, the MD-PhD curriculum at Johns Hopkins is flexible. Most students decide to complete the first two years of medical school before they begin graduate school and finish the last two years of their medical training after completing their thesis work (see the Timeline below). However, students who want more first-hand experience in clinical medicine before beginning graduate work can elect to complete three years of medical school, followed by their graduate training, and then the last year of medical school. This can give them a better appreciation of the potential clinical relevance of their research. In making a choice, trainees consult extensively with the Program Director, the Dean of Students, members of the MD-PhD Committee, prospective research mentors, and their faculty advisors. Students in the MD-PhD Program are automatically accepted to all graduate programs, so decisions regarding graduate training programs can be made with a strong understanding of each program.  The MD-PhD Committee is responsible for program oversight, admissions, and  student mentorship .  Students complete MD-PhD training on average in eight years.

Johns Hopkins interdisciplinary organizational structure means each faculty member may be affiliated with several clinical departments, research sections, and graduate programs. 

Formal graduate programs in the School of Medicine encompass the following areas: Biochemistry; Cellular, and Molecular Biology; Biological Chemistry; Biomedical Engineering; Molecular Biophysics; Functional Anatomy and Human Evolutionary Studies; Cell Biology; Cellular and Molecular Medicine; History of Medicine; Human Genetics; Immunology; Neuroscience; Pathobiology; Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, and Cellular and Molecular Physiology. Students are also eligible to obtain their PhD in one of the 11 graduate programs at the Bloomberg School of Public Health or the School of Arts and Sciences on the Homewood Campus.  Students may select a thesis mentor from faculty in the Schools of Medicine and Public Health.

The MD-PhD Program also sponsors special seminars and lectures, It also maintains a dedicated library, the Paul Talalay MD-PhD Library, to enrich the educational opportunities of all MD-PhD students. Efforts are made to acquaint MD-PhD candidates with the major advances, concepts, and cutting-edge techniques in contemporary medicine and biomedical sciences.  We also create an environment that promotes a more intimate personal contact with successful medical scientists in this institution.

Admission Procedures.  Individuals who wish to apply for admission to the combined MD-PhD Program of the School of Medicine must submit an application through AMCAS  in which they will indicate the MD-PhD Program.  Once the AMCAS application has been verified and submitted to Hopkins, the applicant will receive an invitation to complete the Hopkins Secondary Application.  Here the applicant will submit the additional materials required for the combined degree.  Johns Hopkins does not allow applicants to apply to both the traditional MD program and the combined program during the same cycle.   

All combined-degree applications are reviewed by a separate  MD-PhD Review Committee  which is comprised of faculty from the basic sciences and clinical arena, as well as faculty from the Bloomberg School of Public Health.  A separate Graduate School application is  not necessary . The MD-PhD Committee determines whether or not an interview is indicated.  In general, the committee is looking for students with a passion for research and a commitment to medicine.  This assessment is based on the applicant’s research experience, letters of recommendation, academic performance and extracurricular activities. The Committee considers standardized test scores only in the context of the applicant’s other credentials. If an interview is granted, the applicant is notified by the MD-PhD Office and after the applicant accepts, the process for scheduling an interview begins.  Interview visits generally occur over two days. Applicants are interviewed by members of the MD-PhD Committee and other faculty members who share their research interests. Applicants have many opportunities to meet with current students and tour the campus during their visit. 

All eligible applicants who are admitted to the MD-PhD Program are funded by the NIH Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP) Award.  This program, supported by the National Institutes of Health, provides full tuition, stipend, and medical and dental insurance for students. Due to federal restrictions, only U.S. citizens and permanent residents are eligible for MSTP funding.  Approximately 10-12 MD-PhD students matriculate each year.

Students who matriculate to the traditional MD Program but have a clearly demonstrated interest and experience in scientific research, are eligible to apply to the combined MD-PhD Program.  These students may apply for admission during the fall of their first or second year of medical school.  These qualified applicants are evaluated and placed in the pool for the current application cycle and will be considered for MSTP funding.  

Financial Support.  The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP) is supported by a training grant from the National Institutes of Health. A number of exceptional students with unusual accomplishments and commitment to a career in the medical sciences will be selected for traineeships under this program. Such fellowships provide stipend and tuition support for combined medical and graduate study. All students who are admitted to the MD-PhD Program will be considered for these awards. 

Graduates of The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine MD-PhD Program have gone on to become leaders in many areas of academic medicine.

Advice on the scope and opportunities offered by these programs may be obtained from the Director or Administrative Director of the MD-PhD Program.

Is an MD/PhD Program Right for You?

MD-PhD programs may be right for you if you are interested in a career path that melds both clinical practice and in-depth scientific research. MD-PhD graduates aren’t simply doctors; they are “physician-scientists” or “medical scientists.”

MD-PhD programs offer a dual-degree track that combines the clinical training of a standard MD degree with the added coursework of a PhD. The PhD training is particularly rigorous and includes classes usually in the realm of biomedical sciences, as well as advanced research training, lab rotations, and intensive investigative work.

The payoff for choosing an MD-PhD program is that these clinical medicine graduates are equipped to treat patients while also participating in the discovery and development of innovative healthcare solutions. 

Here are a few reasons you might want to pursue an MD/PhD career:

  • You want to participate in cutting-edge medical research.
  • You want career options beyond clinical medical practice.
  • You want to help train future generations of medical doctors.
  • You want more collaborative research opportunities with colleagues.
  • You want funding opportunities only available to MD/PhD students.

The Difference Between MD & MD/PhD

The difference between MD and MD-PhD is that graduates with an MD-PhD receive PhD training and hold a PhD degree in addition to their MD degree.

The cost of an MD-PhD program varies widely depending on the institution. Still, the stipend and tuition-free training make many of these programs significantly less financially burdensome compared to standalone MD or PhD programs.

MD/PhD students will complete graduate school and medical school qualified to hold positions in academic medicine and biomedical research (in addition to being qualified to practice clinical medicine. 

What Is an MD?

A medical doctor has earned a standard medical degree or MD and is skilled to practice clinical medicine. Medical students must complete 4 years of medical school to earn their degree, followed by 3-7 years of residency and fellowship training to practice medicine.

What Is a PhD?

PhD stands for Doctor of Philosophy in reference to their critical knowledge and research experience in a particular field of study. A PhD is the highest possible academic degree.

Earning a PhD is often considered harder than earning an MD due to the scientific research required to stimulate original thought and develop quality hypotheses.

How Competitive Are MD/PhD Programs?

Physician-scientist programs are slightly more selective and competitive than the average medical program.

Between 2018 and 2023, a little more than one-third of students who applied to an MD/PhD program (37.7%) were accepted. The acceptance rate for medical school applicants in general was 41.2% for the 2022-23 application cycle.

The test scores of these programs also indicate how much more competitive these programs are. The average MCAT score of MD/PhD matriculants in the 2022-23 cycle was 516.2, and their mean GPA was 3.82. In comparison, medical school matriculants overall had an average MCAT score of 511.9 and average GPA of 3.75 during the same cycle.

How Long Are MD/PhD Programs?

The MD-PhD dual degree takes approximately 7-8 years of coursework to complete, followed by an additional 3-7 years of residency to be eligible to practice medicine. 

Generally, MD coursework is emphasized in years 1-2, followed by research training in years 3-5, and ending with medical training and clinicals in years 6-8. 

Requirements for MD/PhD Applicants

If you are considering applying to an MD/PhD program , know that having strong essays and letters is more important than incrementally higher MCAT test scores and GPAs. Numbers get your foot in the door; storytelling gets you a seat at the table. 

In general, the requirements for MD/PhD applicants include:

  • MCAT score in the 90th percentile: Specific MCAT requirements for MD/PhD programs vary by school. However, in general, most students have the best chance at success with an MCAT score in the 90th percentile or higher. In the 2022-23 application cycle, MD/PhD applicants had an average MCAT score of 511.3, while matriculants averaged 516.2.
  • GPA of 3.7 or higher: Like MCAT scores, the GPA requirements for MD/PhD programs differ by program. But your chances are highest with an average GPA of at least 3.7. In the 2022-23 application cycle, MD/PhD applicants averaged a science GPA of 3.61 and overall GPA of 3.68, while matriculants averaged a 3.78 science GPA and 3.82 overall.
  • Compelling personal statement: Your personal statement essay should explain why you want to become a physician and is required for both MD & MD/PhD applications . All prospective doctors must write a personal statement that stands out, and this is doubly true for MD/PhD applicants.
  • 2 additional essays: You’ll write one essay conveying your personal interest in pursuing an MD/PhD dual degree specifically, and one essay covering your substantive experiences in the field of research . These may include multiple summer projects, senior thesis research, or 1+ years of post-undergrad research programs and activities.
  • 2-3 letters from research mentors who can praise your scientific potential.
  • 1-2 letters from clinical mentors who know your aptitude for patient care.
  • 1 letter from the premed committee.
  • 1 letter from a mentor who can discuss your leadership skills and personal traits in an extracurricular setting.

Questions to Ask Yourself When Considering an MD/PhD Program

By answering these questions, you can choose the graduate program that is the best fit for you over the next 8 years.

  • What skills do you want to develop? Choose a program that has ample opportunities to explore your field of interest and in which you can identify potential mentors for rotations and thesis projects.
  • What is your preferred MD/PhD program size? Choose a smaller program of MD-PhD students if you prefer hands-on guidance with individualized attention and a larger program if you prefer a larger community with more networking opportunities. 
  • Where do you want to live for 8 years of medical school ? Choose a location that fits your needs for cost of living, housing, transportation, extracurriculars, as well as opportunities for fun and making friends. 
  • Does the program offer financial aid? Choose a program that meets your financial needs in the form of stipends and tuition waivers. It’s important to note that if you drop out of an MD-PhD program, some schools require you to pay back the investment that the school made in you. 
  • Will you fit into the school’s culture? Choose a program after you’ve visited the campus, talked with the current students and faculty, and asked about opportunities in your field of interest as well as other’s experiences at the school and living in the city.
  • Does the MD/PhD Program align with your timeline? Choose a program with coursework that allows you to graduate in your preferred timeline, which could be sooner or longer than eight years.

Possible Career Paths for MD/PhD Graduates

A career choice often depends on an individual’s specific interests, such as which medical specialties they are drawn to, whether they prefer working with patients or in a laboratory, and how they want to contribute to advancing medical science.

The salary range for MD/PhD graduates varies significantly by position and type of work. Policy analysts’ starting salary is around $57,000 per year, while attending physicians who do research can make upwards of $500,000.

Below are careers someone with an MD-PhD might pursue:

Attending Physician with Research Responsibilities

An MD/PhD holder in this position would have a traditional medical role seeing and treating patients, but they might also have dedicated time for research. This role allows one to continue practicing medicine while contributing to academic or clinical research. 

Individuals in this role often split their time among patient care, research activities, and instructional duties. Typically, they are found in educational hospitals or medical schools.

Physicians’ salaries can vary significantly based on specialty and experience, but generally, they are well-compensated. An attending physician in a specialized field can expect to earn upwards of $200,000 to $500,000 or more, especially if they have dual responsibilities that include research.

Translational Medicine Specialist

These specialists work at the intersection of basic research and patient care, focusing on turning research insights into practical medical applications. 

This role may exist within academia, industry, or clinical settings and is tailored for those who understand both the clinical and research aspects of medicine.

