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How to prepare an excellent thesis defense
What is a thesis defense?
How long is a thesis defense, what happens at a thesis defense, your presentation, questions from the committee, 6 tips to help you prepare for your thesis defense, 1. anticipate questions and prepare for them, 2. dress for success, 3. ask for help, as needed, 4. have a backup plan, 5. prepare for the possibility that you might not know an answer, 6. de-stress before, during, and after, frequently asked questions about preparing an excellent thesis defense, related articles.
If you're about to complete, or have ever completed a graduate degree, you have most likely come across the term "thesis defense." In many countries, to finish a graduate degree, you have to write a thesis .
A thesis is a large paper, or multi-chapter work, based on a topic relating to your field of study.
Once you hand in your thesis, you will be assigned a date to defend your work. Your thesis defense meeting usually consists of you and a committee of two or more professors working in your program. It may also include other people, like professionals from other colleges or those who are working in your field.
During your thesis defense, you will be asked questions about your work. The main purpose of your thesis defense is for the committee to make sure that you actually understand your field and focus area.
The questions are usually open-ended and require the student to think critically about their work. By the time of your thesis defense, your paper has already been evaluated. The questions asked are not designed so that you actually have to aggressively "defend" your work; often, your thesis defense is more of a formality required so that you can get your degree.
- Check with your department about requirements and timing.
- Re-read your thesis.
- Anticipate questions and prepare for them.
- Create a back-up plan to deal with technology hiccups.
- Plan de-stressing activities both before, and after, your defense.
How long your oral thesis defense is depends largely on the institution and requirements of your degree. It is best to consult your department or institution about this. In general, a thesis defense may take only 20 minutes, but it may also take two hours or more. The length also depends on how much time is allocated to the presentation and questioning part.
Tip: Check with your department or institution as soon as possible to determine the approved length for a thesis defense.
First of all, be aware that a thesis defense varies from country to country. This is just a general overview, but a thesis defense can take many different formats. Some are closed, others are public defenses. Some take place with two committee members, some with more examiners.
The same goes for the length of your thesis defense, as mentioned above. The most important first step for you is to clarify with your department what the structure of your thesis defense will look like. In general, your thesis defense will include:
- your presentation of around 20-30 minutes
- questions from the committee
- questions from the audience (if the defense is public and the department allows it)
You might have to give a presentation, often with Powerpoint, Google slides, or Keynote slides. Make sure to prepare an appropriate amount of slides. A general rule is to use about 10 slides for a 20-minute presentation.
But that also depends on your specific topic and the way you present. The good news is that there will be plenty of time ahead of your thesis defense to prepare your slides and practice your presentation alone and in front of friends or family.
Tip: Practice delivering your thesis presentation in front of family, friends, or colleagues.
You can prepare your slides by using information from your thesis' first chapter (the overview of your thesis) as a framework or outline. Substantive information in your thesis should correspond with your slides.
Make sure your slides are of good quality— both in terms of the integrity of the information and the appearance. If you need more help with how to prepare your presentation slides, both the ASQ Higher Education Brief and James Hayton have good guidelines on the topic.
The committee will ask questions about your work after you finish your presentation. The questions will most likely be about the core content of your thesis, such as what you learned from the study you conducted. They may also ask you to summarize certain findings and to discuss how your work will contribute to the existing body of knowledge.
Tip: Read your entire thesis in preparation of the questions, so you have a refreshed perspective on your work.
While you are preparing, you can create a list of possible questions and try to answer them. You can foresee many of the questions you will get by simply spending some time rereading your thesis.
Here are a few tips on how to prepare for your thesis defense:
You can absolutely prepare for most of the questions you will be asked. Read through your thesis and while you're reading it, create a list of possible questions. In addition, since you will know who will be on the committee, look at the academic expertise of the committee members. In what areas would they most likely be focused?
If possible, sit at other thesis defenses with these committee members to get a feel for how they ask and what they ask. As a graduate student, you should generally be adept at anticipating test questions, so use this advantage to gather as much information as possible before your thesis defense meeting.
Your thesis defense is a formal event, often the entire department or university is invited to participate. It signals a critical rite of passage for graduate students and faculty who have supported them throughout a long and challenging process.
While most universities don't have specific rules on how to dress for that event, do regard it with dignity and respect. This one might be a no-brainer, but know that you should dress as if you were on a job interview or delivering a paper at a conference.
It might help you deal with your stress before your thesis defense to entrust someone with the smaller but important responsibilities of your defense well ahead of schedule. This trusted person could be responsible for:
- preparing the room of the day of defense
- setting up equipment for the presentation
- preparing and distributing handouts
Technology is unpredictable. Life is too. There are no guarantees that your Powerpoint presentation will work at all or look the way it is supposed to on the big screen. We've all been there. Make sure to have a plan B for these situations. Handouts can help when technology fails, and an additional clean shirt can save the day if you have a spill.
One of the scariest aspects of the defense is the possibility of being asked a question you can't answer. While you can prepare for some questions, you can never know exactly what the committee will ask.
There will always be gaps in your knowledge. But your thesis defense is not about being perfect and knowing everything, it's about how you deal with challenging situations. You are not expected to know everything.
James Hayton writes on his blog that examiners will sometimes even ask questions they don't know the answer to, out of curiosity, or because they want to see how you think. While it is ok sometimes to just say "I don't know", he advises to try something like "I don't know, but I would think [...] because of x and y, but you would need to do [...] in order to find out.” This shows that you have the ability to think as an academic.
You will be nervous. But your examiners will expect you to be nervous. Being well prepared can help minimize your stress, but do know that your examiners have seen this many times before and are willing to help, by repeating questions, for example. Dora Farkas at finishyourthesis.com notes that it’s a myth that thesis committees are out to get you.
Two common symptoms of being nervous are talking really fast and nervous laughs. Try to slow yourself down and take a deep breath. Remember what feels like hours to you are just a few seconds in real life.
- Try meditational breathing right before your defense.
- Get plenty of exercise and sleep in the weeks prior to your defense.
- Have your clothes or other items you need ready to go the night before.
- During your defense, allow yourself to process each question before answering.
- Go to dinner with friends and family, or to a fun activity like mini-golf, after your defense.
Allow yourself to process each question, respond to it, and stop talking once you have responded. While a smile can often help dissolve a difficult situation, remember that nervous laughs can be irritating for your audience.
We all make mistakes and your thesis defense will not be perfect. However, careful preparation, mindfulness, and confidence can help you feel less stressful both before, and during, your defense.
Finally, consider planning something fun that you can look forward to after your defense.
It is completely normal to be nervous. Being well prepared can help minimize your stress, but do know that your examiners have seen this many times before and are willing to help, by repeating questions for example if needed. Slow yourself down, and take a deep breath.
Your thesis defense is not about being perfect and knowing everything, it's about how you deal with challenging situations. James Hayton writes on his blog that it is ok sometimes to just say "I don't know", but he advises to try something like "I don't know, but I would think [...] because of x and y, you would need to do [...] in order to find out".
Your Powerpoint presentation can get stuck or not look the way it is supposed to do on the big screen. It can happen and your supervisors know it. In general, handouts can always save the day when technology fails.
- Dress for success.
- Ask for help setting up.
- Have a backup plan (in case technology fails you).
- Deal with your nerves.
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What is a thesis defense defending dissertation.
You’re reading this article because you probably have an upcoming thesis defense. Maybe you’ve worked hard for years or months, and now that moment for wrapping things up is finally here. Whether you want to defend a thesis for a doctorate or master’s degree, you’re about to take that final step.
But, you must research extensively and prepare for the final presentation. As the content for your thesis is vital, so is your presentation. A stunning design with text hierarchy and precise data plays a crucial role in your thesis comprehension. This article answers the question, what is thesis defense? It goes ahead to explain the process of defending dissertation.
