Transitional Words and Phrases

One of your primary goals as a writer is to present ideas in a clear and understandable way. To help readers move through your complex ideas, you want to be intentional about how you structure your paper as a whole as well as how you form the individual paragraphs that comprise it. In order to think through the challenges of presenting your ideas articulately, logically, and in ways that seem natural to your readers, check out some of these resources: Developing a Thesis Statement , Paragraphing , and Developing Strategic Transitions: Writing that Establishes Relationships and Connections Between Ideas.

While clear writing is mostly achieved through the deliberate sequencing of your ideas across your entire paper, you can guide readers through the connections you’re making by using transitional words in individual sentences. Transitional words and phrases can create powerful links between your ideas and can help your reader understand your paper’s logic.

In what follows, we’ve included a list of frequently used transitional words and phrases that can help you establish how your various ideas relate to each other. We’ve divided these words and phrases into categories based on the common kinds of relationships writers establish between ideas.

Two recommendations: Use these transitions strategically by making sure that the word or phrase you’re choosing matches the logic of the relationship you’re emphasizing or the connection you’re making. All of these words and phrases have different meanings, nuances, and connotations, so before using a particular transitional word in your paper, be sure you understand its meaning and usage completely, and be sure that it’s the right match for your paper’s logic. Use these transitional words and phrases sparingly because if you use too many of them, your readers might feel like you are overexplaining connections that are already clear.

Categories of Transition Words and Phrases

Causation Chronology Combinations Contrast Example

Importance Location Similarity Clarification Concession

Conclusion Intensification Purpose Summary

Transitions to help establish some of the most common kinds of relationships

Causation– Connecting instigator(s) to consequence(s).

accordingly as a result and so because

consequently for that reason hence on account of

since therefore thus

Chronology– Connecting what issues in regard to when they occur.

after afterwards always at length during earlier following immediately in the meantime

later never next now once simultaneously so far sometimes

soon subsequently then this time until now when whenever while

Combinations Lists– Connecting numerous events. Part/Whole– Connecting numerous elements that make up something bigger.

additionally again also and, or, not as a result besides even more

finally first, firstly further furthermore in addition in the first place in the second place

last, lastly moreover next second, secondly, etc. too

Contrast– Connecting two things by focusing on their differences.

after all although and yet at the same time but

despite however in contrast nevertheless nonetheless notwithstanding

on the contrary on the other hand otherwise though yet

Example– Connecting a general idea to a particular instance of this idea.

as an illustration e.g., (from a Latin abbreviation for “for example”)

for example for instance specifically that is

to demonstrate to illustrate

Importance– Connecting what is critical to what is more inconsequential.

chiefly critically

foundationally most importantly

of less importance primarily

Location– Connecting elements according to where they are placed in relationship to each other.

above adjacent to below beyond

centrally here nearby neighboring on

opposite to peripherally there wherever

Similarity– Connecting to things by suggesting that they are in some way alike.

by the same token in like manner

in similar fashion here in the same way

likewise wherever

Other kinds of transitional words and phrases Clarification

i.e., (from a Latin abbreviation for “that is”) in other words

that is that is to say to clarify to explain

to put it another way to rephrase it

granted it is true

naturally of course

finally lastly

in conclusion in the end

to conclude

Intensification

in fact indeed no

of course surely to repeat

undoubtedly without doubt yes

for this purpose in order that

so that to that end

to this end

in brief in sum

in summary in short

to sum up to summarize

report writing key phrases

Improving Your Writing Style

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Clear, Concise Sentences

Use the active voice

Put the action in the verb

Tidy up wordy phrases

Reduce wordy verbs

Reduce prepositional phrases

Reduce expletive constructions

Avoid using vague nouns

Avoid unneccessarily inflated words

Avoid noun strings

Connecting Ideas Through Transitions

Using Transitional Words and Phrases

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How to write a report (with tips and examples)

Delve into our practical guide designed to improve your report writing skills. Explore example reports and discover useful tips for writing clear and effective reports.

Craft Author: Daniel Duke

1. Understand Your Purpose: Always start with a clear understanding of your report's objective. This clarity guides your research, the writing process, and the way you present your findings.

2. Emphasize Clarity and Precision: Your report should be written in clear, simple language. Prioritize precision and avoid unnecessary jargon. Use visuals to represent complex data effectively.

3. Refine Through Revision: Never underestimate the power of editing and proofreading. These steps are critical in enhancing the quality of your report. Additionally, seeking feedback from colleagues or mentors can provide valuable insights.

What is a Report?

Imagine having to comprehend the intricate details of a six-month-long project in a single meeting, or having to make an informed decision based on a sea of raw data. Overwhelming, isn't it? This is where the power of a report comes into play.