The salary for this role can also vary based on industry, location, and level of experience but would likely fall in the range of $150,000 to $250,000 or more.

Biomedical Researcher

Those with MD-PhD qualifications commonly secure jobs as researchers within biomedical science. Employment settings can range from academic institutions and drug companies to governmental agencies like the NIH.

Salaries for biomedical researchers typically fall somewhere between $85,000 and $104,000 per year.

Clinical Research Director

These are medical doctors responsible for overseeing clinical trials and research projects, usually within a hospital, academic institution, or pharmaceutical/biotech company. This role leverages both the clinical insights from an MD and the research methodology of a PhD.

Salaries can vary widely depending on the setting (academia, private industry, etc.) and geographic location. In general, a Clinical Research Director could expect to earn a six-figure salary, often ranging from around $150,000 to $250,000 or more per year.

Pharmaceutical/Biotech Industry Professional

A significant number of MD-PhDs join the pharmaceutical or biotech sectors. Responsibilities might include roles in the development of new medications, overseeing clinical trials, regulatory compliance, or managing medical affairs.

The average salary for this position will likely differ quite a bit depending on the exact role and company, but the average is generally between $125,000 and $133,00 per year.

Medical Director

In this capacity, a person is in charge of the medical elements of a healthcare facility or a specific department within a hospital. The role usually calls for expertise in both medical practice and research.

This position is likely to be one of the most lucrative of the MD/PhD field, with an average salary from $319,000 to $329,000 per year.

Science Policy Analyst/Advisor

Individuals in this role often find themselves in governmental or nonprofit settings, where they influence policy decisions related to scientific research and healthcare.

The typical salary for a science policy analyst starts at around $57,000 per year. Advisors have a slightly higher upper salary range and may make as much as $75,000.

Public Health Official

Some MD-PhDs opt for roles in the public sector where they focus on health concerns at a societal level. They may be employed by organizations such as the CDC or WHO.

In many cases, public health officials can expect to make a yearly salary of between $101,000 and $111,000.

Medical Science Liaison

This role typically serves as an intermediary between pharmaceutical enterprises and medical professionals. These liaisons disseminate information about new treatments and scientific advancements to doctors, researchers, and other medical stakeholders.

This role also typically commands a six-figure salary, usually ranging from approximately $100,000 to $200,000, depending on experience, location, and the hiring organization.

Medical Educator

Professors teach medical students, residents, and fellows in an academic setting while also conducting research. These doctors often have clinical responsibilities as well. An MD/PhD is especially well-suited for this role due to the dual focus on clinical care and research.

They may teach various medical subjects like pharmacology or genetics and actively participate in the educational goals of their institutions.

In academia, salaries can vary widely based on rank (Assistant Professor, Associate Professor, Full Professor), institution, and geographic location. Salaries may range from $100,000 to well over $200,000 for senior roles or those at prestigious institutions.

Best MD/PhD Programs in the US

There are 122 different American Universities that offer MD/PhD degree programs, according to the AAMC list of MD-PhD Programs by State . A further 13 Canadian programs also use the AMCAS application system.

Some MD-PhD programs in the United States are funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) through the Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP). This means that students receive full tuition remission, health insurance, and a living stipend throughout their training.

Medical schools with fully funded MD-PhD programs :

  • Dartmouth University, Geisel School of Medicine
  • Duke University School of Medicine
  • Harvard/M.I.T MD-PhD Program, Harvard Medical School
  • John Hopkins University School of Medicine
  • Mayo Clinic College of Medicine & Science
  • University of Florida College of Medicine
  • University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine
  • University of Southern California (USC), Keck School of Medicine
  • Yale University School of Medicine

Medical schools with the most MD-PhD spots historically: 

  • Raymond and Ruth Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania
  • University of Illinois College of Medicine
  • Weill Cornell Medical College
  • Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine
  • Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
  • Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University
  • University of California, Los Angeles David Geffen School of Medicine
  • University of Michigan Medical School
  • Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons 
  • University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine
  • Harvard Medical School
  • Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine
  • Northwestern University The Feinberg School of Medicine
  • Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
  • University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine
  • Vanderbilt University School of Medicine
  • Ohio State University College of Medicine
  • University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health
  • New York University School of Medicine
  • Stanford University School of Medicine
  • Yale School of Medicine

Medical schools with MD/PhD programs that accept international students:

  • Emory University School of Medicine
  • Northwestern Feinberg School of Medicine
  • University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine
  • University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine/California Institute of Technology
  • University of Texas Southwestern Medical School
  • Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis

The MD/PhD Application Process

The application process for MD-PhD programs is similar to that of typical MD programs. The two major differences are that you’ll designate yourself as an MD/PhD candidate on the AMCAS application, and you’ll submit 2 additional essays on that primary.

The Application Timeline

  • AMCAS (submit by end of May): You’ll fill out a primary application through AMCAS in the spring of the first year of your application cycle (e.g., to matriculate in fall 2026, you’ll submit AMCAS in spring 2025). AMCAS opens at the end of May each year. Aim to submit the primary application no later than the end of June, as early applications are more likely to be reviewed and accepted.
  • Secondaries (submit by end of August): You’ll respond to secondary applications in the summer after your primary application is reviewed by each school you submitted it to. Each program sends secondary applications to students who generally meet their minimum requirements.
  • Interviews (October-March): You’ll then attend interviews as invited between October and March. Some schools won’t contact you at all to reject your application; others will offer conflicting invites. You must prioritize your options and prepare for the opportunities that do come. 
  • Final decisions (December-March): Final decisions are made by schools between December and March. Schools with a rolling admissions cycle (most of them) accept students after completing interviews and determining a student is a fit. A smaller number of programs wait to send acceptances until after all interviews are complete.
  • Choose your program (March-April): Students choose where to matriculate between March and April.
  • Programs start (June-August): Programs begin between June and August, depending on the school.

How to Prepare for an MD/PhD interview

You should prepare for your MD/PhD interview by practicing mock interviews to rid yourself of the jitters and fine-tune your responses in various scenarios. In addition to developing your personal narrative, you must be able to explain your research training at multiple levels.  

If you’re interested in participating in a mock interview with a physician who has served on an admissions committee, consider a mock interview with MedSchoolCoach .

What to Do if You Get Waitlisted

Finding out that you’ve been waitlisted for the MD/PhD program of your dreams is never a good feeling. However, you are not helpless in the wait. It’s a good idea to remain in contact with program leaders and administrators by sending a Letter of Intent or a Letter of Interest.

Listen: An MD/PHD’s Journey to Medicine [PODCAST]  

What is a Letter of Intent vs. a Letter of Interest? 

A Letter of Intent is a formal statement that you would commit to matriculating into a program if you are accepted. A Letter of Interest conveys that you are strongly interested in the program, but it does not indicate any commitment or explicitly state that a program is your first choice.

Both letters should summarize why you believe the program and school are a great fit for your interests and how you will be able to uniquely contribute to the school, in under one page.

Finding Out You’ve Been Accepted!

The day you receive that phone call or email — the one from the MD-PhD program director contacting you to say you have officially been offered acceptance into their program — provides a feeling of joy worth being patient for!

Our Physician Advisors can support you through the application process for your best shot at getting into the school of your choice.

What specialties can MD/PhD graduates earn their PhD in?  

PhD students commonly choose to specialize in topics such as:

  • Cell Biology
  • Biochemistry
  • Pharmacology
  • Neuroscience
  • Biomedical Engineering

What is the salary range for an MD/PhD graduate? 

MD/PhD graduates can expect an average annual salary of about $100K, depending on the type of work and place of employment.

What is the difference between a PhD and a Postdoctorate? 

A Postdoctoral Fellowship is a temporary period of mentorship and research training for graduates with doctoral degrees, offered by the National Institutes of Health, to acquire skills needed for a chosen career. A PhD thesis must be successfully defended, whereas a postdoc is a non-defendable temporary employment assignment from an organization such as a university.

Can an MD/PhD be a doctor? 

Graduates who earn an MD/PhD are fully qualified doctors and may practice medicine in a clinical setting upon completing their residency training.

Can an MD/PhD graduate be a surgeon? 

While an MD/PhD graduate CAN be a surgeon if they choose surgery specialties in their residency programs, a surgical resident is not required to obtain a PhD in addition to their MD.

Schedule a free 15-minute consultation with MedSchoolCoach to learn how we can help boost your chances of success getting into medical school .

Related posts:

  • What Does DO Mean?
  • What Kind of Students are Successful in Getting into Medical School?
  • What Counts as Clinical Experience for Medical School?
  • Should I Delete My Social Media When Applying to Medical School?

Photo of Renee Marinelli MD

Renee Marinelli MD

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MD-PhD Programs: The Definitive Guide

Including a full list of all md-phd programs in the us and canada.

MD-PhD Programs

Your answer to the question “ why do you want to be a doctor? ” can help you determine whether MD-PhD programs are right for you. MD-PhD programs accept exceptionally bright and motivated applicants interested in becoming physician-scientists – this means that instead of focusing your time and efforts on clinical work, you will commit your life to scientific innovation and research. In addition to the demanding curriculum and extended period of study (7-8 years!), MD-PhD application procedures typically involve additional components and supplementary interviews.

Whether you are applying through AMCAS,  TMDSAS , or  OMSAS , you will be required to submit additional essay components explaining why you are the right fit for the MD-PhD program of your choice along with your  AMCAS personal statement ,  AMCAS Work and Activities , or TMDSAS application. In this blog, you will learn everything you need to know about MD-PhD programs, including a list of schools that offer MD-PhD programs, how to apply, and 5 tips to get accepted!

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Article Contents 17 min read

What is an md-phd program.

If you are contemplating between MD PhD vs MD , it's important to know what the MD-PhD programs entail. The MD-PhD program allows you to obtain a dual degree in both medicine and research to become what is known as a physician-scientist or medical scientist. After graduation, students will receive a combined MD/PhD degree with advanced, hands-on research training and expertise in a particular field of their choice.

Struggling to decide between MD-PhD and MD programs? Check out our video below!

The MD-PhD program is definitely not an easy one, it is designed for exceptional students who have a true interest and commitment to a career in medical research. If you're only interested in becoming a practicing physician, that doesn't require a PhD, so the MD-PhD program is not the right choice for you.

When considering if this program is well suited to your strengths and interests, ask yourself a variety of questions. Are you fascinated by the unknown? Do you find yourself asking why and how? Are you interested in a disease or condition that is commonly treated by physicians? Do you want to make new discoveries and implement what you've learned? Do you want to combine scientific research with medicine?  What is your greatest weakness ? If research is not your forte, perhaps MD-PhD programs are not for you. However, if you feel a definite drive and determination to pursue medicine and research at the same time, the MD-PhD program is a perfect option.

Does my PhD have to be in laboratory research?

PhD programs on offer vary from school to school, therefore, depending on the school you apply to, you may not necessarily have to train in laboratory research. The vast majority of MD-PhD students obtain their PhD in biomedical laboratory fields of study. This includes genetics, neuroscience, and immunology. However, some schools offer research in fields outside of the laboratory in fields such as economics, public health and sociology.

Although each program has its own curriculum, all MD-PhD programs train students to become competent physicians as well as skilled scientists. Most students complete the degree within 7 to 8 years. The length of your degree will depend on several factors, like your clinical requirements, PhD requirements, progress of your research, and the time needed to develop into an independent investigator, which is the primary goal of the PhD training. Typically, students can choose to divide their training into 2-3-2 track or 2-4-2 track. You start the program by mastering basic science courses as an MD student for 1 or 2 years, followed by an intense period of PhD research for 3 or 4 years. The PhD period is very demanding because you must complete your research, thesis writing, and defend your work within this short timeframe. The last 2 years are dedicated to clinical training.