Any student that doesn’t know how to defend a thesis or even prepare for the presentation will find this article helpful. Reading this article will let you know what a dissertation or thesis defense is and how to prepare for it.
What Is A Thesis Defense?
Defending a thesis is presenting your research work to a professors’ panel to grade your presentation abilities. Also, your argument during the presentation ascertains that you understood your research topic. But, you must submit your thesis or dissertation first so that your lecturer can grade it before your defense presentation.
Most students want to know what defending thesis means after or when about to complete their graduate degrees. In most countries, writing a thesis is a vital part of finishing a graduate degree. Generally, a thesis or a dissertation is a significant paper related to the student’s study field. After handing in a thesis, the professor or lecturer assigns the learner the data for defending their work.
A thesis defense presentation occurs during a meeting comprising a committee of at least two professors and the student. The professors belong to the student’s program. Also, the session can include professionals from other learning institutions or experts in the student’s study field. The meeting attendees ask the students some questions about their work to understand their focus area and field.
Usually, these questions are open-minded, requiring the learner to think about the work critically. Since the student submits the paper for evaluation before the presentation, the panel already understands the work. But the board doesn’t design the questions to require the student to defend their work aggressively. In most cases, this procedure is a formality for getting a degree.
What Is The Purpose Of Dissertation Defense?
The thesis or dissertation defense aims to achieve two things.
First, it provides a presentation occasion and recognition of the accomplished doctoral work. Second, it presents a chance for formal evaluation and discussion of your thesis.
Ideally, the purpose of the dissertation defense is to assess the completed research work’s merits and the doctoral candidate’s ability to explain or interpret their research outcomes and implications. After the dissertation committee chair deems the paper ready for a defense, they allow the student to schedule their presentation meeting.
The student contacts the committee members to identify the time and date acceptable to them. Also, the learner secures the conference room for the presentation and serves all committee members with copies of the thesis.
What Does It Mean To Defend A Thesis Successfully?
The requirements of a dissertation defense process vary from one learning institution to another. However, a successful defense entails presenting the main argument to the dissertation committee or academic faculty with primary points evidence.
A good defense must have clear and convincing logic lending credence to the primary concept that the body of the paper advances. For instance, if your thesis argues that consuming meat is unethical, you may present arguments about animal abuse cruelty from farms and factories to make your claim legitimate.
How Long Is A Thesis Defense?
At this point, you’re no longer bothered by the question, what does it mean to defend your dissertation? However, you want to know your presentation or defense duration. The duration of a dissertation presentation or defense depends on the degree requirements and the institution.
Perhaps, the best way to know the duration your presentation should take is to consult your institution or department. But a dissertation defense takes 20 minutes in most cases, though it can take up to two or more hours. Also, the presentation duration and the number of questions the committee has for the candidate will influence this duration.
What’s more, the nature of your thesis will determine the duration of its defense. For instance, a master’s thesis takes longer to defend than a bachelor’s thesis. Nevertheless, your defense should fit the introduction, literature review, findings, and more time structuring the presentation. Therefore, take adequate time to prepare for the session. All in all, several factors, including your academic field and paper, determine the duration of the session.
How To Prepare For A Thesis Defense
Adequate preparation is among the best tips for ensuring a successful dissertation defense. Therefore, ensure that you understand the content of your thesis and the questions to expect from the dissertation panel. Also, ensure that you have a timetable showing the chronology of the presentation day.
The dissertation committee expects you to keep time because if you delay, you may have to wait for the next time the panel will allocate your defense. Additionally, make sure that you’ve handed in your thesis at least a month before the defense date.
How To Prepare For Thesis Defense In Six Steps
The end of a graduate degree might seem far away when starting. However, it comes up faster than most learners think. Perhaps, that’s because working on a thesis is a lot of work. What’s more, you have to master the content of your paper to ensure a successful defense. Additionally, decide the best way to present and defend your thesis. For instance, select the defense template, theme, and structure. After that, follow these steps from our best academic editing help and thesis writers to prepare a successful dissertation defense.
- Anticipate and prepare to answer all questions: Read and understand its content after writing a thesis. Also, list down potential questions to expect from the dissertation committee. You can even look for academic experts to advise you on the possible focus area for the committee members. Use your questions to gather relevant information in readiness for the presentation.
- Dress appropriately: A dissertation defense is a formal occasion comprising top-ranking members of your academic department. It’s like a passage rite for the graduate and the faculty that supported them. Although the university might not have specific dressing rules for this event, think about it with respect and dignity. Ideally, dress like you’re going for a job interview.
- Seek assistance: You will be busy preparing for your defense several days before the event’s date. Therefore, entrusting some tasks to reliable people might help. For instance, you can delegate tasks like conference room preparation and presentation equipment setup to a trustworthy person.
- Prepare a backup plan: Thesis oral defense requires technological equipment. And technology can fail you. For instance, a PowerPoint presentation may not look as expected. It might even not work at all. Therefore, prepare a plan B by anticipating such eventualities. For example, you can have handouts ready, just in case technology fails.
- Prepare for tough questions: Most students are scared about professors asking questions they can’t answer. Although you can anticipate some questions, you won’t know the exact things the panel will want to see from you. However, defending your thesis is not about answering every question correctly and perfectly. Therefore, understand that the board doesn’t expect you to know everything.
- Learn to deal with your anxiety: It’s normal to be anxious or feel nervous when defending your thesis. However, prepare to minimize your stress. Also, understand that the committee will repeat questions if necessary. Most importantly, take time to process every question and respond confidently.
Follow these tips, and you will be ready for the defense when the day comes. But the essential thing is to master the content of your paper and anticipate questions that the committee might ask.
How To Start A Thesis Defense Presentation
Once you have everything ready for the presentation, follow these steps to start your dissertation defense presentation.
- Welcome the audience: Start by welcoming and connecting with the audience. Don’t use information or inappropriate language. Instead, be natural and approachable to your audience. Also, thank your audience for attending your defense presentation.
- Introduce yourself: Tell the audience your name and a brief description of your occupation and background.
- Explain your reason for doing your thesis: Explain what prompted you to further connect with the audience. Ensure that your motives are professional, though they can be personal, denoting your closeness to the project.
- Delve into your thesis: Start the actual defense presentation by explaining every part.
Practical Thesis Defense Tips: How To Do It
After starting defending your thesis, delve deeper into the oral presentation of your work using appropriate sound equipment and visual aids. Follow this format to present your dissertation.
Introduction: Explain why the study was necessary Literature review: Tell the committee about the findings of other scholars on your subject or topic. Research methodology: Explain the research methods you used in your study and why. Findings: Explain your research findings to the committee. Discussion: Discuss your findings and deductions. Implications, suggestions, limitations, and conclusions: Explain the impact of your study, setbacks, and findings. Also, suggest a path for future studies on the topic or subject. Answer questions: The committee members will ask you questions and expect you to respond. Leave the room: After presenting your defense and answering the committee’s questions, you can leave the room to allow the panelists to deliberate. Come back to the room: The committee will invite you back after the deliberations. The supervisor will share the committee’s decision with you.
The student receives all written work copies after the oral examination. Remember to observe dissertation defense etiquette even if the committee asks questions that deem unnecessary to you. Be polite, formal, and composed throughout the presentation.
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You can’t defend a thesis before writing it. However, you might lack adequate time to select a unique thesis topic, research it, and write a custom paper, and of course, buy dissertation online . That’s where our experts come in. We’re a professional team of academic writers helping learners write a quality thesis, defend them, and score the top marks. Our knowledgeable thesis specialists can also provide vital advice or guide you through the defense process.
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How long is a thesis paper?
The length of your thesis will depend on your faculty, department, or study field. However, a bachelor’s thesis is usually 40 to 60 pages long. On the other hand, a master’s thesis ranges between 60 and 100 pages. A Ph.D. thesis has an average of 204 pages.
