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Two-Part (Claim + Reason) Thesis Statement Examples, How to Write, Tips

Two Part Thesis Statement Examples

Unlock the power of concise and persuasive argumentation with Two-Part (Claim + Reason) Thesis Statement Examples. This approach provides a dynamic framework for crafting compelling essays by presenting a claim followed by the reasoning behind it. Delve into how to effectively employ this method and uncover valuable tips to enhance your writing. Elevate your ability to articulate strong arguments and engage readers with well-structured, impactful thesis statements.

What is a Two-Part (Claim + Reason) Thesis Statement? – Definition

A Two-Part (Claim + Reason) Thesis Statement is a succinct and persuasive way to present an argument in academic writing. It consists of two essential components: the claim, which states the main point or position you’re asserting, and the reason, which provides a concise explanation or justification for why that claim is valid. This approach adds depth and clarity to your thesis statement, setting the stage for a well-structured and persuasive essay.

What is an example of a Two-Part (Claim + Reason) thesis statement?

Claim: “Mandatory physical education in schools is crucial.” Reason: “Regular physical activity not only improves students’ physical health but also enhances their cognitive abilities, contributing to better academic performance.”

In this example, the claim is that mandatory physical education in schools is essential. The reason provided explains why this claim is valid, highlighting the positive impact of physical activity on both physical health and academic achievement. This two-part structure effectively outlines the argument and its rationale.

100 Two-Part (Claim + Reason) Thesis Statement Examples

two part claim reason thesis statement examples

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Explore 100 Two-Part (Claim + Reason) Thesis Statement Examples, each carefully crafted to present compelling arguments along with their supporting rationales. This comprehensive collection spans various topics, allowing you to grasp the art of concise and impactful argumentation. Enhance your essay writing skills by learning how to effectively structure your ideas and convince your readers with well-reasoned claims.

  • Claim: “Social media platforms have revolutionized communication.” Reason: “Their instant connectivity and vast user base facilitate global interactions, transforming how people connect and share information.”
  • Claim: “Artificial intelligence is shaping the future of industries.” Reason: “Its ability to analyze massive data sets and automate complex tasks boosts efficiency and innovation across sectors.”
  • Claim: “Climate change demands urgent attention and action.” Reason: “Mounting evidence of rising temperatures and extreme weather events underscores the critical need to mitigate environmental risks.”
  • Claim: “Literature plays a pivotal role in fostering empathy.” Reason: “Engaging with diverse characters’ experiences cultivates understanding and compassion among readers.”
  • Claim: “Diversity in the workplace enhances creativity and innovation.” Reason: “A range of perspectives fuels dynamic discussions and encourages fresh approaches to problem-solving.”
  • Claim: “Higher education is a gateway to socioeconomic mobility.” Reason: “Access to advanced knowledge and skill development equips individuals to access better job opportunities.”
  • Claim: “Government surveillance threatens individual privacy rights.” Reason: “Mass surveillance infringes on personal liberties and erodes the balance between security and freedom.”
  • Claim: “Renewable energy sources are the solution to the climate crisis.” Reason: “Harnessing solar, wind, and hydro power reduces reliance on fossil fuels, curbing greenhouse gas emissions.”
  • Claim: “Mandatory voting promotes a more engaged and informed citizenry.” Reason: “Compulsory participation ensures broader representation and encourages citizens to stay informed.”
  • Claim: “Cultural diversity enriches a society’s social fabric.” Reason: “Different backgrounds and traditions contribute to a vibrant tapestry of experiences and perspectives.”
  • Claim: “Online learning is revolutionizing education.” Reason: “Flexible schedules and interactive platforms enhance accessibility and engagement for learners worldwide.”
  • Claim: “Gender equality is essential for societal progress.” Reason: “Empowering women in all spheres fosters innovation, economic growth, and social harmony.”
  • Claim: “Space exploration drives technological advancements.” Reason: “The pursuit of cosmic knowledge inspires breakthroughs in engineering, materials science, and communication.”
  • Claim: “Censorship of artistic expression hampers creative freedom.” Reason: “Limiting artistic freedom stifles cultural innovation and inhibits open dialogue on societal issues.”
  • Claim: “Critical thinking is a crucial skill for modern education.” Reason: “Nurturing critical thinking abilities empowers students to analyze information, solve problems, and make informed decisions.”
  • Claim: “Universal healthcare ensures equitable access to medical services.” Reason: “Healthcare for all reduces disparities, provides preventative care, and promotes overall well-being.”
  • Claim: “The digital age has transformed the way we consume information.” Reason: “Instant access to online content and personalized algorithms reshape information consumption patterns.”
  • Claim: “Financial literacy is essential for personal financial well-being.” Reason: “Understanding money management empowers individuals to make informed financial decisions.”
  • Claim: “Technology addiction poses a significant societal concern.” Reason: “Excessive screen time impairs mental health, interpersonal relationships, and overall productivity.”
  • Claim: “The preservation of natural habitats is crucial for biodiversity.” Reason: “Conserving ecosystems maintains species diversity and supports ecological balance.”
  • Claim: “Ethical consumerism drives positive social and environmental change.” Reason: “Supporting eco-friendly and socially responsible products encourages responsible business practices.”
  • Claim: “The advancement of robotics will redefine the job market.” Reason: “Automated tasks and AI technologies will reshape employment opportunities and skill requirements.”
  • Claim: “Social media fosters both connection and isolation.” Reason: “Online interactions offer global connectivity, yet excessive screen time can lead to real-world disconnection.”
  • Claim: “Youth involvement in civic activities cultivates active citizenship.” Reason: “Engaged young individuals contribute fresh perspectives and energize public discourse.”
  • Claim: “Freedom of speech should have limitations to prevent hate speech.” Reason: “Balancing free expression with societal well-being safeguards marginalized communities and social harmony.”
  • Claim: “Music therapy offers holistic healing for mental health.” Reason: “Engaging with music promotes emotional release, stress reduction, and cognitive improvement.”
  • Claim: “Urbanization poses environmental challenges and opportunities.” Reason: “Concentrated urban living accelerates innovation and necessitates sustainable infrastructure solutions.”
  • Claim: “Social inequality hinders economic growth and stability.” Reason: “Unequal distribution of resources stifles human potential and undermines social cohesion.”
  • Claim: “The arts are essential for well-rounded education.” Reason: “Cultivating creative expression enhances critical thinking, communication, and empathy.”
  • Claim: “Personalized learning empowers diverse student needs.” Reason: “Tailoring education to individual strengths fosters engagement and academic success.”
  • Claim: “Ethical considerations should guide advancements in genetic engineering.” Reason: “Prioritizing ethical guidelines ensures responsible innovation and prevents unintended consequences.”
  • Claim: “Effective communication is the cornerstone of successful relationships.” Reason: “Clear communication fosters mutual understanding, trust, and resolution of conflicts.”
  • Claim: “Social media activism has transformed modern advocacy.” Reason: “Online platforms amplify voices, mobilize communities, and raise awareness about social issues.”
  • Claim: “Multilingualism benefits cognitive development and cultural understanding.” Reason: “Learning multiple languages enhances brain function and promotes cross-cultural empathy.”
  • Claim: “Early childhood education lays the foundation for lifelong learning.” Reason: “Quality early education nurtures cognitive, social, and emotional development.”
  • Claim: “The gig economy provides flexible work options but lacks stability.” Reason: “Freelance opportunities offer autonomy, but inconsistent income poses financial challenges.”
  • Claim: “Effective time management is key to academic success.” Reason: “Balancing priorities and deadlines enhances productivity and reduces stress.”
  • Claim: “Alternative energy sources are vital for reducing carbon emissions.” Reason: “Transitioning from fossil fuels to renewables mitigates climate change and supports sustainability.”
  • Claim: “Media literacy is essential in the digital age.” Reason: “Critical analysis of media sources promotes informed decision-making and safeguards against misinformation.”
  • Claim: “Preserving indigenous languages safeguards cultural heritage.” Reason: “Language is intrinsic to identity, reflecting unique worldviews and historical legacies.”
  • Claim: “Flexible work arrangements enhance work-life balance.” Reason: “Remote work and flexible hours accommodate personal needs, leading to improved well-being.”
  • Claim: “Literacy is the foundation of lifelong learning and empowerment.” Reason: “Proficiency in reading and writing enables access to information, education, and opportunities.”
  • Claim: “Rapid technological advancements pose ethical dilemmas in AI development.” Reason: “Ensuring AI aligns with human values and respects privacy is essential for responsible innovation.”
  • Claim: “Universal basic income can address socioeconomic inequality.” Reason: “Providing a basic income cushion fosters economic security and reduces poverty.”
  • Claim: “Cultural appropriation perpetuates stereotypes and erases history.” Reason: “Appropriating elements from marginalized cultures trivializes their significance and disregards their origins.”
  • Claim: “Physical activity is crucial for overall health and mental well-being.” Reason: “Exercise releases endorphins, reduces stress, and improves cardiovascular health.”
  • Claim: “Preserving biodiversity is essential for ecological balance.” Reason: “Each species contributes to ecosystem stability and resilience against environmental changes.”
  • Claim: “Government transparency strengthens democracy and public trust.” Reason: “Open governance fosters accountability, ensures informed decisions, and curbs corruption.”
  • Claim: “Critical reflection enhances personal growth and self-awareness.” Reason: “Examining experiences and beliefs promotes continuous learning and personal development.”
  • Claim: “Technological advancements in healthcare improve patient outcomes.” Reason: “Innovations like telemedicine and precision medicine tailor treatments for better results.
  • Claim: “Early childhood vaccinations are vital for public health.” Reason: “Immunizations prevent the spread of diseases, safeguarding individual and community well-being.”
  • Claim: “Media plays a significant role in shaping public opinion.” Reason: “Information dissemination influences perspectives, leading to informed decisions and societal change.”
  • Claim: “Globalization fosters cultural exchange and interconnectedness.” Reason: “Cross-cultural interactions promote understanding, collaboration, and shared values.”
  • Claim: “Animal testing should be replaced with alternative research methods.” Reason: “Ethical considerations demand the use of cruelty-free testing methods that yield accurate results.”
  • Claim: “Financial literacy education empowers responsible money management.” Reason: “Teaching budgeting and investment basics ensures informed financial decision-making.”
  • Claim: “Promoting gender diversity in STEM fields drives innovation.” Reason: “Inclusive environments harness diverse perspectives, fostering creative problem-solving.”
  • Claim: “Education empowers individuals to break the cycle of poverty.” Reason: “Access to quality education equips individuals with skills to overcome economic challenges.”
  • Claim: “Cybersecurity measures are essential to protect digital assets.” Reason: “Preventing cyber threats safeguards personal information and prevents cybercrime.”
  • Claim: “Economic growth should prioritize environmental sustainability.” Reason: “Balancing growth with conservation ensures future generations’ access to resources.”
  • Claim: “Healthy eating habits contribute to overall well-being.” Reason: “Nutrient-rich diets support physical health, energy levels, and disease prevention.
  • Claim: “Empathy is crucial for fostering harmonious interpersonal relationships.” Reason: “Understanding others’ perspectives cultivates compassion, reduces conflicts, and builds trust.”
  • Claim: “Economic inequality hampers social mobility and undermines democracy.” Reason: “Unequal distribution of resources perpetuates disparities and limits equal opportunities.”
  • Claim: “Online education offers accessible and flexible learning opportunities.” Reason: “Virtual learning platforms cater to diverse schedules and geographical constraints.”
  • Claim: “Historical preservation maintains cultural heritage and identity.” Reason: “Preserving artifacts and landmarks ensures future generations connect with their past.”
  • Claim: “Social entrepreneurship addresses societal challenges while generating profits.” Reason: “Innovative business models prioritize social impact, driving positive change and sustainability.”
  • Claim: “Effective parenting strategies shape children’s emotional development.” Reason: “Nurturing emotional intelligence fosters resilience, empathy, and healthy relationships.”
  • Claim: “Ethical fashion practices promote sustainable clothing production.” Reason: “Supporting ethically produced garments reduces environmental impact and supports fair labor practices.”
  • Claim: “Inclusive education benefits students with diverse learning needs.” Reason: “Adapting curriculum and teaching methods empowers all students to thrive academically.”
  • Claim: “Cultural preservation is integral to indigenous identity and rights.” Reason: “Preserving cultural traditions upholds sovereignty and protects indigenous ways of life.”
  • Claim: “Volunteering enhances personal well-being and community resilience.” Reason: “Contributing time and skills fosters a sense of purpose and strengthens social ties.
  • Claim: “A balanced work-life routine improves overall productivity and satisfaction.” Reason: “Prioritizing personal well-being and leisure time enhances focus and reduces burnout.”
  • Claim: “Cultural diversity fosters innovation and global collaboration.” Reason: “Combining perspectives from different backgrounds sparks creative problem-solving and mutual understanding.”
  • Claim: “Literacy rates correlate with socioeconomic development and empowerment.” Reason: “High literacy levels enhance access to education, employment opportunities, and civic engagement.”
  • Claim: “Sustainable tourism preserves natural and cultural resources.” Reason: “Responsible travel practices protect fragile ecosystems and local traditions.”
  • Claim: “Quality healthcare is a fundamental human right.” Reason: “Access to medical services promotes well-being and ensures equal opportunities for health.”
  • Claim: “Community engagement enhances neighborhood safety and cohesion.” Reason: “Involved residents collectively address concerns and create a strong sense of belonging.”
  • Claim: “Ethical considerations should guide AI’s role in decision-making.” Reason: “Responsible AI use prevents biased outcomes and respects human values.”
  • Claim: “The arts promote emotional expression and healing.” Reason: “Creating and engaging with art facilitates catharsis and emotional release.”
  • Claim: “Cultural sensitivity is vital for effective global communication.” Reason: “Understanding cultural nuances fosters mutual respect and minimizes misunderstandings.”
  • Claim: “Social media’s impact on mental health warrants ethical guidelines.” Reason: “Balancing online engagement with mental well-being safeguards against digital stressors.
  • Claim: “Economic globalization accelerates income inequality.” Reason: “Transnational corporations exploit cheap labor, exacerbating disparities between affluent and impoverished regions.”
  • Claim: “Investing in early childhood education yields long-term societal benefits.” Reason: “Early learning programs enhance cognitive development and reduce future educational disparities.”
  • Claim: “Active participation in local governance strengthens democracy.” Reason: “Engaging citizens in decision-making promotes accountability and responsive policies.”
  • Claim: “Promoting mental health initiatives in schools benefits student well-being.” Reason: “Early support and awareness campaigns address psychological challenges and reduce stigma.”
  • Claim: “Technology integration in education enhances student engagement.” Reason: “Interactive digital tools cater to diverse learning styles, encouraging active participation.”
  • Claim: “Criminal justice reform is necessary for equitable legal outcomes.” Reason: “Eliminating biases in sentencing and addressing systemic flaws ensures fair justice.”
  • Claim: “Sustainable agriculture practices are essential for food security.” Reason: “Regenerative farming methods preserve soil health and mitigate climate change impacts.”
  • Claim: “Freedom of the press is integral to a functioning democracy.” Reason: “Unbiased journalism informs public discourse and holds authorities accountable.”
  • Claim: “Intercultural education fosters global understanding and cooperation.” Reason: “Teaching cultural awareness cultivates empathy and prepares individuals for a diverse world.”
  • Claim: “Inclusive urban planning improves accessibility and quality of life.” Reason: “Designing cities for all residents accommodates diverse needs and enhances urban livability.

With these 100 Two-Part (Claim + Reason) Thesis Statement examples, you have a diverse array of topics and arguments to explore, analyze, and incorporate into your essays.

Two-Part (Claim + Reason) Thesis Statement Examples for Essay

  • Claim: “Exploring diverse cultures enriches personal growth.” Reason: “Cultural exposure broadens perspectives, fostering tolerance and empathy.”
  • Claim: “Effective time management enhances academic success.” Reason: “Balancing study and leisure optimizes focus and reduces stress.”
  • Claim: “Mindfulness practices improve mental well-being.” Reason: “Mindful techniques cultivate self-awareness, reducing anxiety and enhancing emotional balance.”
  • Claim: “Literature is a powerful tool for social commentary.” Reason: “Fictional narratives offer insights into societal issues, prompting reflection and dialogue.”
  • Claim: “Personalized learning caters to individual student needs.” Reason: “Tailoring education to learning styles boosts engagement and comprehension.”
  • Claim: “Responsible social media usage preserves mental health.” Reason: “Setting boundaries online reduces comparison and fosters authentic connections.”
  • Claim: “Community service fosters a sense of belonging.” Reason: “Volunteering connects individuals to their surroundings, enhancing civic engagement.”
  • Claim: “Promoting eco-friendly habits protects the environment.” Reason: “Green choices like recycling and energy conservation reduce carbon footprint.”
  • Claim: “Inclusive workplaces enhance employee morale.” Reason: “Valuing diversity creates a positive environment that promotes collaboration and creativity.”
  • Claim: “Critical thinking skills are essential for informed decisions.” Reason: “Analytical thinking empowers individuals to evaluate information and make reasoned choices.”

Two-Part (Claim + Reason) Thesis Statement Examples for Argumentative Essay

  • Claim: “Government surveillance infringes on individual privacy rights.” Reason: “Mass monitoring undermines civil liberties, opening doors to abuse of power.”
  • Claim: “Social media platforms should implement stricter content moderation.” Reason: “Addressing harmful content reduces misinformation and protects user well-being.”
  • Claim: “Mandatory voting promotes active citizenship and representative democracy.” Reason: “Compulsory participation ensures diverse voices are heard in political decisions.”
  • Claim: “Gun control measures are necessary to prevent mass shootings.” Reason: “Stricter regulations reduce access to firearms, curbing potential violence.”
  • Claim: “Access to quality healthcare is a fundamental human right.” Reason: “Affordable medical services ensure equitable well-being and protect lives.”
  • Claim: “Climate change is a result of human activity.” Reason: “Scientific evidence links rising emissions to global temperature increases.”
  • Claim: “Animal testing should be replaced with humane alternatives.” Reason: “Ethical considerations demand cruelty-free research methods that yield accurate results.”
  • Claim: “Social media has negative effects on mental health.” Reason: “Excessive usage correlates with increased anxiety, depression, and social isolation.”
  • Claim: “School dress codes infringe on students’ freedom of expression.” Reason: “Restrictive policies limit individuality and discourage self-confidence.”
  • Claim: “Capital punishment should be abolished as it violates human rights.” Reason: “Irreversible consequences and the potential for wrongful convictions oppose ethical principles.”

Two-Part Thesis Statement Examples for Research Paper

  • Claim: “AI-driven healthcare innovations enhance medical diagnostics.” Reason: “Machine learning algorithms analyze complex data, aiding accurate disease identification.”
  • Claim: “Economic globalization impacts income distribution within nations.” Reason: “Global trade can lead to unequal wealth distribution among different socioeconomic groups.”
  • Claim: “Gender pay gap persists despite progress in workplace equality.” Reason: “Societal norms and biases contribute to unequal compensation between genders.”
  • Claim: “Urbanization affects mental health and well-being.” Reason: “City living can lead to increased stress levels due to noise and social pressures.”
  • Claim: “Digital media’s influence on children’s development warrants scrutiny.” Reason: “Excessive screen time can hinder cognitive and social skills during formative years.”
  • Claim: “Artificial intelligence has transformative potential in education.” Reason: “AI-powered personalized learning adapts to individual student needs, enhancing outcomes.”
  • Claim: “Effects of climate change impact vulnerable populations disproportionately.” Reason: “Marginalized communities suffer more from environmental changes due to resource disparities.”
  • Claim: “The role of genetics in mental disorders requires further exploration.” Reason: “Genetic factors contribute to mental health conditions, prompting research for targeted treatments.”
  • Claim: “Criminal justice reform is needed to address racial disparities.” Reason: “Biased sentencing and profiling lead to unequal treatment within the justice system.”
  • Claim: “Ethical implications of gene editing demand regulatory frameworks.” Reason: “CRISPR technology raises concerns about unintended consequences and responsible usage.”

Can you have a two point thesis?

Yes, you can have a two-point thesis, also known as a Two-Part Thesis Statement. This type of thesis statement presents two distinct aspects or ideas that will be discussed in your essay, each supported by specific reasons or evidence. It provides a clear structure for organizing your arguments and helps you convey a well-rounded perspective on your topic.

How to Write a Two Part Thesis Statement? – Step by Step Guide

Crafting a Two-Part Thesis Statement involves careful consideration of your topic and the main points you want to address. Here’s a step-by-step guide to help you create an effective Two-Part Thesis Statement:

  • Choose a Specific Topic: Select a topic for your essay that is focused and manageable. Your thesis statement should address a specific aspect of the topic.
  • Identify Two Key Points: Determine the two main points or arguments you want to make about the topic. These points should be distinct and complementary, contributing to a comprehensive understanding of the subject.
  • Create a Claim for Each Point: Develop a clear and concise claim for each of the two points. These claims should represent the main ideas you will be discussing in your essay.
  • Provide Reasons or Evidence: For each claim, outline the reasons or evidence that support your point. These reasons will help you elaborate on each point in your essay.
  • Arrange the Structure: Organize your Two-Part Thesis Statement by presenting both claims in a logical order. You can choose to present one claim before the other or arrange them based on their significance.
  • Concise Language: Write your Two-Part Thesis Statement in clear and concise language. Avoid unnecessary jargon or complex sentence structures.
  • Revise and Refine: Review your Two-Part Thesis Statement for clarity and coherence. Make sure that each part is distinct and contributes to the overall argument.
  • Alignment with Essay Content: Ensure that the points you’ve identified in your Two-Part Thesis Statement are directly related to the content of your essay. This alignment helps maintain a focused and organized essay.

How do you split a thesis statement?