This is a general outline, but each program may have its own approach. For example, there may be more research integrated into your first two years of study. Some programs may require you to participate in research labs during the summer between first and second years to get acquainted with programs and departments related to your research interests. Depending on your research, you may be required to start clinical training during your PhD component.

The general timeline of completion is as follows:

2 years of clinical training to prepare you for residency. After clerkships, you will complete the USMLE Step 2 exam and any other MD requirements of your program. "}]">

MD-PhD programs are not just a combination of two separate degrees. During your studies, you will be exposed to unique activities and training designed specifically for MD-PhD students. These will include courses and workshops, seminars dedicated to research and professional development, and sessions where you will be able to present your research. You will also be able to join your colleagues in student retreats and conferences designed specifically for this combined degree.

Having an MD PhD vs MD degree allows you to enjoy a career that combines both research and medicine. You have the opportunity for exploration, scientific discovery and medical intervention. Most MD-PhD graduates work in medical schools, research institutes or teaching hospitals, but there is also the option of working in public health, for pharmaceutical companies and even running your own lab.

How can I afford this program?

If a school is offering an MD-PhD program, they are very aware of the difficulty in training to become a doctor and researcher at the same time. They value physician-scientists highly and fortunately, most programs offer some sort of funding opportunities to students. This can include tuition waivers and a stipend to help cover the costs of living expenses. The National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) provides funding to 49 MD-PhD programs through the Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP). These programs are extremely competitive as the funding offers a tuition allowance and a basic stipend, with most institutions supplementing the stipend.

Want some more tips on how to pay for medical school? Check out our guide below:

Which schools offer the MD-PhD/MTSP program?

MD-PhD programs are not a prerogative of those seeking the easiest medical schools to get into . While their number is growing all over Canada and the US, here I've included an up to date list, which is also available on the AAMC website. In addition to this guide, the AAMC website is a great resource where you can find a variety of other helpful tools for MD-PhD prospective students.

The following tabs show the list of schools that offer the MD-PhD/MSTSP program in the US, organized state-wise and alphabetically. Please use the right and left arrow to navigate to more tabs.

Applying to an MD-PhD program is essentially the same as applying to an MD program. If you haven't already done so, you will have to write the MCAT. Check out our blog for the current MCAT test and release dates . Almost all programs use the American Medical College Application Service (AMCAS) where you have a chance to apply as an MD-PhD applicant. As with MD programs, some will require a CV for graduate school , along with a statement of purpose . The only difference is that for MD-PhD applicants, you will be required to provide two additional essays: the first should answer why you want to pursue MD-PhD training, the second should showcase your research experience. There are a few programs that are using an alternative service for accepting applications, so be sure to check which service your program is using.

MD-PhD Program Requirements

Prerequisites.

MD-PhD programs require the completion of a four-year undergraduate degree and background in the following disciplines:

This can include general chemistry, organic chemistry, as well as biochemistry. "},{"number":"4","title":"One year of Physics","comment":""},{"number":"5","title":"One year of Math","comment":""}]" code="timeline2">

These medical school prerequisites are the baseline. Your academic record should demonstrate that you have taken a variety of science and non-science courses. Admissions committees will note the difficulty levels of your coursework and your academic improvement over time. Make sure to check with your program of choice for any specific course requirements, i.e. advanced placement classes, online courses, etc. The most important prerequisite for MD-PhD programs is your research background and your experience in the lab.

GPA and MCAT

According to the latest AAMC statistics, the average GPA of MD-PhD matriculants is 3.8, while the average MCAT score is 516. These are very impressive numbers and you must strive to at least meet these averages if you’re planning to apply. If your academic record does not reflect these numbers, you need to get your grades up. To improve your GPA, re-enroll in classes you performed poorly in and get a higher grade. Not only will this increase your GPA, but it also demonstrate your dedication, patience, and desire for improvement. Ask your instructors and teaching assistants if you can do anything for extra credit. Find a tutor or a study buddy to help with disciplines you struggle with the most. You can also plan your school schedule to include courses in disciplines you ace. If working on your GPA is not a priority for you, find out how to get into medical school with a low GPA .

Your MCAT score is an important indicator of your academic prowess. Before you take the test, make sure you know what is a good MCAT score and when to start studying for the MCAT . Give yourself ample time to prepare. Start by taking an MCAT practice test to figure out what areas of knowledge and concepts you need to improve. Create an MCAT study schedule that incorporates a variety of active and passive study strategies. Keep taking practice tests to see if you’re improving. If you consistently score at the 90% percentile in your practice tests, you can start planning to take the real MCAT. Remember, take the test only when you feel ready. If you’re still wondering “ When should I take the MCAT ?”, read our blog to get some tips.

Are you thinking of retaking the MCAT? Check out our tips below:

Altus Suite

Firstly, research whether your schools require the completion of the entire Altus Suite, or whether it's one of the medical schools that require CASPer only. If your schools require the completion of the entire Altus Suite, you will also need to complete the Snapshot interview and the Duet profile. It's challenging to prepare for all three Altus Suite components, but CASPer remains the most intimidating.

The CASPer test is an online situational judgment test that claims to assess the professional suitability of students applying to professional schools, including medical schools. The entire test is written on a computer and the students only receive their percentile scores. The test is comprised of 15 scenarios dealing with real-life situations. You are asked 3 follow up questions based on the scenario observed. The questions will ask you to answer how you would deal with the situations you witnessed. In the first section of the test, you are given 5 minutes to type your answers for those three questions. In the second section, you will be given 1 minute to record your answer to each of questions. The format is a challenge, so that's why it's so important to make sure you know how the CASPer test is scored .

You have probably heard that it is impossible to prepare for CASPer. It is indeed difficult, but there are important approaches that you can implement to ace your CASPer test! The key is to know what categories of questions are typically included in a CASPer test and to have a concrete answer strategy for each question category. This means that even though nobody knows what exact questions you are going to get on your test, you will have an approach for answering any questions that may come your way. Make sure you know how to prepare for CASPer and go over our CASPer practice questions to ace your test!

You will need to submit a total of three essays for the MD-PhD program if you’re applying through AMCAS. On top of your AMCAS personal statement, you will need to submit two additional essays: the significant research experience essay and the MD PhD essay . If you’re applying through TMDSAS, you will need to submit the Dual Degree essay along with the other essay application components.

While your medical school personal statement answers the question “Why do you want to be a doctor?”, the MD-PhD specific essays must demonstrate your research expertise and answer why you would not be satisfied with a career pursuing only one of the two programs. The significant research experience essay must outline the most valuable research experiences you’ve had. You will have 10,000 characters, including spaces, to give detailed accounts of your research projects: the nature of the problem studied, your role and contribution, duration of the project, and the name of your principal investigators and their affiliation.

Your AMCAS MD-PhD essay must be no longer than 3,000 characters long. The TMDSAS dual degree essay is limited to 5,000 characters including spaces. These essays must convince the admissions committees that you would be the right fit for the combined degree and how your experiences have led you to apply to it. Your MD-PhD essay should tell the story of how you became involved in scientific research and how you want to apply your research to medical practice.

Remember, in this essay, you must link your passion for research to clinical practice. Adcoms need to see that you can be both: an expert researcher and a competent MD. You must demonstrate why you are an ideal candidate for the combined program, so do not simply focus on your research background. Showing interest in research alone may eliminate you from the applicant pool – adcoms will think that you can simply pursue a PhD. While focusing only on research is great for the significant research experience essay, your dual degree and MD-PhD essays must be crossovers between your scientific research and the experiences you had working with patients and physicians. Ideally, you will be able to show how your research interests are inspired by clinical experiences or patients you’ve had a chance to work with.

Want to know how to write the MD-PhD essay? Check out our video below!

Research Experience

As an MD-PhD applicant, you must have substantive research experience. Having a quality research background will indicate to admissions committees that you understand what you are getting into and that you have been exposed to research methods and techniques. Ideally, your application will demonstrate that you have been involved in multiple research projects, including thesis research. Your application must show that you have dedicated a substantial amount of your undergraduate degree to scientific research, otherwise the adcoms might wonder why you are pursuing a research-oriented program.

What is most important in your research background is the quality of the experiences. You do not need to get involved in hundreds of research projects to make a great impression on the adcoms. Even one valuable research project can demonstrate your curiosity and commitment to scientific research. Having spent an extended period of time on a research project showcases your dedication, genuine interest, and high level of expertise in a research field.

Make sure you can identify what you have learned from your research experiences – you will have to outline valuable lessons and skills you acquired in multiple parts of your MD-PhD application and interviews. Ideally, you can discuss the relationship between your research experience and the medical field. Remember, you do not need to have an extensive background in medical or clinical research. Laboratory skills are transferable from discipline to discipline. However, even if you have little to no clinical research background, you must show that you have reflected on the relationship between your own research experiences and their application to the medical field. An MD-PhD application is a tough balancing act: you must always remember to honor the integral relationship between research and clinical practice.

If you’re looking to bolster your research background, try looking for research assistant positions on campus. Talk to your instructors and teaching assistants to find out if they are involved in research projects and whether they need help. Keep your eyes out for any research position postings on your school’s website or around science departments. If you’re no longer a student on campus, reach out to your former instructors and ask about research opportunities. You can also contact physicians you volunteered with or shadowed, to find out if they or their clinic are involved in research projects. Even if they are not, physicians can often recommend some names of organizations and other medical professionals who are research-oriented.

Keep in mind that if you apply to research positions, you will need to assemble a strong application, including a research assistant cover letter and CV. If academia is your passion, then you might want to look into special master’s programs . These graduate degrees are specifically designed to build-up students’ medical school applications and may help you improve the quality of your research background.

Are you looking for research positions? Check out our tips below:

While it’s true that MD-PhD applicants highly value research and progress, you do need to demonstrate to MD-PhD admissions committees that you have clinical background. It is one of the key extracurriculars for medical school , so having no clinical background will significantly decrease your chances of acceptance to an MD-PhD program. You must provide evidence to justify your suitability for both research and medicine and that you have taken the necessary steps to test drive your future career.

Remember to emphasize quality over quantity – you do not need to have an extensive clinical background to impress the adcoms. Choose to volunteer or work with organizations and institutions that would further inform your decision to apply to MD-PhD programs. Patient care is at the heart of the medical profession, so it is vital for MD-PhD applicants to get exposed to patients, who are after all the greatest inspiration for medical research and progress. Apply to work and volunteer in clinics, hospitals, and hospices. Apply to volunteer in long-term care and retirement homes. Gain clinical experience by working as a health professional’s assistant, become a certified nursing assistant (CNA), or a volunteer emergency medical technician (EMT), a medical scribe, or a personal caretaker.

Shadowing a physician can also greatly inform your knowledge of clinical practice. As a passive observer, you will get to see the everyday responsibilities of a practicing physician. Take note of memorable lessons you learn – they may prove to be invaluable sources for your MD-PhD essays. Make sure you know how many shadowing hours are required for medical school to fulfill the requirement and how to ask to shadow a doctor . Remember, committing to a clinical setting or shadowing a physician will provide you with an opportunity to reflect on how research can improve medical practice. Without clinical background, your perception of the medical field and medical research will not be complete.

