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80 International Trade Law Research Topics

FacebookXEmailWhatsAppRedditPinterestLinkedInFor students embarking on the exhilarating journey of academic research, the realm of International Trade Law unfolds as a captivating and multifaceted domain brimming with boundless possibilities. As you contemplate your thesis or dissertation, the crucial first step is, undoubtedly, selecting from the myriad research topics that the field of International Trade Law offers. Whether […]

International Trade Law Topics

For students embarking on the exhilarating journey of academic research, the realm of International Trade Law unfolds as a captivating and multifaceted domain brimming with boundless possibilities. As you contemplate your thesis or dissertation, the crucial first step is, undoubtedly, selecting from the myriad research topics that the field of International Trade Law offers. Whether you are an undergraduate, a master’s candidate, or a doctoral scholar, the quest for the perfect research topic can be both exhilarating and overwhelming. But fear not, for in this comprehensive guide, we will explore diverse research topics that cater to students at every level of their academic journey. So, let’s embark on this voyage of discovery together, delving deep into the intricate world of International Trade Law research topics to ignite your academic passions and set your scholarly pursuits ablaze.

International Trade Law, often called “World Trade Law” or “Global Trade Law,” is the branch of legal studies that governs the rules, regulations, and agreements that shape the international exchange of goods and services among nations. This multifaceted discipline encompasses various legal principles, treaties, and institutions designed to facilitate, regulate, and resolve disputes in the complex web of international trade relationships.

A List Of Potential Research Topics In International Trade Law:

  • Trade disputes in the pharmaceutical sector: trips agreement and access to medicines.
  • A critical review of the legal aspects of trade in counterfeit and pirated goods.
  • Examining the compliance mechanisms of trade agreements in the digital age.
  • Exploring the implications of digital trade on traditional trade law frameworks.
  • Evaluating the compliance and enforcement mechanisms of regional trade agreements.
  • Investigating the challenges of trade facilitation in landlocked developing countries.
  • The UK’s approach to digital trade regulation: lessons from post-Brexit trade deals.
  • The role of state-owned enterprises in international trade: regulatory approaches.
  • A comprehensive review of trade dispute settlement mechanisms: achievements and challenges.
  • Trade and sustainable development: a critical review of progress and pitfalls.
  • Trade in cultural heritage: protecting and preserving cultural property in international commerce.
  • The role of the UK in reimagining global trade governance outside the EU.
  • A comparative review of trade remedy measures across different jurisdictions.
  • Trade and humanitarian relief: legal frameworks for emergency aid.
  • Environmental standards in UK trade agreements: a case study analysis.
  • The nexus between trade and human rights: a critical literature review.
  • The impact of trade agreements on indigenous rights and traditional knowledge protection.
  • The evolution of investor-state dispute settlement: a historical review.
  • International Trade Law and Family Law : “Cross-Border Child Custody Disputes in International Trade Contexts.
  • The role of competition law in international trade agreements.
  • The UK’s Role in international trade Agreements post-Brexit challenges and opportunities.
  • Investigating the trade implications of climate change adaptation and mitigation policies.
  • The role of trade in intellectual property rights: a critical review of trips agreement implementation.
  • Investigating the legal challenges of trade in genetically modified organisms (GMOs).
  • Trade facilitation measures and their impact on developing countries’ exports.
  • The role of bilateral investment treaties (bits) in promoting foreign direct investment (FDI).
  • The role of UK trade promotion agencies in facilitating export growth.
  • Evaluating the legal framework for UK-India trade relations.
  • A comparative review of regional economic integration models and their effects on trade.
  • The role of competition law in international trade: a global review of approaches.
  • Revisiting the notion of most-favoured-nation (MFN) treatment in modern trade agreements.
  • Assessing the role of WTO dispute settlement mechanisms in resolving trade conflicts.
  • The role of non-tariff measures in shaping international trade relations.
  • Trade and gender equality: assessing the impact of trade policies on women’s empowerment.
  • Unpacking the impact of trade barriers on agricultural exports from developing countries.
  • Analyzing the interplay between trade and labour standards in global supply chains.
  • Trade in pharmaceuticals: balancing access to medicines and patent protection.
  • Analyzing the legal framework for trade in endangered species.
  • The legal implications of trade-related cybersecurity threats.
  • Evaluating the influence of intellectual property rights on international trade relations.
  • The impact of trade preferences on developing countries: a longitudinal review.
  • The legal framework for trade in services: a comparative study of two and regional agreements.
  • A review of trade facilitation measures and their impact on global trade efficiency.
  • Post-covid-19 environmental considerations in international trade law.
  • Investigating the legal challenges of trade in services under gats.
  • The legal aspects of trade in counterfeit and pirated goods.
  • Assessing the resilience of global supply chains in a post-covid-19 world.
  • Investigating the role of trade in the global response to public health crises.
  • Brexit and its impact on UK-EU trade relations: a comprehensive legal analysis.
  • The post-covid-19 landscape of international trade: a comprehensive review.
  • The role of trade in sustainable development goals (SDGs) achievement.
  • International Trade Law and Health Law : “Impact of Trade Agreements on Access to Essential Medicines.
  • Trade digitalization and post-pandemic recovery: legal challenges and solutions.
  • Investigating the impact of COVID-19 on trade remedies and protectionist measures.
  • A review of state-owned enterprises in international trade: recent developments and regulatory challenges.
  • The impact of regional economic integration on trade relations: a comparative analysis.
  • The nexus between environmental protection and international trade: a legal perspective.
  • Analyzing the legal aspects of vaccine distribution in international trade law.
  • A review of trade policy uncertainty and its economic impacts.
  • The impact of trade policy uncertainty on global trade flows.
  • Examining the legal framework for cross-border e-commerce transactions in international trade.
  • The implications of Brexit on UK-EU trade relations: a post-transition period analysis.
  • Trade in cultural goods and services: preserving cultural diversity in international trade.
  • Trade and gender equality: a comprehensive review of the gender dimension in trade agreements.
  • Analyzing the legal aspects of trade in artificial intelligence and data.
  • The impact of Northern Ireland protocol on intra-uk trade: legal challenges.
  • Assessing the role of trade finance in facilitating global trade.
  • Analyzing the use of trade remedy measures in response to currency manipulation.
  • The role of e-commerce in shaping the future of international trade law.
  • Trade in the digital age: a review of legal frameworks and gaps.
  • Analyzing the impact of trade agreements on small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in developing countries.
  • Reviewing the legal framework for service trade: focusing on mode 4 (movement of natural persons).
  • The role of telemedicine in international trade: regulatory implications after COVID-19.
  • Evaluating the effect of travel restrictions on international trade and tourism.
  • The role of trade preferences in promoting economic development in least developed countries.
  • Analyzing the impact of trade agreements on income inequality.
  • The future of trade agreements in a post-pandemic era: lessons from COVID-19.
  • The role of investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) mechanisms in international trade and investment agreements.
  • Investigating trade remedies in the age of protectionism: a comparative study.
  • Trade in cryptocurrencies: regulatory challenges and opportunities.

In the ever-evolving landscape of International Trade Law, the choices for research topics are as diverse as the global marketplace itself. Whether you’re an undergraduate seeking to delve into the basics, a master’s student exploring the intricacies of trade agreements, or a doctoral candidate pushing the boundaries of trade dispute resolution, the world of research topics is rich and vast. As you embark on your academic journey, remember that the key to a successful thesis or dissertation lies in the depth of your research and the passion and curiosity you bring to your chosen topic. So, choose wisely, and let your research journey in International Trade Law be a testament to your dedication to understanding and shaping the future of global commerce.

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International Law Research Paper Topics

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This page presents a comprehensive collection of international law research paper topics , curated to aid students studying law in their research endeavors. International law is a multifaceted field with diverse areas of study, and this page aims to provide students with an extensive list of topics that can serve as a foundation for their research papers. By exploring these topics, students can delve into various aspects of international law, such as human rights, criminal law, environmental law, trade law, and humanitarian law, among others. This page also offers insights into how to choose compelling international law research paper topics, tips on writing a coherent and impactful paper, and highlights the custom international law research paper writing services provided by iResearchNet. The ultimate goal is to empower students to embark on an enriching and successful academic journey in the realm of international law research.

100 International Law Research Paper Topics

International law encompasses a vast array of subjects, reflecting the intricate and interconnected nature of global affairs. As students of law, exploring these topics can open new horizons and deepen their understanding of how international legal frameworks shape our world. This comprehensive list presents 10 categories, each comprising 10 diverse and thought-provoking international law research paper topics. Whether you are interested in human rights, environmental protection, trade regulations, or armed conflicts, these topics offer a wealth of opportunities for academic exploration and intellectual growth.

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  • The Universality of Human Rights: A Global Perspective
  • Human Rights and Armed Conflicts: Challenges and Protections
  • Gender Equality and Women’s Rights in International Law
  • The Role of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in Promoting Human Rights
  • Freedom of Speech and Expression in the Digital Age
  • Human Rights Violations and the Responsibility to Protect (R2P)
  • Children’s Rights and Child Protection Laws Internationally
  • The Right to Asylum: Refugee Protection and International Law
  • Combating Human Trafficking: International Legal Frameworks
  • Indigenous Peoples’ Rights and Cultural Heritage Preservation
  • Climate Change and Global Efforts for Environmental Protection
  • Biodiversity Conservation and the Convention on Biological Diversity
  • Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and Environmental Justice
  • Transboundary Pollution and International Liability
  • The Role of International Courts and Tribunals in Environmental Disputes
  • The Precautionary Principle in International Environmental Law
  • Oceans Governance and the Protection of Marine Resources
  • International Agreements on Wildlife Conservation and Endangered Species
  • Indigenous Peoples and Environmental Rights: Perspectives and Challenges
  • The Economics of Environmental Protection: Balancing Trade and Conservation
  • World Trade Organization (WTO) and the Multilateral Trading System
  • Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) and Regional Economic Integration
  • Investor-State Dispute Settlement (ISDS) Mechanisms in Trade Agreements
  • Intellectual Property Rights and International Trade
  • Trade and Labor Standards: Addressing Social Issues in Global Commerce
  • Environmental Protection in International Trade: Conflicts and Synergies
  • Trade Remedies: Anti-dumping, Countervailing, and Safeguard Measures
  • Trade Liberalization and Economic Development: Case Studies
  • Cross-Border E-Commerce and Digital Trade Regulations
  • Challenges of Trade in Services: Legal and Regulatory Perspectives
  • The International Criminal Court (ICC) and Its Role in Ending Impunity
  • Prosecuting War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity: Legal Challenges
  • Genocide Prevention and the Responsibility to Prosecute
  • The Evolution of International Criminal Law: From Nuremberg to the ICC
  • The Principle of Universal Jurisdiction: Holding Perpetrators Accountable
  • Truth and Reconciliation Commissions in Post-Conflict Societies
  • The Role of the United Nations in Combating International Crimes
  • War Criminals and Refugees: The Intersection of Criminal and Migration Law
  • Cyberwarfare and the Application of International Criminal Law
  • Combating Terrorism: Legal Approaches and Human Rights Concerns
  • The Geneva Conventions and the Protection of War Victims
  • Targeted Killings and Drones: The Legal Challenges of Modern Warfare
  • The Principle of Proportionality in Armed Conflicts
  • War Crimes and Accountability in Non-International Armed Conflicts
  • The Protection of Cultural Property in Armed Conflicts
  • Autonomous Weapons and the Ethics of Lethal Autonomous Systems (LAS)
  • The Role of National Courts in Prosecuting War Crimes
  • The Humanitarian Impact of Economic Sanctions and Trade Embargoes
  • Children in Armed Conflicts: From Recruitment to Rehabilitation
  • Humanitarian Assistance and the Challenges of Providing Aid in Conflict Zones
  • Comparative Constitutional Law: Analyzing Different Legal Systems and Their Impact on Global Governance
  • The Role of International Law in Shaping Domestic Constitutions
  • Constitutional Design and State Building in Post-Conflict Societies
  • Human Rights and Constitutional Protections: Assessing the Impact of International Treaties
  • Constitutionalism and the Rule of Law: Ensuring Effective Governance in International Relations
  • Judicial Independence and the Enforcement of Constitutional Rights in International Contexts
  • The Impact of International Institutions on National Constitutions
  • The Right to Privacy in the Digital Age: Balancing National Security and Civil Liberties
  • Federalism and the Division of Powers in Constitutional Design
  • The Role of Constitutional Courts in Protecting Democratic Principles
  • Cross-Border Mergers and Acquisitions: Legal and Regulatory Challenges
  • International Commercial Arbitration: Enforcement and Recognition of Awards
  • Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Multinational Corporations
  • Foreign Investment Protection and Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs)
  • International Contract Law and Choice of Law Clauses
  • Dispute Resolution in International Trade: Litigation vs. Arbitration
  • Intellectual Property Rights and International Business Transactions
  • International Trade Law and the World Trade Organization (WTO)
  • Corporate Governance and Compliance in International Business
  • Environmental and Social Responsibility in International Business
  • Double Taxation Treaties: Legal Implications and Challenges
  • Transfer Pricing and Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS)
  • Tax Havens and Their Impact on Global Taxation
  • Taxation of Digital Economy and E-commerce Transactions
  • Taxation of Multinational Corporations: Fairness and Equity Concerns
  • Tax Avoidance vs. Tax Evasion: Legal Distinctions and Consequences
  • Taxation of Foreign Source Income and Territorial vs. Worldwide Tax Systems
  • Developing Countries and International Taxation: Bridging the Gap
  • The Role of International Organizations in Shaping Global Tax Policies
  • Addressing Tax Challenges Arising from the COVID-19 Pandemic
  • The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and Its Implementation
  • Maritime Boundaries and Dispute Resolution in the South China Sea
  • Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) and Marine Resource Management
  • Freedom of Navigation and Maritime Security in the Indian Ocean
  • Environmental Protection in the High Seas: Addressing Pollution and Overfishing
  • Piracy and Armed Robbery at Sea: Legal Responses and Jurisdictional Challenges
  • Submarine Cables and Cybersecurity in International Waters
  • The Role of International Tribunals in Resolving Maritime Disputes
  • Deep Sea Mining and the Regulation of Exploitation of Marine Resources
  • Indigenous Rights and Traditional Knowledge in Marine Conservation
  • Diplomatic Negotiations and Conflict Resolution in International Relations
  • The Role of Mediation in Resolving International Disputes
  • International Arbitration: Institutional Frameworks and Best Practices
  • The Use of Force and Armed Conflict: Legal Perspectives on Peacekeeping
  • Compliance with International Court Judgments and Decisions
  • The Settlement of Territorial Disputes: Case Studies and Legal Approaches
  • The Role of Non-State Actors in International Conflict Resolution
  • The Legality of Targeted Sanctions and Economic Coercion
  • The Use of International Courts and Tribunals in Human Rights Disputes
  • The Role of Regional Organizations in Conflict Mediation and Resolution

In conclusion, the field of international law offers a vast array of research topics that delve into critical global issues, ranging from human rights and environmental protection to trade and business regulations. Scholars and students of law can explore the complexities of international relations, the challenges of cross-border disputes, and the ever-evolving legal frameworks that shape the international community. The comprehensive list of international law research paper topics provided above serves as a starting point for students to delve deeper into their areas of interest and contribute to the understanding and development of international law. Through diligent research and critical analysis, they can further advance the principles of justice, equality, and cooperation on the global stage.

Exploring the Range of International Law Research Paper Topics

International law is a complex and dynamic field that governs the interactions between nations and other actors in the global community. As a crucial component of the global legal system, international law encompasses a diverse range of topics that have significant implications for peace, security, human rights, trade, and cooperation among nations. Researching international law research paper topics offers students a unique opportunity to delve into the intricacies of international relations, diplomatic relations, and the role of international organizations in promoting peace and stability.

  • The Sources of International Law : This topic explores the various sources of international law, including treaties, customary international law, general principles of law, and decisions of international courts and tribunals. Students can investigate the hierarchy of these sources and their application in resolving disputes between states.
  • International Human Rights Law : This area of international law deals with the protection and promotion of human rights on a global scale. Research topics may cover issues like the role of international human rights organizations, the enforcement of human rights treaties, and the impact of human rights violations on international relations.
  • International Humanitarian Law : Also known as the law of armed conflict or the law of war, this branch of international law governs the conduct of parties during armed conflicts. Students can explore topics such as the protection of civilians in armed conflicts, the use of force in self-defense, and the prosecution of war crimes.
  • International Environmental Law : With growing concerns about climate change and environmental degradation, international environmental law has become increasingly relevant. Research topics may include international agreements on climate change, biodiversity conservation, and the responsibility of states for transboundary environmental harm.
  • International Criminal Law : This field focuses on the prosecution of individuals for international crimes, such as genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes. Students can investigate the role of international criminal tribunals, the challenges of obtaining evidence in international cases, and the pursuit of justice for victims of international crimes.
  • International Trade Law : International trade is essential for global economic development and cooperation. Research topics in this area may cover international trade agreements, dispute settlement mechanisms in trade disputes, and the impact of trade policies on developing nations.
  • Law of the Sea : This branch of international law governs the use and protection of the world’s oceans and resources. Students can explore topics such as the rights and responsibilities of states in their maritime zones, the protection of marine biodiversity, and the resolution of disputes over territorial waters.
  • International Investment Law : As globalization continues to shape economic relationships, international investment law has gained prominence. Research topics may include the regulation of foreign direct investment, investor-state dispute settlement mechanisms, and the balance between investor rights and host state regulatory powers.
  • International Arbitration and Mediation : International dispute resolution is essential for maintaining peaceful relations among states. Students can explore topics such as the effectiveness of international arbitration and mediation in resolving conflicts, the role of international organizations in facilitating dispute resolution, and the enforcement of arbitral awards.
  • Cybersecurity and International Law : With the rise of cyber threats and cyber warfare, international law has grappled with issues of cyber sovereignty, cyber espionage, and the application of existing legal principles to cyberspace. Research topics may delve into the challenges of attributing cyber-attacks, the development of international norms for responsible state behavior in cyberspace, and the protection of human rights in the digital age.