Splitting a thesis statement refers to breaking it down into two distinct parts: the claim and the reason. The claim represents the main idea or argument you are making, while the reason provides a brief explanation or justification for that claim. Here’s how you can split a thesis statement:

Original Thesis Statement: “Online education is beneficial.”

Split Thesis Statement:

  • Claim: “Online education offers numerous benefits.”
  • Reason: “It provides flexible scheduling and access to a variety of courses.”

By splitting the thesis statement, you clearly separate the main claim from the reason that supports it. This structure sets the foundation for a Two-Part Thesis Statement.

Tips for Writing a Two Part Thesis Statement

  • Be Clear and Specific: Ensure that your claims and reasons are clear, specific, and focused on the main points you want to discuss.
  • Balance the Two Points: Choose two points that are relevant to your topic and provide a well-rounded perspective on the subject.
  • Logical Order: Present your claims in a logical order that flows well and contributes to the coherence of your essay.
  • Support with Evidence: Make sure you have enough evidence or reasoning to support each claim. This strengthens the credibility of your arguments.
  • Avoid Overcomplication: Keep your language simple and straightforward. Avoid overly complex sentence structures that might confuse the reader.
  • Consider Counterarguments: Anticipate potential counterarguments to your claims and address them in your essay to strengthen your position.
  • Stay Focused: Each part of your thesis statement should relate directly to the points you’ll discuss in your essay. Avoid including unnecessary information.
  • Revise and Edit: Like any other part of your essay, revise and edit your Two-Part Thesis Statement to ensure it effectively conveys your intended message.

A well-crafted Two-Part Thesis Statement guides your essay’s structure, helps you stay focused on your main points, and provides your readers with a clear roadmap of what to expect.

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The Writing Center • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Thesis Statements

What this handout is about.

This handout describes what a thesis statement is, how thesis statements work in your writing, and how you can craft or refine one for your draft.

Introduction

Writing in college often takes the form of persuasion—convincing others that you have an interesting, logical point of view on the subject you are studying. Persuasion is a skill you practice regularly in your daily life. You persuade your roommate to clean up, your parents to let you borrow the car, your friend to vote for your favorite candidate or policy. In college, course assignments often ask you to make a persuasive case in writing. You are asked to convince your reader of your point of view. This form of persuasion, often called academic argument, follows a predictable pattern in writing. After a brief introduction of your topic, you state your point of view on the topic directly and often in one sentence. This sentence is the thesis statement, and it serves as a summary of the argument you’ll make in the rest of your paper.

What is a thesis statement?

A thesis statement:

  • tells the reader how you will interpret the significance of the subject matter under discussion.
  • is a road map for the paper; in other words, it tells the reader what to expect from the rest of the paper.
  • directly answers the question asked of you. A thesis is an interpretation of a question or subject, not the subject itself. The subject, or topic, of an essay might be World War II or Moby Dick; a thesis must then offer a way to understand the war or the novel.
  • makes a claim that others might dispute.
  • is usually a single sentence near the beginning of your paper (most often, at the end of the first paragraph) that presents your argument to the reader. The rest of the paper, the body of the essay, gathers and organizes evidence that will persuade the reader of the logic of your interpretation.

If your assignment asks you to take a position or develop a claim about a subject, you may need to convey that position or claim in a thesis statement near the beginning of your draft. The assignment may not explicitly state that you need a thesis statement because your instructor may assume you will include one. When in doubt, ask your instructor if the assignment requires a thesis statement. When an assignment asks you to analyze, to interpret, to compare and contrast, to demonstrate cause and effect, or to take a stand on an issue, it is likely that you are being asked to develop a thesis and to support it persuasively. (Check out our handout on understanding assignments for more information.)

How do I create a thesis?

A thesis is the result of a lengthy thinking process. Formulating a thesis is not the first thing you do after reading an essay assignment. Before you develop an argument on any topic, you have to collect and organize evidence, look for possible relationships between known facts (such as surprising contrasts or similarities), and think about the significance of these relationships. Once you do this thinking, you will probably have a “working thesis” that presents a basic or main idea and an argument that you think you can support with evidence. Both the argument and your thesis are likely to need adjustment along the way.

Writers use all kinds of techniques to stimulate their thinking and to help them clarify relationships or comprehend the broader significance of a topic and arrive at a thesis statement. For more ideas on how to get started, see our handout on brainstorming .

How do I know if my thesis is strong?

If there’s time, run it by your instructor or make an appointment at the Writing Center to get some feedback. Even if you do not have time to get advice elsewhere, you can do some thesis evaluation of your own. When reviewing your first draft and its working thesis, ask yourself the following :

  • Do I answer the question? Re-reading the question prompt after constructing a working thesis can help you fix an argument that misses the focus of the question. If the prompt isn’t phrased as a question, try to rephrase it. For example, “Discuss the effect of X on Y” can be rephrased as “What is the effect of X on Y?”
  • Have I taken a position that others might challenge or oppose? If your thesis simply states facts that no one would, or even could, disagree with, it’s possible that you are simply providing a summary, rather than making an argument.
  • Is my thesis statement specific enough? Thesis statements that are too vague often do not have a strong argument. If your thesis contains words like “good” or “successful,” see if you could be more specific: why is something “good”; what specifically makes something “successful”?
  • Does my thesis pass the “So what?” test? If a reader’s first response is likely to  be “So what?” then you need to clarify, to forge a relationship, or to connect to a larger issue.
  • Does my essay support my thesis specifically and without wandering? If your thesis and the body of your essay do not seem to go together, one of them has to change. It’s okay to change your working thesis to reflect things you have figured out in the course of writing your paper. Remember, always reassess and revise your writing as necessary.
  • Does my thesis pass the “how and why?” test? If a reader’s first response is “how?” or “why?” your thesis may be too open-ended and lack guidance for the reader. See what you can add to give the reader a better take on your position right from the beginning.

Suppose you are taking a course on contemporary communication, and the instructor hands out the following essay assignment: “Discuss the impact of social media on public awareness.” Looking back at your notes, you might start with this working thesis:

Social media impacts public awareness in both positive and negative ways.

You can use the questions above to help you revise this general statement into a stronger thesis.

  • Do I answer the question? You can analyze this if you rephrase “discuss the impact” as “what is the impact?” This way, you can see that you’ve answered the question only very generally with the vague “positive and negative ways.”
  • Have I taken a position that others might challenge or oppose? Not likely. Only people who maintain that social media has a solely positive or solely negative impact could disagree.
  • Is my thesis statement specific enough? No. What are the positive effects? What are the negative effects?
  • Does my thesis pass the “how and why?” test? No. Why are they positive? How are they positive? What are their causes? Why are they negative? How are they negative? What are their causes?
  • Does my thesis pass the “So what?” test? No. Why should anyone care about the positive and/or negative impact of social media?

After thinking about your answers to these questions, you decide to focus on the one impact you feel strongly about and have strong evidence for:

Because not every voice on social media is reliable, people have become much more critical consumers of information, and thus, more informed voters.

This version is a much stronger thesis! It answers the question, takes a specific position that others can challenge, and it gives a sense of why it matters.

Let’s try another. Suppose your literature professor hands out the following assignment in a class on the American novel: Write an analysis of some aspect of Mark Twain’s novel Huckleberry Finn. “This will be easy,” you think. “I loved Huckleberry Finn!” You grab a pad of paper and write:

Mark Twain’s Huckleberry Finn is a great American novel.

You begin to analyze your thesis:

  • Do I answer the question? No. The prompt asks you to analyze some aspect of the novel. Your working thesis is a statement of general appreciation for the entire novel.

Think about aspects of the novel that are important to its structure or meaning—for example, the role of storytelling, the contrasting scenes between the shore and the river, or the relationships between adults and children. Now you write:

In Huckleberry Finn, Mark Twain develops a contrast between life on the river and life on the shore.
  • Do I answer the question? Yes!
  • Have I taken a position that others might challenge or oppose? Not really. This contrast is well-known and accepted.
  • Is my thesis statement specific enough? It’s getting there–you have highlighted an important aspect of the novel for investigation. However, it’s still not clear what your analysis will reveal.
  • Does my thesis pass the “how and why?” test? Not yet. Compare scenes from the book and see what you discover. Free write, make lists, jot down Huck’s actions and reactions and anything else that seems interesting.
  • Does my thesis pass the “So what?” test? What’s the point of this contrast? What does it signify?”

After examining the evidence and considering your own insights, you write:

Through its contrasting river and shore scenes, Twain’s Huckleberry Finn suggests that to find the true expression of American democratic ideals, one must leave “civilized” society and go back to nature.

This final thesis statement presents an interpretation of a literary work based on an analysis of its content. Of course, for the essay itself to be successful, you must now present evidence from the novel that will convince the reader of your interpretation.

Works consulted

We consulted these works while writing this handout. This is not a comprehensive list of resources on the handout’s topic, and we encourage you to do your own research to find additional publications. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial . We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback.

Anson, Chris M., and Robert A. Schwegler. 2010. The Longman Handbook for Writers and Readers , 6th ed. New York: Longman.

Lunsford, Andrea A. 2015. The St. Martin’s Handbook , 8th ed. Boston: Bedford/St Martin’s.

Ramage, John D., John C. Bean, and June Johnson. 2018. The Allyn & Bacon Guide to Writing , 8th ed. New York: Pearson.

Ruszkiewicz, John J., Christy Friend, Daniel Seward, and Maxine Hairston. 2010. The Scott, Foresman Handbook for Writers , 9th ed. Boston: Pearson Education.

You may reproduce it for non-commercial use if you use the entire handout and attribute the source: The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

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Developing a Thesis Statement

Many papers you write require developing a thesis statement. In this section you’ll learn what a thesis statement is and how to write one.

Keep in mind that not all papers require thesis statements . If in doubt, please consult your instructor for assistance.

What is a thesis statement?

A thesis statement . . .

  • Makes an argumentative assertion about a topic; it states the conclusions that you have reached about your topic.
  • Makes a promise to the reader about the scope, purpose, and direction of your paper.
  • Is focused and specific enough to be “proven” within the boundaries of your paper.
  • Is generally located near the end of the introduction ; sometimes, in a long paper, the thesis will be expressed in several sentences or in an entire paragraph.
  • Identifies the relationships between the pieces of evidence that you are using to support your argument.

Not all papers require thesis statements! Ask your instructor if you’re in doubt whether you need one.

Identify a topic

Your topic is the subject about which you will write. Your assignment may suggest several ways of looking at a topic; or it may name a fairly general concept that you will explore or analyze in your paper.

Consider what your assignment asks you to do

Inform yourself about your topic, focus on one aspect of your topic, ask yourself whether your topic is worthy of your efforts, generate a topic from an assignment.

Below are some possible topics based on sample assignments.

Sample assignment 1

Analyze Spain’s neutrality in World War II.

Identified topic

Franco’s role in the diplomatic relationships between the Allies and the Axis

This topic avoids generalities such as “Spain” and “World War II,” addressing instead on Franco’s role (a specific aspect of “Spain”) and the diplomatic relations between the Allies and Axis (a specific aspect of World War II).

Sample assignment 2

Analyze one of Homer’s epic similes in the Iliad.

The relationship between the portrayal of warfare and the epic simile about Simoisius at 4.547-64.

This topic focuses on a single simile and relates it to a single aspect of the Iliad ( warfare being a major theme in that work).

Developing a Thesis Statement–Additional information

Your assignment may suggest several ways of looking at a topic, or it may name a fairly general concept that you will explore or analyze in your paper. You’ll want to read your assignment carefully, looking for key terms that you can use to focus your topic.

Sample assignment: Analyze Spain’s neutrality in World War II Key terms: analyze, Spain’s neutrality, World War II

After you’ve identified the key words in your topic, the next step is to read about them in several sources, or generate as much information as possible through an analysis of your topic. Obviously, the more material or knowledge you have, the more possibilities will be available for a strong argument. For the sample assignment above, you’ll want to look at books and articles on World War II in general, and Spain’s neutrality in particular.

As you consider your options, you must decide to focus on one aspect of your topic. This means that you cannot include everything you’ve learned about your topic, nor should you go off in several directions. If you end up covering too many different aspects of a topic, your paper will sprawl and be unconvincing in its argument, and it most likely will not fulfull the assignment requirements.

For the sample assignment above, both Spain’s neutrality and World War II are topics far too broad to explore in a paper. You may instead decide to focus on Franco’s role in the diplomatic relationships between the Allies and the Axis , which narrows down what aspects of Spain’s neutrality and World War II you want to discuss, as well as establishes a specific link between those two aspects.

Before you go too far, however, ask yourself whether your topic is worthy of your efforts. Try to avoid topics that already have too much written about them (i.e., “eating disorders and body image among adolescent women”) or that simply are not important (i.e. “why I like ice cream”). These topics may lead to a thesis that is either dry fact or a weird claim that cannot be supported. A good thesis falls somewhere between the two extremes. To arrive at this point, ask yourself what is new, interesting, contestable, or controversial about your topic.

As you work on your thesis, remember to keep the rest of your paper in mind at all times . Sometimes your thesis needs to evolve as you develop new insights, find new evidence, or take a different approach to your topic.

Derive a main point from topic

Once you have a topic, you will have to decide what the main point of your paper will be. This point, the “controlling idea,” becomes the core of your argument (thesis statement) and it is the unifying idea to which you will relate all your sub-theses. You can then turn this “controlling idea” into a purpose statement about what you intend to do in your paper.

Look for patterns in your evidence

Compose a purpose statement.

Consult the examples below for suggestions on how to look for patterns in your evidence and construct a purpose statement.

  • Franco first tried to negotiate with the Axis
  • Franco turned to the Allies when he couldn’t get some concessions that he wanted from the Axis

Possible conclusion:

Spain’s neutrality in WWII occurred for an entirely personal reason: Franco’s desire to preserve his own (and Spain’s) power.

Purpose statement

This paper will analyze Franco’s diplomacy during World War II to see how it contributed to Spain’s neutrality.
  • The simile compares Simoisius to a tree, which is a peaceful, natural image.
  • The tree in the simile is chopped down to make wheels for a chariot, which is an object used in warfare.

At first, the simile seems to take the reader away from the world of warfare, but we end up back in that world by the end.

This paper will analyze the way the simile about Simoisius at 4.547-64 moves in and out of the world of warfare.

Derive purpose statement from topic

To find out what your “controlling idea” is, you have to examine and evaluate your evidence . As you consider your evidence, you may notice patterns emerging, data repeated in more than one source, or facts that favor one view more than another. These patterns or data may then lead you to some conclusions about your topic and suggest that you can successfully argue for one idea better than another.

For instance, you might find out that Franco first tried to negotiate with the Axis, but when he couldn’t get some concessions that he wanted from them, he turned to the Allies. As you read more about Franco’s decisions, you may conclude that Spain’s neutrality in WWII occurred for an entirely personal reason: his desire to preserve his own (and Spain’s) power. Based on this conclusion, you can then write a trial thesis statement to help you decide what material belongs in your paper.

Sometimes you won’t be able to find a focus or identify your “spin” or specific argument immediately. Like some writers, you might begin with a purpose statement just to get yourself going. A purpose statement is one or more sentences that announce your topic and indicate the structure of the paper but do not state the conclusions you have drawn . Thus, you might begin with something like this:

  • This paper will look at modern language to see if it reflects male dominance or female oppression.
  • I plan to analyze anger and derision in offensive language to see if they represent a challenge of society’s authority.

At some point, you can turn a purpose statement into a thesis statement. As you think and write about your topic, you can restrict, clarify, and refine your argument, crafting your thesis statement to reflect your thinking.

As you work on your thesis, remember to keep the rest of your paper in mind at all times. Sometimes your thesis needs to evolve as you develop new insights, find new evidence, or take a different approach to your topic.

Compose a draft thesis statement

If you are writing a paper that will have an argumentative thesis and are having trouble getting started, the techniques in the table below may help you develop a temporary or “working” thesis statement.

Begin with a purpose statement that you will later turn into a thesis statement.

Assignment: Discuss the history of the Reform Party and explain its influence on the 1990 presidential and Congressional election.

Purpose Statement: This paper briefly sketches the history of the grassroots, conservative, Perot-led Reform Party and analyzes how it influenced the economic and social ideologies of the two mainstream parties.

Question-to-Assertion

If your assignment asks a specific question(s), turn the question(s) into an assertion and give reasons why it is true or reasons for your opinion.

Assignment : What do Aylmer and Rappaccini have to be proud of? Why aren’t they satisfied with these things? How does pride, as demonstrated in “The Birthmark” and “Rappaccini’s Daughter,” lead to unexpected problems?

Beginning thesis statement: Alymer and Rappaccinni are proud of their great knowledge; however, they are also very greedy and are driven to use their knowledge to alter some aspect of nature as a test of their ability. Evil results when they try to “play God.”

Write a sentence that summarizes the main idea of the essay you plan to write.

Main idea: The reason some toys succeed in the market is that they appeal to the consumers’ sense of the ridiculous and their basic desire to laugh at themselves.

Make a list of the ideas that you want to include; consider the ideas and try to group them.

  • nature = peaceful
  • war matériel = violent (competes with 1?)
  • need for time and space to mourn the dead
  • war is inescapable (competes with 3?)

Use a formula to arrive at a working thesis statement (you will revise this later).

  • although most readers of _______ have argued that _______, closer examination shows that _______.
  • _______ uses _______ and _____ to prove that ________.
  • phenomenon x is a result of the combination of __________, __________, and _________.

What to keep in mind as you draft an initial thesis statement

Beginning statements obtained through the methods illustrated above can serve as a framework for planning or drafting your paper, but remember they’re not yet the specific, argumentative thesis you want for the final version of your paper. In fact, in its first stages, a thesis statement usually is ill-formed or rough and serves only as a planning tool.

As you write, you may discover evidence that does not fit your temporary or “working” thesis. Or you may reach deeper insights about your topic as you do more research, and you will find that your thesis statement has to be more complicated to match the evidence that you want to use.

You must be willing to reject or omit some evidence in order to keep your paper cohesive and your reader focused. Or you may have to revise your thesis to match the evidence and insights that you want to discuss. Read your draft carefully, noting the conclusions you have drawn and the major ideas which support or prove those conclusions. These will be the elements of your final thesis statement.

Sometimes you will not be able to identify these elements in your early drafts, but as you consider how your argument is developing and how your evidence supports your main idea, ask yourself, “ What is the main point that I want to prove/discuss? ” and “ How will I convince the reader that this is true? ” When you can answer these questions, then you can begin to refine the thesis statement.

Refine and polish the thesis statement

To get to your final thesis, you’ll need to refine your draft thesis so that it’s specific and arguable.

  • Ask if your draft thesis addresses the assignment
  • Question each part of your draft thesis
  • Clarify vague phrases and assertions
  • Investigate alternatives to your draft thesis

Consult the example below for suggestions on how to refine your draft thesis statement.

Sample Assignment

Choose an activity and define it as a symbol of American culture. Your essay should cause the reader to think critically about the society which produces and enjoys that activity.

  • Ask The phenomenon of drive-in facilities is an interesting symbol of american culture, and these facilities demonstrate significant characteristics of our society.This statement does not fulfill the assignment because it does not require the reader to think critically about society.
Drive-ins are an interesting symbol of American culture because they represent Americans’ significant creativity and business ingenuity.
Among the types of drive-in facilities familiar during the twentieth century, drive-in movie theaters best represent American creativity, not merely because they were the forerunner of later drive-ins and drive-throughs, but because of their impact on our culture: they changed our relationship to the automobile, changed the way people experienced movies, and changed movie-going into a family activity.
While drive-in facilities such as those at fast-food establishments, banks, pharmacies, and dry cleaners symbolize America’s economic ingenuity, they also have affected our personal standards.
While drive-in facilities such as those at fast- food restaurants, banks, pharmacies, and dry cleaners symbolize (1) Americans’ business ingenuity, they also have contributed (2) to an increasing homogenization of our culture, (3) a willingness to depersonalize relationships with others, and (4) a tendency to sacrifice quality for convenience.

This statement is now specific and fulfills all parts of the assignment. This version, like any good thesis, is not self-evident; its points, 1-4, will have to be proven with evidence in the body of the paper. The numbers in this statement indicate the order in which the points will be presented. Depending on the length of the paper, there could be one paragraph for each numbered item or there could be blocks of paragraph for even pages for each one.

Complete the final thesis statement

The bottom line.

As you move through the process of crafting a thesis, you’ll need to remember four things:

  • Context matters! Think about your course materials and lectures. Try to relate your thesis to the ideas your instructor is discussing.
  • As you go through the process described in this section, always keep your assignment in mind . You will be more successful when your thesis (and paper) responds to the assignment than if it argues a semi-related idea.
  • Your thesis statement should be precise, focused, and contestable ; it should predict the sub-theses or blocks of information that you will use to prove your argument.
  • Make sure that you keep the rest of your paper in mind at all times. Change your thesis as your paper evolves, because you do not want your thesis to promise more than your paper actually delivers.

In the beginning, the thesis statement was a tool to help you sharpen your focus, limit material and establish the paper’s purpose. When your paper is finished, however, the thesis statement becomes a tool for your reader. It tells the reader what you have learned about your topic and what evidence led you to your conclusion. It keeps the reader on track–well able to understand and appreciate your argument.

thesis statement with 2 points

Writing Process and Structure

This is an accordion element with a series of buttons that open and close related content panels.

Getting Started with Your Paper

Interpreting Writing Assignments from Your Courses

Generating Ideas for

Creating an Argument

Thesis vs. Purpose Statements

Architecture of Arguments

Working with Sources

Quoting and Paraphrasing Sources

Using Literary Quotations

Citing Sources in Your Paper

Drafting Your Paper

Generating Ideas for Your Paper

Introductions

Paragraphing

Developing Strategic Transitions

Conclusions

Revising Your Paper

Peer Reviews

Reverse Outlines

Revising an Argumentative Paper

Revision Strategies for Longer Projects

Finishing Your Paper

Twelve Common Errors: An Editing Checklist

How to Proofread your Paper

Writing Collaboratively

Collaborative and Group Writing

Reference management. Clean and simple.