MD PhD Program Statistics

Average mean statistics for MD-PhD matriculants in the US:

Overall acceptance rate: 2.47% ","label":"Overall Acceptance Rate","title":"Overall Acceptance Rate"}]" code="tab3" template="BlogArticle">

Residency Options

You might be wondering what kind of residency options MD-PhD graduates have after so many years of rigorous training. Just like the rest of applicants, you will need to use the ERAS application to apply to American residency programs and CaRMS to apply to programs in Canada.

First of all, you must know that as an MD-PhD graduate you will need to do a bit more research into residency programs than regular MDs. This is because not all residency programs focus on the research side of medical training. If you want to further your scientific as well as your clinical education, you will have to do a little more work to figure out which residencies will allow you to do so.

Start by speaking with your program mentors who can suggest residencies they know to be particularly research-friendly. You can check programs' research track records to see if they value research and what kind of opportunities there are to shorten the residency for research-track trainees, such as the Accelerated Research Pathway (ARP), Integrated Research Pathway (IRP), and other physician-scientist track programs.

Look for residencies that have been specifically developed to foster the training of physician-scientists by fully integrating research into the clinical training. These programs usually offer shortened residency (specialty) training by allowing students to shorten their training by 1 year, depending on the specialty. Make sure that the residency offers their trainees to start research right at the beginning of the program, rather than choosing a full-time lab later in the process. Find out if there is any special financial support for graduates of the combined programs.

To learn more about opportunities for physician-scientists, check out the American Physician Scientist Association list of residencies. Be aware, that if you decide to pursue clinical practice rather than research after your graduate from MD-PhD, you can still pursue residency in any specialty you choose.

1. Gain extensive research experience.

Admissions into MD-PhD programs are highly competitive, and your research experience is essential to your success in gaining entry into the program. You must be able to demonstrate a longstanding commitment to research. Be sure to start gaining experience as soon as possible and try to diversify that experience. For example, you could work in a medical laboratory, research hospital and for a pharmaceutical company. While it is a start to work as a lab tech, the majority of your experience should be focused on hypothesis-based research. The admissions committee will be interested in your ability and experience in developing a hypothesis into a research problem, testing that hypothesis by conducting research and generating a report to document your findings. Try to tailor your research experiences to the field in which you want to pursue, experiences in the biomedical sciences are very useful but not necessarily required if you'll be studying in fields outside of the laboratory.

2. Contribute to publications.

Try to publish your research findings or contribute to publications to help demonstrate the active role you played in conducting research. This can be a great way to give you a competitive edge as not all candidates have been published or have contributed to publications. If you have been published or contributed to a publication, even if you only played a small role, be sure you are very familiar with the paper and major details surrounding the research. During your interview, the admissions committee will ask you questions about the research you participated in and will want to see your thorough understanding of that research. In a previous blog, we discuss some of the hardest grad school interview questions and answers, as well as common medical school interview questions be sure you review these to help you prepare for your interview.

3. Develop good relationships with your research mentor.

It is very important to develop good relationships with your research mentors straight away. When you apply to MD-PhD programs, you'll have to provide letters of recommendation and the best recommendations will come from a mentor who has spent a long time with you, has been able to directly assess your research skills and has a strong relationship with you.

4. Gain shadowing experience.

Gaining shadowing experience is important for students applying to an MD program so it's no different for those interested in MD-PhD programs. Remember, you are not only demonstrating your passion for research, you should also be interested in becoming a clinical doctor. Shadowing is a great way to learn quickly in a medical environment and gives you excellent experiences that can be discussed in your application or during your interviews.

5. Volunteer and participate in extra-curricular activities.

Community projects and extracurriculars for medical school are a great way to demonstrate a variety of skills desired by the admissions committee such as leadership, teamwork, commitment and problem-solving. Whether you are a tutor, a teaching assistant, or are even part of a debate club, your experiences and what you gained or learned from them are essential. Check out our blog on volunteering to find out how many volunteer hours for medical school you need, as well as the best type of volunteer activity to make your application stand out.

While research is going to be the major focus of the MD-PhD, you must still have sufficient clinical and shadowing experience to assure that medicine is also a desired component of your career. If you do not have clinical and patient experience, the admissions committee will question why you’re applying to the combined program, rather than simply a PhD.

Most applicants do not have master’s degrees. However, some students pursue graduate education to bolster their MD-PhD applications. For example, some students choose to complete special master’s programs to gain valuable research experience.

There is a possibility that your school of choice will forgive a lower GPA if the MCAT score is high. Likewise, if an MCAT score is lower than the school’s typical average, the GPA may compensate for it. However, due to their highly selective process, MD-PhD programs take only the best. Try to ensure that your GPA and MCAT score meet the averages of the schools to which you’re applying. Remember, your GPA and MCAT are not the only components of your MD-PhD application but they are often used to weed out students from the application pool.

While most programs require only the MCAT, some programs may ask you to submit GRE scores as well. Check with your program to make sure.

A good research experience provides you with the opportunity to conduct hypothesis-driven research. You get the chance to develop this hypothesis into a research problem, conduct research to test the hypothesis, and then report the outcome and significance of this research. You do not need to have research experience in the medical field to qualify for MD-PhD. Many research skills are transferable across disciplines. As long as you learn valuable research skills and understand the process, your research experience can come from any field you like.

The quality of your research experience is more important than its amount. Your application can be strong if you convey genuine interest and experience in only one research project. Your progress and commitment to a specific research area demonstrates expertise and dedication. It is not necessary to be involved in dozens of research projects or make any ground-breaking scientific discoveries to enter the MD-PhD program. In your application, focus on what you have learned and accomplished and don't be afraid to discuss your setbacks in addition to your accomplishments.

If you have publications, make sure to include them in your application. Having published research can give you a competitive edge as not every applicant will have this experience. Keep in mind that you must have an in-depth understanding of this research because you will be asked about it during your interviews. However, for the most part publications are not necessary. Many students apply directly out of undergrad and admissions committees understand that it is difficult to contribute to publication at such an early stage in your education.

Early applications are highly encouraged since most programs have rolling admissions. Most MD-PhD programs are affiliated with the AMCAS where you apply through a primary application and then complete a MD-PhD program-specific secondary application. The AMCAS application site opens in early June; most programs suggest that your application be submitted and completed before September.

Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP) is an MD-PhD program that has been awarded a training grant (T32) from the National Institute of General Medical Science that financially supports trainees in the program. There are currently about 49 MD-PhD programs that have T32 awards. Non-MSTP MD-PhD programs also provide environments where students obtain outstanding dual-degree training.

Each institution has a financial package. Most programs offer a monthly stipend and a full tuition scholarship for the length of the program. Check with your program of choice.

It takes 7 to 8 years. You must complete both MD and PhD degree requirements to graduate. Typically, you start the program by mastering basic science courses as an MD student for 1 or 2 years, followed by an intense period of PhD research for 3 or 4 years. During the PhD period, you must complete your research, thesis writing, and defend your work. The last 2 years are dedicated to clinical training.

These programs aim to train physician-scientists, but other research-oriented career paths are also possible. Graduates of MD-PhD programs often go on to become faculty members at medical schools, universities, and research institutes such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

Ideally, at least one of your writers will be the head of a research project in which you participated. It is important to have a person who can speak to your research skills and progress. Other writers can include professors and instructors, volunteer and work supervisors, athletics coaches, or a physician you worked with or whom you shadowed.

It is completely normal to change direction in your research throughout your studies. Many students change their research fields after they gain more research experience. Rather than setting in stone what you are going to study, your application is meant to demonstrate the quality of your experiences and whether you are ready for the rigors of MD-PhD training.

It is certainly possible to become a physician-scientist without obtaining an MD-PhD degree. However, if you are lucky enough to know that you want a career based in medicine and research, the joint program is the most effective way to become a physician-scientist. You can complete an MD first and obtain a PhD afterward, or you could complete a PhD first and obtain your MD afterward, however, the disadvantage is that this route takes much longer. Some schools will let you transfer into their MD-PhD program if you've completed a year or two in a medical or graduate school program at their school. If you are a few years into a medical or graduate school program at a different school however, most schools will not accept your transfer, although it can happen on rare occasions.

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MSTP MD-PhD Program

MSTP 2021 Entering Class

MSTP 2021 Entering Class

Message from the Directors

MSTP Directors and Staff

Welcome to the Stanford MSTP MD-PhD program where you will find a rich environment and unparalleled opportunities for developing a career dedicated to biomedical research.

You may already be familiar with Stanford's tradition and reputation for academic excellence, scientific innovation, and stunning environment; in addition, there are some very special aspects to the program. Stanford is a true University, with Schools of Medicine, Engineering, and Humanities & Sciences located on a single campus that facilitates and encourages interaction between scientists from different disciplines. It was the thesis work of a former MSTP student that helped provide the impetus for the development of the Bio-X program and the Clark Center, which bridges the life, physical, and mathematical sciences to address current challenges in medicine and biology with new ways of thinking.

Medical school at Stanford—for MD-PhD and non-MD-PhD students alike—is also unique. With major clinical training centers in tertiary care, county hospital, and HMO settings, our students learn about different types of patient care and how best to care for their patients. Most Stanford students spend an extra year pursuing interests in laboratory research, public health, or community service; as a dual degree student you will be surrounded by colleagues whose interests go beyond a traditional curriculum.

Finally, Stanford has a well-deserved reputation for interaction, cooperation, and collegiality that extends across educational levels (staff and faculty), training programs (departmental and interdisciplinary), and Schools (medicine and computer science). On a bike ride through campus, or a walk to the "Dish," you will encounter fellow students, Deans, and Nobel laureates, all of whom hold in common a love for an intellectual environment that fosters creativity, critical thinking, and discussion.

Stanford MD-PhD students join a community of scientists dedicated to biomedical research; the group is global but the degrees of separation are few. Welcome to that community!

MSTP Directors

Katrin Chua, MD, PhD

Katrin Chua, MD, PhD

Co-Director, MSTP MD-PhD Professor, Medicine - Endocrinology, Gerontology and Metabolism

Dean Felsher, MD, PhD

Dean Felsher, MD, PhD

Associate Director for Admissions, MSTP MD-PhD Professor, Medicine - Oncology, and Pathology

Catherine Blish

Catherine Blish, MD, PhD

Co-Director, MSTP MD-PhD Professor, Medicine - Infectious Disease

Matthew Porteus

Matthew Porteus, MD, PhD

Associate Director, MSTP MD-PhD Professor, Pediatrics - Pediatrics Stem Cell Transplantation

Taia Wang

Taia Wang, MD, PhD

Associate Director, MSTP MD-PhD Assistant Professor, Medicine and of Microbiology and Immunology

Ellen Yeh

Ellen Yeh, MD, PhD

Associate Director, MSTP MD-PhD Associate Professor of Pathology and of Microbiology and Immunology

Carolyn Bertozzi wins 2022 Nobel Prize in chemistry. 

Stanford chemist Carolyn Bertozzi, PhD, was awarded the Nobel Prize for her pioneering work establishing the field of bioorthogonal chemistry, which allows researchers to study biomolecules and their interactions in living organisms without disrupting natural biological functions.

Dean Felsher , Associate Director of MSTP, is a recipient of the  2020 NCI Outstanding Investigator Award .  NCI Outstanding Investigator Award Recipients was originally published by the National Cancer Institute.