In conclusion, international law offers a vast array of research paper topics that reflect the complexities and challenges of the global legal landscape. As students delve into these topics, they gain a deeper understanding of the intricacies of international relations, human rights, trade, and conflict resolution. Exploring the multifaceted nature of international law research allows students to critically analyze the role of law in shaping the conduct of states and the broader international community, fostering a deeper appreciation for the significance of international law in today’s interconnected world.

How to Choose International Law Research Paper Topics

Selecting a compelling and relevant research paper topic is essential to the success of any academic endeavor. In the context of international law, choosing the right research topic requires careful consideration of various factors that can shape the scope and impact of the research. Whether you are a law student, an aspiring international lawyer, or a researcher interested in global legal issues, the following guide provides valuable insights on how to choose international law research paper topics that are engaging, insightful, and contribute meaningfully to the field of international law.

  • Identify Your Area of Interest : International law is a vast and diverse field encompassing numerous sub-disciplines, including human rights law, environmental law, international trade law, and more. Start by identifying your specific area of interest within international law. Reflect on the subjects that intrigue you the most and the issues you are passionate about. This will serve as the foundation for selecting a research topic that resonates with your academic and professional aspirations.
  • Stay Abreast of Current Developments : International law is constantly evolving to address contemporary global challenges and opportunities. Keeping up to date with current international legal developments, landmark cases, and significant treaties and agreements can provide valuable inspiration for research topics. Consider exploring emerging issues and debates in the field, as these can offer unique opportunities for original research and innovative insights.
  • Analyze Relevant Legal Frameworks : International law operates within a complex web of legal frameworks, including treaties, conventions, and customary international law. Analyzing these legal sources can help you identify gaps, contradictions, or areas where further research is needed. Topics that delve into the interpretation and application of international legal instruments can add depth and value to your research.
  • Consider Timeliness and Relevance : A relevant and timely research topic is more likely to capture the attention of readers and contribute to ongoing discussions in the field. Consider the significance of your chosen topic in the context of current global events, policy debates, or emerging challenges. Topics that address pressing international issues, such as climate change, human rights violations, or cybersecurity threats, can have a significant impact on both academic and policy circles.
  • Review Existing Literature : Conduct a thorough literature review to understand the existing body of research on your chosen topic. This will help you identify gaps in the literature that you can explore in your research. Additionally, reviewing existing studies can provide insights into the methodologies and approaches used by other researchers, informing your own research design.
  • Balance Complexity and Feasibility : While it is essential to select a topic that reflects the complexities of international law, it is equally important to ensure that your research is feasible within the scope and limitations of your academic assignment or project. Avoid overly broad or ambitious topics that may be challenging to address comprehensively within the available time and resources.
  • Consult with Professors and Experts : Seek guidance and advice from your professors, academic advisors, or experts in the field of international law. They can provide valuable insights into potential research topics, relevant literature, and methodologies. Engaging in discussions with experienced scholars can help refine your research question and add depth to your analysis.
  • Focus on Practical Implications : Consider the practical implications of your research topic in the real world. How might your findings impact international relations, legal practices, or policymaking? Research that offers practical solutions to global challenges or sheds light on pressing legal issues can have a more significant impact on the field of international law.
  • Address Controversial Issues : International law often involves contentious and complex topics that evoke strong opinions and debates. Embracing controversial issues can lead to thought-provoking research that challenges existing norms and perceptions. However, ensure that you approach such topics with sensitivity and a commitment to unbiased analysis.
  • Conduct a Preliminary Study : Before finalizing your research topic, conduct a preliminary study to gather relevant information and assess the availability of data and resources. This will help you determine whether your chosen topic is viable and whether you can access the necessary materials to conduct a comprehensive study.

In conclusion, choosing the right international law research paper topic is a critical step in producing a successful and impactful piece of academic work. By identifying your area of interest, staying informed about current developments, analyzing legal frameworks, and considering the timeliness and relevance of your topic, you can select a research question that is both intellectually stimulating and practically significant. Engage with existing literature, seek guidance from experts, and balance the complexity and feasibility of your research to ensure a rewarding and insightful exploration of international law issues.

How to Write an International Law Research Paper

Writing an international law research paper requires careful planning, rigorous research, and a structured approach to presenting your arguments and findings. Whether you are a law student or a seasoned researcher, mastering the art of academic writing in the field of international law is essential to communicate your ideas effectively and contribute to the broader legal discourse. This section provides a comprehensive guide on how to write an international law research paper, from choosing a suitable research question to crafting a well-organized and persuasive paper.

  • Define Your Research Question : The first step in writing an international law research paper is to define a clear and focused research question. Your research question should be specific, relevant, and aligned with your area of interest within international law. It should address a significant legal issue or gap in the literature and demonstrate your research objectives.
  • Conduct a Thorough Literature Review : Before diving into your research, conduct a comprehensive literature review to understand the existing scholarship on your chosen topic. This will help you identify key debates, theoretical frameworks, and gaps in the literature that your research can address. A strong literature review serves as the foundation for your research paper and provides context for your study.
  • Develop a Well-Structured Outline : Organize your research paper with a clear and logical structure. Create an outline that includes an introduction, literature review, methodology, main body sections, analysis of findings, and conclusion. Each section should flow seamlessly into the next, guiding the reader through your research process.
  • Craft a Compelling Introduction : The introduction sets the tone for your research paper and should capture the reader’s attention. Start with a hook or a thought-provoking question related to your research topic. Provide background information on the issue at hand and clearly state your research question and objectives. Conclude the introduction with a strong thesis statement that outlines the main argument of your paper.
  • Conduct Rigorous Research : International law research papers require a robust research methodology. Depending on your research question, you may use various methods, such as legal analysis, case studies, empirical research, or comparative analysis. Ensure that you use credible and authoritative sources for your research and cite them properly using the appropriate citation style (e.g., APA, MLA, Chicago).
  • Analyze and Present Your Findings : In the main body of your research paper, present your findings and analyze them in-depth. Use a clear and coherent structure to present your arguments and evidence. Use relevant case law, treaties, and legal principles to support your analysis and draw well-reasoned conclusions.
  • Address Counterarguments : Acknowledge and address counterarguments to your research findings. Demonstrating that you have considered opposing viewpoints and providing a thoughtful rebuttal strengthens the credibility and persuasiveness of your research.
  • Consider Policy Implications : In international law, research often has practical implications for policymakers and legal practitioners. Discuss the potential policy implications of your findings and offer recommendations for addressing the legal issue at hand. This demonstrates the real-world relevance of your research.
  • Maintain a Cohesive Writing Style : Use clear and concise language throughout your research paper. Avoid jargon and technical terms that may confuse the reader. Maintain a cohesive writing style, ensuring that each paragraph and section contributes to the overall argument of your paper.
  • Write a Strong Conclusion : The conclusion is your opportunity to summarize your key findings, restate your thesis statement, and highlight the significance of your research. Avoid introducing new information in the conclusion and instead, focus on leaving the reader with a lasting impression of your research’s importance and potential impact.
  • Edit and Revise : After completing your first draft, take the time to edit and revise your research paper. Check for clarity, coherence, grammar, and proper citation. Consider seeking feedback from peers or professors to gain valuable insights and improve the overall quality of your paper.
  • Review Formatting and Citations : Ensure that your research paper adheres to the required formatting guidelines, such as font size, margins, and line spacing. Double-check your citations and references to avoid plagiarism and maintain academic integrity.

By following these steps and guidelines, you can craft a well-structured, persuasive, and impactful international law research paper. Remember to approach your research with curiosity and dedication, as it is through thorough exploration and analysis that you can make meaningful contributions to the field of international law.

iResearchNet’s Custom Research Paper Writing Services

At iResearchNet, we understand the challenges that students and researchers face when tasked with writing a compelling international law research paper. International law is a complex and ever-evolving field, and producing a high-quality research paper requires extensive knowledge, critical thinking skills, and time. To help you overcome these challenges and excel in your academic pursuits, we offer custom international law research paper writing services that cater to your specific needs and requirements.

  • Expert Degree-Holding Writers : Our team of writers consists of legal experts with advanced degrees in international law. They have a deep understanding of the complexities of the subject and possess the expertise to deliver well-researched and meticulously crafted research papers.
  • Custom Written Works : We believe in providing personalized solutions to each client. When you choose our custom writing services, you can be confident that your research paper will be tailored to your unique research question, instructions, and academic level.
  • In-Depth Research : Our writers are skilled in conducting thorough research on a wide range of international law topics. They have access to a vast array of academic resources, legal databases, and scholarly journals to ensure that your research paper is well-grounded in current and authoritative sources.
  • Custom Formatting : Our writers are well-versed in different citation styles commonly used in academic writing, including APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, and Harvard. They will format your research paper according to your specified style guidelines.
  • Top Quality : At iResearchNet, quality is our top priority. We are committed to delivering research papers that meet the highest academic standards and demonstrate critical thinking, analytical skills, and originality.
  • Customized Solutions : Whether you need assistance with selecting a research topic, conducting a literature review, or writing specific sections of your paper, our custom solutions cater to your precise requirements.
  • Flexible Pricing : We understand that students often have budget constraints. Our pricing is flexible and designed to accommodate various academic levels and deadlines without compromising on quality.
  • Short Deadlines : If you are facing a tight deadline, our writers can work efficiently to deliver your custom research paper within as little as 3 hours.
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research topics for international trade law

International Trade Law : Research Guide

Introduction, introductory resources on international trade.

  • Introduction to GATT and WTO
  • Founding Documents
  • GATT Resources
  • Uruguay Round Resources
  • WTO Resources
  • GATT/WTO Electronic Resources
  • Introductory Resources
  • Legal Texts
  • Dispute Resolution Decisions
  • United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement
  • North American Free Trade Agreement
  • Mercado Común del Cono Sur
  • Common Market for Eastern & Southern Africa
  • Association of Southeast Asian Nations
  • Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
  • United Nations Commission on International Trade Law
  • United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
  • Research Guides

Authorship History

Written by Karin Johnsrud. Updated by Dana Neacșu.

International trade is a complicated area of law to research because there are numerous levels of trade organizations and interactions. There are bilateral trade agreements, regional trade agreements and multinational trade agreements. Each of these agreements has its own history, policies and dispute settlement procedures. Trade organizations established under the agreements have separate resources that can be searched. Furthermore, individual countries have their own policies and laws relating to international trade. As an example, the United States Congress must pass legislation enacting international trade agreements before the United States can officially become a party. The national policies have to be researched individually and frequently separately from the resources relating to the international organizations.

The purpose of this guide is to provide an introduction to a variety of the resources available on campus, as well as from the Internet. General introductory resources will be discussed first. Then the guide will proceed through a discussion of the major multilateral trade agreements, regional trade agreements and United Nations trade bodies.

For additional assistance in finding International Trade Law materials at Columbia's Diamond Law Library, please do not hesitate to contact the reference librarians at [email protected] . Consult the the Guide to Columbia Library Services and Policies Research Guide for general information and reference hours.

To see more background and reference works available at Diamond Law Library, including older editions, please try these searches on Pegasus: 

  • Subject: international trade law
  • Subject: international trade law AND Any Field: handbook
  • Subject: international trade law AND Any Field: manual
  • Subject: international trade 
  • Subject: international trade AND Any Field: handbook
  • Subject: international trade AND Any Field: manual

You can find a selected list of publications below.

Cover Art

  • Next: Introduction >>
  • Last Updated: Sep 9, 2022 5:08 PM
  • URL: https://guides.law.columbia.edu/tradelaw

Georgetown Law

Library electronic resources outage May 29th and 30th

Between 9:00 PM EST on Saturday, May 29th and 9:00 PM EST on Sunday, May 30th users will not be able to access resources through the Law Library’s Catalog, the Law Library’s Database List, the Law Library’s Frequently Used Databases List, or the Law Library’s Research Guides. Users can still access databases that require an individual user account (ex. Westlaw, LexisNexis, and Bloomberg Law), or databases listed on the Main Library’s A-Z Database List.

  • Georgetown Law Library
  • Foreign & International Law

International Trade Law Research Guide


  • Secondary Sources: Treatises & Books
  • Secondary Sources: Journal Articles
  • Subscription Databases
  • U.S. Government Agency Resources
  • Internatioinal and Inter-Governmental Organization Resources
  • Non-Governmental Organization Resources
  • From GATT to the WTO: An Overview
  • Quick Reference Table with Citations
  • Texts and Status of the Agreements
  • Negotiating Histories
  • Commentaries
  • Citations to WTO & GATT Agreements
  • WTO Schedules & Tariff Information
  • WTO Membership & Accession
  • WTO Organization & Decision Making
  • WTO & GATT Official Documents
  • Dispute Settlement Practice & Procedure
  • Dispute Status and Dispute-Related Documents
  • Panel & Appellate Body Reports; Arbitration Decisions & Awards
  • Citations to Dispute Resolution Materials
  • Mega-Regional Trade Agreements: CPTPP & T-TIP
  • NAFTA and the USMCA (NAFTA 2.0)
  • U.S.-Canada Free Trade Agreement (Superseded by NAFTA)
  • Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR)
  • Other Research Guides & Update History

Key to Icons

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The growth of international trade has generated a complex and ever-expanding body of primary law , including treaties and international agreements , national legislation , and trade dispute settlement case law .  This research guide focuses primarily on the multilateral trading system administered by the World Trade Organization .  It also includes information about regional and bilateral trade agreements , particularly those to which the U.S. is a party.  

Key Resources for International Trade Research

See the Subscription Databases page of this research guide for more detailed information about the resources that are briefly described below:

  • Boderlex - trade-related news, with a particular focus on trade policy in Europe.  
  • International Trade Practice Center - U.S. primary law governing international trade, secondary sources, practitioner tools, and news.  
  • TradeLawGuide - tools for interpreting WTO agreements & case law.  
  • U.S. International Trade Library - U.S. primary law & compiled legislative histories, congressional hearings, and secondary sources.  
  • World Trade Online - trade-related news and current awareness.  
  • WorldTradeLaw.net - WTO case law summaries & commentary.  
  • WTO Analytical Index - interpretation & application of WTO agreements.  

Research Assistance and Help with Related Topics 

If you need assistance with international trade law research, visit the Research Help page of the Georgetown University Law Library's website. Or contact the Law Library's International and Foreign Law Department by phone (202-662-4195) or by email ( [email protected] ).  Georgetown Law Center students may schedule a one-on-one research consultation with a librarian.

For questions about U.S. customs law and tariffs, consult the Law Library's Customs Law (U.S.) research guide.  For questions about non-U.S. customs law and tariffs, consult the Law Library's Customs Law research guide.

For research involving disputes between foreign investors and host states, consult the Law Library's guide to International Investment Law .  For research involving transnational commercial disputes between private parties, consult the Law Library's guide to  International Commercial Arbitration .  

International Trade

research topics for international trade law

Questions? Need Help? Contact the International & Foreign Law Dept.

International & foreign legal research (202) 662-4195 request a research consultation  .

  • Next: Secondary Sources: Treatises & Books >>
  • © Georgetown University Law Library. These guides may be used for educational purposes, as long as proper credit is given. These guides may not be sold. Any comments, suggestions, or requests to republish or adapt a guide should be submitted using the Research Guides Comments form . Proper credit includes the statement: Written by, or adapted from, Georgetown Law Library (current as of .....).
  • Last Updated: Jan 19, 2024 3:46 PM
  • URL: https://guides.ll.georgetown.edu/InternationalTradeLaw

Harvard International Law Journal

The Political and Legal Ambiguities of the Multilateral Security Support Mission Authorized for Haiti

Craving climate carveouts.

Ariq Hatibie

A Global Standard Setter for Virtual Currencies: A Case for Strengthening International Financial Law

Juan Carlos Portilla

A Defense for Guardian Robots: Are Defensive Autonomous Weapons Systems Justifiable?

Rizky Citra Anugrah

“Extraterritorial Observance”: The Invisible Laws that Compete to Govern China’s Belt and Road Loans

Michael Yip

Harvard International Law Journal

The 2024 harvard international law symposium: bretton woods 3.0 the future of international economic law.

Saturday, March 2 | Austin Hall | Harvard Law School

Explore HILJ Scholarship

The Harvard International Law Journal publishes scholarship on international law from authors around the world. The views expressed in HILJ articles represent the views of their authors; not those of the HILJ editorial board.

From “Space Law” to “Space Governance”: A Policy-Oriented Perspective on International Law and Outer Space Activities

From “Space Law” to “Space Governance”: A Policy-Oriented Perspective on International Law and Outer Space Activities

Sep 22, 2023

Gershon Hasin

The Wild West of Company-Level Grievance Mechanisms: Drawing Normative Borders to Patrol the Privatization of Human Rights Remedies

The Wild West of Company-Level Grievance Mechanisms: Drawing Normative Borders to Patrol the Privatization of Human Rights Remedies

Lisa J. Laplante

Finance Against Law: The Case of China

Finance Against Law: The Case of China

Shitong Qiao

State-Academic Lawmaking

State-Academic Lawmaking

David Hughes and Yahli Shereshevsky

Bend, Don’t Break: China’s Approach to the International Human Rights Order

Bend, Don’t Break: China’s Approach to the International Human Rights Order

Jackson Neagli

Courts Without Separation of Powers: The Case of Judicial Suggestions in China

Courts Without Separation of Powers: The Case of Judicial Suggestions in China

Sep 19, 2023

Minhao Benjamin Chen and Zhiyu Li

Reconceptualizing the Party-Appointed Arbitrator and the Meaning of Impartiality

Reconceptualizing the Party-Appointed Arbitrator and the Meaning of Impartiality

Catherine A. Rogers

Expert Governance of Online Speech

Expert Governance of Online Speech

By Brenda Dvoskin

The Political and Legal Ambiguities of the Multilateral Security Support Mission Authorized for Haiti

Feb 21, 2024

A Global Standard Setter for Virtual Currencies:  A Case for Strengthening International Financial Law

Feb 13, 2024

A Defense for Guardian Robots: Are Defensive Autonomous Weapons Systems Justifiable?