How to write a thesis statement + examples

Thesis statement

What is a thesis statement?

Is a thesis statement a question, how do you write a good thesis statement, how do i know if my thesis statement is good, examples of thesis statements, helpful resources on how to write a thesis statement, frequently asked questions about writing a thesis statement, related articles.

A thesis statement is the main argument of your paper or thesis.

The thesis statement is one of the most important elements of any piece of academic writing . It is a brief statement of your paper’s main argument. Essentially, you are stating what you will be writing about.

You can see your thesis statement as an answer to a question. While it also contains the question, it should really give an answer to the question with new information and not just restate or reiterate it.

Your thesis statement is part of your introduction. Learn more about how to write a good thesis introduction in our introduction guide .

A thesis statement is not a question. A statement must be arguable and provable through evidence and analysis. While your thesis might stem from a research question, it should be in the form of a statement.

Tip: A thesis statement is typically 1-2 sentences. For a longer project like a thesis, the statement may be several sentences or a paragraph.

A good thesis statement needs to do the following:

  • Condense the main idea of your thesis into one or two sentences.
  • Answer your project’s main research question.
  • Clearly state your position in relation to the topic .
  • Make an argument that requires support or evidence.

Once you have written down a thesis statement, check if it fulfills the following criteria:

  • Your statement needs to be provable by evidence. As an argument, a thesis statement needs to be debatable.
  • Your statement needs to be precise. Do not give away too much information in the thesis statement and do not load it with unnecessary information.
  • Your statement cannot say that one solution is simply right or simply wrong as a matter of fact. You should draw upon verified facts to persuade the reader of your solution, but you cannot just declare something as right or wrong.

As previously mentioned, your thesis statement should answer a question.

If the question is:

What do you think the City of New York should do to reduce traffic congestion?

A good thesis statement restates the question and answers it:

In this paper, I will argue that the City of New York should focus on providing exclusive lanes for public transport and adaptive traffic signals to reduce traffic congestion by the year 2035.

Here is another example. If the question is:

How can we end poverty?

A good thesis statement should give more than one solution to the problem in question:

In this paper, I will argue that introducing universal basic income can help reduce poverty and positively impact the way we work.

  • The Writing Center of the University of North Carolina has a list of questions to ask to see if your thesis is strong .

A thesis statement is part of the introduction of your paper. It is usually found in the first or second paragraph to let the reader know your research purpose from the beginning.

In general, a thesis statement should have one or two sentences. But the length really depends on the overall length of your project. Take a look at our guide about the length of thesis statements for more insight on this topic.

Here is a list of Thesis Statement Examples that will help you understand better how to write them.

Every good essay should include a thesis statement as part of its introduction, no matter the academic level. Of course, if you are a high school student you are not expected to have the same type of thesis as a PhD student.

Here is a great YouTube tutorial showing How To Write An Essay: Thesis Statements .

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How to Write a Strong Thesis Statement: 4 Steps + Examples

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What’s Covered:

What is the purpose of a thesis statement, writing a good thesis statement: 4 steps, common pitfalls to avoid, where to get your essay edited for free.

When you set out to write an essay, there has to be some kind of point to it, right? Otherwise, your essay would just be a big jumble of word salad that makes absolutely no sense. An essay needs a central point that ties into everything else. That main point is called a thesis statement, and it’s the core of any essay or research paper.

You may hear about Master degree candidates writing a thesis, and that is an entire paper–not to be confused with the thesis statement, which is typically one sentence that contains your paper’s focus. 

Read on to learn more about thesis statements and how to write them. We’ve also included some solid examples for you to reference.

Typically the last sentence of your introductory paragraph, the thesis statement serves as the roadmap for your essay. When your reader gets to the thesis statement, they should have a clear outline of your main point, as well as the information you’ll be presenting in order to either prove or support your point. 

The thesis statement should not be confused for a topic sentence , which is the first sentence of every paragraph in your essay. If you need help writing topic sentences, numerous resources are available. Topic sentences should go along with your thesis statement, though.

Since the thesis statement is the most important sentence of your entire essay or paper, it’s imperative that you get this part right. Otherwise, your paper will not have a good flow and will seem disjointed. That’s why it’s vital not to rush through developing one. It’s a methodical process with steps that you need to follow in order to create the best thesis statement possible.

Step 1: Decide what kind of paper you’re writing

When you’re assigned an essay, there are several different types you may get. Argumentative essays are designed to get the reader to agree with you on a topic. Informative or expository essays present information to the reader. Analytical essays offer up a point and then expand on it by analyzing relevant information. Thesis statements can look and sound different based on the type of paper you’re writing. For example:

  • Argumentative: The United States needs a viable third political party to decrease bipartisanship, increase options, and help reduce corruption in government.
  • Informative: The Libertarian party has thrown off elections before by gaining enough support in states to get on the ballot and by taking away crucial votes from candidates.
  • Analytical: An analysis of past presidential elections shows that while third party votes may have been the minority, they did affect the outcome of the elections in 2020, 2016, and beyond.

Step 2: Figure out what point you want to make

Once you know what type of paper you’re writing, you then need to figure out the point you want to make with your thesis statement, and subsequently, your paper. In other words, you need to decide to answer a question about something, such as:

  • What impact did reality TV have on American society?
  • How has the musical Hamilton affected perception of American history?
  • Why do I want to major in [chosen major here]?

If you have an argumentative essay, then you will be writing about an opinion. To make it easier, you may want to choose an opinion that you feel passionate about so that you’re writing about something that interests you. For example, if you have an interest in preserving the environment, you may want to choose a topic that relates to that. 

If you’re writing your college essay and they ask why you want to attend that school, you may want to have a main point and back it up with information, something along the lines of:

“Attending Harvard University would benefit me both academically and professionally, as it would give me a strong knowledge base upon which to build my career, develop my network, and hopefully give me an advantage in my chosen field.”

Step 3: Determine what information you’ll use to back up your point

Once you have the point you want to make, you need to figure out how you plan to back it up throughout the rest of your essay. Without this information, it will be hard to either prove or argue the main point of your thesis statement. If you decide to write about the Hamilton example, you may decide to address any falsehoods that the writer put into the musical, such as:

“The musical Hamilton, while accurate in many ways, leaves out key parts of American history, presents a nationalist view of founding fathers, and downplays the racism of the times.”

Once you’ve written your initial working thesis statement, you’ll then need to get information to back that up. For example, the musical completely leaves out Benjamin Franklin, portrays the founding fathers in a nationalist way that is too complimentary, and shows Hamilton as a staunch abolitionist despite the fact that his family likely did own slaves. 

Step 4: Revise and refine your thesis statement before you start writing

Read through your thesis statement several times before you begin to compose your full essay. You need to make sure the statement is ironclad, since it is the foundation of the entire paper. Edit it or have a peer review it for you to make sure everything makes sense and that you feel like you can truly write a paper on the topic. Once you’ve done that, you can then begin writing your paper.

When writing a thesis statement, there are some common pitfalls you should avoid so that your paper can be as solid as possible. Make sure you always edit the thesis statement before you do anything else. You also want to ensure that the thesis statement is clear and concise. Don’t make your reader hunt for your point. Finally, put your thesis statement at the end of the first paragraph and have your introduction flow toward that statement. Your reader will expect to find your statement in its traditional spot.

If you’re having trouble getting started, or need some guidance on your essay, there are tools available that can help you. CollegeVine offers a free peer essay review tool where one of your peers can read through your essay and provide you with valuable feedback. Getting essay feedback from a peer can help you wow your instructor or college admissions officer with an impactful essay that effectively illustrates your point.

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Home / Guides / Writing Guides / Parts of a Paper / How to Write a Strong Thesis Statement

How to Write a Strong Thesis Statement

A thesis can be found in many places—a debate speech, a lawyer’s closing argument, even an advertisement. But the most common place for a thesis statement (and probably why you’re reading this article) is in an essay.

Whether you’re writing an argumentative paper, an informative essay, or a compare/contrast statement, you need a thesis. Without a thesis, your argument falls flat and your information is unfocused. Since a thesis is so important, it’s probably a good idea to look at some tips on how to put together a strong one.

Guide Overview

What is a “thesis statement” anyway.

  • 2 categories of thesis statements: informative and persuasive
  • 2 styles of thesis statements
  • Formula for a strong argumentative thesis
  • The qualities of a solid thesis statement (video)

You may have heard of something called a “thesis.” It’s what seniors commonly refer to as their final paper before graduation. That’s not what we’re talking about here. That type of thesis is a long, well-written paper that takes years to piece together.

Instead, we’re talking about a single sentence that ties together the main idea of any argument . In the context of student essays, it’s a statement that summarizes your topic and declares your position on it. This sentence can tell a reader whether your essay is something they want to read.

2 Categories of Thesis Statements: Informative and Persuasive

Just as there are different types of essays, there are different types of thesis statements. The thesis should match the essay.

For example, with an informative essay, you should compose an informative thesis (rather than argumentative). You want to declare your intentions in this essay and guide the reader to the conclusion that you reach.

To make a peanut butter and jelly sandwich, you must procure the ingredients, find a knife, and spread the condiments.

This thesis showed the reader the topic (a type of sandwich) and the direction the essay will take (describing how the sandwich is made).

Most other types of essays, whether compare/contrast, argumentative, or narrative, have thesis statements that take a position and argue it. In other words, unless your purpose is simply to inform, your thesis is considered persuasive. A persuasive thesis usually contains an opinion and the reason why your opinion is true.

Peanut butter and jelly sandwiches are the best type of sandwich because they are versatile, easy to make, and taste good.

In this persuasive thesis statement, you see that I state my opinion (the best type of sandwich), which means I have chosen a stance. Next, I explain that my opinion is correct with several key reasons. This persuasive type of thesis can be used in any essay that contains the writer’s opinion, including, as I mentioned above, compare/contrast essays, narrative essays, and so on.

2 Styles of Thesis Statements

Just as there are two different types of thesis statements (informative and persuasive), there are two basic styles you can use.

The first style uses a list of two or more points . This style of thesis is perfect for a brief essay that contains only two or three body paragraphs. This basic five-paragraph essay is typical of middle and high school assignments.

C.S. Lewis’s Chronicles of Narnia series is one of the richest works of the 20th century because it offers an escape from reality, teaches readers to have faith even when they don’t understand, and contains a host of vibrant characters.

In the above persuasive thesis, you can see my opinion about Narnia followed by three clear reasons. This thesis is perfect for setting up a tidy five-paragraph essay.

In college, five paragraph essays become few and far between as essay length gets longer. Can you imagine having only five paragraphs in a six-page paper? For a longer essay, you need a thesis statement that is more versatile. Instead of listing two or three distinct points, a thesis can list one overarching point that all body paragraphs tie into.

Good vs. evil is the main theme of Lewis’s Narnia series, as is made clear through the struggles the main characters face in each book.

In this thesis, I have made a claim about the theme in Narnia followed by my reasoning. The broader scope of this thesis allows me to write about each of the series’ seven novels. I am no longer limited in how many body paragraphs I can logically use.

Formula for a Strong Argumentative Thesis

One thing I find that is helpful for students is having a clear template. While students rarely end up with a thesis that follows this exact wording, the following template creates a good starting point:

___________ is true because of ___________, ___________, and ___________.

Conversely, the formula for a thesis with only one point might follow this template:

___________________ is true because of _____________________.

Students usually end up using different terminology than simply “because,” but having a template is always helpful to get the creative juices flowing.

The Qualities of a Solid Thesis Statement

When composing a thesis, you must consider not only the format, but other qualities like length, position in the essay, and how strong the argument is.

Length: A thesis statement can be short or long, depending on how many points it mentions. Typically, however, it is only one concise sentence. It does contain at least two clauses, usually an independent clause (the opinion) and a dependent clause (the reasons). You probably should aim for a single sentence that is at least two lines, or about 30 to 40 words long.

Position: A thesis statement always belongs at the beginning of an essay. This is because it is a sentence that tells the reader what the writer is going to discuss. Teachers will have different preferences for the precise location of the thesis, but a good rule of thumb is in the introduction paragraph, within the last two or three sentences.

Strength: Finally, for a persuasive thesis to be strong, it needs to be arguable. This means that the statement is not obvious, and it is not something that everyone agrees is true.

Example of weak thesis:

Peanut butter and jelly sandwiches are easy to make because it just takes three ingredients.

Most people would agree that PB&J is one of the easiest sandwiches in the American lunch repertoire.

Example of a stronger thesis:

Peanut butter and jelly sandwiches are fun to eat because they always slide around.

This is more arguable because there are plenty of folks who might think a PB&J is messy or slimy rather than fun.

Composing a thesis statement does take a bit more thought than many other parts of an essay. However, because a thesis statement can contain an entire argument in just a few words, it is worth taking the extra time to compose this sentence. It can direct your research and your argument so that your essay is tight, focused, and makes readers think.

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  • What Is a Thesis? | Ultimate Guide & Examples

What Is a Thesis? | Ultimate Guide & Examples

Published on September 14, 2022 by Tegan George . Revised on November 21, 2023.

A thesis is a type of research paper based on your original research. It is usually submitted as the final step of a master’s program or a capstone to a bachelor’s degree.

Writing a thesis can be a daunting experience. Other than a dissertation , it is one of the longest pieces of writing students typically complete. It relies on your ability to conduct research from start to finish: choosing a relevant topic , crafting a proposal , designing your research , collecting data , developing a robust analysis, drawing strong conclusions , and writing concisely .

Thesis template

You can also download our full thesis template in the format of your choice below. Our template includes a ready-made table of contents , as well as guidance for what each chapter should include. It’s easy to make it your own, and can help you get started.

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Table of contents

Thesis vs. thesis statement, how to structure a thesis, acknowledgements or preface, list of figures and tables, list of abbreviations, introduction, literature review, methodology, reference list, proofreading and editing, defending your thesis, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about theses.

You may have heard the word thesis as a standalone term or as a component of academic writing called a thesis statement . Keep in mind that these are two very different things.

  • A thesis statement is a very common component of an essay, particularly in the humanities. It usually comprises 1 or 2 sentences in the introduction of your essay , and should clearly and concisely summarize the central points of your academic essay .
  • A thesis is a long-form piece of academic writing, often taking more than a full semester to complete. It is generally a degree requirement for Master’s programs, and is also sometimes required to complete a bachelor’s degree in liberal arts colleges.
  • In the US, a dissertation is generally written as a final step toward obtaining a PhD.
  • In other countries (particularly the UK), a dissertation is generally written at the bachelor’s or master’s level.

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The final structure of your thesis depends on a variety of components, such as:

  • Your discipline
  • Your theoretical approach

Humanities theses are often structured more like a longer-form essay . Just like in an essay, you build an argument to support a central thesis.

In both hard and social sciences, theses typically include an introduction , literature review , methodology section ,  results section , discussion section , and conclusion section . These are each presented in their own dedicated section or chapter. In some cases, you might want to add an appendix .

Thesis examples

We’ve compiled a short list of thesis examples to help you get started.

  • Example thesis #1:   “Abolition, Africans, and Abstraction: the Influence of the ‘Noble Savage’ on British and French Antislavery Thought, 1787-1807” by Suchait Kahlon.
  • Example thesis #2: “’A Starving Man Helping Another Starving Man’: UNRRA, India, and the Genesis of Global Relief, 1943-1947″ by Julian Saint Reiman.

The very first page of your thesis contains all necessary identifying information, including:

  • Your full title
  • Your full name
  • Your department
  • Your institution and degree program
  • Your submission date.

Sometimes the title page also includes your student ID, the name of your supervisor, or the university’s logo. Check out your university’s guidelines if you’re not sure.

Read more about title pages

The acknowledgements section is usually optional. Its main point is to allow you to thank everyone who helped you in your thesis journey, such as supervisors, friends, or family. You can also choose to write a preface , but it’s typically one or the other, not both.

Read more about acknowledgements Read more about prefaces

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An abstract is a short summary of your thesis. Usually a maximum of 300 words long, it’s should include brief descriptions of your research objectives , methods, results, and conclusions. Though it may seem short, it introduces your work to your audience, serving as a first impression of your thesis.

Read more about abstracts

A table of contents lists all of your sections, plus their corresponding page numbers and subheadings if you have them. This helps your reader seamlessly navigate your document.

Your table of contents should include all the major parts of your thesis. In particular, don’t forget the the appendices. If you used heading styles, it’s easy to generate an automatic table Microsoft Word.

Read more about tables of contents

While not mandatory, if you used a lot of tables and/or figures, it’s nice to include a list of them to help guide your reader. It’s also easy to generate one of these in Word: just use the “Insert Caption” feature.

Read more about lists of figures and tables

If you have used a lot of industry- or field-specific abbreviations in your thesis, you should include them in an alphabetized list of abbreviations . This way, your readers can easily look up any meanings they aren’t familiar with.

Read more about lists of abbreviations

Relatedly, if you find yourself using a lot of very specialized or field-specific terms that may not be familiar to your reader, consider including a glossary . Alphabetize the terms you want to include with a brief definition.

Read more about glossaries

An introduction sets up the topic, purpose, and relevance of your thesis, as well as expectations for your reader. This should:

  • Ground your research topic , sharing any background information your reader may need
  • Define the scope of your work
  • Introduce any existing research on your topic, situating your work within a broader problem or debate
  • State your research question(s)
  • Outline (briefly) how the remainder of your work will proceed

In other words, your introduction should clearly and concisely show your reader the “what, why, and how” of your research.

Read more about introductions

A literature review helps you gain a robust understanding of any extant academic work on your topic, encompassing:

  • Selecting relevant sources
  • Determining the credibility of your sources
  • Critically evaluating each of your sources
  • Drawing connections between sources, including any themes, patterns, conflicts, or gaps

A literature review is not merely a summary of existing work. Rather, your literature review should ultimately lead to a clear justification for your own research, perhaps via:

  • Addressing a gap in the literature
  • Building on existing knowledge to draw new conclusions
  • Exploring a new theoretical or methodological approach
  • Introducing a new solution to an unresolved problem
  • Definitively advocating for one side of a theoretical debate

Read more about literature reviews

Theoretical framework

Your literature review can often form the basis for your theoretical framework, but these are not the same thing. A theoretical framework defines and analyzes the concepts and theories that your research hinges on.

Read more about theoretical frameworks

Your methodology chapter shows your reader how you conducted your research. It should be written clearly and methodically, easily allowing your reader to critically assess the credibility of your argument. Furthermore, your methods section should convince your reader that your method was the best way to answer your research question.

A methodology section should generally include:

  • Your overall approach ( quantitative vs. qualitative )
  • Your research methods (e.g., a longitudinal study )
  • Your data collection methods (e.g., interviews or a controlled experiment
  • Any tools or materials you used (e.g., computer software)
  • The data analysis methods you chose (e.g., statistical analysis , discourse analysis )
  • A strong, but not defensive justification of your methods

Read more about methodology sections

Your results section should highlight what your methodology discovered. These two sections work in tandem, but shouldn’t repeat each other. While your results section can include hypotheses or themes, don’t include any speculation or new arguments here.

Your results section should:

  • State each (relevant) result with any (relevant) descriptive statistics (e.g., mean , standard deviation ) and inferential statistics (e.g., test statistics , p values )
  • Explain how each result relates to the research question
  • Determine whether the hypothesis was supported

Additional data (like raw numbers or interview transcripts ) can be included as an appendix . You can include tables and figures, but only if they help the reader better understand your results.

Read more about results sections

Your discussion section is where you can interpret your results in detail. Did they meet your expectations? How well do they fit within the framework that you built? You can refer back to any relevant source material to situate your results within your field, but leave most of that analysis in your literature review.

For any unexpected results, offer explanations or alternative interpretations of your data.

Read more about discussion sections

Your thesis conclusion should concisely answer your main research question. It should leave your reader with an ultra-clear understanding of your central argument, and emphasize what your research specifically has contributed to your field.

Why does your research matter? What recommendations for future research do you have? Lastly, wrap up your work with any concluding remarks.

Read more about conclusions

In order to avoid plagiarism , don’t forget to include a full reference list at the end of your thesis, citing the sources that you used. Choose one citation style and follow it consistently throughout your thesis, taking note of the formatting requirements of each style.

Which style you choose is often set by your department or your field, but common styles include MLA , Chicago , and APA.

Create APA citations Create MLA citations

In order to stay clear and concise, your thesis should include the most essential information needed to answer your research question. However, chances are you have many contributing documents, like interview transcripts or survey questions . These can be added as appendices , to save space in the main body.

Read more about appendices

Once you’re done writing, the next part of your editing process begins. Leave plenty of time for proofreading and editing prior to submission. Nothing looks worse than grammar mistakes or sloppy spelling errors!

Consider using a professional thesis editing service or grammar checker to make sure your final project is perfect.

Once you’ve submitted your final product, it’s common practice to have a thesis defense, an oral component of your finished work. This is scheduled by your advisor or committee, and usually entails a presentation and Q&A session.

After your defense , your committee will meet to determine if you deserve any departmental honors or accolades. However, keep in mind that defenses are usually just a formality. If there are any serious issues with your work, these should be resolved with your advisor way before a defense.

If you want to know more about AI for academic writing, AI tools, or research bias, make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

Research bias

  • Survivorship bias
  • Self-serving bias
  • Availability heuristic
  • Halo effect
  • Hindsight bias
  • Deep learning
  • Generative AI
  • Machine learning
  • Reinforcement learning
  • Supervised vs. unsupervised learning

 (AI) Tools

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The conclusion of your thesis or dissertation shouldn’t take up more than 5–7% of your overall word count.