A report is a strategic tool that communicates the results of an investigation, a project, or any complex analysis in a clear and concise way. It is the torchlight that cuts through the dense forest of data and information, guiding us toward understanding and action.

At its heart, a report is about simplicity and clarity. It takes the core findings from a more complex investigation and distills them into a simpler, easier-to-follow narrative.

Take, for example, a Financial Analysis Report in a business setting. Such a report takes a mountain of financial data – from revenue to expenses, assets to liabilities – and transforms it into a clear analysis that highlights the company's financial health, trends, and areas that need attention. By distilling complex financial data into a digestible format, the report empowers decision-makers to understand the company's financial state and make informed strategic decisions.

Types of Report

Reports come in all shapes and sizes, each designed to communicate specific types of information to particular audiences. Here are five common types of reports used in a professional setting:

Project Status Report

As its name suggests, a Project Status Report provides an update on a specific project's progress. It typically includes information about completed tasks, ongoing work, any challenges encountered, and next steps. This report is crucial in keeping stakeholders informed and facilitating timely decision-making. For example, a project manager in an IT company might prepare a weekly Project Status Report to update the leadership team about the progress of a new software development project.

Financial Report

A Financial Report is an essential document in the business world. It provides a comprehensive overview of a company's financial health, including details about revenue, expenses, profits, losses, assets, and liabilities. These reports, often prepared quarterly or annually, help stakeholders, investors, and decision-makers understand the company's financial performance and make better-informed strategic decisions.

Research Report

Research Reports are commonly used in both academia and various industries. These reports present the findings from a research study, detailing the research methods, data collected, analysis, and conclusions drawn. For instance, a market research report might reveal consumer behavior trends, helping a company shape its marketing strategy.

Audit Report

An Audit Report is a formal document outlining an auditor's unbiased examination of a company's financial statements. It gives stakeholders confidence in the company's financial integrity and compliance with regulatory standards.

Progress Report

A Progress Report is often used to monitor the advancement of ongoing work or projects. These reports can be on an individual, team, or organizational level. For example, a sales team might produce a monthly progress report showing sales volumes, trends, and areas for improvement.

Each type of report serves its unique purpose and shares a common goal: to transform complex information into an accessible format that drives understanding, decision-making, and progress.

How to Format a Report

Every report requires a structured format for clear communication. The actual format of a report might vary depending on its purpose and formality, but here are the key components of an effective report:

1. Title Page: The Title Page should include the report's title, your name, the date, and often the name of your organization or institution.

2. Executive Summary: A succinct overview of the report's key points, findings, and implications. This section gives the reader a clear idea of what to expect from the report. Sometimes it's easier to compose this section last, once the rest of the report has been completed.

3. Table of Contents: A systematic list of the report's sections and subsections, acting as a navigational tool for your reader.

4. Introduction: The foundational part of the report. It introduces the topic, outlines the report's purpose, and defines its scope, preparing the reader for what's to come.

5. Methodology: An explanation of the methods and tools used for gathering and analyzing data. This section establishes the credibility of your findings and helps the reader comprehend your investigative process. This is perhaps more common in an academic setting: a project status report, for example, is less likely to need a section dedicated to methodology.

6. Findings/Results: The section where you detail your data and the results of your analysis. This is the core of your report, presenting the results of your investigation or research. As well as written data, you should include graphs, images and tables to present your findings, where appropriate.

7. Conclusion: The summary and interpretation of your findings. It reaffirms the insights your report offers and solidifies the report's overall message.

8. Recommendations: Based on the findings, this section proposes future actions or improvements, steering the course for next steps.

The final two sections are perhaps more common in an academic report, but both are worth mentioning here too:

9. Appendices: A place for any supplementary information or data that supports your report but isn't part of the main flow. It serves as a resource for readers interested in delving deeper into the topic.

10. References/Bibliography: A list of all the sources you've cited in your report. This section gives due credit to the referenced works and showcases the depth of your research.

How to Write a Report

Writing a compelling report is a skill crucial to various professional roles, no matter what position or industry you’re in. While the subject of each report might differ, there are key steps to creating an impactful document:

1. Understand the Purpose

Before you start writing, make sure you fully understand the purpose of your report. Why is it needed? What questions should it answer? Who will be reading it? Understanding these factors will guide your research, writing style, and the overall structure of your report.

2. Conduct Thorough Research

A strong report is based on accurate and comprehensive data. In a business setting, this research is usually based on your own data, whereas in an academic setting you'll often rely on external data sources. Take the time to research your topic thoroughly, using reliable and relevant sources. Keep track of all the sources you consult—you’ll need them for your bibliography.

3. Plan Your Report

Start with an outline. This step ensures your report has a logical flow and covers all necessary points. Just like a blueprint, an outline helps you structure your thoughts, organize your data, and divide your content into meaningful sections.