Feb 8, 2024

“Extraterritorial Observance”: The Invisible Laws that Compete to Govern China’s  Belt and Road Loans

Feb 5, 2024

The Republic of Haiti and the Dominican Republic: A Relationship in Troubled Waters

The Republic of Haiti and the Dominican Republic: A Relationship in Troubled Waters

Dec 19, 2023

Milcar Jeff Dorce

Jus Cogens v. State Sovereignty: The Battle of Discriminatory Citizenship Laws

Jus Cogens v. State Sovereignty: The Battle of Discriminatory Citizenship Laws

Dec 8, 2023

Manasa Venkatachalam

Bridging the Gap: African Countries Outpace the West in Descriptive Representation for Persons with Disabilities

Bridging the Gap: African Countries Outpace the West in Descriptive Representation for Persons with Disabilities

Dec 7, 2023

Yohannes Takele Zewale

Missing Questions in the ASEAN Human Rights Court Narrative

Missing Questions in the ASEAN Human Rights Court Narrative

Nov 24, 2023

Rafsi Albar

research topics for international trade law

HILJ Online is collaborating with the Georgetown Journal of International Law and the Georgetown Center on Inclusive Trade and Development to publish online scholarship investigating the nexus between trade, technology, and climate initiatives in international law. Explore and submit .

research topics for international trade law

HILJ Online and the Harvard International Arbitration Law Students Association joined forces to publish cutting-edge articles in international arbitration.

Craving Climate Carveouts

Feb 19, 2024 | HILJ-HIALSA International Arbitration Collaboration , Online Scholarship

The Butterfly Effect in Investment Arbitration: How Russia’s and Norway’s Actions Concerning Snow Crab Fishing May Open an Avenue for Foreign Investors to Bring an Action Against Spain

The Butterfly Effect in Investment Arbitration: How Russia’s and Norway’s Actions Concerning Snow Crab Fishing May Open an Avenue for Foreign Investors to Bring an Action Against Spain

Jan 29, 2024 | HILJ-HIALSA International Arbitration Collaboration , Online Scholarship

Danilo Ruggero Di Bella

Subscribe to Updates From HILJ

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Reassessing Enforcement: Strengthening Compliance with International Law

Highlights from the 2023 symposium.

research topics for international trade law

Judge Iwasawa of the International Court of Justice Delivers the Keynote Address

Judge Iwasawa’s remarks will appear in Volume 45(1) of the Harvard International Law Journal print edition.


Other Recent HILJ Event Highlights

research topics for international trade law

Stavros Lambrinidis

Ambassador of the european union to the united states.

April 2022 | Read More

research topics for international trade law

Valdis Dombrovskis

European commissioner for trade.

October 2022 | Read More

research topics for international trade law

Modernizing the International Criminal Court: Hybrid Chambers

Expert panel.

April 2023 | Read More

Previous Annual Symposia

2022 | envisioning the next decade of international law: global solutions to global challenges, 2021 | the future of international law, 2019 | 60 years of harvard ilj, older symposia, russia's war in ukraine, contributions on ukraine.

HILJ contributions on Russia’s invasion of Ukraine.

International Investment Law Enables the Use of Frozen Russian Assets to Compensate for War Damage in Ukraine

Nov 15, 2023 | HILJ-HIALSA International Arbitration Collaboration , Online Scholarship , Ukraine

Csongor István Nagy

The ICC’s Arrest Warrant Against Putin: A Grenade Against Peace in Ukraine?

The ICC’s Arrest Warrant Against Putin: A Grenade Against Peace in Ukraine?

Nov 14, 2023 | Online Scholarship , Perspectives , Ukraine

Andreas Chorakis

Making the Case for a Hybrid Chamber at the ICC Part II: The Low-Hanging Fruit for the Assembly of States Parties to the Rome Statute of the ICC

Making the Case for a Hybrid Chamber at the ICC Part II: The Low-Hanging Fruit for the Assembly of States Parties to the Rome Statute of the ICC

Nov 6, 2023 | Online Scholarship , Perspectives , Ukraine

David Donat Cattin and Philippa Greer

Turning Sanctions into Reparations: Lessons for Russia/Ukraine

Turning Sanctions into Reparations: Lessons for Russia/Ukraine

Jan 30, 2023 | Content , Essays , Online Scholarship , Ukraine

Evan J. Criddle

Responses to Published Articles

Regional Trade Agreements and Global Justice

Regional Trade Agreements and Global Justice

May 1, 2020

Damjan Kukovec

A Balancing Act: The Right to Peace and Justice

A Balancing Act: The Right to Peace and Justice

Sep 30, 2019

Response to Gargarella’s “Some Reservations Concerning the Judicialization of Peace”

Response to Gargarella’s “Some Reservations Concerning the Judicialization of Peace”

Sep 28, 2019

Courtney Hillebrecht and Alexandra Huneeus

Contracts, Treaties, and the Public Space

Contracts, Treaties, and the Public Space

Apr 28, 2019

Jérôme Sgard

Some Reservations Concerning the Judicialization of Peace

Some Reservations Concerning the Judicialization of Peace

Feb 3, 2019

Roberto Gargarella

The University of Melbourne

International Trade Law

  • Starting your Research
  • Journals & Journal Articles
  • WTO Agreements
  • WTO Dispute Settlement Case Law
  • WTO Statistics & Profiles
  • GATT Panel Reports
  • News & Blogs
  • Referencing and citing

International trade law includes the rules and customs governing trade between countries. 

International trade agreements are negotiated at any one of the following three levels:

  • multilateral level, administered by the World Trade Organization
  • regional level, such as Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)
  • bilateral level, such as free trade and investment agreements with key trading partners.

The focus of this research guide is the multilateral trading system administered by the World Trade Organization, and on the contribution of the UN's UNCITRAL to international trade law.

The rapid growth of international trade has generated a complex and ever-growing body of primary law, including international agreements and trade dispute settlement case law. This guide will show you where and how to find these primary documents and to recommend ways to find secondary sources (books and journal articles) on your international trade law topic. 

A good introduction ... 

research topics for international trade law

One Stop Research Databases 

The following UniMelb subscription databases include reports of cases and arbitrations, annotated agreements and texts, citators, and negotiating histories. Both have slightly different content and are searched in different ways, so to research comprehensively you may need to use both. 

  • TradeLawGuide  includes annotated agreements and texts, cases, citators negotiating histories & precursor agreements.
  • WorldTradeLaw.net  (also known as Dispute Settlement Commentary or DSC) offers both an open access resource library of current trade news and resources, as well as a subscription service (the DSC Service), which provides summary and analysis of all WTO reports and arbitrations; a current keyword index; a database of dispute settlement tables and statistics; and a user-friendly search tool for WTO cases, legal texts, and other documents.

Other Research Guides

  • Georgetown International Trade Law Guide 
  • NYU Law Library GATT/ WTO Research Guide
  • Next: Secondary Sources >>
  • Last Updated: Feb 27, 2024 10:26 AM
  • URL: https://unimelb.libguides.com/international_trade_law

Major Treatises by Topic

  • Introduction
  • Administrative Law
  • Admiralty and Maritime Law
  • Advertising Law
  • Antitrust and Trade Regulation
  • Arts and Entertainment Law
  • Banking and Financial Institutions
  • Bankruptcy Law
  • Business Associations: Partnerships and LLCs
  • Civil Procedure (Federal)
  • Civil Rights
  • Commercial Law
  • Communications Law
  • Conflict of Laws
  • Constitutional Law
  • Construction Law
  • Copyright Law
  • Corporate Governance
  • Corporate Law
  • Criminal Law
  • Criminal Procedure
  • Disabilities Law
  • e-Discovery Law
  • Education Law
  • Employment and Labor Law
  • Energy and Natural Resources Law
  • Environmental Law
  • Federal Practice and Procedure
  • Food and Drug Law
  • Government Benefits Law
  • Government Contracts
  • Health Care Law
  • Immigration Law
  • Insurance Law
  • Intellectual Property Law
  • International Commercial Arbitration
  • International Law
  • International Taxation
  • International Trade Law
  • Internet and Information Law
  • Jurisprudence
  • Law and Economics
  • Legal Ethics
  • Legal Research
  • Local Government Law
  • Mergers and Acquisitions
  • Military Law
  • Native American Law
  • Products Liability
  • Property Law
  • Securities Regulation
  • Statutory Interpretation
  • Trademark Law
  • Transportation Law
  • Trusts and Estates
  • Zoning and Land Use

Multi-Volume Treatises

Ebooks and Online Resources accessible to Case Law Users Only .

The Law of Transnational Business Transactions (2018).  Online:   Westlaw .  Print: Law Library Stacks K1005.L38 2018.   (3 volumes, print last updated in 2019).

Single-Volume Treatises/Hornbooks

Ebooks and Online Resources accessible to Case Law Users Only .

Daniel Bethlehem, et al., The Oxford Handbook of International Trade Law (2009).  Print:   Law Library Stacks K1005 .O94 2009.  

Ian F. Fergusson & Rachel F. Fefer, The World Trade Organization (2019-date). Online: Congressional Research Service.   (Free Government Document).

Ralph H. Folsom, Free Trade Agreements, from GATT 1947 to NAFTA Re-Negotiated 2018 (2019). Ebook: West Academic Study Aids.

Ralph H. Folsom, et al., International Business Transactions in a Nutshell (11th ed., 2020).   Ebook:   West Academic Study Aids.  

Ralph H. Folsom,  International Trade Law Including Beyond Trump, in a Nutshell  (8th ed., 2021).  Ebook:   West Academic Study Aids.

Ralph H. Folsom, et al.,  Principles of International Business Transactions   (4th ed., 2017).   Ebook:  West Academic Study Aids.

Ralph H. Folsom,  Principles of International Trade Beyond Trump,  Including WTO, Technology Transfers, and Import/Export/Customs Law (3d ed., 2021).   Ebook: West Academic Study Aids.

Boris Kozolchyk, Comparative Commercial Contracts: Law, Culture and Economic Development (2014). Print: Law Library Stacks: K1005 .K689 2014.  

Joseph I. Liebman, et al.,  Law and Practice of United States Regulation of International Trade  (Current through 2019-4 update).   Online:    Westlaw.

  • << Previous: International Taxation
  • Next: Internet and Information Law >>
  • Last Updated: Jun 8, 2023 3:51 PM
  • URL: https://lawresearchguides.cwru.edu/majortreatises
  • Open access
  • Published: 08 May 2018

International trade and investment law: a new framework for public health and the common good

  • Louise Delany ,
  • Louise Signal &
  • George Thomson   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-3566-9199 1  

BMC Public Health volume  18 , Article number:  602 ( 2018 ) Cite this article

22k Accesses

11 Citations

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Metrics details

International trade and investment agreements can have positive outcomes, but also have negative consequences that affect global health and influence fundamental health determinants: poverty, inequality and the environment. This article proposes principles and strategies for designing future international law to attain health and common good objectives.

Basic principles are needed for international trade and investment agreements that are consistent with the common good, public health, and human rights. These principles should reflect the importance of reducing inequalities, along with social and environmental sustainability. Economic growth should be recognised as a means to common good objectives, rather than an end in itself. Our favoured approach is both radical and comprehensive: we describe what this approach would include and outline the strategies for its implementation, the processes and capacity building necessary for its achievement, and related governance and corporate issues.

The comprehensive approach includes significant changes to current models for trade and investment agreements, in particular (i) health, social and environmental objectives would be recognised as legitimate in their own right and implemented accordingly; (ii) changes to dispute-resolution processes, both state-to-state and investor-state; (iii) greater deference to international legal frameworks for health, environmental protection, and human rights; (iv) greater coherence across the international law framework; (v) limitations on investor privileges, and (vi) enforceable corporate responsibilities for contributing to health, environmental, human rights and other common good objectives. We also identify some limited changes that could be considered as an alternative to the proposed comprehensive approach.

Future research is needed to develop a range of model treaties, and on the means by which such treaties and reforms might be achieved. Such research would focus also on complementary institutional reforms relevant to the United Nations and other international agencies. Advocacy by a range of communities is needed for effective change. Reform will require informed debate, determined engagement with decision-makers and stakeholders, and some agreement across health, social and environmental sectors on alternatives.


Current frameworks of international law that govern trade and economic development need radical change, in relation to treaty processes, content, and contexts, to better attain public health objectives.

Peer Review reports

International trade and investment agreements (TIAs) affect global health, equity and justice – the common good. TIAs can have positive benefits but, from a range of health and social good perspectives, also have negative outcomes. This article focuses on ideas for change to such agreements and their institutional contexts, with the aim of achieving public health objectives. Because of this future focus, material in the following sections provides only a brief summary of why change is needed, and does not duplicate the growing literature on the problems for public health arising from TIAs.

For this article, we define TIAs as those agreements relevant to trade, international investment, and international intellectual property law. We define the common good as those benefits that can be shared by all, ‘that promote the full flourishing of everyone in the community. … includes, but is not limited to, public goods’[ 1 ] p.161.

International trade law governs trade in products and services; investment law covers assets; and intellectual property law has rules on what kinds of intellectual property can be protected and for how long. There is an array of TIAs in these areas, with multilateral agreements administered by the World Trade Organization (WTO), and other bilateral and regional agreements outside the WTO framework (often referred to in broad terms as free trade agreements – FTAs).

Several interrelated trends have intensified the significance of TIAs and hence their health implications. Accelerated globalisation, involving developments in transportation, technology and communication, has resulted in the extended reach and complexity of global trade. The character of TIAs has become more comprehensive, with far-reaching implications for nation states. The focus has shifted from that of tariff reduction (although that remains important) to a wide range of measures affecting many aspects of products, services, and investment [ 2 ]. ‘Trade’ and ‘investment’ agreements are tending to merge as instruments of large-scale regional economic governance, [ 3 ] with the overall number of investment-related TIAs now over 3000 [ 4 ].

Current agreements in active development include the Trade in Services Agreement (TiSA) and the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership; in addition to the recently signed Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP).

While this article sketches ways in which TIAs should evolve to recognise health and social objectives, we recognise that giving effect to such changes would require a fundamental philosophical shift in international trade and investment policy. This article offers some directions for TIA designs and processes that are intended to be useful for governments and non-government organisations when rethinking and negotiating TIAs. It does not, however, provide solutions for the wider political questions of achieving such changes.

This following sections outline issues for public health and the common good that are created by TIAs in their wider global, legal and corporate contexts. The principles and framework proposed in the Discussion are intended to help address these issues.

Trade and investment related agreements: Problems for public health and the common good

TIAs have a range of positive and adverse outcomes. They affect up-stream determinants of health, such as poverty and inequality, in complex and much debated ways, [ 5 , 6 , 7 ] p.13 and can increase inequalities between and within countries: ‘the rich can get richer, and the poor poorer.’ [ 8 ] p.8. More specifically, TIAs have implications for (1) state budgets; (2) state governance; (3) achieving common good objectives; (4) developing countries; and (5) specific health concerns in relation to both communicable and noncommunicable disease (NCDs).

State budgets

TIAs affect state budgets as a result of tariff reductions, [ 9 ] (especially for developing countries).

TIAs affect the way that states make or refrain from making policies, limit policy choices, and create contexts that result in unhealthy policies [ 10 ].

Common good objectives

TIAs can detract in some cases from the attainment of social, health, human rights and environmental objectives. Generally trade and investment liberalization can affect ‘power relations, social policies, employment conditions and working conditions’ [ 5 ]. TIAs can affect ‘international and domestic labor markets, …job creation, wage and labor standards, and protections’ [ 11 ]. TIAs can facilitate environment-threatening effects [ 12 , 13 ]. They can influence many other areas including land tenure, [ 14 ] agricultural patterns, [ 15 , 16 ] cultural traditions, privatisation, provision of health services, government procurement, [ 17 ] women’s rights, and rights of indigenous peoples [ 18 ].

While WTO TIAs provide exceptions for health and common good objectives, such exceptions are often ambiguous [ 11 ]. The concept of ‘exception’ frames common good objectives as not core to the TIA, and casts the burden of proof for meeting criteria for such exceptions on common good advocates. These criteria are often difficult to satisfy, leading to uncertain outcomes [ 19 , 20 ] p.12. Many non-WTO TIAs further limit governmental ability to fulfil common good related objectives by allowing investors to take action against states [ 11 ].

Developing countries

Developing countries are generally the most significantly affected by TIAs. While inequalities in global distribution of income and wealth have many causes, they have emerged from a ‘historical process that was pervaded by grievous wrongs’ [ 21 ]. As Pogge argues, the resulting massive poverty is perpetuated by an ‘increasingly dense and influential web of global institutional arrangements’ such as TIAs [ 21 ].

Disease determinants

TIAs have direct consequences for the determinants of both communicable and noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) that arise, in part, from a basic tension between the economic growth imperatives of TIAs and health objectives. TIAs facilitate communicable disease through the global dissemination of products and people; [ 22 ] issues relating to antibiotic resistance are based partly on trade; [ 23 ] and intellectual property law affects the affordability and availability of therapeutic drugs [ 24 ] p.289–95. Efforts to address NCD risk factors can be hindered by the liberalised trade regime facilitated by TIAs. Increased competition and lower prices for consumers from TIAs can be negative for health where there are harmful products, due to increased consumption [ 20 ].