If you only used a few abbreviations in your thesis or dissertation , you don’t necessarily need to include a list of abbreviations .

If your abbreviations are numerous, or if you think they won’t be known to your audience, it’s never a bad idea to add one. They can also improve readability, minimizing confusion about abbreviations unfamiliar to your reader.

When you mention different chapters within your text, it’s considered best to use Roman numerals for most citation styles. However, the most important thing here is to remain consistent whenever using numbers in your dissertation .

A thesis or dissertation outline is one of the most critical first steps in your writing process. It helps you to lay out and organize your ideas and can provide you with a roadmap for deciding what kind of research you’d like to undertake.

Generally, an outline contains information on the different sections included in your thesis or dissertation , such as:

  • Your anticipated title
  • Your abstract
  • Your chapters (sometimes subdivided into further topics like literature review , research methods , avenues for future research, etc.)

A thesis is typically written by students finishing up a bachelor’s or Master’s degree. Some educational institutions, particularly in the liberal arts, have mandatory theses, but they are often not mandatory to graduate from bachelor’s degrees. It is more common for a thesis to be a graduation requirement from a Master’s degree.

Even if not mandatory, you may want to consider writing a thesis if you:

  • Plan to attend graduate school soon
  • Have a particular topic you’d like to study more in-depth
  • Are considering a career in research
  • Would like a capstone experience to tie up your academic experience

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Developing Strong Thesis Statements

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These OWL resources will help you develop and refine the arguments in your writing.

The thesis statement or main claim must be debatable

An argumentative or persuasive piece of writing must begin with a debatable thesis or claim. In other words, the thesis must be something that people could reasonably have differing opinions on. If your thesis is something that is generally agreed upon or accepted as fact then there is no reason to try to persuade people.

Example of a non-debatable thesis statement:

This thesis statement is not debatable. First, the word pollution implies that something is bad or negative in some way. Furthermore, all studies agree that pollution is a problem; they simply disagree on the impact it will have or the scope of the problem. No one could reasonably argue that pollution is unambiguously good.

Example of a debatable thesis statement:

This is an example of a debatable thesis because reasonable people could disagree with it. Some people might think that this is how we should spend the nation's money. Others might feel that we should be spending more money on education. Still others could argue that corporations, not the government, should be paying to limit pollution.

Another example of a debatable thesis statement:

In this example there is also room for disagreement between rational individuals. Some citizens might think focusing on recycling programs rather than private automobiles is the most effective strategy.

The thesis needs to be narrow

Although the scope of your paper might seem overwhelming at the start, generally the narrower the thesis the more effective your argument will be. Your thesis or claim must be supported by evidence. The broader your claim is, the more evidence you will need to convince readers that your position is right.

Example of a thesis that is too broad:

There are several reasons this statement is too broad to argue. First, what is included in the category "drugs"? Is the author talking about illegal drug use, recreational drug use (which might include alcohol and cigarettes), or all uses of medication in general? Second, in what ways are drugs detrimental? Is drug use causing deaths (and is the author equating deaths from overdoses and deaths from drug related violence)? Is drug use changing the moral climate or causing the economy to decline? Finally, what does the author mean by "society"? Is the author referring only to America or to the global population? Does the author make any distinction between the effects on children and adults? There are just too many questions that the claim leaves open. The author could not cover all of the topics listed above, yet the generality of the claim leaves all of these possibilities open to debate.

Example of a narrow or focused thesis:

In this example the topic of drugs has been narrowed down to illegal drugs and the detriment has been narrowed down to gang violence. This is a much more manageable topic.

We could narrow each debatable thesis from the previous examples in the following way:

Narrowed debatable thesis 1:

This thesis narrows the scope of the argument by specifying not just the amount of money used but also how the money could actually help to control pollution.

Narrowed debatable thesis 2:

This thesis narrows the scope of the argument by specifying not just what the focus of a national anti-pollution campaign should be but also why this is the appropriate focus.

Qualifiers such as " typically ," " generally ," " usually ," or " on average " also help to limit the scope of your claim by allowing for the almost inevitable exception to the rule.

Types of claims

Claims typically fall into one of four categories. Thinking about how you want to approach your topic, or, in other words, what type of claim you want to make, is one way to focus your thesis on one particular aspect of your broader topic.

Claims of fact or definition: These claims argue about what the definition of something is or whether something is a settled fact. Example:

Claims of cause and effect: These claims argue that one person, thing, or event caused another thing or event to occur. Example:

Claims about value: These are claims made of what something is worth, whether we value it or not, how we would rate or categorize something. Example:

Claims about solutions or policies: These are claims that argue for or against a certain solution or policy approach to a problem. Example:

Which type of claim is right for your argument? Which type of thesis or claim you use for your argument will depend on your position and knowledge of the topic, your audience, and the context of your paper. You might want to think about where you imagine your audience to be on this topic and pinpoint where you think the biggest difference in viewpoints might be. Even if you start with one type of claim you probably will be using several within the paper. Regardless of the type of claim you choose to utilize it is key to identify the controversy or debate you are addressing and to define your position early on in the paper.

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Research Paper: A step-by-step guide: 3. Thesis Statement & Outline

  • 1. Getting Started
  • 2. Topic Ideas
  • 3. Thesis Statement & Outline
  • 4. Appropriate Sources
  • 5. Search Techniques
  • 6. Taking Notes & Documenting Sources
  • 7. Evaluating Sources
  • 8. Citations & Plagiarism
  • 9. Writing Your Research Paper

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About Thesis Statements

Qualities of a thesis statement.

Thesis statements:

  • state the subject matter and main ideas of a paper.
  • appear in the first paragraph and announces what you will discuss in your paper.
  • define the scope and focus of your essay, and tells your reader what to expect.  
  • are not a simple factual statement.  It is an assertion that states your claims and that you can prove with evidence.
  • should be the product of research and your own critical thinking.
  • can be very helpful in constructing an outline for your essay; for each point you make, ask yourself whether it is relevant to the thesis.

Steps you can use to create a thesis statement

1. Start out with the main topic and focus of your essay.

youth gangs + prevention and intervention programs

2. Make a claim or argument in one sentence.  It can be helpful to start with a question which you then turn into an argument

Can prevention and intervention programs stop youth gang activities?  How?  ►►►  "Prevention and intervention programs can stop youth gang activities by giving teens something else to do."

3. Revise the sentence by using specific terms.

"Early prevention programs in schools are the most effective way to prevent youth gang involvement by giving teens good activities that offer a path to success."

4. Further revise the sentence to cover the scope of your essay and make a strong statement.

"Among various prevention and intervention efforts that have been made to deal with the rapid growth of youth gangs, early school-based prevention programs are the most effective way to prevent youth gang involvement, which they do by giving teens meaningful activities that offer pathways to achievement and success."

5. Keep your thesis statement flexible and revise it as needed. In the process of researching and writing, you may find new information or refine your understanding of the topic.

You can view this short video for more tips on how to write a clear thesis statement.

An outline is the skeleton of your essay, in which you list the arguments and subtopics in a logical order. A good outline is an important element in writing a good paper. An outline helps to target your research areas, keep you within the scope without going off-track, and it can also help to keep your argument in good order when writing the essay.  Once your outline is in good shape, it is much easier to write your paper; you've already done most of the thinking, so you just need to fill in the outline with a paragraph for each point.

To write an outline: The most common way to write an outline is the list format.  List all the major topics and subtopics with the key points that support them. Put similar topics and points together and arrange them in a logical order.    Include an introduction, a body, and a conclusion. 

A list outline should arrange the main points or arguments in a hierarchical structure indicated by Roman numerals for main ideas (I, II, III...), capital letters for subtopics (A, B, C...), Arabic numerals for details (1,2,3...), and lower-case letters for fine details if needed (a,b,c...). This helps keep things organized.  

Here is a shortened example of an outline:

Introduction: background and thesis statement

I. First topic

1. Supporting evidence 2. Supporting evidence

II. Second Topic

III. Third Topic

I. Summarize the main points of your paper II. Restate your thesis in different words III. Make a strong final statement

You can see examples of a few different kinds of outlines and get more help at the Purdue OWL .

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How to write a thesis statement, what is a thesis statement.

Almost all of us—even if we don’t do it consciously—look early in an essay for a one- or two-sentence condensation of the argument or analysis that is to follow. We refer to that condensation as a thesis statement.

Why Should Your Essay Contain a Thesis Statement?

  • to test your ideas by distilling them into a sentence or two
  • to better organize and develop your argument
  • to provide your reader with a “guide” to your argument

In general, your thesis statement will accomplish these goals if you think of the thesis as the answer to the question your paper explores.

How Can You Write a Good Thesis Statement?

Here are some helpful hints to get you started. You can either scroll down or select a link to a specific topic.

How to Generate a Thesis Statement if the Topic is Assigned How to Generate a Thesis Statement if the Topic is not Assigned How to Tell a Strong Thesis Statement from a Weak One

How to Generate a Thesis Statement if the Topic is Assigned

Almost all assignments, no matter how complicated, can be reduced to a single question. Your first step, then, is to distill the assignment into a specific question. For example, if your assignment is, “Write a report to the local school board explaining the potential benefits of using computers in a fourth-grade class,” turn the request into a question like, “What are the potential benefits of using computers in a fourth-grade class?” After you’ve chosen the question your essay will answer, compose one or two complete sentences answering that question.

Q: “What are the potential benefits of using computers in a fourth-grade class?” A: “The potential benefits of using computers in a fourth-grade class are . . .”
A: “Using computers in a fourth-grade class promises to improve . . .”

The answer to the question is the thesis statement for the essay.

[ Back to top ]

How to Generate a Thesis Statement if the Topic is not Assigned

Even if your assignment doesn’t ask a specific question, your thesis statement still needs to answer a question about the issue you’d like to explore. In this situation, your job is to figure out what question you’d like to write about.

A good thesis statement will usually include the following four attributes:

  • take on a subject upon which reasonable people could disagree
  • deal with a subject that can be adequately treated given the nature of the assignment
  • express one main idea
  • assert your conclusions about a subject

Let’s see how to generate a thesis statement for a social policy paper.

Brainstorm the topic . Let’s say that your class focuses upon the problems posed by changes in the dietary habits of Americans. You find that you are interested in the amount of sugar Americans consume.

You start out with a thesis statement like this:

Sugar consumption.

This fragment isn’t a thesis statement. Instead, it simply indicates a general subject. Furthermore, your reader doesn’t know what you want to say about sugar consumption.

Narrow the topic . Your readings about the topic, however, have led you to the conclusion that elementary school children are consuming far more sugar than is healthy.

You change your thesis to look like this:

Reducing sugar consumption by elementary school children.

This fragment not only announces your subject, but it focuses on one segment of the population: elementary school children. Furthermore, it raises a subject upon which reasonable people could disagree, because while most people might agree that children consume more sugar than they used to, not everyone would agree on what should be done or who should do it. You should note that this fragment is not a thesis statement because your reader doesn’t know your conclusions on the topic.

Take a position on the topic. After reflecting on the topic a little while longer, you decide that what you really want to say about this topic is that something should be done to reduce the amount of sugar these children consume.

You revise your thesis statement to look like this:

More attention should be paid to the food and beverage choices available to elementary school children.

This statement asserts your position, but the terms more attention and food and beverage choices are vague.

Use specific language . You decide to explain what you mean about food and beverage choices , so you write:

Experts estimate that half of elementary school children consume nine times the recommended daily allowance of sugar.

This statement is specific, but it isn’t a thesis. It merely reports a statistic instead of making an assertion.

Make an assertion based on clearly stated support. You finally revise your thesis statement one more time to look like this:

Because half of all American elementary school children consume nine times the recommended daily allowance of sugar, schools should be required to replace the beverages in soda machines with healthy alternatives.

Notice how the thesis answers the question, “What should be done to reduce sugar consumption by children, and who should do it?” When you started thinking about the paper, you may not have had a specific question in mind, but as you became more involved in the topic, your ideas became more specific. Your thesis changed to reflect your new insights.

How to Tell a Strong Thesis Statement from a Weak One

1. a strong thesis statement takes some sort of stand..

Remember that your thesis needs to show your conclusions about a subject. For example, if you are writing a paper for a class on fitness, you might be asked to choose a popular weight-loss product to evaluate. Here are two thesis statements:

There are some negative and positive aspects to the Banana Herb Tea Supplement.

This is a weak thesis statement. First, it fails to take a stand. Second, the phrase negative and positive aspects is vague.

Because Banana Herb Tea Supplement promotes rapid weight loss that results in the loss of muscle and lean body mass, it poses a potential danger to customers.

This is a strong thesis because it takes a stand, and because it's specific.

2. A strong thesis statement justifies discussion.

Your thesis should indicate the point of the discussion. If your assignment is to write a paper on kinship systems, using your own family as an example, you might come up with either of these two thesis statements:

My family is an extended family.

This is a weak thesis because it merely states an observation. Your reader won’t be able to tell the point of the statement, and will probably stop reading.

While most American families would view consanguineal marriage as a threat to the nuclear family structure, many Iranian families, like my own, believe that these marriages help reinforce kinship ties in an extended family.

This is a strong thesis because it shows how your experience contradicts a widely-accepted view. A good strategy for creating a strong thesis is to show that the topic is controversial. Readers will be interested in reading the rest of the essay to see how you support your point.

3. A strong thesis statement expresses one main idea.

Readers need to be able to see that your paper has one main point. If your thesis statement expresses more than one idea, then you might confuse your readers about the subject of your paper. For example:

Companies need to exploit the marketing potential of the Internet, and Web pages can provide both advertising and customer support.

This is a weak thesis statement because the reader can’t decide whether the paper is about marketing on the Internet or Web pages. To revise the thesis, the relationship between the two ideas needs to become more clear. One way to revise the thesis would be to write:

Because the Internet is filled with tremendous marketing potential, companies should exploit this potential by using Web pages that offer both advertising and customer support.

This is a strong thesis because it shows that the two ideas are related. Hint: a great many clear and engaging thesis statements contain words like because , since , so , although , unless , and however .

4. A strong thesis statement is specific.

A thesis statement should show exactly what your paper will be about, and will help you keep your paper to a manageable topic. For example, if you're writing a seven-to-ten page paper on hunger, you might say:

World hunger has many causes and effects.

This is a weak thesis statement for two major reasons. First, world hunger can’t be discussed thoroughly in seven to ten pages. Second, many causes and effects is vague. You should be able to identify specific causes and effects. A revised thesis might look like this:

Hunger persists in Glandelinia because jobs are scarce and farming in the infertile soil is rarely profitable.

This is a strong thesis statement because it narrows the subject to a more specific and manageable topic, and it also identifies the specific causes for the existence of hunger.

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Writing a paper: thesis statements, basics of thesis statements.

The thesis statement is the brief articulation of your paper's central argument and purpose. You might hear it referred to as simply a "thesis." Every scholarly paper should have a thesis statement, and strong thesis statements are concise, specific, and arguable. Concise means the thesis is short: perhaps one or two sentences for a shorter paper. Specific means the thesis deals with a narrow and focused topic, appropriate to the paper's length. Arguable means that a scholar in your field could disagree (or perhaps already has!).

Strong thesis statements address specific intellectual questions, have clear positions, and use a structure that reflects the overall structure of the paper. Read on to learn more about constructing a strong thesis statement.

Being Specific

This thesis statement has no specific argument:

Needs Improvement: In this essay, I will examine two scholarly articles to find similarities and differences.

This statement is concise, but it is neither specific nor arguable—a reader might wonder, "Which scholarly articles? What is the topic of this paper? What field is the author writing in?" Additionally, the purpose of the paper—to "examine…to find similarities and differences" is not of a scholarly level. Identifying similarities and differences is a good first step, but strong academic argument goes further, analyzing what those similarities and differences might mean or imply.

Better: In this essay, I will argue that Bowler's (2003) autocratic management style, when coupled with Smith's (2007) theory of social cognition, can reduce the expenses associated with employee turnover.

The new revision here is still concise, as well as specific and arguable.  We can see that it is specific because the writer is mentioning (a) concrete ideas and (b) exact authors.  We can also gather the field (business) and the topic (management and employee turnover). The statement is arguable because the student goes beyond merely comparing; he or she draws conclusions from that comparison ("can reduce the expenses associated with employee turnover").

Making a Unique Argument

This thesis draft repeats the language of the writing prompt without making a unique argument:

Needs Improvement: The purpose of this essay is to monitor, assess, and evaluate an educational program for its strengths and weaknesses. Then, I will provide suggestions for improvement.

You can see here that the student has simply stated the paper's assignment, without articulating specifically how he or she will address it. The student can correct this error simply by phrasing the thesis statement as a specific answer to the assignment prompt.

Better: Through a series of student interviews, I found that Kennedy High School's antibullying program was ineffective. In order to address issues of conflict between students, I argue that Kennedy High School should embrace policies outlined by the California Department of Education (2010).

Words like "ineffective" and "argue" show here that the student has clearly thought through the assignment and analyzed the material; he or she is putting forth a specific and debatable position. The concrete information ("student interviews," "antibullying") further prepares the reader for the body of the paper and demonstrates how the student has addressed the assignment prompt without just restating that language.

Creating a Debate

This thesis statement includes only obvious fact or plot summary instead of argument:

Needs Improvement: Leadership is an important quality in nurse educators.

A good strategy to determine if your thesis statement is too broad (and therefore, not arguable) is to ask yourself, "Would a scholar in my field disagree with this point?" Here, we can see easily that no scholar is likely to argue that leadership is an unimportant quality in nurse educators.  The student needs to come up with a more arguable claim, and probably a narrower one; remember that a short paper needs a more focused topic than a dissertation.

Better: Roderick's (2009) theory of participatory leadership  is particularly appropriate to nurse educators working within the emergency medicine field, where students benefit most from collegial and kinesthetic learning.

Here, the student has identified a particular type of leadership ("participatory leadership"), narrowing the topic, and has made an arguable claim (this type of leadership is "appropriate" to a specific type of nurse educator). Conceivably, a scholar in the nursing field might disagree with this approach. The student's paper can now proceed, providing specific pieces of evidence to support the arguable central claim.

Choosing the Right Words

This thesis statement uses large or scholarly-sounding words that have no real substance:

Needs Improvement: Scholars should work to seize metacognitive outcomes by harnessing discipline-based networks to empower collaborative infrastructures.

There are many words in this sentence that may be buzzwords in the student's field or key terms taken from other texts, but together they do not communicate a clear, specific meaning. Sometimes students think scholarly writing means constructing complex sentences using special language, but actually it's usually a stronger choice to write clear, simple sentences. When in doubt, remember that your ideas should be complex, not your sentence structure.

Better: Ecologists should work to educate the U.S. public on conservation methods by making use of local and national green organizations to create a widespread communication plan.

Notice in the revision that the field is now clear (ecology), and the language has been made much more field-specific ("conservation methods," "green organizations"), so the reader is able to see concretely the ideas the student is communicating.

Leaving Room for Discussion

This thesis statement is not capable of development or advancement in the paper:

Needs Improvement: There are always alternatives to illegal drug use.

This sample thesis statement makes a claim, but it is not a claim that will sustain extended discussion. This claim is the type of claim that might be appropriate for the conclusion of a paper, but in the beginning of the paper, the student is left with nowhere to go. What further points can be made? If there are "always alternatives" to the problem the student is identifying, then why bother developing a paper around that claim? Ideally, a thesis statement should be complex enough to explore over the length of the entire paper.

Better: The most effective treatment plan for methamphetamine addiction may be a combination of pharmacological and cognitive therapy, as argued by Baker (2008), Smith (2009), and Xavier (2011).

In the revised thesis, you can see the student make a specific, debatable claim that has the potential to generate several pages' worth of discussion. When drafting a thesis statement, think about the questions your thesis statement will generate: What follow-up inquiries might a reader have? In the first example, there are almost no additional questions implied, but the revised example allows for a good deal more exploration.

Thesis Mad Libs

If you are having trouble getting started, try using the models below to generate a rough model of a thesis statement! These models are intended for drafting purposes only and should not appear in your final work.

  • In this essay, I argue ____, using ______ to assert _____.
  • While scholars have often argued ______, I argue______, because_______.
  • Through an analysis of ______, I argue ______, which is important because_______.

Words to Avoid and to Embrace

When drafting your thesis statement, avoid words like explore, investigate, learn, compile, summarize , and explain to describe the main purpose of your paper. These words imply a paper that summarizes or "reports," rather than synthesizing and analyzing.

Instead of the terms above, try words like argue, critique, question , and interrogate . These more analytical words may help you begin strongly, by articulating a specific, critical, scholarly position.

Read Kayla's blog post for tips on taking a stand in a well-crafted thesis statement.

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5.1: Developing a Strong, Clear Thesis Statement

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  • Athena Kashyap & Erika Dyquisto
  • City College of San Francisco via ASCCC Open Educational Resources Initiative

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Have you ever known a person who was not very good at telling stories? You probably had trouble following his train of thought as he jumped around from point to point, either being too brief in places that needed further explanation or providing too many details on a meaningless element. Maybe he told the end of the story first, then moved to the beginning and later added details to the middle. His ideas were probably scattered, and the story did not flow very well. When the story was over, you probably had many questions.

Just as a personal anecdote can be a disorganized mess, an essay can fall into the same trap of being out of order and confusing. That is why writers need a thesis statement to provide a specific focus for their essay and to organize what they are about to discuss in the body.

Just like a topic sentence summarizes a single paragraph, the thesis statement summarizes an entire essay. It tells the reader the point you want to make in your essay, while the essay itself supports that point. It is like a signpost that signals the essay’s destination. You should form your thesis before you begin to organize an essay, but you may find that it needs revision as the essay develops.