Nevertheless, the actual words for a Ph.D. thesis depend on the university and the subject. That’s because most learning institutions set the length requirements. Learning institutions set the minimum length and not the maximum word count or page number in most cases. Therefore, ask the supervisor about your paper’s length before learning how to defend your dissertation.
How long is a thesis defense?
The dissertation defense duration depends on the technicality of the paper and the degree that a student is pursuing. An undergraduate degree’s defense can last an hour, while a master’s degree defense can take one and a half hours. A Ph.D. degree defense can last two or more hours.
What happens during a thesis or dissertation defense?
The professors allocate the students time for their presentation or defense. After that, the panelists will ask questions, and the student will answer. The committee requests the student to summarize their study deductions in some cases
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Thesis Defense – a guide to prepare best
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- 1 Definition: Thesis Defense
- 2 In a Nutshell
- 3 Before the Thesis Defense
- 4 What happens in a Thesis Defense?
- 5 What to include?
- 6 Tools for Thesis Defense
- 7 Thesis Defense Anxiety
- 8 Manage Thesis Defense Anxiety
Definition: Thesis Defense
A thesis defense is an act of presenting your work to a panel of professors so they can grade your presentation abilities. In retrospect, the argument is essential to ascertain that you understood the topic. You have to hand in your paper first so that the lecturer can grade it before you appear for the defense.
As a university student, you need to hand in a high-quality thesis paper and defend it before a panel of professors. So what is this that takes place during a thesis defense? Read along to find out.
In a Nutshell
So, there you have it. These tips should help you present your thesis defense and ace it. Remember that:
- You should present facts that are in the paper. Do not add any new information
- Make the thesis defense as enjoyable as possible
- Arrive early enough
- Do not exceed your allocated time
- Confidence goes a long way
Before the Thesis Defense
Before the day of the thesis defense, the qualifying students receive a timetable that shows the chronology of how the day will be. You are required to keep time, or else you will have to wait until the next allocated defense to present your paper. To qualify as a defending student, you have to hand in your paper at least one month before the thesis defense date.
What happens in a Thesis Defense?
Once you get to the hall, you need to introduce yourself and your topic, then present your paper to the lecturers. The professors will allocate you ¾ of the allotted time for the thesis defense. The remaining time is used up in the question and answer forum. Prepare yourself to answer several questions, such as:
- Your plans after completing the research
- The limitations you faced
- Things that you would change if given a chance
- How you chose your target audience
- How you intend to further your study on the subject
- The reasons for choosing your topic
- The most significant deductions you learned from the survey
- Reasons for choosing your research methodology, etc.
In some cases, the board may ask you to summarize your deductions from the study. The questions asked are not standard, which means you have to be thoroughly prepared to answer whatever the panel throws your way during the thesis defense. Other things that take place during the thesis defense include:
- Deliberations – At this point, the board of lecturers will ask you to leave the room as they deliberate on your thesis defense performance. They will then decide whether you move to the next level or you will defend again.
- Verdict – Finally, the team will invite you back in and tell you how you performed in the thesis defense. These panel members may ask you to make a few corrections before you can go ahead and publish your paper. You have to present your corrections to your facilitator, who will then give you the go-ahead to publish.
- Signing – The members will then sign your document to ascertain that you were part of the thesis defense team on the selected date.
How much time does a Thesis Defense take and how many people should be in the room?
During a thesis defense, each student appears before the panel individually. The facilitators will ask you questions concerning your topic to see if you fully grasped the concept. Each thesis defense will vary from the other depending on the technicality of your paper and the kind of degree you are pursuing.
- Undergraduate degree – Your panel may include at least three lecturers from your faculty. Additionally, the defense may last up to one hour.
- Masters degree – You get to interact with four professors at this level, and each student is allotted 1½ hours to present and answer questions.
- Ph.D. degree – Considering that this is the highest education level, five professors avail themselves to vet you. More so, you may have to engage them for two hours.
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What to include?
A thesis defense follows a particular format, which cuts across all types of degrees, which is:
- Introduction – Explain the need for this study
- Literature review – Explain what other scholars have found on the subject
- Research methodology – What research method did you use, and why did you use it?
- Findings and discussions – In your research, what were the key deductions that you came upon?
- Implications, limitations, suggestions, and conclusion – Here, you have to exhaust the setbacks you encountered during the study, the consequences that your target audience will face if they do not follow the deductions, and then finally sum up the discussions.
Tools for Thesis Defense
Considering that a thesis defense may take you at least 45 minutes to present, it is essential to make the presentation lively. So, you can incorporate a slide show and use images to make it less wordy. Bullet points also make the text easier to digest as opposed to a block of text. So, a laptop and a projector will help you ace your presentation.
Thesis Defense Anxiety
Standing before a panel of people waiting to hear how you conducted your research can be intimidating. This is especially so considering that you will be standing before a group of professors, who you believe to be superior to you in regards to the topic knowledge. More so, if you are not familiar with public speaking, it is easy to develop stage fright while defending.
Manage Thesis Defense Anxiety
In case you find yourself fidgeting before you begin presenting, use the following tips to help you get your composure back.
- If you have a problem with eye-balling the lecturers, look at the tips of their foreheads instead.
- Take a few seconds to breathe in and out so you can stabilize your speech if you begin to stammer.
- Go into the room with a positive mind, knowing that you will do your best.
- Most importantly, rehearse your thesis defense severally before the D-day.
What is a thesis defense?
A scholarly thesis defense is a forum that allows students to present their paper’s contents and defend their thesis topic before a panel of professors. The student is then required to answer all questions asked by the lecturers. At the end, the student is required to leave the room whilst the professors decide whether the thesis is ready to be published, or if it needs corrections.
How long is a thesis defense?
There is no general length for a thesis defense. The defense of a master’s thesis will take longer than the defense of a bachelor’s thesis. You will need to fit in an introduction , a literature review, your findings and even more into the time frame for your thesis defense, so it’s important that you’re well prepared. All in all, it depends on your paper and your academic field. Usually the thesis defense will last between one and two hours, but it also could be less than one hour.
What is the oral defense of a thesis?
Oral defense is simply another name for your thesis defense. If you’ve completed your thesis, you are required to defend it in front of a panel of professors. It is designed so that the committee can ensure that the students completely understand their thesis topic . The oral thesis defense is an examination of a completed body of work. Students will be assigned a date to defend their thesis.
What happens after the thesis defense?
After your thesis defense, you will be told to leave the room whilst the panel discusses your results. There are normally 2 outcomes. You may need to make changes to your thesis’ formatting or content. If this is the case, don’t stress! You’re able to try the thesis defense again once you’ve incorporated any required changes. The preferred outcome is that the panel is happy with your thesis and it’s then ready to be signed and published.
What defines a good thesis defense?
The thesis defense is the final step for your academic work. It’s important that you’re prepared and you’ve outlined what you’re going to say in each section of the defense. You need to know your thesis statement better than the back of your hand, otherwise you risk being sidetracked. Just like your thesis itself, your thesis defense has a specific structure. You can read more about this further on in the article. Try and prepare yourself for the potential types of questions that the professors will ask you so that you don’t have to think about your answers on the spot.
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Defending Your Dissertation: A Guide
Written by Luke Wink-Moran | Photo by insta_photos
Dissertation defenses are daunting, and no wonder; it’s not a “dissertation discussion,” or a “dissertation dialogue.” The name alone implies that the dissertation you’ve spent the last x number of years working on is subject to attack. And if you don’t feel trepidation for semantic reasons, you might be nervous because you don’t know what to expect. Our imaginations are great at making The Unknown scarier than reality. The good news is that you’ll find in this newsletter article experts who can shed light on what dissertations defenses are really like, and what you can do to prepare for them.