In general terms, TIAs influence NCDs because they shape the environments within which consumers make ‘choices’ on such products as foods, tobacco, and alcohol (for example, food environments) [ 16 , 20 ]. A 2017 review of the effects of TIAs found ‘consistent evidence’ of associations between TIAs and both ‘increased consumption of processed foods and sugar-sweetened beverages’ and ‘higher cardiovascular disease incidence’ [ 25 ]. TIAs may restrict people’s ability to access healthy foods, eg, through impacts on agricultural practices and intellectual property protections [ 16 ]. Increased consumption of products and services with adverse health consequences, facilitated by TIAs, runs counter to health measures intended to reduce that consumption [ 25 , 26 ]. Health measures designed to address NCDs might include packaging and labelling requirements, for example on alcohol containers; licences, such as those for tobacco vendors; and restrictions on advertising, promotion, labelling and product content for some food products [ 16 , 20 ]. Each of these measures can infringe international trade rules [ 26 ].

The wider context of trade and investment related agreements

International trade and investment does not exist in a vacuum, nor do the treaties that set out the relevant rules. Any analysis of how trade and trade law can be re-oriented towards achieving the common good should take account of the global and institutional settings in which TIAs operate, the complexity of international legal frameworks, and the multiple players involved, particularly the corporation.

Global governance and processes

Cooperative action to address the issues for public health from TIAs requires effective structures and processes for global governance. Modifications to current arrangements are needed, as many of the major global organisations prioritise financial activity and economic growth, [ 27 ] while those focused on health and its determinants appear to have less power and are not coordinated [ 28 ] p.112.

Organisations such as the World Trade Organization and the World Bank appear to have emerged as stronger elements in global governance, compared to the United Nations, over the last 60 years. Such governance is increasingly complex, with many aspects and levels [ 29 ]. The World Health Organization (WHO) has not taken a major role in the formation of TIAs or their implementation (although it has had significant influence in relation to international law on access to pharmaceuticals) [ 30 ]. While WHO may be invited to contribute to WTO dispute procedures, it has no right to do so, as made clear in the WTO dispute rules [ 31 ]. These rules state that WTO may seek information from any source related to dispute settlement, and/or set up expert review panels, but these are advisory only.

The imbalance between economic and health priorities has been intensified by the trend away from multilateralism towards bilateral, regional and mega agreements (FTAs). ‘Multilateralism’ is a concept that has normative and political connotations, with some commitment to a rule-based system, principles of universality, and governance by international organisations [ 32 , 33 , 34 ]. In this sense, multilateral agreements differ from regional or preferential trade agreements, even where such agreements have several parties [ 35 , 36 ]. These bilateral and regional agreements are ‘negotiated outside WTO auspices’, may ‘undermine developing country interests’ [ 24 ] p.299 and hence may enforce present power imbalances. As Gostin noted, ‘FTAs enable powerful countries to lock developing countries into agreements that could not be achieved during WTO negotiations’. This may, for instance, include stronger intellectual property protections than those in the equivalent WTO agreements [ 24 ] p.299.

In both WTO TIAs and non-WTO TIAs, the present processes of treaty development can inhibit the recognition of health and common good perspectives. This can present barriers even for developed countries in achieving desired outcomes, but the barriers are more acute for developing countries with small economies. There are a number of factors affecting smaller economies as they participate in TIAs, including limited human resources and technical capacity [ 8 ] p.22–23. There are also issues relating to procedural justice in the functioning of the WTO, such as the basic bargaining process itself, which is built on political and economic power [ 8 ] p.27 [ 37 ]. Current TIA dispute resolution mechanisms have particular problems for poorer countries [ 37 ]. The mechanisms require significant resources, including legal assistance, to have any chance of success. This has ‘important implications for the justice of the overall system’ [ 8 ] p.201.

The lack of transparent, open and consultative processes has been noted by a range of official bodies, including a 2015 Australian Senate inquiry, [ 38 ] the European Union, [ 39 ] and the UN Conference on Trade and Development [ 40 ]. Concerns include the secrecy and lack of public participation opportunities in investor-state dispute settlement procedures (some newer TIAs have started to address these problems) [ 40 ].

States can be locked into treaties for long periods without sufficient review or renegotiation ability. While TIAs generally have review clauses, these need to be used effectively for change [ 41 ].

International legal frameworks

The multiplicity of current international legal frameworks means that international law is extremely fragmented, with little clarity around the relationships between various frameworks, and often conflicting norms [ 42 ]. As Carozza states: ‘the systemic incoherence of international law … is widely perceived to be an acute problem, generating many analyses of the fragmentation of international law’ [ 42 ]. A result of this fragmentation and ‘systemic incoherence’ is that international agreements do not satisfactorily set out what should happen where conflicting provisions exist in different frameworks. This is despite the interpretation provisions set out in the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties [ 43 ]. While the Convention is of general relevance, [ 44 ] provisions such as Article 31(3)(c) of the Convention are very high level and offer little specific guidance on resolving differences between treaties. In practice, ‘trade treaties are almost always more enforceable than treaties relating to health, human rights, labour, and the environment’ [ 45 ].

Corporate issues

Multinational corporations are key players in international and national policies [ 46 ]. They influence TIAs as major drivers of their architecture and benefit from them. ‘Large corporations ... hold disproportionate power in such agreements, and are the beneficiaries of their rules, which they are able to enforce through new dispute settlement mechanisms’ [ 47 ]. Multinationals influence the content of TIAs (eg, through access to draft treaty texts and lobbying power) and non-WTO TIAs strengthen the power of multinational corporations through the availability of investor-state litigation [ 48 ].

The primary duty of corporations is not to the communities within which they operate, or the broad range of common good objectives, but to their shareholders. The legal nature of the corporation means a degree of inviolability due to its limited liability [ 46 ]. Often there are differences between corporate aims as facilitated by TIAs, and health objectives, with negative implications for public health [ 49 , 50 , 51 , 52 , 53 ]. Attempts to ensure effective control of corporations, so as to ensure some consistency between their behaviour and human rights (including health, social and economic rights) have had, to date, very limited results. This lack of control is indicated by the work on the proposed UN Convention on Business and Human Rights [ 54 ]. Generally, TIAs have given enforceable rights to corporations, without requiring enforceable obligations from them.

The above sections set out specific, systemic, and institutional problems that TIAs, in their global governance contexts, pose for public health and other common good objectives. How can TIAs be redesigned to better align with health objectives?

A number of studies have suggested ways in which some of the negative implications of TIAs could be addressed (eg, [ 55 , 56 , 57 , 58 , 59 ]). In particular, UNCTAD has provided guidelines for reforming the making and implementation of investment treaties [ 60 ]. Their ‘Investment Policy Framework’ suggests ways to protect states’ rights to regulate, and to improve dispute processes [ 61 ]. Smith et al. provide a detailed agenda for action [ 62 ].

This article builds on these and other suggestions to propose a systematic and comprehensive approach to transform TIAs for the common good. It incorporates general principles, a framework for new law, and the identification of institutional, structural and procedural features that would be necessary to support that framework. The approach we suggest would not reject the importance of international trade and the rules for its regulation, but would promote a different and evolved type of TIA that would more effectively recognise multiple common good perspectives.

Suggested principles for trade and investment related treaties

These suggested principles, as well as the following framework, respond to the issues posed by TIAs as outlined in the Background. They would be used as benchmarks to underpin common good perspectives for future TIAs by relevant policy communities, treaty drafters and public health advocates.

The main purpose of the principles is the provision of a succinct ‘checklist’ for evaluating, from a health and common good perspective, the desirability of a particular proposed or current treaty. The principles would help guide decisions on whether to enter into or renew TIAs, of which kind, and in accordance with which processes. The principles would help frame questions, and indicate answers, on the likely effects of specific strategies and provisions embodied in treaty text, to be used perhaps in impact assessments.

A second purpose of the suggested principles is that they could, in some cases, offer ideas for inclusion in introductory treaty text (eg, preambular or purpose provisions). Such inclusion might function as a guide to interpretation, and might also be useful in providing links to other instruments of international law.

The principles below are divided into those: (a) relevant to the processes by which treaties are developed; and (b) those relating to the objectives of the treaties themselves. Further details on how the principles might be operationalised are given later in the article.

Principles for TIA development processes

The essential bases for just and sustainable treaty processes include:

Support for the effective participation of countries and the participation of citizens within these countries in developing policies for TIAs, with special emphasis given to poorer countries and population groups;

Support for multilateralism; that is, an approach that involves a commitment to rule-based principles, and norms of openness and universality, preferably within global governance structures, processes and institutions, rather than regionally based treaties;

Transparent, fair, open and consultative processes for TIA development and implementation;

Recognition, throughout the treaty development process, of the need for provision for, and effective use of, review clauses in TIAs.

Principles for TIA objectives

Explicit incorporation of social, health, human rights, and environmental objectives as core to TIAs, and explicit support for the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), especially those relevant to:

eliminating poverty

reducing inequalities and redressing power imbalances

protecting and advancing planetary health (‘the health of human civilisation and its underpinning natural systems’ [ 63 ]);

Recognition of economic growth as a means to common good objectives, rather than an end in itself; through for example explicit reference to relevant human rights law, in particular the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; [ 64 ]

Effective control of international corporations by the international community through international law;

Redressing the specific situations of historically harmed states; [ 65 ] for instance through the provision for special and differentiated treatment for least developed countries. Such ‘special treatment’ could refer not only to orthodox issues such as tariffs, but also specific forms of exceptions and carve outs, and by emphasis on freedom of governmental regulation;

Support for human rights principles, incorporating a collective vision of human rights. That is, explicit recognition that the concept of ‘human rights’ should go beyond traditional individualistic connotations, and envision a ‘collective right to public health – a right applied at the societal level to address underlying determinants of health’ [ 66 ].

A framework for future treaties

We favour a comprehensive approach to designing new TIAs. This responds to the need to implement the SDGs; and to the requirement for fundamental change to promote global health and equity in ways that do not compromise environmental sustainability [ 63 ]. The comprehensive, or ‘planetary’, approach that we favour for TIA design, based on the principles outlined above, would integrate health, environmental and social objectives. Such integration would be the cornerstone of redesigned TIAs that are fit for the twenty-first century.

The comprehensive approach towards redesigning a new framework for TIAs would be buttressed by improved processes for treaty development, enabled in turn by strengthened institutional capacity. New TIA frameworks would require, for effective implementation, governance support from relevant international institutions and attention to issues relating to corporate behaviour.

The following part of our article is structured in eight sections. The first five are: (1) outline of comprehensive approach integrating a range of objectives, (2) strategies to give effect to this approach, (3) necessary processes, (4) capacity building, and (5) governance and corporate issues. Section (6) touches on connections between international law and national law; followed by section (7) which pulls together ideas on enforceability; and then section (8) which briefly notes a more limited approach to redesigning TIAs.

Section 1: Comprehensive approach – A set of common good goals

TIAs would provide for health, environmental and other common good perspectives to be explicitly recognised as core treaty objectives along with economic goals. Treaty chapters would set out how these core objectives would be achieved. Under current TIA frameworks, national measures relating to goals such as environmental protection and public health – while often referred to in preambular treaty statements – are in practice generally permissible only as exceptions. These measures are often difficult to justify in accordance with the current wording of exceptions and their interpretation [ 19 ] ch.8. Reframing such measures as legitimate treaty objectives in their own right, for example, along the lines proposed for environmental objectives by the International Institute for Sustainable Development Model International Agreement on Investment for Sustainable Development , [ 67 ] would help address these difficulties.

Section 2: Strategies to give effect to the comprehensive approach

Strategies to give effect to a set of integrated social and environmental objectives would include some of those proposed by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) [ 68 ], prioritising the needs of developing countries [ 69 ]. Such strategies would cover issues relating to dispute resolution, exceptions, regulatory responsibility and deference to specified health, environmental and human rights agreements.

Dispute resolution

There are two main international methods of TIA dispute resolution. One is that provided in WTO treaties, where only nation states may take action in relation to other states. The other is the method in most non-WTO treaties. This, as well as state-to-state action, allows investors to take action against states through investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS).

Modifications to non-WTO treaties would include either significant change to ISDS or its removal. Concerns about ISDS include process issues, and ‘chilling’ effects due to both process and outcomes [ 70 ]. ‘Chilling’ is government inaction because of potential or real threats of legal action. Modifications to ISDS could involve provision for appeals; a more ‘judicial’ approach to appointing impartial dispute decision makers; greater transparency of dispute decision-making; the ability for the public, NGOs, and relevant sectors to have input to hearings; and published decisions with precedent value [ 68 ] p.147–8.

Some countries have demonstrated that ISDS is not a necessary element of TIAs: one example being the ‘Brazilian’ model which has trade facilitation agreements without ISDS [ 71 ]. An approach that significantly modifies traditional ISDS is included in the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) between the EU and Canada. This is intended to create, for disputes arising under CETA, an Investment Court System including a permanent Appellate Tribunal, with ethical rules such as preventing conflicts of interest (see Articles 8.27 to 8.30) [ 72 ]. This aspect of CETA is not, however, yet in force and is subject to ratification procedures.

The removal of ISDS, rather than its modification, would necessitate reliance on domestic court systems in the country hosting the investment, or some form of state-to-state dispute settlement, [ 73 ] or new mechanisms such as that envisaged for CETA. Other alternatives include a World Investment Court or, as proposed by the OECD, a Multilateral Investment Court [ 74 , 75 , 76 ]. Domestic court solutions are emerging in treaties entered into by South Africa, Brazil and other countries [ 77 ].

Current state-to-state dispute resolution processes, whether those in WTO or non-WTO treaties, may also inadequately reflect health perspectives. Members of dispute resolution bodies tend to have backgrounds in trade and trade law, [ 78 ] and have world views to which health objectives are not central. While input from other disciplines and sectors is permissible, and often sought, there are no requirements in WTO processes to ensure that input from other sectors is obtained and taken into account. Refinements to WTO processes, and state-to-state dispute procedures in non-WTO treaties, could ensure that panellists or Appellate Board members, as well as those involved in state-to-state disputes under FTAs, have an appropriate environmental or health background in relevant cases [ 79 ].

Exceptions and ‘carve outs’

To complement changes to dispute resolution systems, and to give effect to a set of integrated objectives, changes would also be needed in TIA provisions that relate to ‘exceptions’ and ‘carve outs’ for health, social and environmental goals. Ideally, ‘exceptions’ and ‘carve outs’ for such goals would not be needed, given that new TIAs would give equal weight to health, social and environmental goals, along with those relevant to economic growth. However, given that some forms of ‘exceptions’ may continue, we propose that (1) the use of carve outs be expanded to put beyond doubt the exclusion of treaty provisions for some products and services (eg, tobacco, pornography); and (2) the concept of ‘exception’ be replaced by provisions relating to prioritisations of treaty goals, with mechanisms to ascribe priorities between different objectives, for example:

Explicit priority for some specified objectives. At one extreme, health or environmental aims would not require justification and hence would be ‘self-judged’ by the country concerned (following the example of exceptions on security grounds);[ 80 ] Article 10.4

Criteria such as significant mortality and morbidity potential, as well as international targets for reducing relevant mortality and morbidity, as a basis for recognising the primacy of measures conducive to human, animal or plant life and health.

Affirming governmental regulatory responsibility and limiting investor privileges

Current treaties include a range of provisions that are aimed at bolstering the ‘rights’ of investors, effectively reducing the scope for government regulation. Three major and often inter-related examples are provisions for ‘fair and equitable treatment’; ‘expropriation’; and those relating to intellectual property.

‘Fair and equitable treatment’ (FET) provisions often include commitments to fulfil ‘legitimate expectations’ for investors. FET is an important ground for litigation that is often successful for investors, and can be a major contributor to the ‘regulatory chill’ factor in investment matters. Agreements should exclude commitments to fulfil ‘legitimate expectations’ for investors, or define such expectations more narrowly. This approach has been proposed by UNCTAD, noting a range of options in this area [ 81 ] (p 104–114). One example of a model treaty which arguably accords with one of the UNCTAD options is Canada’s model agreement for the promotion and protection of investments, see Article 6(2) [ 80 ]. The Canada-EU CETA also qualifies what is meant by ‘fair and equitable treatment’, and limits the concept of ‘legitimate expectations’ to situations where a specific promise or representation is made by the State (Article 8.10) [ 72 ]. We consider it may be simpler to exclude provisions relating to ‘fair and equitable treatment’ (as well as ‘legitimate expectations’) altogether from TIAs.

Investment chapters in current TIAs usually have specific sections on expropriation. The chapters can be linked with issues relevant to ‘fair and equitable treatment’ as well as legitimate expectations. While such provisions acknowledge that governments may take regulatory action, even when negative effects on investment may be expected, it is often difficult to distinguish such measures from those which are considered to be indirect expropriation and hence liable to compensation [ 82 ].

We propose that: (1) no governmental action taken in relation to an issue specified in provisions covered in carve outs may be considered as forms of expropriation, direct or indirect; and (2) no governmental action taken in relation to an issue that is prioritised in accordance with the mechanisms proposed above (for ascribing priorities between different objectives) could be considered as any form of expropriation. Alternatively, TIAs could simply exclude altogether the concept of indirect expropriation and focus on explicit definitions of direct appropriation.

Recent treaty development in non-WTO law has seen increased protections for the holders of intellectual property, and often include intellectual property in the definition of investment [ 83 , 84 ]. TIAs that are redesigned for health should limit intellectual property protection for investors.

Deference to other instruments of international law

Redesigned treaties that integrate common good objectives should include provisions to clarify the relationship between TIAs vis-à-vis international health and environmental law. TIAs should refer and defer to other specified international health, environmental and human rights agreements, [ 85 ] eg, the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, and the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

Section 3: Treaty development processes

Treaty law does not come into the world of its own accord. The processes by which TIAs are developed should be improved to ensure that common good objectives are fully recognised and to ensure that the interests of the least advantaged are protected.