Stanford Med News

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What It's Like to Do an MD-PhD Program

New section.

Two medical students answer questions about what it's like to do an MD-PhD program.

Eli Wisdom Headshot

Elias (Eli) Wisdom

Undergraduate:   Pacific University, Oregon Major:   BS, Biology Medical school:  Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) Anticipated Graduation Year:  2028 Bio: Eli Wisdom is an MD-PhD student at Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) studying the molecular mechanisms of Parkinson’s Disease. He grew up in the small rural town of La Grande, Oregon,  where he gained a deep appreciation for community and service and a fascination with the natural world. At Pacific University, he completed his degree in Biology while also a playing varsity baseball. After graduating he was as an Associate in Neuroscience at Yale School of Medicine for two years before starting an MD-PhD program. Outside of school, he enjoys competing in triathlons, camping, and spending time with family.

Headshot of medical student Sreya Sanyal

Sreya Sanyal

Undergraduate:  New Jersey Institute of Technology        Major:  Biology & History Double Major Medical school:   Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School Anticipated Graduation Year:  2031 Bio: Sreya Sanyal is a MD-PhD student at Robert Wood Johnson Medical School and Princeton University. She is Bengali and she aspires to become a laboratory principal investigator in the field of oncology. Outside of academia, she enjoys singing, cooking, going to museums, and lifting at the gym.  

Why did you decide to pursue an MD-PhD program?

Eli:  As an undergraduate student, I found my first biomedical research experience to be quite thrilling and seriously considered pursuing a career in research. Medical school had surfaced as an opportunity, too, as I was deeply passionate about serving others and caring for the sick, but I felt that basic science research was the backbone of advancing clinical care. I first learned that combined MD-PhD programs existed in my senior year when I was taking part in a summer research program at another academic institute. I learned that in a dual-degree program, I could become rigorously trained as a research scientist and as a physician – and could do both in my future career. To learn more, I reached out to a few physician-scientists to who shared how much they loved their careers. In the clinic, their patients and associated medical problems provided new ideas for exploration in the laboratory. And in the laboratory, the insights they gained could inform the way they treated their patients. Sreya:  I’ve wanted to become an oncologist ever since I was 11 and my mother died from gastric cancer. When I shadowed hematologist oncologists in academic settings, I became more interested in their work in clinical trials and research. Entering college, I explored translational research through my undergraduate biomedical engineering lab experiences. As I met more people in the field of drug development and oncology, I realized that I wanted to be at the cutting edge of this work, but I still had the desire to see patients. Through a lot of soul searching and luck, I was able to embark on a career in medical research by pursing an MD-PhD. Using my training as a physician-scientist, I plan to establish my own lab or work in other ways to improve translational research in the oncological space.

What kinds of career options does the MD-PhD program give you?

Eli:   From my experience, rigorous training in medicine and scientific research prepares you best for a career in academic medicine. This often means working at a large teaching hospital, where you have an opportunity to conduct independent scientific research, care for patients, and teach students. While it can differ depending on the medical specialty or the individual, a typical physician-scientist may spend 80% of their time conducting research and 20% caring for patients.  However, there are many other career paths available to MD-PhD graduates. Students may also pursue careers working for private research organizations, pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, or government agencies.  Sreya:  In my experience as an MD-PhD student interested in oncology, I have a wide array of career options to explore. As a clinician-scientist, I can lead research teams and conduct studies in cancer biology, treatment approaches, and translational medicine. In these roles, I can also mentor students interested in my field, allowing me to advance scientific knowledge while shaping the next generation of researchers. Alternatively, I could directly impact patients' lives by increasing my clinical time spent as an oncologist, developing personalized treatment plans, and contributing to clinical trials. The pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries also present exciting opportunities for me where I would be able to work on drug development, clinical research, or medical affairs, playing an essential role in bringing innovative therapies to market. With my combined medical and research expertise, I am well-equipped to make a meaningful difference in oncology through various rewarding career paths.

What type of research experience did you have before entering the program?

Eli: I attended a liberal arts college where students engaged in scientific research through 2–4-month long classes, which were combined lecture and laboratory experiences. Building on excitement from these courses, I pursued a summer research internship at a large biomedical research institute the summer prior to my senior year. I loved this initial exposure to working in a high-powered scientific research center. From working in state-of-the-art reach laboratories, to solving scientific problems in creative ways, and watching physicians bounce between research and patient care – I was hooked.  Sreya:  Before starting my current program, I had two significant research experiences. First, I worked in a lab that focused on creating materials for drug delivery in the field of biomedical engineering. We used special gels to deliver important substances to specific parts of the body, which had significant effects on the surrounding tissues, such as promoting blood vessel growth and blocking certain enzymes. I spent about 10 hours a week for three years in this lab and contributed to three published papers.

Secondly, I worked at a research institute where I studied mice that were genetically modified to show signs of anthrax toxin exposure. These modified toxins could be controlled to specifically target tumor cells in the body. I dedicated 40 hours a week to this research, and as a result, we have two research papers in progress for publication

How did you prepare to apply to MD-PhD programs?

Eli: Since I had played varsity baseball throughout college (which was impactful training in its own right,) I had limited time for research as an undergraduate. So, I decided to pursue an extended research position before applying to MD-PhD programs. After sending several emails to laboratories across the US and applying to many formal postbacc research programs, I took a two-year job as a postgraduate researcher at an academic research institute. During my time working on a project in a laboratory, I also volunteered at the connected hospital. This allowed me to experience what it was like to conduct independent research during the first part of my day, and care for patients in the afternoon. This experience only confirmed my deeply held passions for both medicine and science, but also exposed me to the challenges that both careers entailed. I felt much more confident in my decision to pursue a dual-degree knowing these insights.

What is your favorite part about being an MD-PhD student?

Eli: Thus far, my favorite part of my training has been directly experiencing the intersection of clinical care and research. During the first two years of the MD-PhD, I was mainly focused on medical school courses and preparing for the first board exam. But now, as I am beginning my Ph.D., I am realizing how medical school has broadened my perspective. When I read research papers or craft a plan to tackle a hypothesis, I feel empowered with the knowledge I learned in my didactic medical school courses. For example, during one of my Ph.D. research rotations, a scientist was having difficulty delivering a therapeutic to the brains of the mice they were studying. Immediately I recalled from my medical school courses how mannitol could be co-infused to transiently open the blood-brain barrier for drug delivery. It could easily be translated to this scenario. Similarly, my experiences with clinic patients have benefited from my MD-PhD training. Often, it can be as simple as the ability to explain to a patient or their family, the exact mechanism of a drug and the reason it could be effective for their ailment. Or, informing them about current basic science efforts in the field or current clinical trials they might be eligible for. As I advance further into my training, I am eager to see how clinical care and laboratory research can become even more intertwined. Sreya:  I am very excited to learn new techniques and approaches to my field of interest. I am also glad that for MD-PhD students in my program, there is a huge emphasis on lifestyle and work/life balance. Many students in my program have become engaged, or married, and are starting families, while many medical students may feel pressure to push these milestones off. Being an MD-PhD student is a huge commitment, so I am especially grateful for all of the personal and professional support my program has to offer.

What do you wish you’d known before you started the program?

Eli: I wish I had known how important it would be to keep an open mind about the research topics that interested me most. I began the MD-PhD program with a rigid focus on a certain topic, thinking that it was the only topic that gave me real excitement. It was also the topic I was most versed in and comfortable in. But during my medical school courses, I was suddenly overwhelmed with several fascinating questions and problems, that all seemed equally thrilling. It took a fair bit of mental wrestling with myself to broaden my own research interests and muster up the courage to explore a field I was fascinated with even if I didn’t have the most experience in it quite yet. Luckily, MD-PhD programs are usually quite supportive of students exploring new topics of interest and are eager to see you follow your motivations.

Sreya:  One of the most important aspects to consider for MD-PhD students is the idea that this path is a marathon, not a sprint. There is a lot of temptation to overload on clubs, leadership, research, etc., to keep pace with MD colleagues, but in the long run, an MD-PhD is about the quality and depth of training. It’s important to build healthy habits, strong social relationships, and enjoy activities in a sustainable manner since MD-PhD students have to do another graduate degree on top of medical training.

What advice would you give a student considering an MD-PhD program?

Eli:  My advice is to accrue as many experiences as you can in medicine and research before applying. Through these, you can understand if pursuing both an MD and a PhD is the best fit for you, or, if you’d be completely satisfied pursuing a career with only training in one discipline. If you can, shadow physicians at both large academic hospitals and private practices. This can teach you if you’d enjoy treating patients daily and give you insight into how your experience will vary based on the setting. Seek out research experiences as early as possible. This may be difficult to procure, but having a longitudinal research experience that encompasses the successes and failures of science will inform you if this should be your future career. If you can, ask for opportunities to experience what it’s like to write a grant or an academic research article. These are not easy to write, yet they encompass a significant amount of time for professional physician-scientists, so, it is important to learn if you’d enjoy (or at least tolerate) the academic writing load. Lastly, don’t be intimidated by the amount time it takes to complete an MD-PhD. Yes, it is longer than most post-graduate training and takes up a significant portion of your early life. But it is a unique and worthy career path that is much needed in service to society. Sreya:  My advice to anyone considering an MD-PhD would be to get both a variety and depth of research experiences. As a student, it’s very easy to continue down a path you already started, but you must try to explore before you commit to any one approach. MD-PhD programs appreciate students who know what they would like to research and the only way to discover this is to pursue broad research experiences. That said, once you find what drives and excites you, it’s important to stick with it and maintain good relationships with your PIs and mentors. It’s a small world among physician-scientists, so depth of work and networking will help you achieve and further your goals. Above all, remember that an MD-PhD is not necessary to do research as a physician. The goal of an MD-PhD is to provide the specific training needed to conduct research above and beyond what a physician alone can do. In this case, you must really be sure that research is fulfilling and allows you to achieve your career goals when applying to programs, as they will ask you about your aspirations.

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Translating Pre-Medical Experiences into Clinical Skills

Michael Foster | May 3, 2023

Your time before medical school is golden. It is a unique time to explore where your passions lie (both within and beyond medicine) and lay a strong foundation of the inter- and intrapersonal skills needed for you to be the best physician you can be. The best advice is simple: challenge yourself, be honest, and have fun! […]

The AAMC offers trusted resources and services to help you navigate the journey from premed to residency and beyond.

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M.D./Ph.D. Program

How to Apply

Educating physician-scientists to bridge biomedical research and clinical care.

The University of Louisville School of Medicine offers a Physician Scientist training program for the fulfillment of requirements for M.D. and Ph.D. degrees. The comprehensive program includes two years in pre-clinical medical training, followed by graduate training in one of U of L's basic research departments, and two years of medical rotations for clinical training.

The small size of the program ensures a high quality training experience providing individualized attention to its students. As a UofL MD/PhD student you'll experience great flexibility in designing a research program and have exceptional access to a wide variety of research experiences in top-flight research laboratories. You will receive hands-on experience in the patient simulation center and work with standardized patients beginning in the first year. A wide variety of clinical experiences are available through our hospital partnerships in Louisville and statewide. Applicants should have fulfilled prerequisites for admission to the School of Medicine (including the MCAT standardized examination) and have a proven commitment to biomedical research. Students in the program will receive full tuition remission, a stipend during all phases of the curriculum, and health insurance during the graduate research phase.

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Top MD PhD Programs in the U.S.