The first thing you should know is that your defense has already begun. It started the minute you began working on your dissertation— maybe even in some of the classes you took beforehand that helped you formulate your ideas. This, according to Dr. Celeste Atkins, is why it’s so important to identify a good mentor early in graduate school.
“To me,” noted Dr. Atkins, who wrote her dissertation on how sociology faculty from traditionally marginalized backgrounds teach about privilege and inequality, “the most important part of the doctoral journey was finding an advisor who understood and supported what I wanted from my education and who was willing to challenge me and push me, while not delaying me. I would encourage future PhDs to really take the time to get to know the faculty before choosing an advisor and to make sure that the members of their committee work well together.”
Your advisor will be the one who helps you refine arguments and strengthen your work so that by the time it reaches your dissertation committee, it’s ready. Next comes the writing process, which many students have said was the hardest part of their PhD. I’ve included this section on the writing process because this is where you’ll create all the material you’ll present during your defense, so it’s important to navigate it successfully. The writing process is intellectually grueling, it eats time and energy, and it’s where many students find themselves paddling frantically to avoid languishing in the “All-But-Dissertation” doldrums. The writing process is also likely to encroach on other parts of your life. For instance, Dr. Cynthia Trejo wrote her dissertation on college preparation for Latin American students while caring for a twelve-year-old, two adult children, and her aging parents—in the middle of a pandemic. When I asked Dr. Trejo how she did this, she replied:
“I don’t take the privilege of education for granted. My son knew I got up at 4:00 a.m. every morning, even on weekends, even on holidays; and it’s a blessing that he’s seen that work ethic and that dedication and the end result.”
Importantly, Dr. Trejo also exercised regularly and joined several online writing groups at UArizona. She mobilized her support network— her partner, parents, and even friends from high school to help care for her son.
The challenges you face during the writing process can vary by discipline. Jessika Iwanski is an MD/PhD student who in 2022 defended her dissertation on genetic mutations in sarcomeric proteins that lead to severe, neonatal dilated cardiomyopathy. She described her writing experience as “an intricate process of balancing many things at once with a deadline (defense day) that seems to be creeping up faster and faster— finishing up experiments, drafting the dissertation, preparing your presentation, filling out all the necessary documents for your defense and also, for MD/PhD students, beginning to reintegrate into the clinical world (reviewing your clinical knowledge and skill sets)!”
But no matter what your unique challenges are, writing a dissertation can take a toll on your mental health. Almost every student I spoke with said they saw a therapist and found their sessions enormously helpful. They also looked to the people in their lives for support. Dr. Betsy Labiner, who wrote her dissertation on Interiority, Truth, and Violence in Early Modern Drama, recommended, “Keep your loved ones close! This is so hard – the dissertation lends itself to isolation, especially in the final stages. Plus, a huge number of your family and friends simply won’t understand what you’re going through. But they love you and want to help and are great for getting you out of your head and into a space where you can enjoy life even when you feel like your dissertation is a flaming heap of trash.”
While you might sometimes feel like your dissertation is a flaming heap of trash, remember: a) no it’s not, you brilliant scholar, and b) the best dissertations aren’t necessarily perfect dissertations. According to Dr. Trejo, “The best dissertation is a done dissertation.” So don’t get hung up on perfecting every detail of your work. Think of your dissertation as a long-form assignment that you need to finish in order to move onto the next stage of your career. Many students continue revising after graduation and submit their work for publication or other professional objectives.
When you do finish writing your dissertation, it’s time to schedule your defense and invite friends and family to the part of the exam that’s open to the public. When that moment comes, how do you prepare to present your work and field questions about it?
“I reread my dissertation in full in one sitting,” said Dr. Labiner. “During all my time writing it, I’d never read more than one complete chapter at a time! It was a huge confidence boost to read my work in full and realize that I had produced a compelling, engaging, original argument.”
There are many other ways to prepare: create presentation slides and practice presenting them to friends or alone; think of questions you might be asked and answer them; think about what you want to wear or where you might want to sit (if you’re presenting on Zoom) that might give you a confidence boost. Iwanksi practiced presenting with her mentor and reviewed current papers to anticipate what questions her committee might ask. If you want to really get in the zone, you can emulate Dr. Labiner and do a full dress rehearsal on Zoom the day before your defense.
But no matter what you do, you’ll still be nervous:
“I had a sense of the logistics, the timing, and so on, but I didn’t really have clear expectations outside of the structure. It was a sort of nebulous three hours in which I expected to be nauseatingly terrified,” recalled Dr. Labiner.
“I expected it to be terrifying, with lots of difficult questions and constructive criticism/comments given,” agreed Iwanski.
“I expected it to be very scary,” said Dr. Trejo.
“I expected it to be like I was on trial, and I’d have to defend myself and prove I deserved a PhD,” said Dr Atkins.
And, eventually, inexorably, it will be time to present.
“It was actually very enjoyable” said Iwanski. “It was more of a celebration of years of work put into this project—not only by me but by my mentor, colleagues, lab members and collaborators! I felt very supported by all my committee members and, rather than it being a rapid fire of questions, it was more of a scientific discussion amongst colleagues who are passionate about heart disease and muscle biology.”
“I was anxious right when I logged on to the Zoom call for it,” said Dr. Labiner, “but I was blown away by the number of family and friends that showed up to support me. I had invited a lot of people who I didn’t at all think would come, but every single person I invited was there! Having about 40 guests – many of them joining from different states and several from different countries! – made me feel so loved and celebrated that my nerves were steadied very quickly. It also helped me go into ‘teaching mode’ about my work, so it felt like getting to lead a seminar on my most favorite literature.”
“In reality, my dissertation defense was similar to presenting at an academic conference,” said Dr. Atkins. “I went over my research in a practiced and organized way, and I fielded questions from the audience.
“It was a celebration and an important benchmark for me,” said Dr. Trejo. “It was a pretty happy day. Like the punctuation at the end of your sentence: this sentence is done; this journey is done. You can start the next sentence.”
If you want to learn more about dissertations in your own discipline, don’t hesitate to reach out to graduates from your program and ask them about their experiences. If you’d like to avail yourself of some of the resources that helped students in this article while they wrote and defended their dissertations, check out these links:
The Graduate Writing Lab
The Writing Skills Improvement Program
Campus Health Counseling and Psych Services
Thesis Defense: 10 Tips That Are Proven to Work
The thesis defense is a significant event in a graduate student’s journey towards getting a higher degree. Many students find this occasion daunting. But this need not be an unpleasant experience as there are ways to get rid of that uneasy feeling on that momentous day.
What preparations do you need to make your thesis defense a success? This article describes 10 tips that will give you the confidence that you need and prepare for the thesis defense adequately.
Table of Contents
Know the members of the panel in the thesis defense.
If possible, know the members of your panel, their habits, and personalities. It would be great if another graduate student had experience with those panel members to tell you how to respond to their questions.
Anticipate the questions
Anticipate the possible questions related to your study’s objectives, methodology, highlight of results, and conclusions. Write them down the day before the presentation and try your best to answer those questions.
- Why did you undertake your study? What gaps have you identified? (Additional tip: Give updated statistics)
- Why did you choose a particular framework as a guide in your study? What is unique in the conceptual framework that you prepared? What are its strengths and weaknesses (if any)? What are the pieces of evidence or essential indicators in the framework?
- What is the overarching theory that guided your study? (Additional tip: Mention the specific theory and its author)
- Why did you choose a particular model instead of any other model?
- How did you gather the data? (Additional tip: Cite the sources and justification)
- How did you analyze qualitative data obtained through your instruments or data gathering process (e.g. questionnaire, key informant interview, physical measurements)
- How did you ensure the reliability and validity of your data? (Additional tip: remember the triangulation method)
- What is the significant contribution of your study to the body of knowledge?