Improvements would include:

Transparent negotiation processes, greater consultation, participation, and openness to public and legislator scrutiny – eg, through critical points where draft treaty texts are published, as was done by the EU for the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership [ 86 ]. This is, according to the European Commission, to be the rule for all their trade negotiations, as part of active engagement ‘with civil society and the public at large in the context of the civil society dialogues and citizens’ dialogues’ [ 39 ] p.19. Engagement would include public policy papers developed and published at early stages of treaty development, with broad negotiating positions stated (as in the EU) [ 86 ] pp.7–8. While such transparency is essential, it does not itself enable true consultation and participation. This would also require representatives of civil society being engaged in development of draft treaty provisions, negotiation, monitoring of any agreements once implemented and evaluation.

Open development of national treaty positions, perhaps through developing ‘model’ treaty templates, as is done by many countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, [ 87 ] p.144 and other states. Examples include the Model Text for the Indian Bilateral Investment Treaty and those developed by regional groups such as the Southern African Development Community Model Bilateral Investment Treaty.

The use during the development of treaty positions of impact assessments that capture a wider range of effects, using tools such as Health Impact Assessments and the UN Global Policy Model [ 88 ]. These would identify, during the negotiations, the advantages and disadvantages that may arise from a specific TIA for different groups in society, along with the potential impacts for health and other common good issues. Treaty audit tools, such as national interest analyses, or health impact assessments, [ 89 ] could identify those groups in society who may suffer disadvantage as a result of a particular TIA (eg, loss of jobs, reduction of wages, increased prices of some products). Such analyses could also identify health outcomes which could be adversely affected (eg, with reference to health services) [ 90 ].

Section 4: Capacity-building and institutional support for treaty development and implementation

Treaty development and implementation requires attention to the many historical and institutional factors that negatively affect achieving health and environmental objectives. This is relevant to both developed and developing countries, but particularly recognises the disadvantages facing developing countries. Most critically, the health, environmental and human rights sectors need an effective place at the TIA negotiating table.

The health community needs greater capacity at all levels - international, regional and state - to enable effective engagement with trade policy and issues relating to TIAs. Health officials in both developing and developed countries need skill development, both in treaty negotiation and in understanding the implications of international law (existing and proposed) for their domestic law. At the international level, the WHO has limited legal in-house capacity, and does not appear to be able to support developing countries to the extent required. Ensuring technical expertise in negotiating and implementing TIAs (especially for developing countries) [ 91 ] should be seen as a required role for both WHO and the WTO.

Improvements would therefore include:

Ensuring greater capacity for health, environmental and human rights engagement in TIA development;

Mandating specific public health, environmental and human rights expertise in WTO technical capacity;

International health funding to support training and capacity building for developing countries in trade and health policy.

Section 5: Global governance and structural issues

Changes in international contexts.

Coherent and effective global governance is needed to support health equity, environmental sustainability, and the implementation of the SDGs. At the most general level, effective global governance for health purposes may require the reform of WHO in order to provide it with greater powers and structures that are more effective [ 92 ]. United Nations (UN) mechanisms are needed to address cross-sector areas of activity. Decisions are also needed on where the UN should provide a global focus for action (following the model of UN action on both HIV/AIDS and NCDs) [ 93 , 94 ]. Attention to global governance structures would also include the reinvigoration of multilateralism (structures, processes, institutions and law), given the potential for non-multilateral approaches to reinforce present power imbalances.

Coherence in the general international law framework is needed. Appropriate hierarchies in international frameworks should be supported, for example, through interpretation invoking the Vienna Convention; [ 44 ] with priority to be given international human rights law vis-à-vis other instruments of international law. New international health law is needed (eg, on alcohol, non-nutritious food). On a more general scale, the proposed Global Health Convention is one model for new law [ 95 ].

Changes relevant to corporations

The successful implementation of new TIAs that would meet health, environmental, human rights and other common good objectives requires attention to corporate structures and behaviour. This is because, along with states, corporations are the main actors in TIAs.

Addressing corporate issues at international and national levels would involve, amongst other things:

An international convention to build on the Ruggie concepts of business responsibilities in relation to human rights, as resolved by the United Nations Human Rights Council in 2014 [ 96 ]. This convention would have binding force, as proposed by 2017 discussions on a new convention; [ 54 , 97 ] and should establish primacy of human rights over TIAs [54 85]. The elements of the October 2017 draft of the new convention include a number of valuable proposals, including the proposed duty of state parties to prepare human rights impact assessments prior to the conclusion of trade and investment agreements (Principles1.2) and some provisions for enforcement; [ 54 ]

Incentives in TIAs for corporate compliance with human rights, health, environmental and other common good objectives, and effective sanctions on corporations for non-compliance;

Action by nation states applicable in their own jurisdictions, for example provision for investor responsibility in state legislation, with conditions attached to corporate investment by foreign investors, and processes to enable individuals and groups to take effective action against corporations.

Section 6: Connections between international and national levels

In accordance with any disadvantages identified by national interest analyses or health impact assessments, nation states should, through their domestic law, counter the identified adverse effects from TIAs as much as possible. Such law would need to come into effect at the same time as the treaty. For example, compensatory taxation measures for disadvantaged groups (such as those whose employment is affected) may be appropriate. National law should require contracts for foreign direct investment to explicitly recognise the responsibility of national governments to regulate for the common good. Foreign direct investment should also be conditional on compliance with stated health or environmental goals, for example, nutritional goals; and national law should stipulate that any breach of such conditions would invalidate any possibility of investor-state litigation.

Section 7: Enforceability

Many concepts proposed in this article are intended in general terms to promote the enforceability of common good objectives vis-à-vis the economic growth objectives of TIAs and the financial interests of corporations. Mechanisms to ensure such enforceability should occur at several levels: through a range of strategies within TIAs; within other legal instruments relating to health and environmental objectives (for example the FCTC and the Paris Agreement); through any convention on the responsibilities of businesses in relation to human rights; and within national legislation. While ideally these mechanisms should interlink, they may also be implemented independently.

In summary, enforceability mechanisms could include:

Assertion in treaty text of the equal weight to be given to common good objectives, and the primacy of human rights law, over pecuniary interests would render it more difficult to initiate dispute procedures involving challenges to common good objectives. Treaty text would further provide that non-compliance with common good objectives would render invalid any possible dispute involving investor rights (under state-to-state rules or ISDS), and render states and investors ineligible for benefits under the relevant TIA;

Other international agreements

Instruments such as the Paris Agreement should specifically provide for the supremacy of climate control objectives versus those relating to economic growth;

Overarching international law

An international convention on business responsibilities in relation to human rights would have its own implementation and enforcement mechanisms. These would include provisions for states to enact disclosure requirements, contractual preferences for corporations with appropriate histories of human rights and environmental compliance; and imposition of criminal liability for breaches of human rights, administrative and monetary sanctions;

National legislation

Many of the ‘elements’ proposed for a convention on business responsibilities and human rights need not await finalisation of such a convention – likely, at best, to be many years away. Hence, national legislation could enact a general framework with which any new TIA entered into by the relevant state would need to comply. Such a framework could include, perhaps, a ‘model’ TIA appropriate to that country. The framework would provide that draft TIAs would (i) need human rights impact assessments; (ii) enable conditions to be attached to corporate investment; (iii) allow individuals and groups to take effective action against corporations; (iv) require contracts for foreign direct investment to explicitly recognise the responsibility of national governments to regulate for the common good, ensuring compliance with stated health or environmental goals; and (v) stipulate that any breach of such conditions would invalidate investor-state litigation and state-to-state dispute resolution procedures.

Section 8: Limited approaches to redesign of TIAs

A limited approach to redesigning TIAs could be adopted in the short term, instead of the proposed comprehensive framework. This limited approach could consist of integrated objectives, strategies to achieve them, and improved processes and capacity building. Individual features that could be implemented on their own might include:

Improvements to dispute resolution – eg, abolition of or modification to ISDS

Reductions in investor protections (eg, those relevant to ‘legitimate expectations’) and rolling back recent increases in investor intellectual property protections

Some deference to other instruments of international law

Greater technical capacity and skill building for health sector involvement in TIAs

A broadened scope for ‘exceptions’ or ‘carve outs’ could ensure less dependence on the present strict ‘necessity’ tests. Revised phrasing for exceptions could recognise that distinctions (such as the use of sustainable production methods) are legitimate for environmental protection.

This more limited approach, based on the adoption of one of more such elements, might address some issues posed by TIAs, but would not succeed in creating the fundamental framework change that we consider is needed.

Current TIAs have multiple adverse implications for health and the common good. Rethinking current frameworks of international law governing trade and economic development is possible, and is necessary to attain public health objectives and help give effect to the SDGs. We have put forward ideas for a comprehensive approach to the redesign of international trade law, consisting of integrated objectives, strategies to achieve them, and improved processes and capacity building. Such redesign would be facilitated by significant changes to global governance; and would address specific issues posed by corporate structures and practices. The redesign of TIAs, and improvements in general international and corporate contexts, should also be mirrored and given effect in national law.

Some of these ideas would be susceptible to a ‘mix and match’ or incremental approach. Nevertheless, we strongly favour a re-envisioning of basic frameworks, as implemented by the comprehensive approach outlined.

We conclude that ‘model’ treaties are needed to demonstrate how new TIA law could look in practice, as well as ideas on how new law might be realised. Research is needed to develop details of the range of models and the institutional underpinnings to ensure their efficacy.

International law that is health promoting, sustainable, and supportive of the SDGs, will require advocacy for real change. Change will require informed debate, determined engagement with decision-makers and other stakeholders, some agreement on alternatives, and the development of alliances between health communities and other groups interested in the common good [ 98 , 99 , 100 ].


Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement

Fair and equitable treatment

Free trade agreement

Health Impact Assessments

Investor-state dispute settlement

Sustainable Development Goals

Trade and investment agreement

United Nations

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

World Health Organization

World Trade Organization

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Delany, L., Signal, L. & Thomson, G. International trade and investment law: a new framework for public health and the common good. BMC Public Health 18 , 602 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-5486-6

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  • International Intellectual Property Law

There are almost as many subject specialties within international law as there are within our domestic law. A subject approach is often a useful way to start an international legal research project, including one involving international trade.

A good Nutshell on the subject can be quite useful such as International Trade and Economic Relations by Folsum, Gordon & Spanogle, K3943 .F64 2009 and International Business Transactions by Folsum, Gordon & Spanogle K3943.W54 2009 .

Don't forget to use the Library of Congress subject headings and call numbers when trying to find relevant print resources. The following call number ranges include materials related to international trade and arbitration:

K2400 – Arbitration K3800 – K4300 Trade regulation

Note that this tab on international trade encompasses trade between nations (Trade with a "T") and international business transactions between private parties (trade with a "t"). The latter is a private international law topic. As discussed earlier in the introduction of this LibGuide, the term "private international law" is confusing on many levels. Private international law involves the application of national law. Nevertheless, there are private international law treaties which serve to harmonize national laws thereby facilitating cross-border transactions between private parties. Many of the most important private international law treaties can be found at the Hague Conference on Private International Law website .

The sources of private international law, as applicable in an arbitration of an international commercial dispute, are quite varied and are discussed further here .

Legal Framework of International Trade

The legal framework of international trade includes global trade regimes, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) (1947) and its successor the the World Trade Organization (WTO). It also includes regional trade regimes such as NAFTA and the EU.

Bilateral investment treaties (BITs) and free trade agreements have proliferated in recent years and pose a systemic risk to the WTO. The reasons for this development include difficulties during the Uruguay, Seattle and Doha rounds of multilateral trade negotiations. In addition, bilateral trade agreements may extend to subject areas beyond WTO competence i.e. foreign investment law. International Trade and Economic Relations by Folsum, Gordon & Spanogle at 43, K3943 .F64 2009 . For more information about BIT research, see Bilateral Investment Treaties .

The United Nations has played a relatively minor role in international trade. However, the General Assembly established UNCITRAL (the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law) in 1966. UNCITRAL is charged with furthering the harmonization and unification of the law of international trade. It is now the core legal body of the U.N. system in the field of international trade law.

UNCITRAL monitors two of the most important treaties in international trade law:

  • United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, Apr. 11, 1980, U.N. Doc. A/CONF.97/18 (1980); 19 I.L.M. 668 (1980); 1489 U.N.T.S. 3 , 59; S. Treaty Doc. 98-9 (1983) (CISG)
  • Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards, June 10, 1958, 330 U.N.T.S. 3 ; 21 U.S.T. 2517 (New York Convention). 

International Trade Terminology

International trade has its own vocabulary (i.e. antidumping measures, countervailing duties). It may be worth consulting a good international trade dictionary for assistance. For a brief listing of international trade dictionary titles, see Hoffman & Rumsey at 252-3. The Library has the following international trade dictionary in its Reference collection.

Bhala, Raj. Dictionary of International Trade Law . (Newark, NJ: LexisNexis: Matthew Bender, 2008) K3943 .B48 2012 Reference

International Trade News

Bloomberg Law's International Trade News is an excellent current awareness source. It contains the latest international trade news stories as well as articles on featured topics. International Trade News is available via Bloomberg Law Home Page > Browse Practice Centers > International Trade > News. Older news stories from the International Trade Daily and International Trade Reporter are also archived here.

research topics for international trade law

HeinOnline U.S. International Trade Library

The U.S. International Trade Library is available via HeinOnline. This Library contains U.S. International Trade Commission (USITC) publications (1961-2019), U.S. statutes and regulations relating to international trade, including U.S. Code titles 15 and 19 and CFR Titles 15 and 19, and legislative histories of relevant U.S. trade legislation including bilateral free trade agreements. 

research topics for international trade law

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Topics in International Law

  • Private International Law

WTO Decisions and Information

Other international trade resources, treaties & dispute settlement awards, tariff schedules, research guides, for additional information.

  • International Intellectual Property
  • International & Comparative Family Law
  • International Tax
  • International Human Rights
  • International Humanitarian Law
  • International Courts
  • International Arbitration

Subject Guide

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The World Trade Organization is an international organization created by the Final Act Embodying the Results of the Uruguay Round of Multinational Trade Agreements.  The WTO implements the agreement, provides a forum for negotiating trade agreements and settling policy disputes, and enforces trade rules. The Uruguay Round Final Act and other texts are available on the WTO’s website , as are documents from the most recent Doha Round of trade negotiations. 

The WTO website includes:

  • Legal texts include treaties and agreements, plus the Legal Text Index. WTO documents are arranged as most Recent, Commonly Consulted, By Topic, and to search.
  • Member pages  by country include membership status, goods schedules, trade policy reviews, dispute settlement cases, and notifications.
  • Dispute Settlement decisions  are available by subject, country, or chronologically.

Westlaw : WTO-DEC  panel decisions

Lexis : See Areas of Law by Topic>International Trade for WTO and GATT Panel Decisions, and other primary and secondary sources on international trade law

Bloomberg BNA : BNA International Trade Reporter ,  International Trade Daily , and  WTO Reporter have cases, news, and current developments, with e-mail alerts of new issues available.

Trade Law Guide Database : Annotated WTO agreements and WTO jurisprudence

The MacMillan Law Library has the following in print::

WTO Dispute Settlement Decisions  (Bernan Annotated Reporter, K4600 .A495 W67)

WTO Agreements Series (located in Periodicals)

UNCITRAL : UN Commission on International Trade Law. UNCITRAL’s website has conventions and model laws and the CLOUT database of court decisions and arbitral awards. 

  • UNCITRAL publications are also in Hein Online's  United Nations Law Collection , including Conventions, and the Digest of Case Law on the UN Convention on the International Sales of Goods.

OAS (Organization of American States)  Free Trade Agreements  by country

US Trade Representative Trade Agreements  database: Includes WTO treaties, Free Trade Agreements, Trade and Investment agreements, and recent bilateral investment treaties. It also has Dispute Settlement Proceedings  from the WTO and other free trade agreements.

Trade.gov  (US International Trade Administration): US policy, trade agreements, data, and enforcement and compliance laws and regulations, as well as Trade disputes  and US trade enforcement.

State Department : Office of the Assistant Legal Adviser for International Claims and Investment Disputes

US Department of the Treasury :  Office of Foreign Assets Control: administration and enforcement of economic and trade sanctions

U.S. Census Bureau : Reports and data on U.S. international trade

USCIT  (US Court of International Trade)

NAFTA panel decisions

Transnational Dispute Management journal : Articles on international investment law and arbitration, and legal and regulatory documents (laws, regulations, awards) by category or country.  Use is limited to the Emory Law School community; ask for assistance at the reference desk.

Hein Online's US International Trade Library : Includes USITC publications, legislative histories, CFR titles 15 and 19, US Code titles 15 and 19, and selected law journal articles.

United States :

  • USITC Harmonized Tariff Schedules  and tariff search tool
  • Hein Online's International Trade Library : US Harmonized Tariff Schedules, including historical versions

Other countries :

  • Export.gov  links
  • WTO member profiles  include goods schedules and tariffs, trade and customs policies

NYU guide : WTO & GATT Research

Georgetown International Trade Law guide

Duke guide : GATT/WTO

ASIL Guide : International Economic Law

NYU Globalex Guide : MERCOSUR Legal Research

Introduction to Foreign and Comparative Law

Introduction to International Law

European Union Research

Treaties and Conventions

United Nations Research

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The papers listed below are working papers, and hence they usually represent research in progress. Such research may be conducted in the preparation of Secretariat reports, studies or informational material for WTO members. These papers are circulated for discussion and comment because critical review of professional research is important to the WTO.

  • Economic research and analysis
  • Trade and tariffs data
  • Trade Dialogues Lecture Series
  • World Trade Report
  • Other ERSD publications
  • WTO working papers

Disclaimer : The opinions expressed in these papers are those of the authors. They are not intended to represent the positions or opinions of the WTO or its members and are without prejudice to members' rights and obligations under the WTO. Any errors are attributable to the authors.

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Dissertations / Theses on the topic 'International Trade Law and Policy'

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Zhang, Xin. "International trade regulation in China : law and policy /." Oxford [u.a.] : Hart Publ, 2006. http://www.gbv.de/dms/spk/sbb/recht/toc/513053670.pdf.