4. Write Clearly and Concisely

Your goal is to communicate, not to confuse. Keep your language simple and your sentences short. Make your points clearly, and support them with facts. Avoid jargon unless it's necessary and you're certain your audience understands it.

5. Use Visuals When Helpful

Charts, graphs, tables, and other visual aids can enhance your report by illustrating complex data in a digestible way. Ensure all visuals are relevant, appropriately labelled, and referenced in the text.

6. Draft and Revise

Your first draft won't be perfect, and that's okay. The key is to start writing. Once you have your thoughts on paper, you can refine and reorganize the content. Revising is a critical part of the writing process —never underestimate its power.

7. Proofread

Review your report for grammar, punctuation, and spelling errors. Also, ensure all data and facts are accurate, and all sources are correctly cited (where applicable). An error-free report enhances your credibility and reflects your attention to detail.

8. Get Feedback

If possible, have a colleague or mentor review your report before finalizing it. They can provide fresh perspectives, point out any gaps, and suggest improvements.

9. Distribute the Report

Once your report is finalized, it's time to share your work. Distribute it to the appropriate audience, which may include your team, supervisor, or client. If the report will be discussed in a meeting or presentation , it might be helpful to distribute it in advance to give everyone a chance to review it.

Remember, writing a strong report is a blend of strategic thinking, thorough research, clear communication, and attention to detail.

Tips for Writing Successful Reports

Tips for writing successful reports

While the structure and purpose of reports may vary, certain principles apply universally to create successful documents. Here are five tips to elevate your report writing:

1. Maintain Objectivity

Your report should present data and facts as objectively as possible. Avoid letting personal biases influence the way you present information. Even when you're interpreting results or making recommendations, ensure that your conclusions are driven by the evidence at hand.

2. Stay Focused

Each report should have a single, clear purpose. Avoid going off on tangents or including irrelevant information. While it's important to provide context and background, don't lose sight of your report's main objective.

3. Think About Your Audience

Tailor your language, tone, and level of detail to the needs and understanding of your audience. A report written for experts in your field may use different language than one written for non-specialists. Always explain technical terms or industry jargon that your readers may not be familiar with.

4. Validate Your Points

Support every assertion you make with evidence or data. This adds credibility to your report and allows readers to understand the basis of your conclusions. Wherever possible, use graphics or visuals to illustrate your points—it’s a powerful way to represent data and ideas.

5. Format consistently

Consistency lends your report a professional look and helps readability. Stick to a consistent format in terms of font, spacing, heading styles, and captioning. Ensure your visuals are in sync with the rest of the document in terms of style and color scheme.

Reports are powerful communication tools, vital in various professional settings. The ability to write an effective report is a skill that can significantly enhance your impact in the workplace. From understanding what a report is, knowing the different types of reports, through to formatting and writing your report, the goal of this guide was to provide a comprehensive overview to help you excel in this critical skill.

By keeping the report’s purpose in mind, conducting thorough research, using a clear and concise writing style, and meticulously revising and proofreading your document, you can ensure your report not only communicates its intended information but does so in an engaging, digestible manner. Employing these strategies, combined with the tips offered, will help you create high-quality, impactful reports.

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How to write a report

Are you planning to take an English exam like Cambridge B2 First, C1 Advanced or the Trinity ISE exams and feeling overwhelmed by the prospect of writing a report? Let’s discuss the style and purpose of a report, the suggested format when you write a report for an exam, and useful phrases for reports. Finally, we’ve got some free downloadable materials to learn useful phrases for reports and sample writings to practise at home.

report writing format

Style and purpose of a report

The style of a report should be formal and objective, presenting information in a clear, concise, and logical way. The purpose of a report is to communicate important information, findings, and recommendations to a specific audience in a structured and organised format. A report should also provide evidence to support its claims, such as statistics, data, and expert opinions.

Reports in English exams are mini-replicas of what you would be expected to write in a professional context. These may be written for a company, a government organisation, or for a university/school setting.

How to write a report with paragraph headings

A report typically follows a specific format with paragraph headings that make it easier for the reader to navigate the content. In the real world, a report would probably be several pages long, with multiple sections, and packed full of data, graphs and conclusion based on those. Obviously, in 150-250 words (depending on the exam) you can’t do that, but it’s good to keep paragraph headings to split up the text into sections. This leaves you with a four paragraph plan, much like we have for many other writings.

  • Introduction : This sets the context and outlines the purpose of the report.
  • Main body 1 : This contains the findings and analysis related to the topic.
  • Main body 2 : This contains further analysis and recommendations.
  • Conclusion : This summarises the key points made in the report and a call to action for the main recommendations.