- What are the strengths and weaknesses of your study? (Additional tip: This refers to the scope and delimitation of your study)
- Why do you think that your thesis is appropriate or relevant to your degree? (Additional tip: refer to your course description
Dress in dark colors
Color is an essential factor of impact. You will appear intelligent and credible if you wear black or similar color. It would help if you looked authoritative as someone who is thoroughly familiar with the topic during the thesis defense.
Get plenty of rest before your presentation
It would help if you looked confident and energetic during the thesis defense. Get enough sleep before the day of the presentation to sustain your energy while facing the panel of examiners.
Highlight the important findings of your study
Use a few (3-5) bulleted short phrases in each slide during the thesis defense. Emphasize the point using a figure, statistics, or graphics that complement the idea [Additional tip: Show updated (with the last three to five years) statistics].
Talk at moderate speed
Make sure that your pacing allows the understanding of your report. See if your audience nods or shows an understanding of your point.
Directly answer the question then expound a little
Don’t beat around the bush. Go straight to the answer. Be honest if the question is not within the scope of your study. State its limitations. There will always be vague areas, but present the contribution of your research. Refer to the scope and delimitations and recommendations of your study. Ask for clarification if the question is not clear. Make sure that you address the issue of the panel.
Be thoroughly familiar with the literature that you have cited
Make sure that you are thoroughly familiar with the literature that you have cited during the thesis defense. Remember the highlights or findings of those studies as well as the limitations.
Don’t forget to thank the members of the panel for their inputs. Also, ensure that you have noted down those inputs.
Always remember the one-to-one correspondence
Ensure that for every objective that you mentioned, you have ready answers or pieces of evidence to show that you fulfilled those objectives. There should be a one-to-one correspondence in the Objectives –> Method –> Results and Discussion (includes corresponding tables or figures for each objective with explanations) –> Conclusion sections. You may prepare a matrix for each objective with the following columns for method, results and discussion, and conclusion/s.
©2020 August 9 P. A. Regoniel
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How to start a review of literature, research focus: police involvement in kidnapping and extortion, about the author, patrick regoniel.
Dr. Regoniel, a faculty member of the graduate school, served as consultant to various environmental research and development projects covering issues and concerns on climate change, coral reef resources and management, economic valuation of environmental and natural resources, mining, and waste management and pollution. He has extensive experience on applied statistics, systems modelling and analysis, an avid practitioner of LaTeX, and a multidisciplinary web developer. He leverages pioneering AI-powered content creation tools to produce unique and comprehensive articles in this website.
I’m having my thesis defense in an hour and these questions have helped me have something to focus on instead of panicking. Thank you for the tips they are quite helpful
Thanks for the additional tip Ijaye. 🙂
In addition to the effective tips mentioned above, for those who are not used to presenting or talking in front a lot of people, practicing in front of a mirror helps a lot. Recording your voice or taking a video while practicing can also help determine the length of the presentation.
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How to Start a Thesis Defense Presentation
After months and years of hard work, the moment to wrap things all up is finally here—your thesis defense presentation.
Whether you’re pursuing a master’s degree or doctorate, it’s the final step to that much-deserved achievement.
A thesis defense requires a lot of prior research and preparation. And as important as its content is, so is how you present it because a stunning design with clear data and text hierarchy plays an immense role in comprehension.
In this article, we’ll explore how you make your thesis defense .
The organization is the key to success. Establishing some previous steps before any project or work is essential for the result to be very positive. And the defense of a thesis could not be less.
Below, we will develop all the necessary steps to make a thesis defense presentation and we will give you some tips on how to carry them out.
How to Make an Amazing Presentation
Defining the concept of your thesis presentation, structuring your thesis defense presentation, how do you welcome the audience, tell them why you did this thesis, go into the content by explaining your thesis part by part, how to end the defense of the thesis.
After a long time of research and study, the content of your thesis is ready. Now, you have to find the best way to reflect all that effort behind your work. The information comes across more clearly if you use a visual format, as it attracts the attention of the audience. To present your thesis information in a clear, concise, and ultimately amazing way, you can use one of our unique thesis defense templates , available at Slidesgo.
As an example, in this article, we are going to use the Ecology Thesis template . With it, we will show you what to include in your presentation and how to make an attractive design.
After choosing the Google Slides and PowerPoint template that best suits the needs and subject matter of your thesis, it is time to define an overarching concept.
This is the main theme on which your designs are based. It must be relevant to your thesis as its purpose is to guide your selection of colors, typography, images, style, etc.
These must be portrayed in a way that supports the main message of your slides and should be aligned with your concept both visually and sociologically.
Once you have defined the concept, you will have to move on to the next step: structuring the content of your thesis. A good structure will show that there is a good organization behind the work, but most importantly: it will highlight your content.
In this article, we are going to show you a structure that could be a good example of how to structure a thesis, but you can adapt it to what your specific content requires.
Before you begin your thesis defense, you should welcome your audience. A good presentation will make you connect with your audience, which will result in more general interest in your work.
Use an appropriate language register (avoid informal language), but be approachable and natural.
"Welcome to the thesis defense on [the title of your thesis]". Next, introduce yourself with your name and give a short description of your background and occupation.
Don't forget to say “thank you for attending!”
To continue establishing that connection with your audience, explain the reasons that led you to do this thesis. Tell the professional reasons, and you can even say some personal ones, which will denote closeness, and your audience will appreciate it.
Now it's time to go into the content of the thesis ! After these preliminary steps, which are just as important as the thesis itself, it is time to explain part by part the structure (which you had previously established). We are going to propose a structure for your project, but the final decision is always yours!
First impressions are very important. Because your title page is the very first thing viewers see, it must be striking and impactful. It also sets the stage for the rest of your slides.
In one glance, the following should be established:
- Thesis defense topic
- Design style
For instance, the ecology thesis’s title page uses illustrations of a natural landscape to represent the topic of nature and a striking shade of blue to set the tone.
The sans serif font used depicts clean-cut typography and style and the thesis topic is written in large and bold typography, which draws attention to it immediately.
Right after your title page, include an introduction slide to provide more details about your topic.
This means explaining what you hope to answer with your research, its importance to your field, and why you chose it.
Continue to incorporate design elements relevant to your concept. This example has done just that by using a different natural landscape and including animals. For coherence, stick to the same typography and style throughout your presentation.
The aim of the literature review slide is to illustrate your knowledge of your thesis topic and any relevant theories.
Walls of text kill a design. For clarity, we recommend presenting this with bullet points. Each one should be short and sweet and only touch on the basics; you can elaborate on them in your speech.
Don’t forget to be consistent with your design. In our example, we’ve maintained the tone of blue chosen and added illustrations of leaves in the far corners of the slide.
Also, address similar research that has been done. This is to showcase your topic’s originality and, if relevant, how it’s different and/or an improvement from previously done research.
This is one of the most important parts of a thesis defense presentation.
It allows your viewers to assess the rationality and validity of your approach and consequently, the accuracy of your results.
A great methodology slide explains the what , how, and why :
- What method did you use for your research
- Why did you choose it
- How did you conduct it
Because this part of your thesis will be rather technical, the most effective way to aid understanding is by using graphics like charts and tables.
Keep text to a minimum to avoid drawing attention away from the graphics. If there is a text that must absolutely be included, consider using bullet points and keep them short.
Don’t forget to maintain color, style, and typography coherence.
The results slides are easily the most quantitative part of a thesis defense.
Here, your aim is to simply introduce your findings. Select the most impactful data and highlight them here.
Just as with methodology, use graphics like charts, tables, and graphs to portray the data in a clear way. And, once again, try not to write too much text. Let the visual content do the talking .