Musiba, Ephraim. "Developing a suitable competition law and policy for developing countries: a case study of Tanzania." Master's thesis, University of Cape Town, 2014. http://hdl.handle.net/11427/12895.

Lee, Meng-bin. "Promotion and protection of foreign trade and investment in China : a study with particular reference to Chinese law and policy and their conformity with international law." Thesis, University of Nottingham, 1992. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.315789.

Sheldon, Margot. "Strengthening Parliament's oversight role during international trade negotiations: A grounded theory approach." Master's thesis, University of Cape Town, 2016. http://hdl.handle.net/11427/23019.

Sylva, Ntumba Mbathshi. "The interaction between trade and climate change law and policy : from potential conflict to mutual supportiveness." University of the Western Cape, 2012. http://hdl.handle.net/11394/4633.

Stemele, Lubabalo. "The implications of anti-dumping measures for global value chains - the case of South Africa." Master's thesis, University of Cape Town, 2016. http://hdl.handle.net/11427/23707.

Sylva, Ntumba Batshi. "The interaction between trade and climate change law and policy : from potential conflict to mutual supportiveness." Thesis, Uiversity of the Western Cape, 2012. http://hdl.handle.net/11394/5140.

Tennakoon, Kadupitige Upalinie Ajitha. "General equilibrium analysis of Sri Lanka's trade liberalization policy options." Thesis, University of Auckland, 2004. http://wwwlib.umi.com/dissertations/fullcit/3120046.

Schram, Ashley. "International Trade and Investment Agreements and Health: The Role of Transnational Corporations and International Investment Law." Thesis, Université d'Ottawa / University of Ottawa, 2016. http://hdl.handle.net/10393/35231.

Cornelis, Joris. "The EU's anti-dumping policy towards China: adiscriminatory policy and unfair methodology?" Thesis, The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong), 2005. http://hub.hku.hk/bib/B3655084X.

Carolissen, Lee-David. "An analysis of the impact of the European Union's policy of export subsidies has on South Africa's Agricultural sector." Thesis, Online access, 2007. http://etd.uwc.ac.za/usrfiles/modules/etd/docs/etd_gen8Srv25Nme4_9435_1256215062.pdf.

Yeukai, Chandaengerwa. "Trade promotion vs the environment: Inevitable conflict." Thesis, University of the Western Cape, 2005. http://etd.uwc.ac.za/index.php?module=etd&amp.

Steiner, Elise. "European Union’s Gender-explicit PROVISIONS IN free-trade agreements and gender equality : An intersectional feminist approach to international law." Thesis, Linköpings universitet, Tema Genus, 2021. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-177319.

鈴木, 將文, and Masabumi SUZUKI. "Domestic Measures for Public Health Policy and International IP/Trade Law : The Case of the Australian Plain Packaging Act." 名古屋大学大学院法学研究科, 2012. http://hdl.handle.net/2237/17433.

Williams, Brett Gerard. "The importance of disciplining the choice of policy instrument to the effectiveness of the GATT as international law disciplining agricultural trade policies /." Title page, contents and abstract only, 1999. http://web4.library.adelaide.edu.au/theses/09PH/09phw72122.pdf.

Malumfashi, Garba Ibrahim. "'Green' public procurement policies, climate change mitigation and international trade regulation : an assessment of the WTO Agreement on Government Procurement." Thesis, University of Dundee, 2010. https://discovery.dundee.ac.uk/en/studentTheses/24c7aef7-074c-48db-877a-f9d22b51d7f5.

Ogbonna, Joseph Ifeanyichukwu. "A legal analysis of the application of Articles I and III of the GATT 1994 on the economic development of ECOWAS member states." Thesis, Brunel University, 2012. http://bura.brunel.ac.uk/handle/2438/7253.

Gaarder, Christopher. "California's Foreign Relations." Scholarship @ Claremont, 2015. http://scholarship.claremont.edu/cmc_theses/1147.

Matinyenya, Patience. "South frica’s non-ratification of the United Nations convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG), wisdom or folly, considering the effect of the status quo on international trade." University of the Western Cape, 2011. http://hdl.handle.net/11394/2926.

Arnesson, Daniel. "Subsidizing Global Solar Power : A contemporary legal study of existing and potential international incentives for solar PV investments in developing countries." Thesis, Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete, 2013. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-28555.

Wu, Jun Ye. "A study of contemporary issues of conflict between trade liberalization and protection of the environment with a specific reference to the position of developing and least developed contries." Thesis, University of Macau, 2005. http://umaclib3.umac.mo/record=b1637068.

Bumrungsuk, Chutamas. "Essays on international trade policy." Thesis, University of Warwick, 2012. http://wrap.warwick.ac.uk/55923/.

Bombardini, Matilde. "Essays on international trade policy and international outsourcing." Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2005. http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/33836.

Alexander, Tamra A. "The Canadian International Trade Tribunal : Canada's emerging trade jurisprudence." Thesis, McGill University, 1996. http://digitool.Library.McGill.CA:80/R/?func=dbin-jump-full&object_id=27442.

Woodroffe, Louis St Elmo. "International trade agreements and trade policy issues : essays on Barbados." Thesis, University of Nottingham, 2002. http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/12519/.

Chiang, Hui-Chu. "Essays on monetary policy and international trade." [College Station, Tex. : Texas A&M University, 2008. http://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-2697.

Hinz, Julian. "Essays on international trade and foreign policy." Thesis, Paris 1, 2016. http://www.theses.fr/2016PA01E028/document.

Ghosh, Swati R. "International policy coordination under uncertainty." Thesis, University of Oxford, 1992. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.335669.

Aquilante, Tommaso. "Essays in International Trade and Political Economy." Doctoral thesis, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, 2015. http://hdl.handle.net/2013/ULB-DIPOT:oai:dipot.ulb.ac.be:2013/216757.

Sargsyan, Ruben. "Three essays in international trade theory and policy." Diss., Manhattan, Kan. : Kansas State University, 2008. http://hdl.handle.net/2097/868.

Liu, Guojin. "Finance leasing in international trade." Thesis, University of Birmingham, 2010. http://etheses.bham.ac.uk//id/eprint/741/.

Hagedorn, Rosa. "Trade and sustainable development : using the World Trade Organization to more effectively protect the environment." Master's thesis, University of Cape Town, 2012. http://hdl.handle.net/11427/12668.

Chaves, Olarte Georgina Ines. "International regulation of Caribbean textile and apparel trade." Thesis, McGill University, 1993. http://digitool.Library.McGill.CA:80/R/?func=dbin-jump-full&object_id=69750.

Romson, Åsa. "Environmental Policy Space and International Investment Law." Doctoral thesis, Stockholms universitet, Juridiska institutionen, 2012. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:su:diva-74521.

Hollstein, Till Ferdinand. "Essays on Industrial Policy, Structural Change, and International Trade." Doctoral thesis, Universitat de Barcelona, 2018. http://hdl.handle.net/10803/663253.

Mills, Edward Shorney Marks Gary. "French audiovisual policy and international trade reaction and deception /." Chapel Hill, N.C. : University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2006. http://dc.lib.unc.edu/u?/etd,647.

Al-Shammari, Nayef N. "Exchange rate policy and international trade linkages and impacts." Related electronic resource: Current Research at SU : database of SU dissertations, recent titles available full text, 2007. http://wwwlib.umi.com/cr/syr/main.

Conde, e. Silva Gui J. "Transnational public policy in international arbitration." Thesis, Queen Mary, University of London, 2007. http://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/1717.

Ivanova, Anna Todorova. "Legal personality of artificial intelligence under international law." Master's thesis, Faculty of Law, 2019. http://hdl.handle.net/11427/31586.

Umanskaya, Victoria I. "Three essays on pollution regulations and international trade." Laramie, Wyo. : University of Wyoming, 2006. http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1232409951&sid=1&Fmt=2&clientId=18949&RQT=309&VName=PQD.

Huang, Haixiao. "Modeling trade and environmental interactions." Morgantown, W. Va. : [West Virginia University Libraries], 2002. http://etd.wvu.edu/templates/showETD.cfm?recnum=2282.

Khanum, Farjina. "Trade and environment : striking a balance in international law." Thesis, University of Nottingham, 2012. http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/14363/.

Farrell, Jennifer Emma. "The interface of international trade law and taxation : defining the role of the World Trade Organisation in the field of international taxation." Thesis, Queen Mary, University of London, 2011. http://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/2341.

Hrle, Jelena. "International arbitration and competition law." Thesis, McGill University, 1999. http://digitool.Library.McGill.CA:80/R/?func=dbin-jump-full&object_id=30305.

Tondel, Fabien. "INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL GEOGRAPHY." UKnowledge, 2009. http://uknowledge.uky.edu/gradschool_diss/737.

Sağlam, Aziz İbrahim. "Three essays on international trade strategic trade policies, intra-industry trade, and income convergence /." Morgantown, W. Va. : [West Virginia University Libraries], 2006. https://eidr.wvu.edu/etd/documentdata.eTD?documentid=4602.

Bruneau, Joel Francis. "Essays in environmental regulation and international trade." Thesis, National Library of Canada = Bibliothèque nationale du Canada, 2000. http://www.collectionscanada.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk1/tape3/PQDD_0019/NQ56512.pdf.

Nguyen, Minh Ha. "Endogenous growth, international trade and the environment." Title page, abstract and table of contents only, 2004. http://hdl.handle.net/2440/37948.

Shields, Kirsteen. "Between justice and law : exploring avenues and obstacles to an international obligation to trade fairly." Thesis, Queen Mary, University of London, 2013. http://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/8684.

Michel, Guillaume. "Industries culturelles et commerce international : de l'exception à la diversité culturelle." Thesis, McGill University, 2000. http://digitool.Library.McGill.CA:80/R/?func=dbin-jump-full&object_id=30802.

257 Trade Essay Topics for Students & Trade Project Topics

🏆 best essay topics on trade, 🔎 easy trade research paper topics, 👍 good trade research topics & essay examples, 🌶️ hot trade ideas to write about, 🎓 most interesting trade research titles, 💡 simple trade essay ideas, ❓ trade research questions.