Elements of a Thesis Statement

For every essay you write, you must focus on a central idea. This idea stems from a topic you have chosen or been assigned or from a question your teacher has asked. It is not enough merely to discuss a general topic or simply answer a question with a yes or no. You have to form a specific opinion, and then articulate that into a controlling idea—the main idea upon which you build your thesis.

Remember that a thesis is not the topic itself, but rather your interpretation of the question or subject. For whatever topic your professor gives you, you must ask yourself, “What do I want to say about it?” Asking and then answering this question is vital to forming a thesis that is precise, forceful and confident.

A thesis is one sentence long and appears toward the end of your introduction. It is specific and focuses on one to three points of a single idea—points that are able to be demonstrated in the body. It forecasts the content of the essay and suggests how you will organize your information. Remember that a thesis statement does not summarize an issue but rather dissects it.

A Strong Thesis Statement

A strong thesis statement contains the following qualities.

  • Specificity. A thesis statement must concentrate on a specific area of a general topic. As you may recall, the creation of a thesis statement begins when you choose a broad subject and then narrow down its parts until you pinpoint a specific aspect of that topic. For example, health care is a broad topic, but a proper thesis statement would focus on a specific area of that topic, such as options for individuals without health care coverage.
  • Precision. A strong thesis statement must be precise enough to allow for a coherent argument and to remain focused on the topic. If the specific topic is options for individuals without health care coverage, then your precise thesis statement must make an exact claim about it, such as that limited options exist for those who are uninsured by their employers. You must further pinpoint what you are going to discuss regarding these limited effects, such as whom they affect and what the cause is.
  • Ability to be argued. A thesis statement must present a relevant and specific argument. A factual statement often is not considered arguable. Be sure your thesis statement contains a point of view that can be supported with evidence.
  • Ability to be demonstrated. For any claim you make in your thesis, you must be able to provide reasons and examples for your opinion. You can rely on personal observations in order to do this, or you can consult outside sources to demonstrate that what you assert is valid. A worthy argument is backed by examples and details.
  • Forcefulness. A thesis statement that is forceful shows readers that you are, in fact, making an argument. The tone is assertive and takes a stance that others might oppose.
  • Confidence. In addition to using force in your thesis statement, you must also use confidence in your claim. Phrases such as I feel or I believe actually weaken the readers’ sense of your confidence because these phrases imply that you are the only person who feels the way you do. In other words, your stance has insufficient backing. Taking an authoritative stance on the matter persuades your readers to have faith in your argument and open their minds to what you have to say.

Even in a personal essay that allows the use of first person, your thesis should not contain phrases such as in my opinion or I believe . These statements reduce your credibility and weaken your argument. Your opinion is more convincing when you use a firm attitude.

On a separate sheet of paper, write a thesis statement for each of the following topics. Remember to make each statement specific, precise, demonstrable, forceful and confident.

  • Texting while driving
  • The legal drinking age in the United States
  • Steroid use among professional athletes

Examples of Appropriate Thesis Statements

Each of the following thesis statements meets several of the following requirements:

  • Specificity
  • Ability to be argued
  • Ability to be demonstrated
  • Forcefulness
  • The societal and personal struggles of Troy Maxon in the play Fences symbolize the challenge of black males who lived through segregation and integration in the United States.
  • Closing all American borders for a period of five years is one solution that will tackle illegal immigration.
  • Shakespeare’s use of dramatic irony in Romeo and Juliet spoils the outcome for the audience and weakens the plot.
  • J. D. Salinger’s character in Catcher in the Rye , Holden Caulfield, is a confused rebel who voices his disgust with phonies, yet in an effort to protect himself, he acts like a phony on many occasions.
  • Compared to an absolute divorce, no-fault divorce is less expensive, promotes fairer settlements, and reflects a more realistic view of the causes for marital breakdown.
  • Exposing children from an early age to the dangers of drug abuse is a sure method of preventing future drug addicts.
  • In today’s crumbling job market, a high school diploma is not significant enough education to land a stable, lucrative job.

Five Ways of Looking at a Thesis

1. a thesis creates an argument that builds from one point to the next, giving the paper a direction that the audience can follow as the paper develops..

This point often separates the best theses from the pack. A good thesis can prevent the two weakest ways of organizing a critical paper: the pile of information and the plot summary with comments. A paper that presents a pile of information will frequently introduce new paragraphs with transitions that simply indicate the addition of more stuff. (“Another character who exhibits these traits is X,” for instance.) Consider these examples:

A: The Rules and Jane Austen’s Northanger Abbey both tell women how to act.

B: By looking at The Rules , a modern conduct book for women, we can see how Jane Austen’s Northanger Abbey is itself like a conduct book, questioning the rules for social success in her society and offering a new model.

Example A would almost inevitably lead to a paper organized as a pile of information. A plot summary with comments follows the chronological development of a text while picking out the same element of every segment; a transition in such a paper might read, “In the next scene, the color blue also figures prominently.” Both of these approaches constitute too much of a good thing. Papers must compile evidence, of course, and following the chronology of a text can sometimes help a reader keep track of a paper’s argument.

The best papers, however, will develop according to a more complex logic articulated in a strong thesis. Example B above would lead a paper to organize its evidence according to the paper’s own logic.

2. A thesis fits comfortably into the Magic Thesis Sentence (MTS).

The MTS: By looking at _____, we can see _____, which most readers don’t see; it is important to look at this aspect of the text because _____.

Try it out with the examples from the first point:

A: By telling the story of Wesley and Buttercup’s triumph over evil, The Princess Bride affirms the power of true love.

B: Although the main plot of The Princess Bride rests on the natural power of true love, an examination of the way that fighting sticks–baseball bats, tree branches, and swords–link the frame story to the romance plot suggests that the narrator’s grandson is being trained in true love, that love is not natural but socialized.

Notice that the MTS adds a new dimension to point number one above. The first part of the MTS asks you to find something strange (“which most readers don’t see”), and the second part asks you to think about the importance of the strangeness. Thesis A would not work at all in the MTS; one could not reasonably state that “most readers [or viewers] don’t see” that film’s affirmation of true love, and the statement does not even attempt to explain the importance of its claim. Thesis B, on the other hand, gives us a way to complete the MTS, as in “By looking at the way fighting sticks link the plot and frame of The Princess Bride , we can see the way the narrator’s grandson is trained in true love, which most people don’t see; it is important to look at this aspect of the text because unlike the rest of the film, the fighting sticks suggest that love is not natural but socialized.” One does not need to write out the MTS in such a neat one-sentence form, of course, but thinking through the structure of the MTS can help refine thesis ideas.

3. A thesis says something about the text(s) exclusively .

If a thesis could describe many works equally well, it needs to be more specific. Let’s return to our examples from above:

Try substituting other works:

A: By telling the story of Darcy and Elizabeth’s triumph over evil, Pride and Prejudice affirms the power of true love.

Sure, that makes sense. Bad sign.

B: Although the main plot of Pride and Prejudice rests on the natural power of true love, an examination of the way that fighting sticks–baseball bats, tree branches, and swords–link the frame story to the romance plot suggests that the grandson is being trained in true love, that it is not natural but socialized.

pride-300x225.jpg

Um, nope. Even if you have never read Pride and Prejudice , you can probably guess that such a precise thesis could hardly apply to other works. Good sign. The point here is that the thesis needs to be specific enough that its meaning relates to the specific work(s) you are writing about -- be it fiction or nonfiction.

4. A thesis makes a lot of information irrelevant.

If the thesis is specific enough, it will make a point that focuses on only a small part of the text be analyzed or a particular aspect of a larger topic. A writer should ultimately apply that point to the work as a whole, but a thesis will call attention to specific parts of it. Let’s look at those examples again. (This is the last time, I promise.)

One way of spotting the problem with Example A is to note that a simple plot summary would support its point. That is not of true example B, which tells the reader exactly what moments the paper will be discussed and why. The thesis is focused and concentrated.

5. Remember to Address the Work as a Whole: The “So What?”

As you complete your analysis, remember to think about what the effect this will have on the world of academia.

  • Does your thesis introduce your topic in a clear way?
  • Does the introduction mention what you will be addressing? Social constructs, gender issues, etc.

Writing a Thesis Statement

One legitimate question readers always ask about a piece of writing is “What is the big idea?” (You may even ask this question when you are the reader, critically reading an assignment or another document.) Every nonfiction writing task—from the short essay to the ten-page term paper to the lengthy senior thesis—needs a big idea, or a controlling idea, as the spine for the work. The controlling idea is the main idea that you want to present and develop.

For a longer piece of writing, the main idea should be broader than the main idea for a shorter piece of writing. Be sure to frame a main idea that is appropriate for the length of the assignment. Ask yourself, “How many pages will it take for me to explain and explore this main idea in detail?” Be reasonable with your estimate. Then expand or trim it to fit the required length.

Developing Thesis Statements from Topics

The big idea, or controlling idea, you want to present in an essay is expressed in a thesis statement. A thesis statement is often one sentence long, and it states your point of view. The thesis statement is not the topic of the piece of writing but rather what you have to say about that topic and what is important to tell readers.

Table 5.1 “Topics and Thesis Statements” compares topics and thesis statements.

Table 5.1 Topics and Thesis Statements

The first thesis statement you write will be a preliminary thesis statement, or a working thesis statement. You will need it when you begin to outline your assignment as a way to organize it. As you continue to develop the arrangement, you can limit your working thesis statement if it is too broad or expand it if it proves too narrow for what you want to say.

Using the topic you selected in Section 4.6 “ Prewriting Strategies ”, develop a working thesis statement that states your controlling idea for the piece of writing you are doing. On a sheet of paper, write your working thesis statement.

You will make several attempts before you devise a working thesis statement that you think is effective. Each draft of the thesis statement will bring you closer to the wording that expresses your meaning exactly. Sometimes, this refinement of the thesis statement happens after your write your first draft of the paper.

Guidelines for Drafting a Thesis Statement

thesis-problem-300x221.png

It helps to understand why readers value the arguable thesis. What larger purpose does it serve? Readers will bring a set of expectations to an essay. If writers can anticipate the expectations of their readers, the better they will be able to persuade the audience to find the arguments convincing, interesting, and relevant.

Academic readers (and readers more generally) read to learn something new. They want to see the writer challenge commonplaces—either everyday assumptions about the object of study or truisms in the scholarly literature. In other words, academic readers want to be surprised so that their thinking shifts or at least becomes more complex by the time they finish reading an essay. Good essays problematize what we think we know and offer an alternative explanation in its place. They leave their reader with a fresh perspective on a problem.

We all bring important past experiences and beliefs to our interpretations of texts, objects, and problems. Writers can harness these observational powers to engage critically with what they are studying. The key is to be alert to what strikes you as strange, problematic, paradoxical, or puzzling about your topic. If writers can articulate this and a claim in response, they are well on their way to formulating an arguable thesis in the introduction.

How do I set up a “problem” and an arguable thesis in response?

All good writing has a purpose or motive for existing. The thesis is the writer’s surprising response to this problem or motive. This is why it seldom makes sense to start a writing project by articulating the thesis. The first step is to articulate the question or problem your paper addresses.

step-1.png

Here are some possible ways to introduce a conceptual problem in your paper’s introduction.

1. Challenge a commonplace interpretation (or your own first impressions).

halt.png

How are readers likely to interpret this source or issue? What might intelligent readers think at first glance? (Or, if you’ve been given secondary sources or have been asked to conduct research to locate secondary sources, what do other writers or scholars assume is true or important about your primary source or issue?)

What does this commonplace interpretation leave out, overlook, or under-emphasize?

2. Help the reader see the complexity of your topic.

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Identify and describe for the reader a paradox, puzzle, or contradiction in a primary source(s).

What larger questions does this paradox or contradiction raise for readers?

3. If research is part of the assignment, piggyback off another scholar’s research.

piggyback.png

4. If research is part of the assignment, identify a gap in another scholar’s or a group of scholars’ research.

gap.png

Summarize another scholar’s argument about your topic, primary source, or case study and explain to the reader why this claim is interesting. Or, summarize how scholars in the field tend to approach the topic.

Next, explain what important aspect this scholarly representation misses or distorts. Introduce the particular approach to the topic and its value.

5. If research is part of the assignment, bring in a new lens for investigating the case study or problem.

glasses.png

Summarize how a scholar or group of scholars has approached the topic.

Introduce a theoretical source (possibly from another discipline) and explain how it helps to address this issue from a new and productive angle.

Tip : your introductory paragraph will probably look like this:

introduction.png

Testing Your Thesis

Test a thesis statement’s arguability by asking the following questions:

1) Does the thesis only or mostly summarize a source?

If so, try some of the exercises above to articulate the paper’s conceptual problem or question.

2) Is the thesis arguable – can it be supported by evidence, and is it surprising and contentious?

If not, return to the sources and practice the exercises above.

3) Is the thesis about the primary source, or is it about the world?

If it’s about the world, revise it so that it focuses on primary source(s). Remember to include solid evidence to support the thesis.

"THREE-STORY THESIS STATEMENTS" BY AMY GUPTIL

How do you produce a good, strong thesis? And how do you know when you’ve gotten there? Many instructors and writers find useful a metaphor based on this passage by Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr.: 3

There are one-story intellects, two-story intellects, and three-story intellects with skylights. All fact collectors who have no aim beyond their facts are one-story men. Two-story men compare, reason, generalize using the labor of fact collectors as their own. Three-story men idealize, imagine, predict—their best illumination comes from above the skylight.

One-story theses state inarguable facts. Two-story theses bring in an arguable (interpretive or analytical) point. Three-story theses nest that point within its larger, compelling implications. 4

The biggest benefit of the three-story metaphor is that it describes a process for building a thesis. To build the first story, you first have to get familiar with the complex, relevant facts surrounding the problem or question. You have to be able to describe the situation thoroughly and accurately. Then, with that first story built, you can layer on the second story by formulating the insightful, arguable point that animates the analysis. That’s often the most effortful part: brainstorming, elaborating and comparing alternative ideas, finalizing your point. With that specified, you can frame up the third story by articulating why the point you make matters beyond its particular topic or case.

Thesis: that’s the word that pops at me whenever I write an essay. Seeing this word in the prompt scared me and made me think to myself, “Oh great, what are they really looking for?” or “How am I going to make a thesis for a college paper?” When rehearing that I would be focusing on theses again in a class, I said to myself, “Here we go again!” But after learning about the three story thesis, I never had a problem with writing another thesis. In fact, I look forward to being asked on a paper to create a thesis.

Timothée Pizarro

For example, imagine you have been assigned a paper about the impact of online learning in higher education. You would first construct an account of the origins and multiple forms of online learning and assess research findings about its use and effectiveness. If you’ve done that well, you’ll probably come up with a well considered opinion that wouldn’t be obvious to readers who haven’t looked at the issue in depth. Maybe you’ll want to argue that online learning is a threat to the academic community. Or perhaps you’ll want to make the case that online learning opens up pathways to college degrees that traditional campus-based learning does not. In the course of developing your central, argumentative point, you’ll come to recognize its larger context; in this example, you may claim that online learning can serve to better integrate higher education with the rest of society, as online learners bring their educational and career experiences together. To outline this example:

  • First story : Online learning is becoming more prevalent and takes many different forms.
  • Second story : While most observers see it as a transformation of higher education, online learning is better thought of an extension of higher education in that it reaches learners who aren’t disposed to participate in traditional campus-based education.
  • Third story : Online learning appears to be a promising way to better integrate higher education with other institutions in society, as online learners integrate their educational experiences with the other realms of their life, promoting the freer flow of ideas between the academy and the rest of society.

Here’s another example of a three-story thesis: 5

  • First story : Edith Wharton did not consider herself a modernist writer, and she didn’t write like her modernist contemporaries.
  • Second story : However, in her work we can see her grappling with both the questions and literary forms that fascinated modernist writers of her era. While not an avowed modernist, she did engage with modernist themes and questions.
  • Third story : Thus, it is more revealing to think of modernism as a conversation rather than a category or practice.

Here’s one more example:

  • First story : Scientists disagree about the likely impact in the U.S. of the light brown apple moth (LBAM) , an agricultural pest native to Australia.
  • Second story : Research findings to date suggest that the decision to spray pheromones over the skies of several southern Californian counties to combat the LBAM was poorly thought out.
  • Third story : Together, the scientific ambiguities and the controversial response strengthen the claim that industrial-style approaches to pest management are inherently unsustainable.

A thesis statement that stops at the first story isn’t usually considered a thesis. A two-story thesis is usually considered competent, though some two-story theses are more intriguing and ambitious than others. A thoughtfully crafted and well informed three-story thesis puts the author on a smooth path toward an excellent paper.

The concept of a three-story thesis framework was the most helpful piece of information I gained from the writing component of DCC 100. The first time I utilized it in a college paper, my professor included “good thesis” and “excellent introduction” in her notes and graded it significantly higher than my previous papers. You can expect similar results if you dig deeper to form three-story theses. More importantly, doing so will make the actual writing of your paper more straightforward as well. Arguing something specific makes the structure of your paper much easier to design.

Peter Farrell

Effective Thesis Statements

As mentioned before, a thesis statement is the controlling idea of your essay. It is the main idea that all of the other sentences in the essay relate to. After gathering information about your topic, you need to figure out what you want to say about it.

An effective thesis statement has two major characteristics.

1. An effective thesis statement makes a point about a topic. For this reason, it must do more than state a fact or announce what you plan to write about.

Statement of fact: The military recruits students in high schools.

Announcement: In this essay, I would like to discuss what’s wrong with military recruitment in high schools.

List thesis: We should not allow the military to recruit in high schools because recruiters violate privacy, manipulate naïve young people, and target low-income youth.

Effective thesis: We should end the abusive and discriminatory practice of military recruitment in high schools.

A statement of fact is not an effective thesis statement because it does not take a position, giving you nothing to develop in your essay. Likewise, an announcement of what you plan to write about in your essay does not take a position on the issue, leaving you with nothing to develop. A good thesis statement makes a claim that is arguable.

2. The most effective thesis statements do not list your main points but unite your main points into a larger, central idea. The list thesis above looks strong, but notice how the effective thesis connects the three points with the words “abusive” and “discriminatory.” Now we know how the three points relate to each other; they are more than just a list.

To turn three or four “reasons” or topic sentences into a thesis, consider what they have in common and what your overall point is.

You can find thesis statements in many places, such as in the news; in the opinions of friends, coworkers or teachers; and even in songs you hear on the radio. Become aware of thesis statements in everyday life by paying attention to people’s opinions and their reasons for those opinions. Pay attention to your own everyday thesis statements as well, as these can become material for future essays.

Now that you have read about the contents of a good thesis statement and have seen examples, take a look at the pitfalls to avoid when composing your own thesis:

Weak thesis statement: My paper will explain why imagination is more important than knowledge.

Weak thesis statement: Religious radicals across America are trying to legislate their Puritanical beliefs by banning required high school books.

Weak thesis statement: Advertising companies use sex to sell their products.

Weak thesis statement: The life of Abraham Lincoln was long and challenging.

Read the following thesis statements. On a separate piece of paper, identify each as weak or strong. For those that are weak, list the reasons why. Then revise the weak statements so that they conform to the requirements of a strong thesis.

  • The subject of this paper is my experience with ferrets as pets.
  • The government must expand its funding for research on renewable energy resources in order to prepare for the impending end of oil.
  • Edgar Allan Poe was a poet who lived in Baltimore during the nineteenth century.
  • In this essay, I will give you lots of reasons why slot machines should not be legalized in Baltimore.
  • Despite his promises during his campaign, President Kennedy took few executive measures to support civil rights legislation.
  • Because many children’s toys have potential safety hazards that could lead to injury, it is clear that not all children’s toys are safe.
  • My experience with young children has taught me that I want to be a disciplinary parent because I believe that a child without discipline can be a parent’s worst nightmare.

Writing at Work

Often in your career, you will need to ask your manager for something through an e-mail. Just as a thesis statement organizes an essay, it can also organize your e-mail request. While your e-mail will be shorter than an essay, using a thesis statement in your first paragraph quickly lets your manager know what you are asking for, why it is necessary, and what the benefits are. In short body paragraphs, you can provide the essential information needed to expand upon your request.

Thesis Statement Revision

Your thesis will probably change as you write, so you will need to modify it to reflect exactly what you have discussed in your essay. Remember from Chapter 4 that your thesis statement begins as a working thesis statement, an indefinite statement that you make about your topic early in the writing process for the purpose of planning and guiding your writing.

Working thesis statements often become stronger as you gather information and form new opinions and reasons for those opinions. Revision helps you strengthen your thesis so that it matches what you have expressed in the body of the paper.

The best way to revise your thesis statement is to ask questions about it and then examine the answers to those questions. By challenging your own ideas and forming definite reasons for those ideas, you grow closer to a more precise point of view, which you can then incorporate into your thesis statement.

Ways to Revise Your Thesis

You can cut down on irrelevant aspects and revise your thesis by taking the following steps:

1. Pinpoint and replace all nonspecific words, such as people , everything , society , or life , with more precise words in order to reduce any vagueness.

Working thesis: Young people have to work hard to succeed in life.

Revised thesis: Recent college graduates must have discipline and persistence in order to find and maintain a stable job in which they can use and be appreciated for their talents.

The revised thesis makes a more specific statement about success and what it means to work hard. The original includes too broad a range of people and does not define exactly what success entails. By replacing those general words like people and work hard , the writer can better focus their research and gain more direction in their writing.

2. Clarify ideas that need explanation by asking yourself questions that narrow your thesis.

Working thesis: The welfare system is a joke.

Revised thesis: The welfare system keeps a socioeconomic class from gaining employment by alluring members of that class with unearned income instead of programs to improve their education and skill sets.