After you’ve introduced your data, the next step would be to help your audience make sense of it. That means understanding what it means in the context of your thesis research topic and your discipline.
Simply put, you should answer the question: What do the numbers mean?
The best way to approach this would be to do it as if you were creating an infographic .
Illustrations like icons are a quick and simple way to represent your message. It also reduces the amount of text on your slide, which makes the information much more digestible.
For a balanced thesis presentation, you should also address any outliers and anomalies.
To quote bestselling author Robin Sharma, “Starting strong is good. Finishing strong is epic.”
That’s exactly what to aim for in your conclusion.
Provide an overview of your thesis topic and remind your audience what you set out to answer with your research. In our example, we’ve used three icons accompanied by a short title and text.
Following that, reiterate the important points of your research results you want your audience to take away from your thesis defense presentation.
You can do so by expanding the next slide to have more icons and points, for example.
Don’t forget to address any shortcomings and limitations in your approach and extra points for suggesting possible improvements for future research.
We are going to give you a little tip to make your thesis defense a success. You can combine your defense with good public speaking techniques. Take a look at our article "How to become a great speaker" .
We hope this article has been of great help, have you already seen our templates to make the presentation of your thesis ? Choose the one that best suits your needs, we are sure that one of them will go perfectly with your thesis presentation!
Good luck from Slidesgo.
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- How to Write a Thesis Statement | 4 Steps & Examples
How to Write a Thesis Statement | 4 Steps & Examples
Published on January 11, 2019 by Shona McCombes . Revised on August 15, 2023 by Eoghan Ryan.
A thesis statement is a sentence that sums up the central point of your paper or essay . It usually comes near the end of your introduction .
Your thesis will look a bit different depending on the type of essay you’re writing. But the thesis statement should always clearly state the main idea you want to get across. Everything else in your essay should relate back to this idea.
You can write your thesis statement by following four simple steps:
- Start with a question
- Write your initial answer
- Develop your answer
- Refine your thesis statement
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Table of contents
What is a thesis statement, placement of the thesis statement, step 1: start with a question, step 2: write your initial answer, step 3: develop your answer, step 4: refine your thesis statement, types of thesis statements, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about thesis statements.
A thesis statement summarizes the central points of your essay. It is a signpost telling the reader what the essay will argue and why.
The best thesis statements are:
- Concise: A good thesis statement is short and sweet—don’t use more words than necessary. State your point clearly and directly in one or two sentences.
- Contentious: Your thesis shouldn’t be a simple statement of fact that everyone already knows. A good thesis statement is a claim that requires further evidence or analysis to back it up.
- Coherent: Everything mentioned in your thesis statement must be supported and explained in the rest of your paper.
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The thesis statement generally appears at the end of your essay introduction or research paper introduction .
The spread of the internet has had a world-changing effect, not least on the world of education. The use of the internet in academic contexts and among young people more generally is hotly debated. For many who did not grow up with this technology, its effects seem alarming and potentially harmful. This concern, while understandable, is misguided. The negatives of internet use are outweighed by its many benefits for education: the internet facilitates easier access to information, exposure to different perspectives, and a flexible learning environment for both students and teachers.
You should come up with an initial thesis, sometimes called a working thesis , early in the writing process . As soon as you’ve decided on your essay topic , you need to work out what you want to say about it—a clear thesis will give your essay direction and structure.
You might already have a question in your assignment, but if not, try to come up with your own. What would you like to find out or decide about your topic?
For example, you might ask:
After some initial research, you can formulate a tentative answer to this question. At this stage it can be simple, and it should guide the research process and writing process .
Now you need to consider why this is your answer and how you will convince your reader to agree with you. As you read more about your topic and begin writing, your answer should get more detailed.
In your essay about the internet and education, the thesis states your position and sketches out the key arguments you’ll use to support it.
The negatives of internet use are outweighed by its many benefits for education because it facilitates easier access to information.
In your essay about braille, the thesis statement summarizes the key historical development that you’ll explain.
The invention of braille in the 19th century transformed the lives of blind people, allowing them to participate more actively in public life.
A strong thesis statement should tell the reader:
- Why you hold this position
- What they’ll learn from your essay
- The key points of your argument or narrative
The final thesis statement doesn’t just state your position, but summarizes your overall argument or the entire topic you’re going to explain. To strengthen a weak thesis statement, it can help to consider the broader context of your topic.
These examples are more specific and show that you’ll explore your topic in depth.
Your thesis statement should match the goals of your essay, which vary depending on the type of essay you’re writing:
- In an argumentative essay , your thesis statement should take a strong position. Your aim in the essay is to convince your reader of this thesis based on evidence and logical reasoning.
- In an expository essay , you’ll aim to explain the facts of a topic or process. Your thesis statement doesn’t have to include a strong opinion in this case, but it should clearly state the central point you want to make, and mention the key elements you’ll explain.
If you want to know more about AI tools , college essays , or fallacies make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!
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A thesis statement is a sentence that sums up the central point of your paper or essay . Everything else you write should relate to this key idea.
The thesis statement is essential in any academic essay or research paper for two main reasons:
- It gives your writing direction and focus.
- It gives the reader a concise summary of your main point.
Without a clear thesis statement, an essay can end up rambling and unfocused, leaving your reader unsure of exactly what you want to say.
Follow these four steps to come up with a thesis statement :
- Ask a question about your topic .
- Write your initial answer.
- Develop your answer by including reasons.
- Refine your answer, adding more detail and nuance.
The thesis statement should be placed at the end of your essay introduction .
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Defending master’s thesis
- Thread starter arturolczykowski
- Start date Oct 7, 2022
- Oct 7, 2022
Hi, In Poland „defending a master’s thesis” is often a synonym of „getting a university degree”. So, some people would say for example „After defending my engineering thesis, I started working at „Company” as a software tester”. Would it be acceptable in English speaking countries?
Mód ar líne
It's grammatically ok but it doesn't work for a masters, nor does it necessarily mean what you suggest. Here, we only defend PhD theses, not masters. You can also defend a PhD and not pass, so it doesn't mean the same as "after getting my PhD".
No, defending the thesis is the specific process of arguing it in front of people. If this is successful, you get your degree.
arturolczykowski said: In Poland „defending a master’s thesis” is often a synonym of „getting a university degree”. Click to expand...
Yeah, I get what you mean. Would it change anything if I add „successfully”? After I successfully defended my engineering thesis, I started working at „Company” as a software tester”?
dojibear said: Do you mean "master's thesis" or "undergraduate thesis"? In the US, there are 3 levels of university degrees: - Bachelor's Degree (BA or BS) = college graduation (often 4 years) - Master's Degree (MA or MS) = further study after graduation (often 2 years) - Doctorate (Ph.D) = further study after a Master's degree (often several years) In all 3 cases, a thesis may be a requirement. But you might finish the thesis (including the spoken "defense") and still have other requirements to complete. The thesis is not always the last requirement. And there are Click to expand...
Moderato con anima (English Only)
The oral defence of a thesis is often called a viva (usually pronounced /ˈvaɪ.və/), so you can talk about 'passing my viva' if you like. Vivas are required for PhD theses in the UK, and are sometimes held for Masters level theses or dissertations as well.
- Oct 8, 2022
natkretep said: The oral defence of a thesis is often called a viva (usually pronounced /ˈvaɪ.və/), so you can talk about 'passing my viva' if you like. Vivas are required for PhD theses in the UK, and are sometimes held for Masters level theses or dissertations as well. Click to expand...
After I successfully defended my engineering thesis, I started working at „Company” as a software tester”. vs. After I got my Master’s Degree in engineering, I started working at „Company as a software tester.
arturolczykowski said: After I successfully defended my engineering thesis, I started working at „Company” as a software tester”. vs. After I got my Master’s Degree in engineering, I started working at „Company as a software tester. Click to expand...
arturolczykowski said: I know that. What I don’t know is would anyone use this kind of language instead of simply saying „After I got my (Master’s) Degree…”? Click to expand...