  • The Effects of Globalization to Employment and International Trade
  • Globalization Impacts on Trade and Employment
  • Apple Inc.’s Globalization Strategy and International Trade
  • Globalization Impact on Trade and Employment
  • Example of Successful Trading Company: Walmart, INC.
  • China’s Trade Policy for the Global Economy
  • Future Fabrication, International Trade, Transportation
  • The Importance of International Trade Thanks to international trade, the country’s domestic economy can achieve a more efficient allocation of resources and a high level of well-being of the population.
  • Governmental Role in Influencing International Trade This paper explores the role of government in international trade, foreign direct investment, and multinational business.
  • Sony Corporation International Trade Strategy Analysis Sony’s current objective and strategy are focused on getting closer to people, which means that the company is shifting its vector of development on creating social value
  • Sugar and Cotton History and Present Trade In this paper, we will compare sugar with another commodity – cotton, which had a similar early history to the emergence of sugar.
  • Sony Corporation and the New Trade Theory The New Trade theory is referred to as an economic theory developed by several economists in the 1970s. This theory has clearly been elucidated by the Sony corporation.
  • Transatlantic Slave Trade and Its Effects The transatlantic slave trade is the forced export of African slaves from Africa to the colonies of the New World and European countries.
  • European Trade Goods for Native Americans The use of European trade goods changed Native Americans’ lives while providing them with more opportunities to succeed in supporting and protecting their families.
  • Christopher Columbus: Voyage to Asia’s Discover Trade Routes Christopher Columbus wants to attempt to find new trade routes to Asia by sailing westward. This desire is motivated by dangerous waters in the East, and high cost of shipping.
  • Cultural Differences in Business & Trade This paper reports on cultural differences among people and determine their impact on trade. Some of the differences are pretty obvious, for example, a language.
  • Main Reasons for Trade Between Nations The developed shipping industry and the availability of resources, including land, labor, and capital, in different countries, promote international trade.
  • Conscious Capitalism and Fair Trade The paper discusses the concept of conscious capitalism. It supports fair trade and is relevant to many types of businesses.
  • International Trade Payment Forms To succeed in international markets and gain sales against international competitors, exporters need to give clients attractive terms of payment supported by viable forms.
  • Ethical Trade in the UK Garment Industry This research is relevant to understand in business ethics in the garment industry is genuine or a mere response to the pressure groups and the stakeholders.
  • Free Trade as a New Phenomenon in International Trade The free trade concept was introduced in “Theory of Comparative Advantage” by David Ricardo, and is one of the new phenomena in the international trade organization.
  • Issues in Cryptocurrency Trading Ever since the success of Bitcoin, cryptocurrencies have been steadily growing in number as well as the volume of transactions that occur through them.
  • Impact of International Trade on Emerging Economies Discussing the impact on international trade of emerging economies like those of Eastern Europe, India, and China, what can we expect from them in the next 20–50 years.
  • Triangular Trade, Its Legs and Mechanism Triangular trade consisted of three parties, namely Africa, England, and the New World. This essay will discuss the development of transatlantic trade.
  • Virtual Water Savings and Trade in Agriculture The idea of virtual water was initially created as a method for assessing how water-rare nations could offer food, clothing, and other water-intensive products to their residents.
  • Switzerland and the United Arab Emirates Trade Comparison The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature of the free trade agreement between the United Arab Emirates and Switzerland.
  • Importance of the Maritime Trade The Maritime system has both economic and social importance to the U.S. and North America, this is because ships form the primary mode of transport used for international trade.
  • Trade in Singapore: Economic and Political Aspects Singapore is the ideal place for trade because of its geographic location, business environment and less burden imposed by the government.
  • Fair Trade: Japan – Taxes on Alcoholic Beverages The WTO indicted Japan for what it described as a violation of the internal taxation and regulations as stipulated in the General Agreement on Tariff and Trade 1994.
  • New France’s and the North American’ Fur Trade This paper seeks to explore the drivers of the fur trade and the role of New France in the whole picture. Notably, European exploration of North America jump-started the fur trade.
  • Business Law: Trade Union This work assesses the chances of organizing a community of workers and shows how the state is trying to regulate it. Unionization is a vital part of the working process.
  • World Trade Organization’s History, Achievements, and Challenges The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the global international organization that regulates trade between nations; that was established in 1995 and consists of 164 members.
  • Discussion of International Trade The article says that international trade is one of the essential things in the world today because without its help slowed down the development of a person as such.
  • Costs Involved in Warehousing, Impacts and Their Trade-offs in the Aviation Costs incurred in the warehousing of aviation and aerospace materials and parts include handling and storage charges, and operational and general administrative expenses
  • The History of the Slave Trade in America This paper aims at exploring the rise of the slave trade in America and its influence on American economic life.
  • The Effects of Trade Unions on Alienation at Work The workers, by being aware of their trade union’s support, experience alienating feelings of stress, dissatisfaction, and meaninglessness at work.
  • Sugar Cane Plantation and Slave Trade in South America By 1652, the price of slaves had doubled, marked by increased demand for slave labor and increased price of sugar in the new world. The price of slaves was determined by health, age.
  • International Business and Free Trade Agreement The paper seeks to examine both the advantages and shortcomings of the North American Free Trade Agreement and thereafter draw an individual conclusion.
  • International Business and Free Trade Globalization is at the center stage but it is affected by international trade, and free trade. This paper looks into globalization, international trade, and free trade.
  • Facilitating Trade and Securing Import & Export One of the European Government’s concerns is to facilitate trade while also securing import and export procedures.
  • Aspects of International Trade The focus of the paper is to compare and contrast the factor-proportions theories and country-specific theories that address the partners.
  • Electric Cars and Trade Paradigm The paper discusses environmental sustainability. Using Tesla company electric vehicles is the best decision for tackling the climate change problem.
  • Federal Trade Commission and Consumer Financial Protection Bureau The paper analyzes the two bodies established to promote consumer protection and eliminate inappropriate business practices.
  • Trade Routes and Colonization of North America During the period, also known as the Age of Discovery or the Age of Exploration, many countries became involved in the process of searching for new trade routes.
  • The Federal Trade Commission This paper presents that the funeral services industry is essential since it allows grieving people to bury their dead ones in style.
  • Comparative Advantage and Free Trade Despite its attractive formulation, comparative advantage theory has several pitfalls and is rarely manifested in real-life situations due to trade restriction policies.
  • UK Interests in EU-India Free Trade Agreement To dispel dogmas created by the critics, the United Kingdom decided to state its interest in the ongoing FTA negotiations.
  • World Trade Organization Definition and Tasks The main WTO functions are control of tariffs and implementation of quotas among countries so that to establish fair conditions for trade.
  • International Trade and Investment Countries may form an agreement framework between them in an attempt to expand trade between them and/or resolve underlying disputes.
  • Labour Rights in International Trade In international trade, there is the interaction of different countries whose labor rights might differ from generally accepted by international human labor rights bodies.
  • Nestlé’s Nescafe Partners’ Blend and Fair Trade Nestle UK is a leading manufacturer and an established value-adding company that provides a market opportunity for coffee farmers.
  • The United Kingdom’s Fair Trade Initiatives The United Kingdom as one of the most powerful states engaged in the fair trade initiative provides improved trading conditions to developing states.
  • Climate Change and International Trade The relationship between climate change and international trade has been on a great verge of developing a new critical issue. This was so evident at the Conference of Parties Climate Conference.
  • Federal Trade Commission (FTC) The current paper presents two points why advertising should be controlled by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC).
  • Electric Cars and Trade Paradigm Global businesses and working environments are complex and require an in-depth assessment of issues for proper management.
  • Choosing a Currency Trading Strategy: When Investments Start to Grow While trading currency does involve a specific element of unpredictability, it still follows common economic laws, and its processes can be traced easily.
  • History of the Indian Ocean Trade The Indian Ocean Trade took place between 1200 to 1500ce, and it made a great impact in the world due to the activities involved.
  • Consumer Law: Trade Practises Act The report outlines section 52 of the Trade Practises Act, which provides for the measures companies should consider before introducing new products to the market.
  • International and Traditional Trading Theories A trade war is a situation in which countries seek to harm each other’s economies, retaliate against each other by imposing import restrictions and other methods.
  • Productivity Trade-Offs in Organizations Productivity is calculated by combining the time used for creating something as well as materials to divide them later equally.
  • International Trade During COVID-19 This document provides an analysis of Canada’s politics in response to the outbreak of COVID-19. A review of this country as a fully-democratic state will be provided to introduce it.
  • Rodamia: International Trade Simulation The objective of the report is to evaluate the procedure that the Rodamia government should consider in making decisions related to international trade.
  • International Trade Simulation and Report Comparative advantage is done so as to have to have the trades and specialization determined. These theories are for international trade concepts.
  • International Trade Theory: Hill’s Book Summary This work summarizes Hill’s book about international theories and the benefits of international trade through the examination of the garment industry in Bangladesh.
  • Virtual Water Trade and Savings in Agriculture This essay discusses the savings associated with virtual water trade in agriculture and touches on the effects of a shift to local agricultural production on global water savings.
  • The Fair Trade Concept The very concept of fair trade implies that no overpricing should occur when carrying out essential financial transactions between the suppliers and the producing companies.
  • Tradable Permit Schemes: Cap and Trade This paper critically examines tradable permit programs in the US and Europe by analysing the programs based on structure, costs, extent, key players, results, and effectiveness.
  • International Monetary Fund, World Bank, and World Trade Organization This paper studies three international financial organizations: the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, and the World Trade Organization.
  • Free Trade Agreements Between Canada and Other Countries The connection between Canada and other countries has been ignored over the years, free trade agreements are necessary and should be pursued for various reasons.
  • Market Revolution: Agriculture and Global Trade In the era of traders, the vast land area and rich natural resources created many economic opportunities. Most people lived in rural areas and were engaged in agriculture.
  • The 1807 Bill and the Abolition of the Slave Trade The study of the problem of discrimination from a historical perspective allowed me to better understand its origin as it proposes to consider the debate regarding human rights.
  • Negotiating Globally: The U.S.-China Trade War Donald Trump added to the controversy of his term in the U.S. President’s office by starting a full-scale trade war against China.
  • World Trade Agreements and Anti-Dumping Measures This paper considered the issue of the increasing influence of dumping practices. It is one of the ways of price discrimination.
  • Trade and Supply Chain Improvement Initiatives The ability to operate supply chain (SC) and trade processes efficiently is inextricably connected to modern states’ economic success and status in the international market.
  • African Kingdoms, Atlantic Slave Trade, and New World Slavery The connections between African kingdoms, the Atlantic slave trade, and the new world slavery are shown in this paper.
  • Trade Policies in International Business The ideas of antidumping policies are seen in the article posted in The Economic Times about duties imposed by India on ursodiol.
  • A Trade Policy for Game Consoles in the US and Brazil Even though trade relations between Brazil and the United States are regulated and are among the most profitable for both countries, trade policy has specific nuances.
  • Boeing and Airbus: Trade Barriers and Government’s Role The case of Boeing and Airbus demonstrates the governmental impact that created confusion and depicts the effect of trade barriers.
  • How Multinational Businesses Can Improve Their Trade Compliance Globalization is a wave informing and shaping the practices of many companies operating in different parts of the world.
  • Aspects of the Trading Conditions of Online Brokers The paper aims to explore three collaborative offers from major online brokerage platforms from the perspective of the average investor.
  • Trade Advantages within the Global Economy Kenya is an Eastern African country that is bordered by Ethiopia, South Sudan, Uganda, Somalia, Tanzania, and the Indian Ocean.
  • Free Trade and Prosperity Based on the Ricardian Trade model, it is worth having free trade even if some people are losing. Free trade promotes access to lower-priced goods with higher quality. Although some people in the home country will experience losses, imports from countries like Mexico and China are cheap, and this helps…
  • The North America Free Trade Agreement in News The North America Free Trade Agreement was a landmark trade deal between Canada, Mexico, and the United States that took effect in 1994.
  • Supply Chain Management and Trading System This essay is largely devoted to the discussion of supply chain management and the contemporary trading system.
  • International Trade Philosophy Multinational companies which have a presence in foreign markets need to rely on a clear philosophy which can serve as the foundation and guidance for their operations abroad.
  • Experiments in High-Frequency Trading High-frequency trading (HFT) is becoming increasingly popular with private businesses and traders. HFT allows traders to make transactions within fractions of seconds.
  • Fair Trade and Its Benefits for Local Farmers Fair trade was introduced to support the work of local farmers, whose incomes depend not only on themselves but also on various factors such as drought, crop diseases, and others.
  • The World Trade Organization’s Impact on Public Health The World Trade Organization is an integration organization established on 1 January 1995 to liberalize international trade and regulate its member states’ business.
  • The Russian invasion of Ukraine and Its Impact on International Trade The Russian invasion of Ukraine has caused enormous human misery, but it has also harmed international trade, which will disproportionately affect low-income nations.
  • The US-China Trade War: Microeconomics Principles This paper uses the microeconomics principles to substantiate the impact of trade between China and the US, and the trade war on businesses and consumers of both countries.
  • Japan-US International Trade Relationship Through the example of the Japan-US trade relationship, this paper will analyze the importance of a proper assessment of a nation’s and its partner’s economy.
  • Why International Trading Is Beneficial The paper states that international trading is vital in overcoming the problems of limited natural resource production opportunities.
  • Export and Import in World Economy and International Trade The paper aims to study two mechanisms, export and import, which function together and must be examined to learn more about the world economy and all international trade.
  • Trade Between Europe and Other Countries The trade relationship between Europe and other countries is improving, however, there are cultural, political, governmental, and economic challenges.
  • Globalization and Poverty: Trade Openness and Poverty Reduction in Nigeria Globalization can be defined as the process of interdependence on the global culture, economy, and population. It is brought about by cross-border trade.
  • Fair Trade Joe: Business Opportunities Fair Trade Joe has multiple opportunities, such as using its customer-oriented strategy to develop relationships with its clients, grow retention, and build brand awareness.
  • Trade Agreement Between Mexico and Brazil Using the example of an agreement concluded between Brazil and Mexico, it is worth considering the advantages and disadvantages of such actions.
  • Brazil’s Aspirations to Join the World Trade Organization Brazil’s aspirations to join the World Trade Organization faced a certain resistance on behalf of the country’s left-wing politicians who feared it.
  • The US Trade Deficit as a Current News Issue The US trade deficit resulted from a rise in imports, probably caused by businesses’ replenishment of inventories depleted during the COVID-10 pandemic.
  • Thailand: Culture, Tourism, International Trade This paper aims to research the country of Thailand: its population and society, the culture of Thailand, the country’s economy and international trade, and tourism in Thailand.
  • India’s International Trade Policy India partners with great countries that help promote trade. Trade between India and the EU has dramatically increased by 12.5%.
  • The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the International Trading The coronavirus pandemic has created new tough barriers to globalization and trade: the shutdown of production and the borders of leading countries and economic groups.
  • Fair Enough? Big Business Embraces Fair Trade In fair trade, product manufacturers and consumers are responsible for growers in the creation of their possibility to sell products for a reasonable price.
  • Fair Trade Organized Social Movements Fair trade is an organized social movement that advocates fair standards of international labor, environmental, and social regulation.
  • Stockbroker E*TRADE: A Pioneer in Online Trading E*TRADE is among the most competitive and notable discount brokers. And this claim is based on its innovative trading resources and platforms.
  • Exploring the Global Economy: International Trade and Finance Global trade and finance is a framework based on efficiency and effectiveness through interconnectedness and specialization, which carries greater risks for all involved parties.
  • Trade Peculiarities in Food and Agriculture Food trading is a peculiar area, as food is the basis for surviving the population. The one who controls food production and trading routes, also controls all populations.
  • Pollution Rights Trading Will Effectively Control Environmental Problems The further use of the cap-and-trade system and its constant perfection can contribute to controlling the environmental issues related to harmful emissions.
  • Negative Sentiments Against Trade and Globalization Although the authors’ views are robust and applicable to developed economies, rising negative sentiments against trade and globalization remain relevant in developing countries.
  • Trans-Pacific Regional Trade Agreement (CPTPP) This paper will present a discussion of the Comprehensive and Progressive Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP) Agreement.
  • Federal Trade Commission and Consumer Financial Protection Bureau The report investigates the role of the Federal Trade Commission and the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau in the economy of the country, their legal grounds, and leverages.
  • Greece’s Trading Interaction Analysis Greece’s trading interaction analysis showed that Greece exports and imports goods and services, such as various equipment and specialized machines.
  • The Spread of Islam With Trade and Geography Due to the research on Islam, scientists managed to preserve the scientific heritage of previous civilizations and develop new directions in science, culture, and art.
  • European Slave Trade in Historical Documents The European Slave Trade was one of the three stages involved in the triangular transaction, otherwise known as the Trans-Atlantic trade.
  • The UK Global Competitiveness in Trade After Brexit The long-term goal for UK in international trade is to be globally competitive. One major problem is the negative trend in trade deficit during the last decade with EU members.
  • The Current Trading Environment of Airbus This paper provides a brief company history, current situation overview, internal and external analysis, evaluates challenges, and identifies future directions.
  • Effects of Latin America’s Trade with Developed Nations The essay examines the performance of Latin America in the world’s economy and investigates the decreasing terms of exchange despite the world’s growing economy.
  • Researching of the Challenges of Free Trade In the world of serious business, along with opportunities for real economic growth, companies face the potential threat of financial and reputational collapse and decline
  • Insider Trading – The Legal and Illegal The insider trading is illegal activity when non-public information is used to gain an advantage over other traders.
  • Multinational Business Finance and Currency Trade At the time of the recession, investments became more substantial and soon large amounts of money were put into the financial system.
  • Free and Fair Trade: Vietnam-EU Partnership Free trade includes policies that help to reduce barriers that may serve as an impediment to international commerce.
  • Trade and Usage Control: Drug Enforcement Administration The paper looks into the history of the drug enforcement agency, the factors that led to its formation, its goals, and its comparison with the federal bureau of narcotics.
  • The European Trade Policy: Objectives and Benefits The European Trade Policy is the most powerful tool through which the European Union establishes fair trade practices.
  • International Trade Law: Cif Contract CIF contracts are one of the most popular trade agreements between a buyer and a seller in the sphere of international trade when sea carriage is used.
  • The Trade War Between the USA and China The most important geopolitical issue is the trade war between the USA and China. Its development affects every other country due to the two economies in the world.
  • Sino-American Trade War and Its Impact The trade war between the US and China has negatively influenced the economic systems of both countries. There could be increased costs for customers in the US.
  • Fire Cases of World Trade Center and Dupont Fires Fires are among the fatal tragedies that have befallen America since time immemorial. Fire tragedies continue to haunt people despite efforts made to fight fires.
  • Trade Issues and Patterns of Mexico The trade situation in Mexico can be evaluated ambiguously, as it has both positive and negative characteristics.
  • Gender, Race, and Trade Unions It can be noted that there are particular strategies, which can be applied when gender or racial discrimination happens.
  • The United Arab Emirates and International Trade The United Arab Emirates has become one of globalization’s most prominent economic success stories thanks to its diversified economy.
  • Human Rights and International Trade Human rights in international trade precipitated the formation of the World Trade Organization (WTO) which caters to the welfare of the workers and other interest groups.
  • The U.S. Trade Balance and China Trade War Challenges This paper describes the US trade balance in terms of its impact on the country’s economy, as well as in the context of the ongoing phenomenon of a trade war with China.
  • Trade War Between the US and China The trade war between the US and China makes a negative impact on the economies of both countries, leading to a trade deficit and higher prices.
  • Coronavirus-Related Free and Fair Trade Issue in News The paper discusses the article by Finbarr Bermingham and Wendy Wu on the delayed release of the intellectual property action plan.
  • The China-United States Trade War The paper provides information on trade barriers between USA and China and their promotes free trade on the international scene.
  • Petroleum Trading and Risk Management Petroleum and gas producers’ choice to hedge utilizing varieties of hedging activities needs to be executed based on individual cases.
  • “Do Investors Trade Too Much?” by Odean The author assumes that this may have certain relation to the overall excessive trading volume which can often be observed on the world market.
  • Multinational Corporations and Trade Unions Multinational corporations are the main subject of globalization in the modern world. Trade unions were concerned about the uncontrolled actions of such corporations.
  • The Effects of Globalization on Trade Globalization entails incorporating national wealth through the trade of goods, investment, capital distribution, labor exchange, and technology use.
  • Commodity Trading Advisor: Skills and Practice Analysis This paper has covered the legal matters that a Commodity Trading Advisor needs to deal with before practicing so as to avoid serious implications.
  • The World Trade Organization: Purpose and Functions The World Trade Organization (WTO) is one the most vital parts of modern trade. It is an intergovernmental organization, regulating sales across the world.
  • Long-Term Impacts of the Chinese-American Trade War The trade war between the United States and China is one of the main factors of instability in the global economy.
  • Transatlantic Slave Trade: A Legacy That Lives On The Transatlantic slave trade that took place between the 16th and the 19th centuries removed Africans from their homelands and brought them to Americas against their will.
  • The Global Marketing and Trade Environments Economic and trade environments are critical in understanding product performance. A significant marketing concern is reaching the right target audience.
  • Dying and Killing for Ivory: Africa, Asia, & the Global Ivory Trade Given the worldwide increase in crimes against wild flora and fauna, there is a need for closer cooperation between law enforcement agencies through the exchange of information.
  • Investing in the Current Market of Trading Cards The current market of trading cards is experiencing a significant rise as the annual revenues of those collecting them increase.
  • Present Day Resistance Historical Roots to the Trade Globalization The selfish character of economic integration is the primary historical basis for the resistance to globalization.
  • What Is the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)? North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is a trade bloc formed in 1994 to enhance free trade between the United States, Canada, and Mexico.
  • Long-Term Impacts of the Chinese-American Trade War and Globalization of the World Economy The globalization of the economy has become a consequence of the increasing embeddedness of national economies into the world economy.
  • Trade Liberalization: Environmental Effects Trade liberalization presents major opportunities, especially to developing nations. New policies allow global trade to create and sustain global economic growth.
  • Free Trade as a Fundamental Principle of Modern Globalization Free trade has become critical in the globalized world by expanding diversity of not just goods, but technology and workforce.
  • Trade Agreements and the Healthcare Industry With the current globalization of trade, the provision of healthcare services is becoming a significant issue that requires the special attention of the professionals.
  • Fair Trade Concept Overview The purpose of this paper is to define the concept of fair trade and to discuss its value to society through the example of organic products.
  • International Trade: Identifying Market Structure Being a monopolistic competition, the U.S. car market can be seen as a rather environment to target. Its structure is multilayered and, with several key organizations.
  • The World of Trade in 1897 by Jules Ferry According to Ferry, the world of trade changed significantly at that time due to the introduction of protectionism.
  • International Trade and Trade Policies
  • Atlantic Slave Trade and Its Effect on Africa and the Americas
  • Applying International Trade Concepts Simulation and Economics
  • International Trade: Term Definition
  • Trade in Environmental Goods and Economic Growth
  • Trade Policy Dilemmas in Australia
  • United States Trade Deficit Trends
  • Developing States-World Trade Organization Conflict
  • The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade and Slavery Abolishment
  • World Trade Organization and North American Free Trade Agreements
  • Trade Effect on Environmentalism and Poverty
  • Investment Policies, Trade and Debt on India
  • Protectionism or Free Trade as a Ways of Reversing Trade Deficit
  • Trade Unions in France and Spain
  • Employment Contract, Termination and Restraint to Trade
  • Economic Development: International Trade Debate
  • Fighters for the Abolition of the Slave Trade: Olaudah Equiano’s Characteristic
  • World Trade Organisation in the Modern Global Economy
  • International Trade Debate: Discussion of Nuances
  • South Korea as a Country for US Investment and Trade
  • Garment Trading Company: Motivational Climate and Its Improvement
  • ASEAN Free Trade Area and Economic Development
  • Employee Relations and Trade Unions
  • Globalization, the Sex Trade and HIV-AIDS
  • Information Systems in Aurora International Trading
  • A Damned Piece of Rascality: The Business of Slave Trading in Southern Appalachia
  • Encourage Fair Trade in Scotland
  • Ancient Greek Colonization and Trade
  • North American Free Trade Agreement and Employment
  • Global Mind Commodities Trading Company’s Strategic Marketing
  • Multi-Fibres Agreement and Free Trade in Textile Sector
  • Have the Trade Policies of President Donald Trump Increased the Competitiveness of the USA?
  • Bhutan’s Trade and Exchange Rate Policies
  • Medical Devices Trade Agreements for Healthcare
  • Trade Wars: Who Can Stand the Pain the Longest – China or the USA?
  • International Business: Sino-American Trade War
  • The Impact of the U.S.-Mexican Trade War