Want to earn an MD-PhD degree from a top-ranked university? To find the right school or university for your academic interests, you’ll need to consider the education costs, academic programs, financial aid and a number of other factors in all of the schools you’re considering.

To help you, we have compiled a list of the best medical colleges and schools in the USA. Combined MD-PhD degree programs provide students the opportunity to earn both the MD and the Ph.D. in areas pertinent to medicine.

Start the search for your future education right away! Below is a list of medical schools that offering a combined MD-PhD degree program, with tuition fees, contact info, and links to their websites. Good Luck!!

Table of Contents

Harvard/M.I.T MD-PhD Program, Harvard Medical School

The Harvard/MIT MD-PhD Program at Harvard Medical School (HMS) provides medical education combined with research training in laboratories at Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The overall mission is to train the next generation of premier physician-scientists, with representation across a rich diversity of clinical disciplines and research areas from basic and translational sciences to bioengineering to the social sciences. Sponsored primarily by the National Institutes of Health through its Medical Scientist Training Program, the program provides fellowship support for selected and highly qualified students who have elected to pursue both the M.D. and Ph.D. degrees.

Image result for Harvard/M.I.T MD-PhD Program, Harvard Medical School

The MD-PhD Program seeks to provide entering students with a thorough and up-to-date medical education combined with research training in laboratories of premier investigators at Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). This class is specially designed to introduce the entering MD-PhD students to current disease-oriented research problems and to develop their critical thinking skills.

Ranking : 1st Tuition Fees Approximately : $28,110/year Contact Information : 617.432.0991, Fax: 617.432.2791, [email protected] Official Website : https://www.hms.harvard.edu/md_phd/

University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center

The Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP) at UT Southwestern Medical Center trains the next generation of leaders in academic medicine by offering a combined M.D./Ph.D. degree. Each year we enroll approximately 10 outstanding students from around the world who have substantive experience in laboratory research and a strong desire to pursue a research career related to medicine. A highly integrated program, a dedicated and collegial faculty, and an unusually intense hands-on clinical experience await the prepared student.

UT South-western’s MSTP recognizes the special niche the M.D./Ph.D. scientist occupies by providing a rigorous but supportive program of clinical and research training. During clinical training, M.D./Ph.D. students master clinical skills and develop the same compassion and commitment as all UT Southwestern medical students.

Ranking : 2nd Tuition Fees Approximately : $19,091 (in-state) and $32,191 (out-of-state). Contact Information : 214-648-3111 Official Website : https://www.utsouthwestern.edu/education/medical-school/academics/combined-degrees/mstp/

Dartmouth University, Geisel School of Medicine

The MD-PhD program at Dartmouth combines systematic and rigorous research preparation for the Ph.D. degree with the full MD curriculum. The MD-PhD Program is unique in that it encompasses the entire campus and thus offers our students doctoral programs in a wide variety of disciplines. The training provided to the MD-PhD student is unique as it provides for developing basic science analytical skills coupled with the acquisition of highly diagnostic clinical skills.

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The MD-PhD program at the Geisel School of Medicine offers opportunities that are both challenging and rewarding for students who are committed and motivated. Dartmouth financially and academically provides the support and guidance needed by students pursuing the MD-PhD degrees. The program is organized to permit students to achieve the full potential of both degrees in an efficient and effective manner while also developing an understanding of the healthcare system as a whole.

Ranking : 3rd Tuition Fees Approximately : $63,080 Contact Information : (603) 653-9958 Official Website : http://geiselmed.dartmouth.edu/mdphd/

Duke University School of Medicine

The Duke Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP) at the Duke University School of Medicine trains highly qualified students as physician-scientists. Duke’s Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) program seeks to prepare a diverse student body to pursue a spectrum of medical career options in order to become physician leaders who can advance biomedical research and improve local, national, and global health. The program, which leads to both the MD and Ph.D. degrees and typically takes seven to eight years for completion, combines graduate education in a basic biomedical science with the full clinical curriculum of the School of Medicine.

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The Medical Scientist Training Program (MD/ Ph.D.) and the Primary Care Leadership Track are both programs that must be applied to during the initial School of Medicine Admissions process. The Duke Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP), trains highly qualified students as physician-scientists, equipping them for solving problems in human disease using the approaches and techniques of the basic biomedical and social sciences.

Ranking : 4th Tuition Fees Approximately : $57,100 Contact Information : 919.684.2985, [email protected] Official Website : https://medschool.duke.edu/education/degree-programs-and-admissions/doctor-medicine-md-program

John Hopkins University School of Medicine

Approximately 10 percent of students at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine pursue a combined M.D.-Ph.D. degree, which offers unrivaled preparation for careers in academic medicine, government or private research. This six- to the eight-year course of study offers extraordinary flexibility and can be individualized in numerous ways depending on the student’s goals and interests. Ph.D. programs in other divisions of the University, such as The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (including Health Policy & Management, Bioethics, Health Communication, Epidemiology, and International Health to name a few) are also open to MD-PhD students.

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In a word, the MD-PhD curriculum at Johns Hopkins is flexible. Most students decide to do the first two years of medical school then begin graduate school and finish the last two years of their medical training after completing their thesis work. However, students who want more first-hand experience in clinical medicine before beginning graduate work can elect to complete three years of medical school, followed by their graduate training, and then the last year the medical school. All eligible applicants who are admitted to the MD-PhD Program are considered for funding under the NIH Medical Scientist Training Program Award. Approximately 10-12 MD-PhD students matriculate each year and receive the Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP) award.

Ranking : 5th Tuition Fees Approximately : $51,900 Contact Information : 410-955-8008, [email protected] Official Website : http://mdphd.johnshopkins.edu

Mayo Clinic Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Mayo Clinic Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences (Mayo Graduate School) is one of the schools of higher education within the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science. The school offers world-class graduate education leading to Ph.D. and M.D.-Ph.D. degrees, as well as master’s degree programs for Mayo Clinic residents and fellows. Their Ph.D. and M.D.-Ph.D. candidates have access to more than 200 faculty members, providing opportunities for close collaboration with internationally recognized researchers.

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The Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP) is an M.D.-Ph.D. program offered by Mayo Clinic Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences and Mayo Clinic School of Medicine. MSTP is an M.D.-Ph.D. training program that prepares students to translate scientific discoveries into applications that improve patient care. Through the MSTP, you become a highly skilled physician-scientists engaged in leading advances in science and clinical practice.

Ranking : 6th Tuition Fees Approximately : $31,000 Contact Information : [email protected], [email protected] Official Website : https://www.mayo.edu/mayo-clinic-graduate-school-of-biomedical-sciences

University of Florida College of Medicine

The MD-PhD Program at the University of Florida has been training clinician-scientists continuously for over 30 years through intramural funding. The MD-PhD program trains clinician-scientists for a career in academic medicine with the full expectation that our MD-PhD students will become future leaders at academic medical centers worldwide. Three to four years are usually required to undertake and complete a Ph.D. program. Thus, MD-PhD students typically require seven to eight years to obtain their combined degree. The goal of the MD-PhD Training Program is to enable scholars to obtain the best training in their intended research areas while working closely with an outstanding faculty.

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The MD-PhD Training Program offers a full stipend scholarship and tuition waiver for up to 4-8 new students each year for the entire period of their training. During the graduate portion of the training, MD-PhD students are appointed as Graduate Research Assistants and receive tuition remission and a stipend ($28,277/year) which may be funded by the mentor’s research grant, an NIH training grant, or other institutional funds. MD-PhD students are eligible for free graduate student health insurance during their Ph.D. training.

Ranking : 7th Tuition Fees Approximately : $32,744 Contact Information : 352.273.8926, Fax: 352.846.3446, [email protected] Official Website : https://mdphd.med.ufl.edu

The University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine

The Penn State College of Medicine Medical Scientist Training Program is supported by a grant from the National Institutes of Health, awarded to the top MD/ Ph.D. programs in the country. Through the MD/ Ph.D. Medical Scientist Training Program at Penn State College of Medicine, you’ll gain the tools and training you need to become a successful physician-scientist. You’ll experience the breadth of clinical science while designing experiments and conducting biomedical research with modern technology. The program, typically completed in eight years, will prepare you for a successful career in medical research, academic medicine, or a related field.

The Perelman School of Medicine and the Penn Medical Scientist Training Program seek students from diverse backgrounds. MD-PhD dual-degree programs are intended for students with a passion for research who wishes to work as physician-scientists within the field of medicine.  Following approximately eight years of training, the student may go on to medical school faculty positions, while others choose to work in industry or as full-time researchers at institutions such as the NIH or the Wistar Institute.

Ranking : 8th Tuition Fees Approximately : $55,928 Contact Information : 717-531-8521 Official Website : http://www.med.upenn.edu/mstp/

University of Southern California (USC), Keck School of Medicine

The Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California offers students pursuing medical and biomedical graduate degrees a dynamic and diverse learning environment on the USC Health Sciences Campus in Los Angeles. The Keck School of Medicine’s MD-PhD Program is a fully funded joint program of the University of Southern California (USC) and the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The program is designed for individuals who aspire to a career in academic medicine or a leadership role in the biomedical industry. The MD-PhD Program provides for the development of research expertise and academic excellence while fulfilling the requirements for a Ph.D. degree in a variety of subject areas.

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The mission of the program is to train a qualified and diverse group of students to become the next generation of physician-scientists that are enabled to make important breakthroughs in medical science. This program integrates the medical school curriculum with graduate curricula in the basic sciences, to provide a unified course of study leading to both the MD and Ph.D. degrees. MD/ Ph.D. candidates have the option of pursuing a laboratory experience before beginning the Year I medical curriculum through a laboratory rotation at either USC or the California Institute of Technology.

Ranking : 9th Tuition Fees Approximately : $61,428 Contact Information : (323) 442-1100 Official Website : https://keck.usc.edu/md-phd-program/

Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine

The Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) School of Medicine has been awarding combined MD and Ph.D. degrees since 1975. The VCU MD-PhD program is a medium-sized program, admitting six to eight people on average each year. Full medical school and graduate school tuition is provided by the VCU MD-PhD program and Ph.D. dissertation adviser. The MD-PhD program at VCU prepares students for careers that encompass aspects of both patient care and scientific discovery. Graduates become physician-scientists who advance the medical field through direct patient care and innovative research.

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The VCU MD-PhD Program encourages students with disabilities, underrepresented minorities, and students who are disadvantaged to apply. Students will receive a minimum annual stipend of $31,265 each year for all years enrolled in the program. Each student receives an additional $1,000 added to their stipend after passing their Ph.D. candidacy exams. To be considered for the VCU MD-PhD Program, prospective students must apply to the medical school through the American Medical College Application Service.

Ranking : 10th Tuition Fees Approximately : $23,016 per year Contact Information : (804) 828-0673, Fax: (804) 827-1469 Official Website : https://mdphd.vcu.edu

Yale University School of Medicine

The Yale School of Medicine (YSM) is one of the oldest and most prestigious medical schools in the US. The MD-PhD Program at Yale University was established in 1969 and graduated its first students in 1973. They welcome students who are ready to accept the challenges, responsibilities, and rewards of preparing for careers that make a positive impact on human health and well-being. A special feature of their Program is the requirement that at the end of the second year in the Program, all students participate in 6 months of clinical rotations prior to entering the Ph.D. phase of their training, usually in January of their 3rd year.