JulianStuart said: If the speaker wanted to communicate that the defence was tough. You could also "omit" "in engineering' or "as a softwware tester". It all depends on what you want to communicate. Click to expand...
arturolczykowski said: It doesn’t sound right to me. Click to expand...
arturolczykowski said: even after changing it to “After I successfully defended my engineering thesis, I started working ….”. It doesn’t sound right to me. I would stick to “After I got my Master’s Degree in engineering, I started working…” but some well educated but non native teachers of English told me that it’s ok Click to expand...
Moderator: EHL, Arabic, Hebrew, German(-Spanish)
The sentence is definitely not how one would normally communicate that one received a master's degree: for that, the mention of the thesis defence is unnecessary information. However, the sentence would be fine in some much rarer contexts. As part of a conversation about someone who initially did not defend successfully but was allowed to revise the text and defend again, and the second time was successful. In that situation, the topic of the defence could be as relevant as "engineering" or "company".
If you are in a country where Master's theses are defended (which is not the case in the US) and if the Master's thesis defense is a difficult and stressful hurdle (whether you pass it the first time or fail and have to re-defend it) I think it would be fine in context. The context could be something like the following: "I knew my thesis defense for my Master's would be difficult. The topic was controversial and I was afraid that I was not sufficiently eloquent to make my case for my desalinization model. I had been grateful that Professor Kutt-Throte was not on my committee, because he was a lifelong rival of my advisor and was highly skeptical of everything that came out of my advisor's lab. My worst fears were realized when Professor Bouquet, who had been my supporter all along, became gravely ill and had to take a medical leave of absence. The department chair filled his place on the committee by appointing Kutt-Throte. ... [description of the defense itself] ... After I successfully defended my engineering thesis, I started working ... "
arturolczykowski said: Would it be acceptable in English speaking countries? Click to expand...
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Definition of defend
defend , protect , shield , guard , safeguard mean to keep secure from danger or against attack.
defend denotes warding off actual or threatened attack.
protect implies the use of something (such as a covering) as a bar to the admission or impact of what may attack or injure.
shield suggests protective intervention in imminent danger or actual attack.
guard implies protecting with vigilance and force against expected danger.
safeguard implies taking precautionary protective measures against merely possible danger.
synonyms see in addition maintain
Examples of defend in a Sentence
These examples are programmatically compiled from various online sources to illustrate current usage of the word 'defend.' Any opinions expressed in the examples do not represent those of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback about these examples.
Middle English defenden, borrowed from Anglo-French & Latin; Anglo-French defendre, defender, going back to Latin dēfendere "to ward off, fend off, repel danger from, protect," from dē- de- + -fendere, presumably, "to strike, hit" (unattested without prefixes), going back to Indo-European *g wh en-d h -, extended determinate form of *g wh en-, *g wh n- "strike, kill," whence Hittite kuenzi "(s/he) kills," kunanzi "(they) kill," Sanskrit hánti "(s/he) strikes, kills," ghnánti "(they) strike, kill," Greek theínein "to strike," épethnon "(I) killed," Old Irish gonaid "(s/he) pierces, wounds, kills," Welsh gwan- "stab, pierce," Lithuanian genù, giñti "to drive (cattle, etc.)," Old Church Slavic ženǫ, gŭnati "to drive, chase out, expel"; also, from nominal derivative *g wh on-, Greek phónos "bloodshed, murder," and from *g wh ń̥-tih 2 , Germanic *gunþī, *gunþjō, whence Old English gūþ "battle, combat," Old Saxon gūđea, Old High German gund-, Old Icelandic gunnr, guðr
14th century, in the meaning defined at transitive sense 1a
Dictionary Entries Near defend
Cite this entry.
“Defend.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary , Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/defend. Accessed 17 Feb. 2024.
Kids definition of defend, legal definition, legal definition of defend, more from merriam-webster on defend.
Nglish: Translation of defend for Spanish Speakers
Britannica English: Translation of defend for Arabic Speakers
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Thesis defense Synonyms
- defense mechanism
Definitions for thesis.
- (noun) an idea or opinion that is put forth in a discussion or debate
- (noun) an idea that is the starting point for making a case or conducting an investigation
- (noun) an unproved statement put forward as a premise in an argument
Definitions for Defense
- (noun) means or method of defending
- (noun) an explanation that frees one from fault or blame
- (noun) the act of defending someone or something against attack or injury
- Growth and Jobs at Davos 2024: What to know
- How using genAI to fuse creativity and technology could reshape the way we work
1. Generative AI boosts productivity, unevenly
In 2024, most chief economists surveyed by the Forum believe generative AI will increase productivity and innovation in high-income countries. But for low-income countries, just over a third think this will be the case.
Productivity boosts are expected in knowledge-heavy industries, including IT and digital communications, financial and professional services, medical and healthcare services, retail, manufacturing, engineering and construction, energy and logistics.
These potential benefits are in "sharp contrast with concerns about the risks of automation, job displacement and degradation", says the report.
Almost three-quarters (73%) of chief economists surveyed "do not foresee a net positive impact on employment in low-income economies".
2. Digital jobs keep growing
By 2030, the number of global digital jobs is expected to rise to around 92 million. These are generally higher-paid roles, according to the Forum's white paper, The Rise of Digital Jobs .
Digital jobs could help to balance skill shortages in higher-income countries, while boosting opportunities for younger workers in lower-income countries: "If managed well, global digital jobs present an opportunity to utilize talent around the world, widening the talent pool available to employers and providing economic growth pathways to countries across the income spectrum."
3. Unemployment levels could rise
The labour market showed resilience in 2023, with employment remaining high, said Gilbert Fossoun Houngbo, Director-General of the International Labour Organization (ILO), in the Davos session ' What to Expect From Labour Markets '.
But he said ILO projections in early January suggested the global unemployment rate could rise from 5.1% to 5.2% in 2024, with an extra two million workers expected to be looking for jobs.
In the US, the jobs market remained stronger than expected for the first month of the year, with more than 350,000 new jobs added. The unemployment rate for January was 3.7%, close to a 50-year low, according to The Guardian .
Houngbo said ILO data shows inequalities persist between low- and high-income countries, while young people are 3.5 times more at risk of being unemployed than the rest of the adult population and "many workers are struggling to pay bills, which is very worrisome".
The impact of AI on jobs was not going to be "an employment apocalypse", but that reskilling, upskilling and lifelong learning would be key to managing the transition to augmentation, he stressed.
4. More pop-up offices
LinkedIn has seen a drop in the number of fully remote job postings, from a peak of 20% in April 2022, to just 8% in December 2023, said co-founder Allen Blue, speaking in a Davos session ' The Role of the Office is Still TBC ' .
But employee interest in taking remote or hybrid jobs remains high, at around 46% of applications.
"The office is going to be in competition with working from home ... that’s a good thing for the office," he said, as management would need to innovate and create a workplace environment that "emphasizes dynamic human interaction".
Young people taking their first job want human connection, so they're more interested in hybrid than remote roles.
Martin Kocher, Austria's Federal Minister of Labour and Economy, said that some Austrian villages are actually paying for pop-up community office spaces, because people don’t want to work from home, and they can make use of other amenities close by.
He predicted the development of more pop-up office spaces away from company headquarters.
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- Davos 2024: 6 innovative ideas on reskilling, upskilling and building a future-ready workforce
- From hierarchy to partnership: rethinking the employee/employer relationship in 2024
5. Skills will become even more important
With 23% of jobs expected to change in the next five years, according to the Future of Jobs Report, millions of people will need to move between declining and growing jobs.