✍️ Trade Essay Topics for College

  • North American Free Trade Agreement
  • HIV Transmission and Syringe Trade-In System
  • Trading Instructions: Primary Source Analysis
  • Global Trade Slowdown and Protectionism
  • The Impact of Globalization on Labor Market and Trade
  • International Trade Benefits for the US Economy
  • Slave Trade and Workforce in American History
  • The Demographic Changes of American Trade Unions
  • Global Political Economy: World Trade Organization, World Bank, and European Union
  • The World Trade Organization’s Controversies
  • Nicaragua’s Overreliance on International Trade
  • Modes of International Trade Payment
  • China Trade Barriers and Their Economic Effects
  • The Political Economy of International Trade
  • Canada’s International Trade Policy
  • North American Free Trade Agreement’s Pros & Cons
  • Water Savings and Virtual Trade in Agriculture
  • Using Free and Secure Trade to Smuggle Drugs
  • Virtual Water Trade of Agricultural Products
  • Trade Openness and Economic Growth’s Relationship
  • World Trade Center Disaster and Anti-Terrorism
  • Foreign Investment and Trade Policy in the US
  • Insider Trading Situation in 2017
  • Economics: Carbon Tax vs. Cap-and-Trade System
  • Carbon Tax and Cap-and-Trade System
  • Statistical Pairs Trading and Analyst Recommendation
  • American Cuban Conundrum: Trade Relations
  • Gulf States, International Trade and Security
  • Fair Trade: Ethics in the UK Garment Industry
  • Economic Interdependence Theory and Future of Trade
  • China-Africa Trade and Political Relations
  • United Kingdom Trade Union Congress Mobilization
  • Trade Mark Protection in the United States Law
  • Transatlantic Slave Trade: Development and Effects
  • The Theme of Trade in the Art
  • Denmark’s Savings and Trade Balance
  • World Trade Organization and Doha Declaration
  • Gardena Flowers and Plants Trading Company Analysis
  • Defending Slavery: Termination of Slavery and Slave Trade in South America
  • US International Trade and Economic Nationalism
  • What Are the Differences Between American and European Trade Unions?
  • What Is the Importance of a Surplus Trade Balance?
  • Does the World Trade Organization Hinder Economic Growth in Developing Countries?
  • Does Trade With Low-Wage Countries Cause a Trade Deficit in the High-Wage Country?
  • What Are the Differences Between Free Trade and Protectionism?
  • Are Trade Unions Necessary in the Present Context?
  • What Are International Trade Law Limitations and Benefits?
  • What Are the Gains From Trade and the Implications for Trade Negotiations?
  • Why the Theory of Comparative Advantage Is the Basis for International Trade?
  • Does Trade With Low-Wage Countries Hurt American Workers?
  • What Are the Objectives of Trade Union?
  • Why Does Canada Have Inter-Provincial Trade Issues?
  • Why Is the Usa So Rich if Its Trade Balance Is Negative?
  • Why Was France Warning the UK for Bitter Trade Negotiations?
  • Why Does the UK Have Such Restrictive Trade Union Laws?
  • Why Doesn’t the Us or UK Devalue Its Currency to Solve Its Trade Balance Problems?
  • What Is the Difference Between Trade Associations and Labor Unions?
  • What Is the Significance of GATT in International Trade Law?
  • What Countries Have Lax Insider Trade Law Enforcement?
  • Do International Trade Laws Apply in France?
  • Why Does the Trade Union Movement, Overall, in Australia, Support the Labor Party?
  • Why Many LEDCs Struggle to Increase Their Balance of Trade?
  • Was Michel Barnier the Wrong Man to Handle the EU’s Trade Negotiations With the UK?
  • Why Does the Democratic Party Wish for Trump to Fail in Trade Issues?
  • What Are the Trade Issues of China in the USA Market?

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StudyCorgi. (2021, September 9). 257 Trade Essay Topics for Students & Trade Project Topics. https://studycorgi.com/ideas/trade-essay-topics/

"257 Trade Essay Topics for Students & Trade Project Topics." StudyCorgi , 9 Sept. 2021, studycorgi.com/ideas/trade-essay-topics/.

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1. StudyCorgi . "257 Trade Essay Topics for Students & Trade Project Topics." September 9, 2021. https://studycorgi.com/ideas/trade-essay-topics/.


StudyCorgi . "257 Trade Essay Topics for Students & Trade Project Topics." September 9, 2021. https://studycorgi.com/ideas/trade-essay-topics/.

StudyCorgi . 2021. "257 Trade Essay Topics for Students & Trade Project Topics." September 9, 2021. https://studycorgi.com/ideas/trade-essay-topics/.

These essay examples and topics on Trade were carefully selected by the StudyCorgi editorial team. They meet our highest standards in terms of grammar, punctuation, style, and fact accuracy. Please ensure you properly reference the materials if you’re using them to write your assignment.

This essay topic collection was updated on January 9, 2024 .

TDB and the World Bank to Accelerate Access to Sustainable and Clean Energy in Africa

WASHINGTON, February 12, 2024 — The World Bank has extended a facility of close to $300 million to the Eastern and Southern African Trade and Development Bank (TDB), to support distributed renewable energy (DRE) and clean cooking private sector projects in eligible countries of the World Bank’s International Development Association (IDA) that are TDB member states.

This new facility follows TDB’s successful financing of innovative off-grid solar projects in the region it serves which were financed under a groundbreaking $415 million World Bank Regional Infrastructure Financing Facility (RIFF) facility that was extended to TDB in 2020.

It is part of a first wave of phases of IDA’s $5 billion Accelerating Sustainable and Clean Energy Access Transformation (ASCENT) program , which is expected to provide access to electricity to up to 100 million people in Africa over the next seven years and contribute to achieving SDG 7. Other phases under this stage of the program also include the ASCENT COMESA Regional Acceleration Platform to be implemented by the COMESA Secretariat, and programs in four initial countries, which were selected as ASCENT champions representing different energy access stages and contexts found in the region.

The facility is financed through International Development Association (IDA) financing and a grant from the Energy Sector Management Assistance Programme (ESMAP). Under the facility extended to TDB, the ASCENT Regional Energy Access Financing Platform (REAF) will be established and implemented. The ASCENT REAF is estimated to have the potential to facilitate access to electricity for up to 5 million people, access to clean cooking for up to 1 million people and add up to 35MW in terms energy capacity to the region. 

Through direct lending to private sector, co-financing or on-lending via financial intermediaries, loans under this facility will be provided to DRE and clean cooking companies, with smaller loans to SMEs to be extended through TDB Group’s Trade and Development Fund (TDF).

Furthermore, performance-based catalytic grants will be made available to support companies entering new markets in order to pilot promising innovations and help the private sector grow. This is in addition to technical assistance, capacity building and the development and piloting of financial innovations for TDB, TDF and clients, to enhance the sustainability of their interventions in the DRE and clean cooking space.  This support will particularly focus on pipeline development, implementation tools and technologies, E&S aspects, climate resilience, gender, and innovative financing instruments.

Progress on many human development indicators and improvements in electrification rates in Africa have been stifled by recent global crises and macroeconomic woes. Electricity is fundamental to the region’s efforts to reduce extreme poverty and to its sustainable growth. It provides the lighting needed for children to study and become agents of change, promotes inclusion, and yields the power needed to enable the private sector – MSMEs and big corporates alike – to generate jobs and economic output, and drive innovation and industrial development. Access to clean energy, including for cooking, is paramount to reducing indoor air pollution and improving productivity and health outcomes, especially for women.

Admassu Tadesse, TDB Group President and Managing Director said: “With African energy demand projected to grow rapidly alongside growth in population and incomes, there is an acute need to boost the intermediation of financing, including of concessional finance which can be leveraged to crowd-in more private capital, and make a substantial difference towards greater access to sustainable and clean energy in Africa. Together with several other strategic engagements with World Bank Group institutions, TDB Group is delighted to further elevate its partnership with the World Bank’s IDA through ASCENT which stands to bolster the efforts the Group has been deploying towards a just energy transition, including by adding low-carbon energy capacity in its markets, thereby enhancing their energy security and sustainable growth, while reducing GHG emissions.”

Boutheina Guermazi, World Bank Director for Regional Integration in Africa and the Middle East said: “Access to sustainable, reliable, and affordable energy is at the crux of Africa’s development and poverty reduction efforts. The World Bank is pleased to build on our strong partnership with TDB Group, and we look forward to leveraging our combined efforts to unlock even more sources of financing for a host of private sector actors through the new ASCENT Regional Energy Access Financing Platform (REAF) .”

Established in 1985, the Eastern and Southern African Trade and Development Bank (TDB) is an investment-grade African regional development finance group, with the mandate to finance and foster trade, regional economic integration and sustainable development. With an asset base of USD 10 bn, TDB Group has 25 African member states, which alongside non-regional member countries and institutional investors from Africa, Europe and Asia, form TDB's community of shareholders.

TDB Group counts several subsidiaries and strategic business units including the Trade and Development Bank (TDB), TDB Group Asset Management, the Trade and Development Fund (TDF), TDB Captive Insurance Company (TCI), the ESATAL fund management company and TDB Academy.


About the World Bank Group

The World Bank Group has a bold vision: to create a world free of poverty on a livable planet. In more than 100 countries, the World Bank Group provides financing, advice, and innovative solutions that improve lives by creating jobs, strengthening economic growth, and confronting the most urgent global development challenges. The World Bank Group is one of the largest sources of funding and knowledge for developing countries. It consists of the World Bank, including the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA); the International Finance Corporation (IFC); the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA); and the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID). For more information, please visit www.worldbank.org , www.miga.org , and www.ifc.org .

The World Bank in Africa

African Trade and Development Bank (TDB)

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Why Collaboration Is Critical in Uncertain Times

  • Jenny Fernandez,
  • Kathryn Landis,

research topics for international trade law

Working together can catalyze innovation — even in risk-averse companies.

Recent research suggests that when resources become limited, many business leaders’ inclinations are to become risk-averse and protect their own interests, fostering a culture of conservatism and prioritizing stability over innovation. In such circumstances, the emphasis often shifts toward preserving existing assets, reducing expenditures, and maintaining the status quo, which can hinder the organization’s ability to adapt, pivot, and thrive in a competitive environment. However, it’s precisely during these challenging times that the untapped potential of collaboration can be a game-changer. If you’re a leader struggling with risk-taking, here are four strategies to make the mindset and behavior shifts to become more collaborative and unlock growth.

A client of ours — let’s call her Mary, a senior executive in the technology industry — faced significant challenges managing a large organization amid economic uncertainty. Both her company and industry were experiencing tough times, resulting in budget cuts and a hiring freeze. Moreover, she was tasked with exceeding her annual revenue goals to compensate for the underperformance of a struggling business line, which was beyond her direct control.

  • Jenny Fernandez , MBA, is an executive and team coach, Columbia and NYU faculty, and future of work and brand strategist. She works with senior leaders and their teams to become more collaborative, innovative, and resilient. Her work spans Fortune 500 companies, startups, and higher education. Jenny has been recognized by LinkedIn as a “Top Voice in Executive Coaching, Leadership Development, and Personal Branding” and was invited to join the prestigious Marshall Goldsmith’s 100 Coaches community. She is a Gen Z advocate. Connect with her on LinkedIn .
  • Kathryn Landis , MBA, is the founder and CEO of the global coaching and advisory firm Kathryn Landis Consulting, which helps senior leaders empower and inspire their teams, create a lasting positive impact, and become the best versions of themselves in work and life. She is an adjunct professor at New York University and a former leader at American Express and Automatic Data Processing. Connect with her on LinkedIn .
  • Julie Lee , PhD, is a clinical psychologist, NYU faculty, and a leading Gen Z employment and mental health strategist. Dr. Lee’s work spans Fortune 500 companies,  startups, and higher education institutions, including Harvard and Brown University. In her consulting work, Dr. Lee helps organizations to motivate and retain Gen Z professionals and coaches executives to lead with purpose and empathy. Connect with her on LinkedIn .

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    A List Of Potential Research Topics In International Trade Law: Trade disputes in the pharmaceutical sector: trips agreement and access to medicines. A critical review of the legal aspects of trade in counterfeit and pirated goods. Examining the compliance mechanisms of trade agreements in the digital age.

  2. 4910 PDFs

    Explore the latest full-text research PDFs, articles, conference papers, preprints and more on INTERNATIONAL TRADE LAW. Find methods information, sources, references or conduct a literature...

  3. International Law Research Paper Topics

    By exploring these topics, students can delve into various aspects of international law, such as human rights, criminal law, environmental law, trade law, and humanitarian law, among others.

  4. Research Guides: International Trade Law : Research Guide: Home

    After introductory chapters on trade transactions and cross-border enterprises, it analyzes the World Trade Organization (WTO) package of agreements, Trump blockage of WTO dispute settlement, regulation of imports (including customs law), and trade remedy responses to import competition.

  5. Guides: International Trade Law Research Guide: Introduction

    Introduction The growth of international trade has generated a complex and ever-expanding body of primary law, including treaties and international agreements, national legislation, and trade dispute settlement case law . This research guide focuses primarily on the multilateral trading system administered by the World Trade Organization .

  6. International Trade Law: Problems, Cases, and Materials

    To this end, this edition emphasizes U.S. domestic law trade laws and remedies, including national security tariffs, section 301 tariffs to combat foreign unfair trade practices, antidumping and countervailing duties, export controls and trade sanctions. This book also offers full analysis of the new United States-Mexico-Canada Trade Agreement.

  7. Harvard International Law Journal

    HILJ Online is collaborating with the Georgetown Journal of International Law and the Georgetown Center on Inclusive Trade and Development to publish online scholarship investigating the nexus between trade, technology, and climate initiatives in international law. Explore and submit.

  8. Journal of International Trade Law and Policy

    With their help, the journal has ... 13/09/2022. Journal of International Trade Law and Policy is a peer-reviewed interdisciplinary journal with a focus on the nexus of international economic policy and international economic law. ISSN: 1477-0024. eISSN: 1477-0024.

  9. PDF Legal Analysis of International Trade Law and Digital Trade

    ABSTRACT This brief provides a legal analysis of existing rules in digital trade regarding the various components of artificial intelligence ('AI'), in particular (personal and non-personal) data, computer code in the form of algorithms, and computing power (including cloud computing).

  10. Library Guides: International Trade Law: Starting your Research

    The focus of this research guide is the multilateral trading system administered by the World Trade Organization, and on the contribution of the UN's UNCITRAL to international trade law. The rapid growth of international trade has generated a complex and ever-growing body of primary law, including international agreements and trade dispute ...

  11. Research Guides: Major Treatises by Topic: International Trade Law

    The Oxford Handbook of International Trade Law (2009). Print: Law Library Stacks K1005 .O94 2009. Ian F. Fergusson & Rachel F. Fefer, The World Trade Organization (2019-date). Online: Congressional Research Service. (Free Government Document). Ralph H. Folsom, Free Trade Agreements, from GATT 1947 to NAFTA Re-Negotiated 2018 (2019).

  12. International trade and investment law: a new framework for public

    The comprehensive approach includes significant changes to current models for trade and investment agreements, in particular (i) health, social and environmental objectives would be recognised as legitimate in their own right and implemented accordingly; (ii) changes to dispute-resolution processes, both state-to-state and investor-state; (iii) ...

  13. Foreign and International Law: Topics: International Trade

    On GlobaLex. By Duncan Alford (2012). Guide to International Trade Law Sources on the Internet By Marci Hoffman. International Chamber of Commerce Select Business Policy Texts link for International Court of Arbitration and related rules, and the text of ICC public documents.

  14. International Trade Law

    The Cyrus Chung Ying Tang Foundation has donated $2 million to the RAND Corporation to establish the Tang Institute for U.S.-China Relations. The institute will work to improve policy discussions that shape relations between the U.S. and China on issues such as currency, labor and trade, and more. Sep 19, 2007.

  15. International Law Guide

    GlobaLex Research guides to international law (by subject) and foreign law (by jurisdiction) from NYU's Hauser Global Law School Program. Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law (MPEPIL) An updated, comprehensive work comprised of articles on essential topics in international law.

  16. International Trade Law

    5. Riparian water rights. Although water covers more than two-thirds of the earth's surface, but 97% is in oceans and 2℅ locked in ice-cap and not available to human beings for consumption. Only ...

  17. World Trade Organization

    Principles of International Trade Law commences with coverage of the World Trade Organization and its many agreements, followed by Customs and Import/Export Law, and ends with coverage of Technology Transfers across Borders. Principles is intended to provide considerably more depth, analysis, citations and related documents than found in a ...

  18. International Trade

    The legal framework of international trade includes global trade regimes, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) (1947) and its successor the the World Trade Organization (WTO). It also includes regional trade regimes such as NAFTA and the EU. Bilateral investment treaties (BITs) and free trade agreements have proliferated in recent ...

  19. International Trade Law

    The World Trade Organization is an international organization created by the Final Act Embodying the Results of the Uruguay Round of Multinational Trade Agreements. The WTO implements the agreement, provides a forum for negotiating trade agreements and settling policy disputes, and enforces trade rules.

  20. WTO

    RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS: WORKING PAPERS WTO working papers The papers listed below are working papers, and hence they usually represent research in progress. Such research may be conducted in the preparation of Secretariat reports, studies or informational material for WTO members.

  21. Dissertations / Theses: 'International Trade Law and Policy ...

    Consult the top 50 dissertations / theses for your research on the topic 'International Trade Law and Policy.' Next to every source in the list of references, there is an 'Add to bibliography' button. Press on it, and we will generate automatically the bibliographic reference to the chosen work in the citation style you need: APA, MLA, Harvard ...

  22. 257 Trade Essay Topics to Write about & International Trade Research Topics

    Let us help you 🔎 Easy Trade Research Paper Topics The Importance of International Trade Thanks to international trade, the country's domestic economy can achieve a more efficient allocation of resources and a high level of well-being of the population. Transatlantic Slave Trade and Its Effects

  23. International Law Dissertation Topic Examples

    Discuss. It is undisputed that the Security Council's discretionary power to determine whether a threat to or breach of the peace exists is considerably broad. The same conclusion applies to the measures and actions available to the SC when responding to such threats or breaches of the peace.

  24. National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2024 Adds ...

    Thus, Section 5413 tasks the secretary of state and U.S. trade representative to submit a report to the appropriate congressional committees identifying all treaties and international ...

  25. TDB and the World Bank to Accelerate Access to Sustainable and Clean

    The World Bank has extended a facility of close to $300 million to the Eastern and Southern African Trade and Development Bank (TDB), to support distributed renewable energy (DRE) and clean cooking private sector projects in eligible countries of the World Bank's International Development Association (IDA) that are TDB member states.

  26. Why Collaboration Is Critical in Uncertain Times

    Summary. Recent research suggests that when resources become limited, many business leaders' inclinations are to become risk-averse and protect their own interests, fostering a culture of ...