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The MD/ Ph.D. Program at Yale encourages individuals with disabilities or who may be from an economically, socially, culturally or educationally disadvantaged background to apply to our Program. All students in Yale’s MD-PhD Program are supported fully with a stipend, tuition and basic health coverage for the duration of training.

Ranking : 11th Tuition Fees Approximately : $86,647 Contact Information : [email protected], 203.785.4403/5422 Official Website : https://medicine.yale.edu/mdphd/

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TU academic programs rank top in the nation

Programs in education, information technology, business, health professions among recent national accolades for TU

February 14, 2024

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Top-rated institutions are often declared such due to their ability to offer academic programming of the highest caliber. According to recent national recognitions, that’s exactly what students receive at Towson University.

In the fall, TU was named the No. 1 public university in Maryland and among the top public universities in the nation during the annual burst of institutional rankings. More recently, TU has earned praise for a number of individual academic programs.

The U.S. News & World Report named two TU graduate programs in its 2024 Best Online Graduate Programs rankings. TU’s online graduate education program was named No. 1 in Maryland and No. 35 in the nation, while the university’s online graduate computer information technology program ranked No. 55 in the U.S.

In addition, TU’s College of Business & Economics has been ranked No. 26 among all U.S. public universities, according to Poets & Quants . TU was also rated No. 8 in the nation for Best Master’s in Speech-Language Pathology Programs by BestColleges.

“Towson University is committed to providing outstanding programs that address both the contemporary issues of society and the evolving needs of today’s students. These rankings are a testament to that effort and to the transformational education we provide at every level of our academic programming,” says provost and executive vice president Melanie Perreault.

As the preeminent teacher preparation program in the region, TU is the largest producer of education professionals in the state. The College of Education’s programs are designed for flexibility to meet the needs of today’s educators while providing high level of support, mentorship and academic rigor. As the only Maryland university included in the list’s top 200, TU was ranked No. 35 of 303 universities in the nation.

In the  Fisher College of Science & Mathematics , the top-rated master’s in applied information technology  (AIT) – ranked No. 55 in the country – offers programming that focuses on the most relevant and timely topics in the field, including software engineering, computer forensics and information security. TU is one of only three schools in Maryland to appear in this year’s list, alongside Johns Hopkins University and UMBC. It is the fourth year TU’s program has been ranked by U.S. News.

According to Poets & Quants, the College of Business and Economics has remained the 26 th -best overall public program in the nation for the second-straight year. As part of the publication’s rankings, TU is also rated 17 th in career outcomes, 31 st in academic experience and 33 rd in admissions standards among all public institutions.

As the No. 8 program in the country, the College of Health Professions’ master’s in speech-language pathology program provides students with hands-on clinical experience in one of the medical epicenters of the nation. BestColleges ranking methodology incorporated key metrics including student outcomes, flexibility and affordability.

Towson University is nationally recognized for academic excellence, diversity and inclusion, affordability & more.

Thursday, February 22, 2024

Produced by the Office of Marketing and Communications

Produced by the Office of Marketing and Communications © 2022

UMD’s Online Graduate Programs Jump in U.S. News Rankings

Master’s in Engineering Soars to No. 6; MBA Rises to No. 11

By Heather G. Markle and Gregory Muraski Feb 07, 2024

students walk on McKeldin Mall

UMD’s Master of Engineering program climbed to its highest ranking from U.S. News & World Report; other categories in the A. James Clark School of Engineering as well as those in the Robert H. Smith School of Business rose too.

Photo by John T. Consoli

The University of Maryland’s online Master of Engineering and MBA programs stand among the nation’s best, landing at Nos. 6 and 11, respectively, in 2024 rankings released Wednesday by U.S. News & World Report .

The M.Eng. program climbed 13 spots from last year to crack the Top 10 for the first time. In addition, the A. James Clark School of Engineering placed No. 13 among online engineering graduate programs for veterans, No. 10 in electrical engineering and No. 14 in management—all up from last year.

“Online programs are an important tool in extending education access to a broader section of society. The Clark School’s online programs facilitate that opportunity with world-class educational opportunities and excellent instructors who address the needs of our students,” said Dean Samuel Graham, Jr. “We are incredibly proud of our rankings and what they indicate about our work to make an engineering career achievable for anyone who wants to pursue it.”

Offered through Maryland Applied Graduate Engineering (MAGE), the online programs include master of engineering and graduate certificates in bioengineering, cybersecurity, fire protection engineering, project management, reliability engineering, energy systems engineering, software engineering and systems engineering. In 2023, MAGE added online programs in embedded systems, cloud engineering and hypersonics. In total, the full array of programs enroll 158 students.

All of the engineering and business programs are designed to be flexible and address the needs of busy adult learners, whose schedules or locations do not allow on-campus study, while remaining as equally enriching and valuable as in-person programs.

U.S. News rankings are based on factors including student engagement, faculty credentials, expert opinion of the program, student services and available technologies, and overall student excellence.

The Robert H. Smith School of Business moved up in three separate subcategories from last year: general management rose to No. 5 from No. 11; MBA in marketing edged up one spot to No. 5; and MBA for veterans increased to No. 9 from No. 10. Smith also placed No. 9 in the MBA-finance category and is No. 14, up from 16th, among non-MBA master's business programs.

"We are proud that the Smith School has been recognized for the excellence of our online programs,” said Dean Prabhudev Konana. “We have been doing this for many years, and continue to expand our online program offerings to help students develop their skills amid evolving global realignment and technological advancement in business and society."

Campus & Community

A. James Clark School of Engineering Robert H. Smith School of Business

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University of Delaware

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top md phd programs

Master of Public Health: MPH

Concentrations in epidemiology or, health policy and management, developing the next generation of leaders to create healthy, equitable and thriving communities..

The University of Delaware’s Master of Public Health interdisciplinary program combines faculty and resources from across multiple departments and colleges and focuses on preparing students for careers in both applied and research settings. The MPH program contributes to advancement and innovation in public health through actionable research, collaborative interprofessional education and community-engaged service by:

  • Expanding student capacity to understand, integrate and use public health tools and methods in applied public health careers through engaging and innovative learning environments
  • Conducting interdisciplinary research that contributes to reducing health disparities and improving the lives of individuals in resource-constrained communities
  • Engaging in partnerships and collaborations to meet critical public health challenges

The University of Delaware MPH program offers two concentration areas: Epidemiology and Health Policy and Management . The MPH in Epidemiology is housed within the College of Health Sciences . The MPH in Health Policy and Management resides within the Joseph R. Biden, Jr. School of Public Policy and Administration.

The concentration areas share 21 credits of core courses but diverge in specialized coursework. Applicants to the MPH must apply to a specific concentration area.

The University of Delaware is an applicant for accreditation by the Council on Education for Public Health (CEPH) . The accreditation review will address the MPH in Epidemiology and the MPH in Health Policy and Management. Other degrees and areas of study offered by this institution will not be included in the unit of accreditation review. ​

Application deadlines.

The  2023-2024  UD graduate student tuition rate per credit hour is  $1539*  for the  Epidemiology MPH.

The  2023-2024  UD graduate student tuition rate per credit hour is  $1028 for the Health Policy and Management MPH.

*Due to a College of Health Sciences Dean’s Scholarship, the student tuition rate is lower than the published UD graduate tuition rate. The final student tuition rate for the MPH in Epidemiology program is $1,028/credit. Please contact the department for more information.

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Online Master of Health Administration

Department of Public Health

Be a leader in health administration

Healthcare administrators are senior-level management professionals who must be highly trained to plan, direct and oversee the daily operations of medical centers, hospitals and health organizations. Purdue’s Master of Health Administration (MHA) will prepare you to become a healthcare administrator by helping you develop your healthcare business acumen, learn the healthcare industry’s regulatory framework and gain strategic-planning skills to keep organizations competitive in a changing market.

As a healthcare administrator, you’ll play a prominent role behind the scenes in directing medical facilities and making decisions that improve the health of the populations you serve. Feel confident taking your next giant leap by pursuing your MHA at Purdue. As a leader in healthcare administration education, Purdue’s MHA program has achieved top rankings from onlinemastersdegree.com (2022) and edumed.org (2023)

ONLINE HEALTHCARE ADMINISTRATION DEGREE PROGRAM

Edumed.org, 2023

Experience the Purdue difference in your online healthcare administration master’s degree: 

  • Comprehensive Curriculum: Master healthcare leadership, operations and quality improvement.
  • Patient-Centric: Focus on healthcare access for vulnerable populations.
  • Global Network: Connect with peers and experienced faculty. 
  • Flexible Learning: Complete your work100% online — no GRE required.
  • Fast credentials: Maximize your degree withstackable graduate certificates.

Program Quick Facts

Degree Type : Master’s Degree

Format : 100% Online

Program Length: 6 semesters or 2 years

Weekly Commitment : 15 hours

Cost : $30,000 (in-state) and $34,000 (out-of-state)

Graduate Certificates

Who should enroll in the online MHA degree program?

This program is intended for early- and mid-career professionals looking to pursue administrative careers in health facilities. Classes focus on U.S. health systems and are relevant to a broad range of healthcare roles, including:

  • Health service managers
  • Healthcare IT/informatics staff
  • Mental health workers
  • Clinical staff
  • Insurance managers
  • Pharmacy staff
  • Assisted living facility staff
  • Quality assurance project managers
  • Risk management employees
  • Dentist office employees
  • Ophthalmology specialists
  • Home healthcare workers
  • Radiology staff
  • Emergency medicine staff
  • Medical billers
  • Finance and business managers

The curriculum also applies to government-run facilities such as the Veteran Administration hospital system and other government-funded health organizations.

The learning objectives include:

  • Identify the main components and issues of organization, financing and delivery of health services and health systems in the United States. 
  • Demonstrate analytical and systems thinking to identify obstacles and opportunities in organizational processes and design.  
  • Demonstrate leadership skills by supporting individuals and teams through coaching and mentoring to improve human capital. 
  • Develop financial roadmaps by interpreting and communicating financial and accounting information, developing and evaluating program budgets, and strategically investing in long-term improvements.

The Master of Health Administration and its graduate certificates are taught by leaders in the healthcare field and led by program director Cody Mullen .

View a complete list of department faculty.

“The COVID-19 pandemic has prompted a recalibration of the country’s healthcare system, infrastructure and policies. Healthcare administrators must keep pace with rapid advances in technology, patient care and regulations. Purdue prepares professionals to navigate the complexities of this changing industry and lead organizations into the future.” -Cody Mullen

Cody Mullen, PhD

Director, Master of Health Administration Program

[email protected]

Cody Mullen, PhD Director, Master of Health Administration Program Clinical Associate Professor, College of Health and Human Sciences Research specialties: Rural healthcare Quality of care delivery Advanced payment models Office: Matthews Hall, Room 219B Phone: 765-494-8310 Email: [email protected]

Is the degree program practice-oriented or theory-oriented?

Our faculty focus on skills that are grounded in proven health administration research. The courses are designed to teach skills for the workplace. The seminars and capstone are industry-focused. In addition, the seminar can be taken across cohorts that provide students with professional networking opportunities.

What is the difference between a Master of Health Administration (MHA), a Master of Public Health (MPH) and a Master of Business Administration (MBA)?

The Master of Health Administration degree focuses on skills in leadership, management and operations specific to healthcare systems, such as hospitals and clinics. An MHA prepares you to navigate these systems with knowledge of a broad range of healthcare-specific management, including accounting/finance, marketing, management, law, policy, operations and quality assurance.