A joke means many things to many people. Readers bring all sorts of backgrounds and perspectives to the reading process and would need clarification for a word so vague. This expression may also be too informal for the selected audience. By asking questions, the writer can devise a more precise and appropriate explanation for joke . The writer should ask himself or herself questions similar to the 5WH questions. (See Chapter 4.6 " Prewriting Strategies " for more information on the 5WH questions.) By incorporating the answers to these questions into a thesis statement, the writer more accurately defines his or her stance, which will better guide the writing of the essay.

3. Replace any linking verbs with action verbs. Linking verbs are forms of the verb to be , a verb that simply states that a situation exists.

Working thesis: Kansas City schoolteachers are not paid enough.

Revised thesis: Kansas City cannot afford to pay its educators, resulting in job cuts and resignations in a district that sorely needs highly qualified and dedicated teachers.

The linking verb in this working thesis statement is the word are . Linking verbs often make thesis statements weak because they do not express action. Rather, they connect words and phrases to the second half of the sentence. Readers might wonder, “Why are they not paid enough?” But this statement does not compel them to ask many more questions. The writer should ask himself or herself questions in order to replace the linking verb with an action verb, thus forming a stronger thesis statement, one that takes a more definitive stance on the issue:

  • Who is not paying the teachers enough?
  • What is considered “enough”?
  • What is the problem?
  • What are the results

In an earlier section you determined your purpose for writing and your audience. You then completed a free writing exercise about an event you recently experienced and chose a general topic to write about. Using that general topic, you then narrowed it down by answering the 5WH questions. After you answered these questions, you chose one of the three methods of prewriting and gathered possible supporting points for your working thesis statement.

Now, on a separate sheet of paper, write down your working thesis statement. Identify any weaknesses in this sentence and revise the statement to reflect the elements of a strong thesis statement. Make sure it is specific, precise, arguable, demonstrable, forceful, and confident.

Collaboration

Please share with a classmate and compare your answers.

In your career you may have to write a project proposal that focuses on a particular problem in your company, such as reinforcing the tardiness policy. The proposal would aim to fix the problem; using a thesis statement would clearly state the boundaries of the problem and tell the goals of the project. After writing the proposal, you may find that the thesis needs revision to reflect exactly what is expressed in the body. Using the techniques from this chapter would apply to revising that thesis.

Purdue OWL: Thesis Statements . Authored by: OWL Purdue. License: All Rights Reserved. License Terms: Standard YouTube license.

Contributors

  • Adapted from Writing for Success . Provided by: The Saylor Foundation. License: CC-NC-SA 3.0 .
  • Adapted from " Five Ways of Looking at a Thesis. " Authored by: Erik Simpson. Provided by: LumenLearning. License: CC BY: Attribution
  • Adapted from Formulating a Thesis . Authored by: Andrea Scott. Provided by: Princeton University. Project: WritingCommons. License: CC BY-NC-ND:
  • Adapted from Writing in College . Authored by Amy Guptill. License: CC-NC-SA 4.0

This page most recently updated on June 8, 2020.

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Thesis Statements

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A strong component of academic writing that all writers must understand is the difference between subject, topic, and thesis. Knowing the difference between these three terms will help you create a strong argument for your paper. This handout is designed to help inform you about these three distinct introductory elements, and it will also help you transition from deciding on a subject you are writing about, to the essay’s topic, and finally to your overall thesis.

The subject of your paper is a broad idea that stands alone. At this point, there is no detailed information associated with it or any kind of argumentation. It serves, in essence, as a launching pad for you to form an idea, or argument, which will eventually become the purpose of your paper.

Example: Women

The topic of your paper is an evolved, narrower version of your subject. Here is where you add a detailed, more conclusive area of focus for your paper so that you can eradicate vagueness.

Example: Women in late 1990s television

The thesis acts as the final idea on which the entirety of your paper will focus. It is the central message that ties the whole paper together into one definitive purpose that prepares readers for what you are arguing.

Example : Although people may argue that television in the late 1990s helped portray women in a more honest and intrepid light, programs including Buffy the Vampire Slayer, Charmed , and Sex and the City failed to illustrate the depth and truth of womanhood, choosing to focus heavily on clichéd romantic entanglements, unbecoming pathetic quarrels, and thin temptresses adorned with fashionable costumes and bare midriffs.

Subject to Topic

The following are some suggestions to help you shift from a broad subject area to a narrow, focused topic.

Seek out narrow topics

Inappropriate.

Subject:  Women

Topic:  Women in history

Note:  In this case, the topic is too large to create a complex thesis statement worthy of a paper. The broader the topic, the more difficulty you will have narrowing your argument enough to affect readers.

Appropriate

Topic:  Famous women aviators of WWII

Note:  Here the topic as narrowed down the subject by focusing on women belonging to a specific profession in a particular historical period. It is thorough enough to discover a thesis statement.

Choose arguable topics

Subject:  Toni Morrison

Topic:  Biography

Note:  This idea does not allow for speculation or disagreement, which gives it an underdeveloped quality.

Topic:  Literary merits of the novel Tar Baby

Note:  This idea allows for speculation or disagreement, which gives it a strong, developed quality.

Choose topics within your comfort zone

Subject:  Linguistics

Topic:  OE Northumbrian dialects

Note:  Unless you have studied OE Northumbrian dialects at length, it perhaps poses too high of a research challenge to pursue.

Subject:  College Freshmen

Topic:  The Freshman Fifteen

Note:  This topic is narrow enough and familiar enough to most college students to purse as a topic.

Rules for Thesis Statements

  • Needs to correspond to the assignment’s expectations
  • Usually, but not always, one sentence
  • Typically appears that the end of the introduction
  • More often than not, it is explicitly stated
  • Establishes an argument
  • Establishes the criteria for scrutiny of the topic (previews the structure of the paper)
  • Write for an audience. Your paper should be catchy enough to retain readers’ attention.

Determine a "Research Question"

Determining a research question is a crucial aspect of your writing. In order to stay focused on the assignment, you must form a clear and concise argument. Choose one major idea you want to concentrate on, and expand from there.

When your instructor assigns a paper, try and find some angle that makes you inspired to fulfill the assignment to the best of your abilities. For example, if your history professor assigns you to write about a historical figure who changed the world for the better, write about an individual whose work you can relate to. If you are interested in the supernatural, you could write about Joan of Arc, who became a crusader because of the visions she claimed to have had from God.

Next, ask yourself a series of questions to help form your research question. Try to avoid questions you can answer with “yes” or “no” because these will not allow you to explore your topic as thoroughly or as easily as questions that begin with “who,” “what,” “why,” or “how.”

  • When did Joan rise to prominence?
  • Did she develop a strong following that her enemies felt threatened by?
  • How did her gender play a part in her tragic demise?
  • What does Joan’s execution say about female leaders of the 15th century?

Once you have developed a series of questions, consider which questions allow you to form an argument that is not too broad that you cannot write a sufficient paper, but not too narrow that it prevents you from crafting an interesting and compelling piece of writing. Decide which question represents this criteria, then you can start researching. In this case, from the above examples, you may select “How did Joan’s gender play a part in her tragic demise?” This question will allow you to develop a complex thesis with argumentative points to pose to readers. Below is a way to develop a thesis statement from the simply worded question that was just brainstormed.

The answer to your research question can become the core of your thesis statement.

Research Question:

How did Joan of Arc’s gender play a part in her tragic demise?

Thesis Statement:

Joan of Arc’s gender played a significant role in her tragic demise because of the laws and social customs concerning women during France’s 15th century, which included social ideals that perceived women as secular citizens; political standards that favored men to hold positions of power over women; as well as religious ideals that perceived Joan’s alleged clairvoyant gifts as a natural trait of witchcraft, a crime of heresy also associated with women.

Note:  Beginning writers are taught to write theses that list and outline the main points of the paper. As college students, professors might expect more descriptive theses. Doing this will illustrate two points: 1) Readers will be able to isolate your argument, which will keep them more inclined to focus on your points and whether or not they agree with you. They may find themselves questioning their own thoughts about your case. 2) A descriptive thesis serves as a way to show your understanding of the topic by providing a substantial claim.

Troubleshooting your Thesis Statement

The following are some suggestions to help you scrutinize your working draft of your thesis statement to develop it through further revisions.

Specify your details

Example:  In today’s society, beauty advertisements are not mere pictures that promote vanity in the public, but instead, they inspire people to make changes so that they can lead better lifestyles.

  • Uses cliché phrases like “In today’s society.”
  • What kind of beauty advertisements are you referring to? All of them? Or specific kinds?
Note:  Who is this targeting? Women? Men? Adolescents? Being more specific with the targeted audience is going to strengthen your paper.

Example:  Makeup, clothing, and dieting advertisements endorse American ideals of female beauty and show the public that women should possess full ownership of their bodies and fight the stigma of physical and sexual repression which has been placed upon them.

  • Identifies specific forms of beauty advertisements for the sake of clearly expressing a strong argument.
  • Uses descriptive language.
Note:  By signifying that women’s beauty is the main topic being argued in the paper, this author clearly identifies their main, targeted audience.

Make arguable claims

Undeveloped.

Example:  Social media is not conducive to people’s personal growth because of the distractions, self-doubt, and social anxiety it can cause to its users.

  • “Social media” and “personal growth” both encompass a large span of topics and so they leave the reader confused about the particular focus of this paper.
Note:  The thesis is too broad to form a well-constructed argument. It lacks details and specificity about the paper’s points.

Example:  Although Facebook allows people to network personally and professionally, the procrastination and distraction from one’s demanding responsibilities can lead people to invest more time in narcissistic trivialities, resulting in severe cases of anxiety and low self-esteem.

  • It alludes to some kind of counterargument in the opening dependent clause.
  • The thesis specifies several points that makes a thesis credible. The argument connects all the points (distractions, self-doubt, and social anxiety) together into one linear train of thought, relating the ideas to one another.
Note:  The thesis is more focused. It concentrates on the idea that social media plays up on a person’s self-worth.

Preview the paper’s structure

Example:  College is a crucial stage in one’s life that will help them become more sophisticated individuals upon entering the harsh world as an adult.

Note:  Not only does this statement lack specificity and excitement, but it fails to present an idea of what the paper will look like, and how the argument is set up. As readers, we know this writer believes college is an imperative part of one’s life, but we have no idea how they are going to go about arguing that claim.

Example:  College is a crucial stage in a young adult’s life because it is the time in which they begin to transition from childhood to adulthood, learn to live away from their parents, budget their own finances, and take responsibility for their successes and failures, which will force them to make more responsible decisions about their lives.

Note:  The thesis points to different aspects of college life that help students ease into adulthood, which shows the reader the points the writer will explore throughout the body of the paper.

  • transition from childhood to adulthood
  • learn to live away from their parents
  • budget their own finances
  • take responsibility for their successes and failures

Final Thoughts

When you are asked to write a paper in college, there may not be as many detailed descriptions telling you what subject or argument to write about. Remember, the best way to pick your subject is to write about something that interests you. That way, the assignment will be more promising and passionate for you and may help you feel more in control of your writing.

As you venture closer to crafting your thesis, make sure your subject is narrowed down to a specific enough topic so that you can stay focused on the task. If your topic is specific enough, you will be able to create an argument that is concentrated enough for you to provide sufficient argumentative points and commentary.

thesis statement with 2 points

How to Write a Thesis Statement with a Simple Guide

thesis statement with 2 points

At the heart of every great piece of writing lies the thesis statement - a compact yet powerful sentence that sets the course for your entire work. Though brief, it's a powerhouse, encapsulating the core message of your essay.

In this article, we'll explain how to create a strong thesis statement, offering expert insights and practical tips to help you master this essential skill. Along the way, we'll illustrate key concepts with clear examples, ensuring you're equipped to tackle your writing challenges head-on. And should you ever find yourself in need of assistance, don't hesitate to reach out - ' Write my thesis ' - we're here to help you succeed.

What Is a Thesis Statement

Let's break down what is a thesis statement in an essay. It's essentially the heart of your academic paper, condensed into a single, powerful sentence. Usually tucked at the end of your introduction, it serves as a guidepost for your readers, giving them a peek into what lies ahead.

Crafting a solid thesis statement isn't just about summarizing your main idea. It's about taking a stand on your chosen topic and setting the tone for your entire piece. Picture it as the hub around which all your arguments and evidence orbit, providing clarity and direction for both you and your readers.

But here's the kicker: a strong thesis statement isn't wishy-washy. It's a bold, specific, and debatable claim that grabs attention and lays the groundwork for what's to come in your paper or essay.

Characteristics of a robust thesis statement:

  • Clearly communicates the main idea of the paper.
  • Focuses sharply on a specific aspect or angle of the topic.
  • Makes a strong, assertive statement rather than posing a question.
  • Succinctly summarizes the core argument of the paper.
  • Provides readers with a clear roadmap of what to expect in the paper.
  • Takes a clear stance or position on the topic.
  • Offers a preview of the supporting arguments that will be explored.
  • Maintains an academic and objective tone throughout.
  • Typically positioned near the conclusion of the introductory paragraph.
  • May adapt or refine as research and analysis progress.
  • Essential for ensuring the strength and effectiveness of the academic paper.

If you're struggling with crafting your thesis, you're not alone. Many students find it challenging. But fear not – if you're ever stuck and thinking, 'Where to pay someone to write my paper ?', – consider reaching out to our expert help for guidance.

Want to Unlock the Power of Thesis Statement Ideas?

Secure your academic success with our custom-crafted thesis statements and elevate your research to the next level!

10 Tips for Writing a Thesis Statement 

Often confused with a topic sentence, which starts a paragraph, the thesis statement shares the role of introducing the main idea that unfolds in the subsequent discussion. Here are the tips that will help your statement capture the essence of your entire paper.

  • Ensure your thesis is clear and to the point, presenting your main argument straightforwardly.
  • Address a particular aspect of the topic for a focused and targeted argument.
  • State your thesis as a clear declaration rather than a question to assert a definite position.
  • Keep it brief, capturing the essence of your argument without unnecessary detail.
  • Provide a preview of the main points or arguments to be explored in your paper.
  • Clearly express your position on the topic, whether supporting, refuting, or analyzing an idea.
  • Maintain a formal and unbiased tone, avoiding emotional language in your thesis.
  • According to the essay format rules, position your thesis near the end of the introduction to set the stage for the discussion.
  • Recognize that your thesis may evolve as you delve deeper into research and analysis, adjusting to new insights.
  • Regularly review and refine your thesis statement to ensure it aligns with the evolving content of your paper.

How to Write a Thesis Statement Step by Step

Now that we've covered the fundamental tips for how to write a thesis statement let's delve into a step-by-step guide for creating one. If you're interested in hiring a professional to write my personal statement , our help is just one click away.

How to Write a Thesis Statement Step by Step

Step 1: Topic Selection

When selecting a topic for your thesis statement, it's crucial to choose something that genuinely interests you. This will keep you motivated throughout the research and writing process. Consider the scope of your topic; it should be neither too broad nor too narrow. Ask yourself:

  • What topics within my field of study am I genuinely passionate about?
  • Is the topic manageable within the scope of a thesis, or is it too broad or narrow?
  • How does my chosen topic contribute to the existing knowledge or debates in my field?
  • Are there any recent developments or emerging trends related to this topic that I can explore?

Step 2: Research and Analysis

As you gather information, critically analyze and evaluate each source's credibility, reliability, and relevance to your thesis. Look for patterns, connections, and gaps in the existing literature that you can address in your thesis. Consider these points:

  • What are the key concepts, theories, or arguments related to my topic?
  • What existing research, studies, or literature can I draw upon to support my thesis?
  • Are there any conflicting viewpoints or gaps in the literature that I need to address?
  • How can I critically analyze and evaluate the sources I find to ensure their relevance and credibility?
  • Are there any methodologies or approaches that I can employ to further investigate my topic and gather new insights?

Step 3: Identify a Position

After selecting a topic and conducting thorough research, the next step is to identify a clear position or argument that you will defend in your thesis statement. For example, for a topic on healthcare policy, you could identify a position regarding the effectiveness of a particular healthcare reform initiative supported by evidence from your research. Or, in a literary analysis thesis, you might take a position on the interpretation of a novel's themes or characters, drawing on textual evidence to support your argument. In each case, you might want to consider the following:

  • What evidence or data from my research supports a particular viewpoint on the topic?
  • Are there any counterarguments or alternative perspectives that I need to address in my thesis statement?
  • How does my chosen position contribute to the broader conversation or understanding of the topic within my field of study?
  • Does my thesis statement clearly and concisely communicate my stance on the topic while leaving room for further exploration and argumentation in the thesis?

Step 4: Formulate a Debatable Statement

Once you've identified your position, the next step is to craft a thesis statement that presents this position in a debatable and compelling manner. You might want to avoid vague or broad statements that lack clarity or focus. Also, anticipate potential objections or alternative perspectives to your position.

  • Non-Debatable Statement: Climate change is happening.
  • Debatable Statement: Human activities are the primary drivers of climate change, and urgent action is needed to mitigate its impact.
  • Non-Debatable Statement: Education is important.
  • Debatable Statement: The traditional classroom setting is becoming obsolete in the digital age, challenging the efficacy of traditional teaching methods.

Step 5: Provide Scope and Direction

After formulating a debatable thesis statement, it's essential to provide clarity on the scope and direction of your thesis. This step helps readers understand what to expect and guides your research and writing process.

  • If your thesis statement is about the impact of technology on education, you might specify that your research will focus on the use of educational apps in primary schools.
  • For a thesis on mental health stigma, you could outline that your research will explore the portrayal of mental illness in the media and its influence on public perceptions.
  • If your thesis statement concerns the effectiveness of a specific marketing strategy, you might indicate that your analysis will concentrate on its implementation in a particular industry.

Types of Thesis Statements

Writing a thesis statement can take different forms depending on the essay's purpose. Here are common types according to our custom essay service :

  • Argumentative : Asserts a position on a controversial topic and provides reasons or evidence to support it. Example : 'The government should implement stricter gun control laws to reduce instances of mass shootings and protect public safety.'
  • Analytical : Breaks down a topic into its component parts and evaluates them. Example : 'Through an analysis of symbolism and character development, Shakespeare's 'Hamlet' explores the theme of moral decay in society.'
  • Explanatory : Explains the significance or meaning of a subject. Example : 'The Industrial Revolution had a profound impact on society by transforming economies, social structures, and daily life.'
  • Comparative : Compares two or more subjects to highlight similarities or differences. Example : 'Although both cats and dogs make great pets, dogs require more attention and maintenance due to their higher energy levels and need for exercise.'
  • Cause and Effect : Identifies the relationship between actions and outcomes. Example : 'The widespread use of smartphones has led to decreased face-to-face social interaction among young adults, resulting in feelings of loneliness and isolation.'
  • Descriptive : Provides an overview or description of a topic. Example : 'The Gothic architecture of Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris exemplifies the intricate craftsmanship and religious symbolism of the medieval era.'
  • Narrative : Tells a story or recounts a sequence of events. Example : 'My journey to overcome adversity and pursue higher education is a testament to the resilience of the human spirit.'

Now that you've mastered creating a thesis statement, are you ready to tackle the full academic paper—the thesis? If not, let our thesis writing service take the wheel and steer you clear of any trouble.

Good Thesis Statement Examples

In this section, let’s take a look at ten examples of effective thesis statements across various subjects:

Good Thesis Statement Examples

  • Literature: 'In George Orwell's '1984,' the oppressive surveillance state serves as a cautionary tale about the dangers of unchecked governmental power.'
  • History: 'The Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s marked a significant turning point in American history, challenging systemic racism and paving the way for greater social equality.'
  • Science: 'The theory of evolution by natural selection, proposed by Charles Darwin, remains the most comprehensive explanation for the diversity of life on Earth.'
  • Social Sciences: 'The gender pay gap persists due to a combination of systemic discrimination, occupational segregation, and implicit bias in hiring and promotion practices.'
  • Education: 'Implementing inclusive classroom practices, such as differentiated instruction and universal design for learning, is essential for meeting the diverse needs of students with varying abilities.'
  • Environmental Studies: 'Transitioning to renewable energy sources is crucial for mitigating the impacts of climate change and ensuring a sustainable future for generations to come.'
  • Psychology: 'The prevalence of mental health disorders among adolescents underscores the need for early intervention programs and destigmatization efforts in schools and communities.'
  • Business: 'Corporate social responsibility initiatives not only benefit society and the environment but also contribute to long-term profitability and brand reputation.'
  • Health Sciences: 'Access to affordable healthcare is a fundamental human right, and implementing universal healthcare systems can address disparities in healthcare access and outcomes.'
  • Technology: 'The rapid advancement of artificial intelligence poses ethical dilemmas regarding privacy, job displacement, and the potential for autonomous decision-making by machines.'

In-Text Examples

Now, let’s focus on the role of a thesis statement in guiding your paper's direction. Check out the highlighted statements in the analytical essay example that shape the overall argument.

In the realm of environmental science, the discourse surrounding climate change has become increasingly urgent. As we grapple with the consequences of human activity on the planet, understanding the mechanisms driving climate change and identifying actionable solutions has never been more critical. In the face of mounting evidence pointing to human-induced climate change as a pressing global issue, it is imperative that societies worldwide prioritize the adoption of renewable energy sources and implement stringent environmental policies to curb greenhouse gas emissions and safeguard the future of our planet.

In recent years, the proliferation of online learning platforms has revolutionized the landscape of education, offering students unprecedented access to resources and opportunities for self-directed learning. Within the domain of mathematics education, these platforms have garnered particular attention for their potential to enhance learning outcomes and facilitate personalized instruction. As traditional classroom settings grapple with challenges such as limited resources and varying student needs, online learning platforms offer a promising alternative for delivering tailored instruction and supporting individualized learning trajectories. By leveraging interactive tutorials, adaptive assessments, and real-time feedback mechanisms, these platforms aim to engage students more effectively and address gaps in understanding.