Coursera CEO, Jeff Maggioncalda and Denis Machuel, CEO of Adecco Group AG, joined the Davos session ' The Race to Reskill ' to discuss the transferability of skills, and the potential of AI to help with personalized learning and productivity, which also levels the playing field for job opportunities globally.
But the key is in learning how to use AI and digital technologies, as Code.org Founder and CEO, Hadi Partovi, pointed out in the session ' Education Meets AI '.
When people think about job losses due to AI, he said, the risk isn't people losing their jobs to AI: "It's losing their job to somebody else who knows how to use AI. That is going to be a much greater displacement.
"It's not that the worker gets replaced by just a robot or a machine in most cases, especially for desk jobs, it's that some better or more educated worker can do that job because they can be twice as productive or three times as productive.
“The imperative is to teach how AI tools work to every citizen, and especially to our young people."
6. More women enter the workforce
In 2020, the World Bank found that potential gains from closing economic gender gaps could unlock a “gender dividend” of $172 trillion for the global economy.
But the Forum’s Global Gender Gap Report 2023 found that the Economic Participation and Opportunity gap has only closed by just over 60%.
Several sessions at Davos looked at how inclusion could benefit the economy , particularly by helping mothers return to the workforce, which could close skills gaps.
“There are 606 million women of working age in the world who are not working because of their unpaid care responsibilities, compared to 40 million men," Reshma Saujani, Founder and CEO of Moms First, explained in a session on the ‘ Workforce Behind the Workforce ’.
“At Moms First, we're working with over 130 companies in every sector, who are saying, ‘I don't have enough workers’. We are working with them to redesign their childcare packages and increase their subsidies.
“Childcare pays for itself. When you offer childcare to employees, you get higher worker productivity and lower rates of attrition, and greater rates of retention. We have to look at care as an economic issue that world leaders must actually do something about.”
Microsoft Publisher will no longer be supported after October 2026
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In October 2026, Microsoft Publisher will reach its end of life. After that time, it will no longer be included in Microsoft 365 and existing on-premises suites will no longer be supported. Until then, support for Publisher will continue and users can expect the same experience as today.
Many common Publisher scenarios including the creation of professionally branded templates, envelope and label printing, and producing customized calendars, business cards, and programs are already available in other Microsoft 365 apps such as Word and PowerPoint. You can find a wide array of customizable templates at Microsoft Create .
As we look ahead to the retirement of Microsoft Publisher, we are exploring modern ways to achieve common Publisher scenarios across applications like Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, and Designer. We will update as we have more to share.
How will this affect you:
You can continue to use Publisher with its current functionality until October 2026.
Support for the perpetual version of Publisher will end in October 2026, when Office LTSC 2021 reaches end of support. Microsoft 365 customers will not be able to access Publisher from that date forward.
We will provide updates as the date approaches.
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I’m a Neuroscientist. We’re Thinking About Biden’s Memory and Age in the Wrong Way.
By Charan Ranganath
Dr. Ranganath is a professor of psychology and neuroscience and the director of the Dynamic Memory Lab at the University of California, Davis, and the author of the forthcoming book “Why We Remember: Unlocking Memory’s Power to Hold On to What Matters.”
The special counsel Robert K. Hur’s report, in which he declined to prosecute President Biden for his handling of classified documents, also included a much-debated assessment of Mr. Biden’s cognitive abilities.
“Mr. Biden would likely present himself to a jury, as he did during our interview with him, as a sympathetic, well-meaning, elderly man with a poor memory.”
As an expert on memory, I can assure you that everyone forgets. In fact, most of the details of our lives — the people we meet, the things we do and the places we go — will inevitably be reduced to memories that capture only a small fraction of those experiences.
It is normal to be more forgetful as you get older. Generally, memory functions begin to decline in our 30s and continue to fade into old age. However, age in and of itself doesn’t indicate the presence of memory deficits that would affect an individual’s ability to perform in a demanding leadership role. And an apparent memory lapse may or may not be consequential, depending on the reasons it occurred.
There is forgetting, and there is Forgetting. If you’re over the age of 40, you’ve most likely experienced the frustration of trying to grasp that slippery word on the tip of your tongue. Colloquially, this might be described as forgetting, but most memory scientists would call this retrieval failure, meaning that the memory is there but we just can’t pull it up when we need it. On the other hand, Forgetting (with a capital F) is when a memory is seemingly lost or gone altogether. Inattentively conflating the names of the leaders of two countries would fall in the first category, whereas being unable to remember that you had ever met the president of Egypt would fall into the second.
Over the course of typical aging, we see changes in the functioning of the prefrontal cortex, a brain area that plays a starring role in many of our day-to-day memory successes and failures. These changes mean that as we get older, we tend to be more distractible and often struggle to pull up words or names we’re looking for. Remembering events takes longer, and it requires more effort, and we can’t catch errors as quickly as we used to. This translates to a lot more forgetting and a little more Forgetting.
Many of the special counsel’s observations about Mr. Biden’s memory seem to fall in the category of forgetting, meaning that they are more indicative of a problem with finding the right information from memory than Forgetting. Calling up the date that an event occurred, like the last year of Mr. Biden’s vice presidency or the year of his son’s death, is a complex measure of memory. Remembering that an event took place is different from being able to put a date on when it happened, which is more challenging with increased age. The president very likely has many memories, even though he could not immediately pull up dates in the stressful (and more immediately pressing) context of the Oct. 7 attack on Israel.
Other “memory” issues highlighted in the media are not so much cases of forgetting as they are of difficulties in the articulation of facts and knowledge. For instance, in July 2023, Mr. Biden mistakenly stated in a speech that “we have over 100 people dead,” when he should have said, “over one million.” He has struggled with a stutter since childhood, and research suggests that managing a stutter demands prefrontal resources that would normally enable people to find the right word or at least quickly correct errors after the fact.
Americans are understandably concerned about the advanced age of the two top contenders in the coming presidential election (Mr. Biden is 81, and Donald Trump is 77), although some of these concerns are rooted in cultural stereotypes and fears around aging. The fact is that there is a huge degree of variability in cognitive aging. Age is, on average, associated with decreased memory, but studies that follow up the same person over several years have shown that although some older adults show precipitous declines over time, other super-agers remain as sharp as ever.
Mr. Biden is the same age as Harrison Ford, Paul McCartney and Martin Scorsese. He’s also a bit younger than Jane Fonda (86) and a lot younger than the Berkshire Hathaway C.E.O., Warren Buffett (93). All these individuals are considered to be at the top of their professions, and yet I would not be surprised if they are more forgetful and absent-minded than when they were younger. In other words, an individual’s age does not say anything definitive about the person’s cognitive status or where it will head in the near future.
I can’t speak to the cognitive status of any of the presidential candidates, but I can say that, rather than focus on candidates’ ages per se, we should consider whether they have the capabilities to do the job. Public perception of a person’s cognitive state is often determined by superficial factors, such as physical presence, confidence and verbal fluency, but these aren’t necessarily relevant to one’s capacity to make consequential decisions about the fate of this country. Memory is surely relevant, but other characteristics, such as knowledge of the relevant facts and emotion regulation — both of which are relatively preserved and might even improve with age — are likely to be of equal or greater importance.
Ultimately, we are due for a national conversation about what we should expect in terms of the cognitive and emotional health of our leaders.
And that should be informed by science, not politics.
Charan Ranganath is a professor of psychology and neuroscience and the director of the Dynamic Memory Lab at the University of California, Davis, and the author of “ Why We Remember: Unlocking Memory’s Power to Hold On to What Matters .”
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noun as in negation
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On this page you'll find 619 synonyms, antonyms, and words related to anti-thesis, such as: antithesis, renunciation, repudiation, antonym, blank, and cancellation.
From Roget's 21st Century Thesaurus, Third Edition Copyright © 2013 by the Philip Lief Group.
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