A Master of Business Administration improves your business acumen in a broad range of industries. MBA skills transfer into anything from startups to Fortune 500 companies. Profit-driven industries benefit from the business knowledge people with their MBAs possess.

A Master of Public Health is specific to those who want to focus on work that improves the health of entire communities and populations. This includes an understanding of social and behavioral science, environmental health, biostatistics, epidemiology and health policy.

All three degrees help you move into leadership and management positions; however, the MHA and MPH are designed for those looking to become leaders within the health field. Those who earn their MBA can often work in industries that support healthcare but are not necessarily employed by the health systems directly.

How do online classes work? Do I have to be at my computer at a specific time?

As a Purdue student, you will be taking classes in an online environment. Instructors provide materials, lectures, tests and assignments that can be accessed at any time. Your lectures are not time-restricted, meaning you don’t need to be logged in to view your course materials at a specific time. However, all your course activities, assignments and exams must be completed by their due dates. You will need to view course lectures regularly to keep current.

How much time should I plan to spend on the program each week?

Students should expect a time commitment of approximately 15 hours per week.

How will I be graded?

Students are graded based on their performance in class. The courses we offer online will have various methods for grading depending on the specific requirements for a given class. You can expect to experience any combination of homework, graded exams, final projects, group work or graded reports. View the Purdue Grading Scale for more information.

Can I count the graduate certificate toward the Master of Health Administration?

Yes, students who complete one of Purdue’s online healthcare management graduate certificates can count the credits toward the MHA.

What will my diploma say?

Master of Health Administration awarded by Purdue University.

What is the frequency of starts for this program?

There are three starts for this program: fall (August), spring (January) and summer (May).

Featured News

Purdue online MHA grad lands prestigious fellowship at University of Iowa

Purdue student seeks to address stigmas around aging and caretaking with MHA degree

2022 MHA Student of the Year Karrah Teruya reflects on extraordinary graduate school experience

100 Best universities for Mechanical Engineering in Russia

Updated: July 18, 2023

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Below is a list of best universities in Russia ranked based on their research performance in Mechanical Engineering. A graph of 5.73M citations received by 912K academic papers made by 153 universities in Russia was used to calculate publications' ratings, which then were adjusted for release dates and added to final scores.

We don't distinguish between undergraduate and graduate programs nor do we adjust for current majors offered. You can find information about granted degrees on a university page but always double-check with the university website.

1. Moscow State University

For Mechanical Engineering

Moscow State University logo

2. St. Petersburg State University

St. Petersburg State University logo

3. Ufa State Aviation Technical University

Ufa State Aviation Technical University logo

4. Bauman Moscow State Technical University

Bauman Moscow State Technical University logo

5. Tomsk Polytechnic University

Tomsk Polytechnic University logo

6. Peter the Great St.Petersburg Polytechnic University

Peter the Great St.Petersburg Polytechnic University logo

7. Ural Federal University

Ural Federal University logo

8. South Ural State University

South Ural State University logo

9. National Research University Higher School of Economics

National Research University Higher School of Economics logo

10. Novosibirsk State University

Novosibirsk State University logo

11. Kazan Federal University

Kazan Federal University logo

12. Moscow Aviation Institute

Moscow Aviation Institute logo

13. National Research Nuclear University MEPI

National Research Nuclear University MEPI logo

14. N.R.U. Moscow Power Engineering Institute

N.R.U. Moscow Power Engineering Institute logo

15. Samara National Research University

Samara National Research University logo

16. Moscow State Technological University "Stankin"

Moscow State Technological University "Stankin" logo

17. National University of Science and Technology "MISIS"

National University of Science and Technology "MISIS" logo

18. ITMO University

ITMO University logo

19. Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology

Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology logo

20. Tomsk State University

Tomsk State University logo

21. Novosibirsk State Technical University

Novosibirsk State Technical University logo

22. Southern Federal University

Southern Federal University logo

23. Saratov State University

Saratov State University logo

24. RUDN University

RUDN University logo

25. Ufa State Petroleum Technological University

Ufa State Petroleum Technological University logo

26. Samara State Technical University

Samara State Technical University logo

27. Kazan National Research Technical University named after A.N. Tupolev - KAI

Kazan National Research Technical University named after A.N. Tupolev - KAI logo

28. Siberian Federal University

Siberian Federal University logo

29. Omsk State Technical University

Omsk State Technical University logo

30. Perm State Technical University

Perm State Technical University logo

31. Saint Petersburg State Electrotechnical University

Saint Petersburg State Electrotechnical University logo

32. Moscow Polytech

Moscow Polytech logo

33. Magnitogorsk State Technical University

Magnitogorsk State Technical University logo

34. Saratov State Technical University

Saratov State Technical University logo

35. Tula State University

Tula State University logo

36. Far Eastern Federal University

Far Eastern Federal University logo

37. Saint-Petersburg Mining University

Saint-Petersburg Mining University logo

38. Moscow State University of Railway Engineering

Moscow State University of Railway Engineering logo

39. Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod

Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod logo

40. Belgorod State Technological University

Belgorod State Technological University logo

41. Belgorod State University

Belgorod State University logo

42. Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University

Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University logo

43. Novgorod State University

44. kazan state technological university.

Kazan State Technological University logo

45. Moscow Medical Academy

Moscow Medical Academy logo

46. Russian State University of Oil and Gas

47. tambov state technical university.

Tambov State Technical University logo

48. Finance Academy under the Government of the Russian Federation

Finance Academy under the Government of the Russian Federation logo

49. Voronezh State University

Voronezh State University logo

50. Siberian State Industrial University

Siberian State Industrial University logo

51. Saint Petersburg State Institute of Technology

Saint Petersburg State Institute of Technology logo

52. St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering

St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering logo

53. Siberian State Aerospace University

Siberian State Aerospace University logo

54. Kalashnikov Izhevsk State Technical University

Kalashnikov Izhevsk State Technical University logo

55. South-Russian State University of Economics and Service

South-Russian State University of Economics and Service logo

56. Ogarev Mordovia State University

Ogarev Mordovia State University logo

57. Murmansk State Technical University

Murmansk State Technical University logo

58. Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics

59. mendeleev university of chemical technology of russia.

Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia logo

60. South-Western State University

South-Western State University logo

61. Perm State University

Perm State University logo

62. Kuzbass State Technical University

Kuzbass State Technical University logo

63. Plekhanov Russian University of Economics

Plekhanov Russian University of Economics logo

64. Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration

Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration logo

65. Penza State University

Penza State University logo

66. Chelyabinsk State University

Chelyabinsk State University logo

67. Moscow State Pedagogical University

Moscow State Pedagogical University logo

68. National Research University of Electronic Technology

National Research University of Electronic Technology logo

69. Leningrad State University

Leningrad State University logo

70. Yaroslavl State University

Yaroslavl State University logo

71. Russian National Research Medical University

Russian National Research Medical University logo

72. Irkutsk State University

Irkutsk State University logo

73. Kuban State University of Technology

Kuban State University of Technology logo

74. Ulyanovsk State Technical University

Ulyanovsk State Technical University logo

75. Bashkir State University

Bashkir State University logo

76. Polzunov Altai State Technical University

Polzunov Altai State Technical University logo

77. St. Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation

St. Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation logo

78. University of Tyumen

University of Tyumen logo

79. Irkutsk National Research Technical University

Irkutsk National Research Technical University logo

80. Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University

Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University logo

81. Ulyanovsk State University

Ulyanovsk State University logo

82. Orenburg State University

Orenburg State University logo

83. Baltic State Technical University "Voenmeh"

Baltic State Technical University "Voenmeh" logo

84. Kuban State University

Kuban State University logo

85. Udmurt State University

Udmurt State University logo

86. Tomsk State Pedagogical University

Tomsk State Pedagogical University logo

87. Kemerovo State University

Kemerovo State University logo

88. Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building

Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building logo

89. Omsk State University

Omsk State University logo

90. Kuban State Agricultural University

Kuban State Agricultural University logo

91. North-Eastern Federal University

North-Eastern Federal University logo

92. State University of Management

State University of Management logo

93. Tver State University

Tver State University logo

94. Chuvash State University

95. orel state university.

Orel State University logo

96. Volgograd State University

Volgograd State University logo

97. Ivanovo State Power University

Ivanovo State Power University logo

98. Omsk State Transport University

Omsk State Transport University logo

99. Ivanovo State University

Ivanovo State University logo

100. Altai State University

Altai State University logo

The best cities to study Mechanical Engineering in Russia based on the number of universities and their ranks are Moscow , Saint Petersburg , Ufa , and Tomsk .

Engineering subfields in Russia

IMAGES

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  6. Applying to MD-PhD Programs

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  18. M.D./Ph.D. Program

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    Physical Address: University of Idaho Bruce M. Pitman Center 709 Deakin Street Rm 117 Moscow, ID 83844. Mailing Address: University of Idaho 875 Perimeter Drive MS 4264

  21. Postgraduate Programs

    Sechenov University provides Master's, Ph.D., and Residency level degree programs. Below is the list of the Master and PhD programs delievered in English: Master programmes. Public Health. Linguistics. PhD programmes. Chemical Science. Biological Science. Fundamental medicine. Clinical Medicine (GM profile) Clinical Medicine (Pediatrics profile)

  22. TU academic programs rank top in the nation

    TU's online graduate education program was named No. 1 in Maryland and No. 35 in the nation, while the university's online graduate computer information technology program ranked No. 55 in the U.S. In addition, TU's College of Business & Economics has been ranked No. 26 among all U.S. public universities, according to Poets & Quants.

  23. UMD's Online Graduate Programs Jump in U.S. News Rankings

    The University of Maryland's online Master of Engineering and MBA programs stand among the nation's best, landing at Nos. 6 and 11, respectively, in 2024 rankings released Wednesday by U.S. News & World Report.. The M.Eng. program climbed 13 spots from last year to crack the Top 10 for the first time. In addition, the A. James Clark School of Engineering placed No. 13 among online ...

  24. Master's of Public Health (MPH)

    The 2023-2024 UD graduate student tuition rate per credit hour is $1028 for the Health Policy and Management MPH. *Due to a College of Health Sciences Dean's Scholarship, the student tuition rate is lower than the published UD graduate tuition rate. The final student tuition rate for the MPH in Epidemiology program is $1,028/credit.

  25. Online Master of Health Administration

    Cody Mullen, PhD. Director, Master of Health Administration Program . [email protected]. Cody Mullen, PhD Director, Master of Health Administration Program Clinical Associate Professor, College of Health and Human Sciences Research specialties: Rural healthcare Quality of care delivery Advanced payment models Office: Matthews Hall, Room 219B

  26. Faculty of Pharmacy

    The Faculty of Pharmacy also offers PhD fellowships, with the PhD program lasting 3-4 years, other doctoral programs and continuing education courses. The Faculty is headed by the Dean I. I. Krasnyuk, Pharm.D. The Faculty includes professors, academicians and corresponding members of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences.

  27. Best Master's In Education Online Of 2024

    Tuition for the online master's in education programs on our list ranges from $488 to $1,079 per credit. With the typical master's degree requiring 30 to 40 credits, this brings the estimated ...

  28. Mechanical Engineering in Russia: Best universities Ranked

    97. Ivanovo State Power University. 98. Omsk State Transport University. 99. Ivanovo State University. 100. Altai State University. The best cities to study Mechanical Engineering in Russia based on the number of universities and their ranks are Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Ufa, and Tomsk.