Your thesis isn't just a statement—it's the engine that drives your essay forward. It keeps your writing focused and engaging, drawing your reader in and keeping them interested. Knowing how to write a good thesis statement gives you the power to express yourself effectively, making your ideas resonate with your audience.

So, let's remember the crucial role a solid thesis plays in making our writing stand out. It's the secret weapon that can take your assignments from good to great.

Need a Perfect Thesis Statement?

Set up your research paper for greatness by entrusting your thesis statement to our expert writers

How Long Should a Strong Thesis Statement Be?

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25 Thesis Statement Examples That Will Make Writing a Breeze

JBirdwellBranson

Understanding what makes a good thesis statement is one of the major keys to writing a great research paper or argumentative essay. The thesis statement is where you make a claim that will guide you through your entire paper. If you find yourself struggling to make sense of your paper or your topic, then it's likely due to a weak thesis statement.

Let's take a minute to first understand what makes a solid thesis statement, and what key components you need to write one of your own.

Perfecting Your Thesis Statement

A thesis statement always goes at the beginning of the paper. It will typically be in the first couple of paragraphs of the paper so that it can introduce the body paragraphs, which are the supporting evidence for your thesis statement.

Your thesis statement should clearly identify an argument. You need to have a statement that is not only easy to understand, but one that is debatable. What that means is that you can't just put any statement of fact and have it be your thesis. For example, everyone knows that puppies are cute . An ineffective thesis statement would be, "Puppies are adorable and everyone knows it." This isn't really something that's a debatable topic.

Something that would be more debatable would be, "A puppy's cuteness is derived from its floppy ears, small body, and playfulness." These are three things that can be debated on. Some people might think that the cutest thing about puppies is the fact that they follow you around or that they're really soft and fuzzy.

All cuteness aside, you want to make sure that your thesis statement is not only debatable, but that it also actually thoroughly answers the research question that was posed. You always want to make sure that your evidence is supporting a claim that you made (and not the other way around). This is why it's crucial to read and research about a topic first and come to a conclusion later. If you try to get your research to fit your thesis statement, then it may not work out as neatly as you think. As you learn more, you discover more (and the outcome may not be what you originally thought).

Additionally, your thesis statement shouldn't be too big or too grand. It'll be hard to cover everything in a thesis statement like, "The federal government should act now on climate change." The topic is just too large to actually say something new and meaningful. Instead, a more effective thesis statement might be, "Local governments can combat climate change by providing citizens with larger recycling bins and offering local classes about composting and conservation." This is easier to work with because it's a smaller idea, but you can also discuss the overall topic that you might be interested in, which is climate change.

So, now that we know what makes a good, solid thesis statement, you can start to write your own. If you find that you're getting stuck or you are the type of person who needs to look at examples before you start something, then check out our list of thesis statement examples below.

Thesis statement examples

A quick note that these thesis statements have not been fully researched. These are merely examples to show you what a thesis statement might look like and how you can implement your own ideas into one that you think of independently. As such, you should not use these thesis statements for your own research paper purposes. They are meant to be used as examples only.

  • Vaccinations Because many children are unable to vaccinate due to illness, we must require that all healthy and able children be vaccinated in order to have herd immunity.
  • Educational Resources for Low-Income Students Schools should provide educational resources for low-income students during the summers so that they don't forget what they've learned throughout the school year.
  • School Uniforms School uniforms may be an upfront cost for families, but they eradicate the visual differences in income between students and provide a more egalitarian atmosphere at school.
  • Populism The rise in populism on the 2016 political stage was in reaction to increasing globalization, the decline of manufacturing jobs, and the Syrian refugee crisis.
  • Public Libraries Libraries are essential resources for communities and should be funded more heavily by local municipalities.
  • Cyber Bullying With more and more teens using smartphones and social media, cyber bullying is on the rise. Cyber bullying puts a lot of stress on many teens, and can cause depression, anxiety, and even suicidal thoughts. Parents should limit the usage of smart phones, monitor their children's online activity, and report any cyber bullying to school officials in order to combat this problem.
  • Medical Marijuana for Veterans Studies have shown that the use of medicinal marijuana has been helpful to veterans who suffer from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Medicinal marijuana prescriptions should be legal in all states and provided to these veterans. Additional medical or therapy services should also be researched and implemented in order to help them re-integrate back into civilian life.
  • Work-Life Balance Corporations should provide more work from home opportunities and six-hour workdays so that office workers have a better work-life balance and are more likely to be productive when they are in the office.
  • Teaching Youths about Consensual Sex Although sex education that includes a discussion of consensual sex would likely lead to less sexual assault, parents need to teach their children the meaning of consent from a young age with age appropriate lessons.
  • Whether or Not to Attend University A degree from a university provides invaluable lessons on life and a future career, but not every high school student should be encouraged to attend a university directly after graduation. Some students may benefit from a trade school or a "gap year" where they can think more intensely about what it is they want to do for a career and how they can accomplish this.
  • Studying Abroad Studying abroad is one of the most culturally valuable experiences you can have in college. It is the only way to get completely immersed in another language and learn how other cultures and countries are different from your own.
  • Women's Body Image Magazines have done a lot in the last five years to include a more diverse group of models, but there is still a long way to go to promote a healthy woman's body image collectively as a culture.
  • Cigarette Tax Heavily taxing and increasing the price of cigarettes is essentially a tax on the poorest Americans, and it doesn't deter them from purchasing. Instead, the state and federal governments should target those economically disenfranchised with early education about the dangers of smoking.
  • Veganism A vegan diet, while a healthy and ethical way to consume food, indicates a position of privilege. It also limits you to other cultural food experiences if you travel around the world.
  • University Athletes Should be Compensated University athletes should be compensated for their service to the university, as it is difficult for these students to procure and hold a job with busy academic and athletic schedules. Many student athletes on scholarship also come from low-income neighborhoods and it is a struggle to make ends meet when they are participating in athletics.
  • Women in the Workforce Sheryl Sandberg makes a lot of interesting points in her best-selling book, Lean In , but she only addressed the very privileged working woman and failed to speak to those in lower-skilled, lower-wage jobs.
  • Assisted Suicide Assisted suicide should be legal and doctors should have the ability to make sure their patients have the end-of-life care that they want to receive.
  • Celebrity and Political Activism Although Taylor Swift's lyrics are indicative of a feminist perspective, she should be more politically active and vocal to use her position of power for the betterment of society.
  • The Civil War The insistence from many Southerners that the South seceded from the Union for states' rights versus the fact that they seceded for the purposes of continuing slavery is a harmful myth that still affects race relations today.
  • Blue Collar Workers Coal miners and other blue-collar workers whose jobs are slowly disappearing from the workforce should be re-trained in jobs in the technology sector or in renewable energy. A program to re-train these workers would not only improve local economies where jobs have been displaced, but would also lead to lower unemployment nationally.
  • Diversity in the Workforce Having a diverse group of people in an office setting leads to richer ideas, more cooperation, and more empathy between people with different skin colors or backgrounds.
  • Re-Imagining the Nuclear Family The nuclear family was traditionally defined as one mother, one father, and 2.5 children. This outdated depiction of family life doesn't quite fit with modern society. The definition of normal family life shouldn't be limited to two-parent households.
  • Digital Literacy Skills With more information readily available than ever before, it's crucial that students are prepared to examine the material they're reading and determine whether or not it's a good source or if it has misleading information. Teaching students digital literacy and helping them to understand the difference between opinion or propaganda from legitimate, real information is integral.
  • Beauty Pageants Beauty pageants are presented with the angle that they empower women. However, putting women in a swimsuit on a stage while simultaneously judging them on how well they answer an impossible question in a short period of time is cruel and purely for the amusement of men. Therefore, we should stop televising beauty pageants.
  • Supporting More Women to Run for a Political Position In order to get more women into political positions, more women must run for office. There must be a grassroots effort to educate women on how to run for office, who among them should run, and support for a future candidate for getting started on a political career.

Still stuck? Need some help with your thesis statement?

If you are still uncertain about how to write a thesis statement or what a good thesis statement is, be sure to consult with your teacher or professor to make sure you're on the right track. It's always a good idea to check in and make sure that your thesis statement is making a solid argument and that it can be supported by your research.

After you're done writing, it's important to have someone take a second look at your paper so that you can ensure there are no mistakes or errors. It's difficult to spot your own mistakes, which is why it's always recommended to have someone help you with the revision process, whether that's a teacher, the writing center at school, or a professional editor such as one from ServiceScape .

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How to Write a Perfect 3-Point Thesis Statement With Samples and Tips

11 December 2023

last updated

A 3-point thesis statement is a coherent statement that integrates the three essential components of a standard thesis statement, which include a topic, an assertion, and reasons justifying the claim. Basically, the topic should narrowly define the subject. In this case, defending the claim requires writers to highlight a number of reasons. It is possible through the application of conjunctions. While formulating a working 3-point thesis statement, it is crucial to ensure that this sentence is question-focused, debatable, precise, and concise. Using non-technical language, concrete, and transpicuous words can help to improve its clarity. To make it stand out, a perfect 3-point thesis statement should be an original, specific, justifiable, and socially relevant idea derived from facts.

Description of a 3-Point Thesis Statement

A thesis statement, usually placed in the introduction paragraph, is a single statement (or two) that acts as the core of an essay. Besides, this sentence acts as a guide to readers on what essays entail, including the arrangement of ideas adopted. In this case, a strong thesis statement should precisely define the essay topic by considering a definition of the main claim, have an applicable case, and cover motivations to back up the case. Therefore, in order to answer what is a 3-point thesis statement, this sentence consolidates the three key segments, which include a subject, an assertion, and pertinent reasons to support the main claim.

3 point thesis statement

Formulating a 3-Point Thesis Statement

Topic selection.

Generally, the question prompt in schools, colleges, and universities states the essay topic, and, at times, the writer is required to present a single sentence. Also, it is prudent to brainstorm on a few topics before selecting a particular theme. Basically, each argument made in an academic paper requires feasible proof. Rather than writing “democracy,” it would be wise to write “the American democracy.” Thus, the topic selected ought to be a narrow description of the essay subject.

Making an Assertion

The process of developing a strong claim begins by identifying the relationship between your idea and available information. For instance, integrating ideas, the subject, and known facts will help in formulating a viable argument. Rather than developing a personal claim, writers should make an argument that is socially relevant and easily contestable. In this case, each piece of evidence stated will aid in developing a topic sentence in the body of an academic essay. Moreover, the reasons highlighted in the paper and the order of ideas adopted in segments determine the number and arrangement of the body paragraphs.

Support Inclusion

The last part of a 3-point thesis statement involves providing reasons to back up your opinion. In particular, the application of conjunctions, such as “because,” “as,” “due,” “although,” and “since,” helps in integrating a claim and justification. Then, highlighting shreds of evidence can be helpful, especially in determining the extent to which writers will expound their claims. In this case, this attitude determines the length of a final paper. However, the process of developing a 3-point thesis statement ought to remain adaptable until authors complete writing papers. Basically, writers may discover vital information, such as new evidence that needs relevant to the essay topic. Hence, after completing the paper, it is necessary to go through the essay and identify the information that needs to be included or eliminated from a 3-point thesis statement.  

Receive personalized assistance from our writers, ensuring your paper is both original and tailored to your needs.

A Working 3-Point Thesis Statement

Usually, the question prompt guides writers during the formulation of a 3-point thesis statement by presenting the topic. For instance, a relevant 3-point thesis statement must be present at the beginning of the paper, usually in the first paragraph. In this case, formulating a debatable and question-focused argument, followed by supporting statements or phrases, is the first step towards having 3-point thesis statement examples. However, this sentence should be precise and concise. In turn, specificity can be achieved by revising an argument several times. Also, students can select the most specific idea from a few formulated arguments to answer the same question. Hence, before presenting the essay, writers should answer the following questions:

  • Does the thesis statement at the beginning of my essay have the three key elements?
  • Is it question-focused?
  • Is it precise and concise?

How Clear Is a 3-Point Thesis Statement?

A vague thesis statement is incomprehensible to readers rendering the essay unclear. Being part of a final paper, writers must follow all the instructions regarding academic writing . In this case, writing a strong 3-point thesis statement requires writers to adopt non-technical language and eliminate vague and abstract words. The only secret to ensuring clarity of a 3-point statement is by revising it as many times as possible. Accordingly, writers should not assume that readers understand technical language unless the question prompt instructs otherwise.

Making a Thesis Statement Outstanding

A well-formulated 3-point thesis statement shows the writer’s ability to comprehend and analyze the topic successfully. Rather than simply stating a general fact and providing common reasons, writers ought to show their position by coming up with an informed argument justifiable upon reviewing the available information. In this case, the clarity of a statement is one way of making it non-biased if you want to know how do you write a 3-point thesis statement. By taking a specific approach, writers eliminate the need to announce the subject, which needs to weaken it. Secondly, writers should make a reasonable premise that neither under simplify nor overcomplicate the argument. Furthermore, it is advisable to make ideas rather than adopt formula statements or general ideas. Therefore, a good 3-point thesis statement is an original, specific, justifiable, and socially relevant idea derived from facts.

A Perfect Example of a Three-Point Thesis Statement

Sample Thesis: People cannot achieve the American Dream due to the continual racial discrimination, corrupt justice system, and ineffective education policies across many states.

Step 1 – Topic: “The American Dream.”

Comment: It is a socially relevant topic.

Step 2 – Assertion : “People cannot achieve.”

Comment: The writer’s position is that the American Dream is unrealizable, a claim that will act as the essay basis.

Step 3 – Support With Three Points :

  • Continual racial discrimination.
  • Corrupt justice system.
  • Ineffective education policies across many states.

Comment: There are three reasons justifying the writer’s claim.

This is a perfect example of a thesis statement incorporating the three key elements. Basically, every American citizen yearns for an ideal America where equality of opportunity is available for all people. Hence, the “American dream” is a feasible topic. While some individuals may oppose this statement by highlighting the reasons why it is possible to have a perfect America, this essay will focus on the impossibility by having three body paragraphs based on the three reasons.

To Learn More, Read Relevant Articles

Apply texas essay prompts with tips and samples, essay on parasitic worms hold back human progress.

Question: Identify the thesis statement and the main points of...

Question: Identify the thesis statement and the main points of Woolf's piece. Following Woolf's order of presentation, write a summary of the essay in paragraph form. Please ensure that your summary contains the following elements:

1) an effective title; 

2)an introduction to Woolf's thesis; 

3) a paraphrase of all of Woolf's main ideas.  

It would have been impossible, completely and entirely, for any woman to have written the plays of Shakespeare in the age of Shakespeare. Let me imagine, since the facts are so hard to come by, what would have happened had Shakespeare had a wonderfully gifted sister, called Judith, let us say. Shakespeare himself went, very probably - his mother wasan heiress - to the grammar school, where he may have learnt Latin - Ovid, Virgil andHorace - and the elements of grammar and logic. He was, it is well known, a wild boywho poached rabbits, perhaps shot a deer, and had, rather sooner than he should havedone, to marry a woman in the neighborhood, who bore him a child rather quicker thanwas right. That escapade sent him to seek his fortune in London. He had, it seemed, ataste for the theatre; he began by holding horses at the stage door. Very soon he got workin the theatre, became a successful actor, and lived at the hub of the universe, meetingeverybody, knowing everybody, practicing his art on the boards, exercising his wits in thestreets, and even getting access to the palace of the queen. Meanwhile his extraordinarilygifted sister, let us suppose, remained at home. She was as adventurous, as imaginative,as agog to see the world as he was. But she was not sent to school. She had no chance oflearning grammar and logic, let alone of reading Horace and Virgil. She picked up a book

now and then, one of her brother's perhaps, and read a few pages. But then her parentscame in and told her to mend the stockings or mind the stew and not moon about withbooks and papers. They would have spoken sharply but kindly, for they were substantialpeople who knew the conditions of life for a woman and loved their daughter - indeed,more likely than not she was the apple of her father's eye. Perhaps she scribbled somepages up in an apple loft on the sly, but was careful to hide them or set fire to them. Soon,however, before she was out of her teens, she was to be betrothed to the son of aneighboring wool-stapler. She cried out that marriage was hateful to her, and for that shewas severely beaten by her father. Then he ceased to scold her. He begged her instead notto hurt him, not to shame him in this matter of her marriage. He would give her a chain ofbeads or a fine petticoat, he said; and there were tears in his eyes. How could she disobeyhim? How could she break his heart? The force of her own gift alone drove her to it. Shemade up a small parcel of her belongings, let herself down by a rope one summer's nightand took the road to London. She was not seventeen. The birds that sang in the hedgewere not more musical than she was. She had the quickest fancy, a gift like her brother's,for the tune of words. Like him, she had a taste for the theatre. She stood at the stagedoor; she wanted to act, she said. Men laughed in her face. The manager - a fat, loose-lipped man - guffawed. He bellowed something about poodles dancing and women acting- no woman, he said, could possibly be an actress. He hinted - you can imagine what. Shecould get no training in her craft. Could she even seek her dinner in a tavern or roam thestreets at midnight? Yet her genius was for fiction and lusted to feed abundantly upon thelives of men and women and the study of their ways. At last - for she was very young,oddly like Shakespeare the poet in her face, with the same grey eyes and rounded brows -at last Nick Greene the actor-manager took pity on her; she found herself with child bythat gentleman and so - who shall measure the heat and violence of the poet's heart whencaught and tangled in a woman's body? - killed herself one winter's night and lies buriedat some crossroads where the omnibuses now stop outside the Elephant and Castle.That, more or less, is how the story would run, I think, if a woman in Shakespeare's dayhad had Shakespeare's genius

Answer & Explanation

The Lost Genius: Woolf's Exploration of Women During Shakespeare's Era

Introduction to Woolf's Thesis: Virginia Woolf reflects in her essay on how social constraints would have prevented a woman of Shakespeare's caliber from appearing during Shakespeare's lifetime. She creates a hypothetical story about Judith, Shakespeare's imagined sister, to demonstrate the obstacles women faced in following their creative goals.

Paraphrase of Woolf's Main Ideas: Woolf begins by outlining the advantages Shakespeare would have had over his imaginary sister Judith in terms of education and social standing had he been a man. Judith was restricted to household responsibilities, denied formal schooling, and discouraged from engaging in intellectual pursuits, while Shakespeare enjoyed access to education, the freedom to follow his interests, and opportunities in the theater scene. Despite her talent and passion, Judith's abilities were hindered by society's expectations and familial commitments. Woolf depicts Judith's tragic end, reflecting on the squandered brilliance and unmet potential of numerous women throughout history who were bound by their circumstances and denied the opportunity to express their creativity.

Approach to solving the question:

  • Identify the thesis statement : Look for the central argument or main point that Woolf is trying to convey throughout the essay.
  • Identify main points : Break down the essay into its main ideas or arguments that support the thesis statement.
  • Paraphrase the main ideas : Summarize each main idea in your own words, maintaining the essence of Woolf's argument.
  • Organize the summary : Structure the summary in paragraph form, ensuring it includes an effective title, an introduction to Woolf's thesis, and paraphrased main ideas in the order presented by Woolf.

Detailed explanation:

  • Carefully read through the essay to understand Woolf's argument and the evidence she presents to support it. Take notes on key points, examples, and any rhetorical devices used.

If you have any clarifications about my answers, feel free to click the 'request for clarification' button, and I will be happy to help you. Thank you, and God bless!

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Every Sneaker Worn in the 2024 NBA 3-Point Contest

Damian Lillard becomes a back-to-back champion.

The NBA's best shooters put their skills on display earlier tonight in the NBA All-Star 3-Point Contest. 

This year's field included defending champion Damian Lillard , Donovan Mitchell , Jalen Brunson, Lauri Markkanen, Tyrese Haliburton , Malik Beasley, Karl-Anthony Towns , and Trae Young . 

Once again, Lillard went full "Dame Time" with everything on the line. He knocked down his final shot to defeat Towns and Young in the final, becoming the event's first repeat champion since Jason Kapono of the Toronto Raptors in 2007-2008. 

Check out which sneakers Lillard and the rest of the shooters wore in the 2024 NBA All-Star 3-Point Contest below.

Malik Beasley — Xtep Lingren 1.0 Customs

Malik Beasley wearing Xtep Lingren 1.0 Customs

Jalen Brunson — Nike Kobe 6 "WNBA"

Jalen Brunson wearing Nike Kobe 6 WNBA

Tyrese Haliburton – Nike Kobe 6 PE

Tyrese Haliburton wearing Nike Kobe 6 PE

Damian Lillard — Adidas Dame 8 EXTPLY

Damian Lillard wearing Adidas Dame 8 EXTPLY

Lauri Markkanen — Nike GT Hustle 2 "More Uptempo"

Lauri Markkanen wearing Nike GT Hustle 2 More Uptempo

Donovan Mitchell — Adidas D.O.N. Issue #5

Donovan Mitchell wearing Adidas DON Issue 5

Karl-Anthony Towns — Nike GT Jump 2 "Total Foamposite Max"

Karl-Anthony Towns wearing the Nike GT Jump 2 Total Foamposite Max

Trae Young — Adidas Trae Young 3

Trae Young wearing Adidas Trae Young 3

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thesis statement with 2 points

Create a form in Word that users can complete or print

In Word, you can create a form that others can fill out and save or print.  To do this, you will start with baseline content in a document, potentially via a form template.  Then you can add content controls for elements such as check boxes, text boxes, date pickers, and drop-down lists. Optionally, these content controls can be linked to database information.  Following are the recommended action steps in sequence.  

Show the Developer tab

In Word, be sure you have the Developer tab displayed in the ribbon.  (See how here:  Show the developer tab .)

Open a template or a blank document on which to base the form

You can start with a template or just start from scratch with a blank document.

Start with a form template

Go to File > New .

In the  Search for online templates  field, type  Forms or the kind of form you want. Then press Enter .

In the displayed results, right-click any item, then select  Create. 

Start with a blank document 

Select Blank document .

Add content to the form

Go to the  Developer  tab Controls section where you can choose controls to add to your document or form. Hover over any icon therein to see what control type it represents. The various control types are described below. You can set properties on a control once it has been inserted.

To delete a content control, right-click it, then select Remove content control  in the pop-up menu. 

Note:  You can print a form that was created via content controls. However, the boxes around the content controls will not print.

Insert a text control

The rich text content control enables users to format text (e.g., bold, italic) and type multiple paragraphs. To limit these capabilities, use the plain text content control . 

Click or tap where you want to insert the control.

Rich text control button

To learn about setting specific properties on these controls, see Set or change properties for content controls .

Insert a picture control

A picture control is most often used for templates, but you can also add a picture control to a form.

Picture control button

Insert a building block control

Use a building block control  when you want users to choose a specific block of text. These are helpful when you need to add different boilerplate text depending on the document's specific purpose. You can create rich text content controls for each version of the boilerplate text, and then use a building block control as the container for the rich text content controls.

building block gallery control

Select Developer and content controls for the building block.

Developer tab showing content controls

Insert a combo box or a drop-down list

In a combo box, users can select from a list of choices that you provide or they can type in their own information. In a drop-down list, users can only select from the list of choices.

combo box button

Select the content control, and then select Properties .

To create a list of choices, select Add under Drop-Down List Properties .

Type a choice in Display Name , such as Yes , No , or Maybe .

Repeat this step until all of the choices are in the drop-down list.

Fill in any other properties that you want.

Note:  If you select the Contents cannot be edited check box, users won’t be able to click a choice.

Insert a date picker

Click or tap where you want to insert the date picker control.

Date picker button

Insert a check box

Click or tap where you want to insert the check box control.

Check box button

Use the legacy form controls

Legacy form controls are for compatibility with older versions of Word and consist of legacy form and Active X controls.

Click or tap where you want to insert a legacy control.

Legacy control button

Select the Legacy Form control or Active X Control that you want to include.

Set or change properties for content controls

Each content control has properties that you can set or change. For example, the Date Picker control offers options for the format you want to use to display the date.

Select the content control that you want to change.

Go to Developer > Properties .

Controls Properties  button

Change the properties that you want.

Add protection to a form

If you want to limit how much others can edit or format a form, use the Restrict Editing command:

Open the form that you want to lock or protect.

Select Developer > Restrict Editing .

Restrict editing button

After selecting restrictions, select Yes, Start Enforcing Protection .

Restrict editing panel

Advanced Tip:

If you want to protect only parts of the document, separate the document into sections and only protect the sections you want.

To do this, choose Select Sections in the Restrict Editing panel. For more info on sections, see Insert a section break .

Sections selector on Resrict sections panel

If the developer tab isn't displayed in the ribbon, see Show the Developer tab .

Open a template or use a blank document

To create a form in Word that others can fill out, start with a template or document and add content controls. Content controls include things like check boxes, text boxes, and drop-down lists. If you’re familiar with databases, these content controls can even be linked to data.

Go to File > New from Template .

New from template option

In Search, type form .

Double-click the template you want to use.

Select File > Save As , and pick a location to save the form.

In Save As , type a file name and then select Save .

Start with a blank document

Go to File > New Document .

New document option

Go to File > Save As .

Go to Developer , and then choose the controls that you want to add to the document or form. To remove a content control, select the control and press Delete. You can set Options on controls once inserted. From Options, you can add entry and exit macros to run when users interact with the controls, as well as list items for combo boxes, .

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On Developer , select Text Box , Check Box , or Combo Box .

Developer tab with content controls

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Repeat steps 1 through 3 for each control that you want to add.

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Options let you set common settings, as well as control specific settings. Select a control and then select Options to set up or make changes.

Set common properties.

Select Macro to Run on lets you choose a recorded or custom macro to run on Entry or Exit from the field.

Bookmark Set a unique name or bookmark for each control.

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Set specific properties for a Combo box

Drop-down item Type in strings for the list box items. Press + or Enter to add an item to the list.

Items in drop-down list Shows your current list. Select an item and use the up or down arrows to change the order, Press - to remove a selected item.

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US warned allies about Russian space, nuclear capabilities, source says

U.S. military brass testify in the House on Afghanistan

'NOT A CAUSE FOR PANIC'

Additional reporting by Joey Roulette, Chris Bing and Trevor Hunnicutt in Washington Editing by Don Durfee, Nick Zieminski, Matthew Lewis and Leslie Adler

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Thomson Reuters

Patricia Zengerle has reported from more than 20 countries, including Afghanistan, Iraq, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and China. An award-winning Washington-based national security and foreign policy reporter who also has worked as an editor, Patricia has appeared on NPR, C-Span and other programs, spoken at the National Press Club and attended the Hoover Institution Media Roundtable. She is a recipient of the Edwin M. Hood Award for Diplomatic Correspondence.

Former U.S. President Donald Trump looks on at a campaign event in Waterford Township, Michigan

El Salvador opposition requests repeat election for congress after irregularities in vote count

Opposition parties in El Salvador on Monday asked the country's election authority to void the results of congressional elections that took place in early February and re-do the vote after a hand count of ballots revealed several irregularities.

Dutch far-right politician Geert Wilders

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Alexei Navalny

Western leaders point finger at Putin after Alexei Navalny’s death in jail

Russian opposition leader’s death described as political assassination attributable to president

  • Chemical burns, poisoning and prison: the persecution of Navalny
  • Long opposed to exile, Navalny dies in dark and dangerous Russia

Western leaders have held Vladimir Putin directly responsible for the death of the Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny, as the US president, Joe Biden, called it “yet more proof of Putin’s brutality”.

Navalny, 47, died while being held in a jail about 40 miles north of the Arctic Circle, where he had been sentenced to 19 years under a “special regime”.

“Make no mistake, Putin is responsible for Navalny’s death,” Biden said in remarks from the White House on Friday.

The death of Navalny, once Putin’s most significant political challenger, is a watershed moment for Russia’s shattered pro-democracy movement, which has largely been jailed or driven into exile since the Ukraine invasion of 2022.

Though Navalny and his many supporters expected he could die behind bars, few thought it would be so soon. Reports of his death sent a shockwave of anger and disbelief through the ranks of his supporters, including his family.

“I don’t know whether to believe the terrible news,” his wife, Yulia, said during a speech at the Munich Security Conference. “But if it is true, then I would like Putin, his staff, his friends, his government, to know that they will be punished for what they’ve done with our country, my family and my husband. They will be brought to justice, and that day will come very soon.”

Alexei Navalny: police in Russia crack down on protests as activists are detained – video report

Navalny’s death raises questions about what tools the west still has to constrain or punish Putin, who has faced sanctions since 2022 and has been indicted by the international criminal court for the abduction of Ukrainian children.

Biden in 2021 promised “devastating” consequences for Russia if Navalny were to die behind bars. However, it is not clear what could restrain Putin from a further crackdown on Navalny’s supporters in Russia and abroad.

In his remarks, Biden praised Navalny’s courage and his decision to return to Russia despite facing near-certain imprisonment.

“He bravely stood up to the corruption, the violence and all the bad things that the Putin government was doing,” Biden said. “In response, Putin had him poisoned, he had him arrested, he had him prosecuted for fabricated crimes, he sentenced him to prison, he held him in isolation … Even in prison he was a powerful voice for the truth.”

Russia has claimed Navalny died of natural causes. In a statement, the federal penitentiary service for the region where Navalny was incarcerated said he “felt unwell after a walk and almost immediately lost consciousness”.

“All necessary resuscitation measures were carried out but did not yield positive results,” the statement said. “The paramedics confirmed the death of the convict.” The Kremlin said Putin had been informed but had no further information.

Alexei Navalny's spokeswoman confirms his death and calls for return of body – video

Western reaction was swift, as top officials from the US and Europe accused the Kremlin of causing Navalny’s death. The Foreign Office summoned the Russian embassy in London, adding “we hold the Russian authorities fully responsible.”

The US secretary of state, Antony Blinken, said: “His death in a Russian prison and the fixation and fear of one man only underscores the weakness and rot at the heart of the system that Putin has built. Russia is responsible for this.”

Putin’s press secretary, Dmitry Peskov, responded angrily, calling western leaders’ remarks “absolutely outrageous and absolutely unacceptable”.

In Moscow, St Petersburg and other cities across Russia, small groups of Russians braved strict anti-protest laws and laid flowers at makeshift memorials to Navalny. More than 100 people were arrested, according to OVD-Info, a Russian rights group that tracks political arrests and offers legal aid.

Navalny had looked healthy when he appeared by video for a courtroom appeal on Thursday. Speaking from prison, he had complained about the frequent fines he had received while in a punitive cell and asked the judge to send him some money “as my own is running out thanks to your decisions”.

Alexei Navalny appears healthy in video-link court hearing on day before his death – video

The cause of death had not been established, the penitentiary service said. Last year Navalny was treated in hospital after complaining of malnourishment and other ailments caused by mistreatment in prison.

Navalny is survived by Yulia and their two children. On 14 February, his team published an Instagram post dedicated to his wife in which he wrote: “I feel that you are close to me every second and I love you more and more.”

Navalny was last seen by his lawyer on Wednesday, who said “everything was normal then”.

Leonid Volkov, another close ally, said: “We have no reason to believe the state propaganda … If this is true, then it’s not ‘Navalny died’, but ‘Putin killed Navalny’ and that’s the only way [to report it]. But I don’t believe them [for a second].”

In early December, Navalny disappeared from a prison in the Vladimir region , where he was serving a 30-year sentence on extremism and fraud charges that he had called political retribution for leading the anti-Kremlin opposition of the 2010s. He did not expect to be released during Putin’s lifetime.

Supporters and allies were visibly stunned by the news of his death, and many pointed the finger directly at the Kremlin.

Dmitri Muratov, the editor of Novaya Gazeta, told Reuters that Navalny’s death was “murder” brought on by his mistreatment in prison. Mikhail Fishman, a journalist, blinked back tears on the TV Rain channel as he said: “We must learn to live with this news somehow. But we understand the scale of what has happened, that we will mark this as a before-and-after moment.”

The US national security adviser, Jake Sullivan, told National Public Radio: “If it’s confirmed, it is a terrible tragedy.”

Joe Biden says Vladimir Putin responsible for Alexei Navalny's death – video

Several other foreign officials also said Putin was directly responsible. “Alexei Navalny fought for the values of freedom and democracy. For his ideals, he made the ultimate sacrifice,” the European Council president, Charles Michel, posted on X. “The EU holds the Russian regime for sole responsible for this tragic death.”

Ukraine’s president, Volodymyr Zelenskiy, said it was “obvious” that Putin was behind Navalny’s death. The German finance minister, Christian Lindner, said: “Alexei Navalny fought for a democratic Russia. For that, Putin tortured him to death.”

Navalny, a former nationalist politician, helped foment the 2011-12 protests in Russia by campaigning against election fraud and government corruption, investigating Putin’s inner circle and sharing the findings in slick videos that garnered hundreds of millions of views.

'Russia is responsible': western leaders react to Alexei Navalny's death – video

The high-water mark in his political career came in 2013, when he won 27% of the vote in a Moscow mayoral contest that few believed was free or fair. He remained a thorn in the side of the Kremlin for years, identifying a palace built on the Black Sea for Putin’s personal use , mansions and yachts used by the ex-president Dmitry Medvedev, and a sex worker who linked a top foreign policy official with a well-known oligarch.

“He changed what it meant to be a politician in Russia when there was more freedom,” said Ben Noble, an associate professor of Russian politics at University College London and a co-author of Navalny: Putin’s Nemesis, Russia’s Future? “His ability to use social media effectively to reach new audiences, to act as an anti-corruption activist, protest leader, and opposition politician – he was quite extraordinary in this breadth of work. The activation of younger people also led to hope, that politics was something that they could get involved in.”

In 2020, Navalny fell into a coma after a suspected poisoning using novichok by Russia’s FSB security service and was evacuated to Germany for treatment . He recovered and returned to Russia in January 2021 , where he was arrested on a parole violation charge and received the first of several jail sentences that would have amounted to more than 30 years behind bars.

“Navalny left one Russia, returned to another, and perished in a third, where political prospects are absent in principle,” wrote Alexander Baunov, a senior fellow at the Carnegie Russia Eurasia Center. “There are only martyrs.”

Putin has recently launched a presidential campaign for his fifth term in office. He is already the longest-serving Russian leader since Joseph Stalin and could surpass him if he runs again for office in 2030, a possibility since he had the constitutional rules on term limits rewritten in 2020.

“Alexei Navalny will not be forgotten,” said Andrei Kolesnikov, another senior fellow at the Carnegie Russia Eurasia Center. “He was an absolutely unique example of a fearless politician in a country where politics in the traditional sense of the word was directly prohibited, under threat of repression. In a normal political competition, he would have had a chance to become the head of state.”

  • Alexei Navalny
  • Vladimir Putin

More on this story

thesis statement with 2 points

Yulia Navalnaya: the reluctant politician continuing her late husband’s work

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The mysterious, violent and unsolved deaths of Putin’s foes and critics

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Germany to propose new sanctions against Russia after death of Alexei Navalny

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Alexei Navalny was brave enough to mock Putin’s absurd tyranny. Is it any wonder he is dead?

thesis statement with 2 points

Yulia Navalnaya vows to continue husband Alexei’s fight and says Putin killed him

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Kremlin accused of ‘covering tracks’ as whereabouts of Alexei Navalny’s body remain uncertain

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Alexei Navalny: a life in pictures

thesis statement with 2 points

Death of Kremlin critic Alexei Navalny confirmed by his representatives

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Russian anti-war candidate Boris Nadezhdin banned from election

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Alexei Navalny’s mother told he died from ‘sudden death syndrome’ – as it happened

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COMMENTS

  1. How to Write a Thesis Statement

    Step 1: Start with a question Step 2: Write your initial answer Step 3: Develop your answer Step 4: Refine your thesis statement Types of thesis statements Other interesting articles Frequently asked questions about thesis statements What is a thesis statement? A thesis statement summarizes the central points of your essay.

  2. Two-Part (Claim + Reason) Thesis Statement Examples, How to Write, Tips

    A Two-Part (Claim + Reason) Thesis Statement is a succinct and persuasive way to present an argument in academic writing. It consists of two essential components: the claim, which states the main point or position you're asserting, and the reason, which provides a concise explanation or justification for why that claim is valid.

  3. How to Write a Thesis Statement

    Product Company The Ultimate Guide to Writing a Thesis Statement Matt Ellis Updated on April 13, 2023 Students A thesis statement is a sentence in a paper or essay (in the opening paragraph) that introduces the main topic to the reader.

  4. Thesis Statements

    directly answers the question asked of you. A thesis is an interpretation of a question or subject, not the subject itself. The subject, or topic, of an essay might be World War II or Moby Dick; a thesis must then offer a way to understand the war or the novel. makes a claim that others might dispute.

  5. Developing a Thesis Statement

    A thesis statement . . . Makes an argumentative assertion about a topic; it states the conclusions that you have reached about your topic. Makes a promise to the reader about the scope, purpose, and direction of your paper. Is focused and specific enough to be "proven" within the boundaries of your paper.

  6. Creating a Thesis Statement, Thesis Statement Tips

    1. Determine what kind of paper you are writing: An analytical paper breaks down an issue or an idea into its component parts, evaluates the issue or idea, and presents this breakdown and evaluation to the audience. An expository (explanatory) paper explains something to the audience.

  7. How to write a thesis statement + Examples

    A good thesis statement needs to do the following: Condense the main idea of your thesis into one or two sentences. Answer your project's main research question. Clearly state your position in relation to the topic. Make an argument that requires support or evidence.

  8. How to Write a Strong Thesis Statement: 4 Steps + Examples

    Step 4: Revise and refine your thesis statement before you start writing. Read through your thesis statement several times before you begin to compose your full essay. You need to make sure the statement is ironclad, since it is the foundation of the entire paper. Edit it or have a peer review it for you to make sure everything makes sense and ...

  9. How to Write a Strong Thesis Statement

    2 Categories of Thesis Statements: Informative and Persuasive Just as there are different types of essays, there are different types of thesis statements. The thesis should match the essay. For example, with an informative essay, you should compose an informative thesis (rather than argumentative).

  10. What Is a Thesis?

    A thesis statement is a very common component of an essay, particularly in the humanities. It usually comprises 1 or 2 sentences in the introduction of your essay, and should clearly and concisely summarize the central points of your academic essay. A thesis is a long-form piece of academic writing, often taking more than a full semester to ...

  11. Strong Thesis Statements

    Purdue OWL General Writing Academic Writing Establishing Arguments Developing Strong Thesis Statements Developing Strong Thesis Statements The thesis statement or main claim must be debatable An argumentative or persuasive piece of writing must begin with a debatable thesis or claim.

  12. Parts of a Thesis Statement

    A basic thesis statement has two main parts: Topic: What you're writing about Angle: What your main idea is about that topic Sample Thesis #1 Sample Thesis #2 Sample Thesis #3 Previous Next Grumble... Applaud... Please give us your feedback!

  13. 3. Thesis Statement & Outline

    can be very helpful in constructing an outline for your essay; for each point you make, ask yourself whether it is relevant to the thesis. Steps you can use to create a thesis statement. 1. Start out with the main topic and focus of your essay. youth gangs + prevention and intervention programs. 2. Make a claim or argument in one sentence.

  14. How to Write a Thesis Statement

    What is a Thesis Statement? Almost all of us—even if we don't do it consciously—look early in an essay for a one- or two-sentence condensation of the argument or analysis that is to follow. We refer to that condensation as a thesis statement. Why Should Your Essay Contain a Thesis Statement?

  15. Mastering the Thesis Statement: Examples and Tips for Academic ...

    Avoid using vague or ambiguous terms. Use clear, specific language that directly communicates your argument. Stay focused on your main points and the direction of your paper. Keeping these tips in mind and utilizing clear language will contribute to a stronger, more effective thesis statement.

  16. Academic Guides: Writing a Paper: Thesis Statements

    The thesis statement is the brief articulation of your paper's central argument and purpose. You might hear it referred to as simply a "thesis." Every scholarly paper should have a thesis statement, and strong thesis statements are concise, specific, and arguable. Concise means the thesis is short: perhaps one or two sentences for a shorter paper.

  17. 5.1: Developing a Strong, Clear Thesis Statement

    Examples of Appropriate Thesis Statements. Five Ways of Looking at a Thesis. 1. A thesis creates an argument that builds from one point to the next, giving the paper a direction that the audience can follow as the paper develops. 2. A thesis fits comfortably into the Magic Thesis Sentence (MTS). 3.

  18. Thesis Statements

    The thesis specifies several points that makes a thesis credible. The argument connects all the points (distractions, self-doubt, and social anxiety) together into one linear train of thought, relating the ideas to one another. Note: The thesis is more focused. It concentrates on the idea that social media plays up on a person's self-worth.

  19. How to Write a Thesis Statement: Guide for Students

    A thesis statement definition is a concise declaration that encapsulates the central point or argument of an academic paper or essay. Positioned typically towards the end of the introductory paragraph, it serves as a roadmap for the reader, offering a preview of the key points and the overall direction of the paper.

  20. 25 Thesis Statement Examples That Will Make Writing a Breeze

    What that means is that you can't just put any statement of fact and have it be your thesis. For example, everyone knows that puppies are cute. An ineffective thesis statement would be, "Puppies are adorable and everyone knows it." This isn't really something that's a debatable topic. Something that would be more debatable would be, "A puppy's ...

  21. How To Write a Thesis Statement in 4 Steps (FAQ and Example)

    Persuasive Persuasive thesis statements are common in narrative, argumentative and compare/contrast essays in which a writer supports their thesis with ample evidence and logic to prove its accuracy. When writing a persuasive thesis, it's important that your statement is arguable and not obvious.

  22. How to Write a Perfect 3-Point Thesis Statement With Samples and Tips

    Wr1ter team 11 December 2023 last updated A 3-point thesis statement is a coherent statement that integrates the three essential components of a standard thesis statement, which include a topic, an assertion, and reasons justifying the claim. Basically, the topic should narrowly define the subject.

  23. Thesis Generator

    Follow the steps below to formulate an argumentative thesis statement. All boxes must contain text. To learn how to write other kinds of thesis statements, please see our Writing a Thesis page. Sample Outline Based on Your Thesis:

  24. Question: Identify the thesis statement and the main points of

    Approach to solving the question: Identify the thesis statement: Look for the central argument or main point that Woolf is trying to convey throughout the essay.; Identify main points: Break down the essay into its main ideas or arguments that support the thesis statement.; Paraphrase the main ideas: Summarize each main idea in your own words, maintaining the essence of Woolf's argument.

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    The NBA's best shooters put their skills on display earlier tonight in the NBA All-Star 3-Point Contest. This year's field included defending champion Damian Lillard, Donovan Mitchell, Jalen ...

  26. Create a form in Word that users can complete or print

    Show the Developer tab. If the developer tab isn't displayed in the ribbon, see Show the Developer tab.. Open a template or use a blank document. To create a form in Word that others can fill out, start with a template or document and add content controls.

  27. US warned allies about Russian space, nuclear capabilities, source says

    The United States has told Congress and allies in Europe about new intelligence related to Russian nuclear capabilities that could pose an international threat, a source briefed on the matter told ...

  28. Western leaders point finger at Putin after Alexei Navalny's death in

    Western leaders have held Vladimir Putin directly responsible for the death of the Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny, as the US president, Joe Biden, called it "yet more proof of Putin ...