Paragraph headings should be descriptive and focussed on the content of each section. Both Introduction and Conclusion can be the headings of your first and last paragraphs, while the central ones can often be taken directly from the question. What headings would you use for this sample question?

report writing key phrases

Remember to include a title in your report as well. It doesn’t have to be exciting or engaging like an article, but it should describe what the report is about.

Seeing samples is a good way to learn how to write a report. This example is the answer to the question above.

how to write a report example

Useful phrases for reports

To write a successful report, it’s essential to use appropriate phrases that convey your ideas clearly. There are often many ways to do this, but you will want to learn several of them for exam day. The useful phrases we recommend considering include:

  • The aim of this report is to…
  • This report considers several aspects of [topic] in order to…
  • The findings of this report/survey are outlined below.
  • One issue is that…
  • The current situation is unacceptable because…
  • According to several students/employees/clients…
  • It was suggested that…
  • The vast majority of students/employees/clients believe…
  • I would therefore strongly recommend…
  • Based on the above, the best course of action would be…

These phrases are all part of our downloadable materials below, so if you want more practice, check them out. With practice and dedication, you can write a successful report that impresses your examiners and earns high marks.

The materials

These materials can be used in class or individually. First, you’ll discuss the purpose of reports and some details. Then there is a quick task to learn some useful phrases for reports. Finally, you can test if you know how to write a report by trying one or both of the practice questions. Both questions include sample answers.

how to write a report b2

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10 Tips for Perfect Report Writing

Report writing is an essential skill for many jobs and educational courses. This page shows you correct report writing formats, and gives you 10 top tips to help you write a report.

Report Writing – An Introduction

You might have to write a report at university (an academic report) or as part of your job (a business or technical report).

There are also different reasons for report writing: to present information (such as a lab report or financial report); to present research findings; or to analyse a problem and then recommend a particular action or strategy.

A report can be long or short, formal or informal. The style and vocabulary choice will depend on who is going to read your report, and their level of understanding or expertise.

Reports should be clear and concise, with the information presented logically in sections, with headings and (if necessary) sub-headings.

Report Writing Formats

Reports don’t always follow the same formats or include all the possible, different sections. If you’re unsure about the correct report writing format to use, check with your tutor (at university) or find out the preferred layout that your company uses.

Research report

in-the-lab-2-1251077-638x471

In it you’ll address a particular situation (saying why it’s worthy of research and referencing other studies on the subject); describe your research methods and evaluate the results of your research; then finally make conclusions or recommendations.

What are the report sections?

Title page – the title of your report, your name, the date, academic information (your course and tutor’s name).

Acknowledgements – if you’ve received help (ie from experts, academics, libraries).

Terms of reference (optional) This gives the scope and limitations of your report – your objective in writing and who it’s for.

Summary / Abstract – in brief, the most important points of your report: your objectives (if you don’t include a terms of reference section), main findings, conclusions and recommendations.

Table of Contents All the sections and sub-sections of your report with page references, plus a list of diagrams or illustrations and appendices.

Introduction Why you’re researching the topic, the background and goals of your research, your research methods, plus your conclusion in brief.

Methods / Methodology / Procedure (optional – if not included in the introduction) How you carried out your research, techniques, equipment or procedures you used.

Main body / Discussion (the longest part of your report) Contains an analysis and interpretation of your findings (often linked to current theory or previous research) divided into headings and sub-headings for clarity. You can also include visual information, such as diagrams, illustrations, charts, etc.

Results (can also go before the main body of the report) The findings of your research (also presented in tables, etc) but without any discussion or interpretation of them.

Conclusion What you can say about the results – your deductions, and the most important findings from your research.

Recommendations (can also be part of the conclusion section) Number these if you have more than one.

Appendices Extra information which is too long for the main body of your report, such as tables, questionnaires, etc.

References All the sources you refer to in your report.

Bibliography (optional) Books, journals, etc which you read or used during your research.

Glossary (optional) Technical or jargon words which your reader might not understand.

Business report

market-share-report-a-pie-chart-1238366-639x570

Or you might just need to write a shorter, information-type report.

Title page The report title, your name, the date, the name of the person commissioning the report, the objective of the report.

Management / Executive Summary You can give this to people instead of the whole report. It’s often less than one page and contains the main information – the summary, conclusions and recommendations.

Table of Contents For longer reports, including sections and page references.

Introduction The background of the report, what is included, methods and procedures for getting the information, acknowledgements of help.

Main Body / Discussion This is the longest part of your report, including all the details organised into headings and sub-headings. For example, a description of the current situation / problems.

Summary and Conclusions (can also go before the main body) Summarise the reason for your report, and your conclusions, such as the potential solutions to a problem.

Recommendations (can also go before the main body) Identify your preferred course of action. Number your recommendations if you have more than one.

Appendices Any extra information, such as illustrations, questionnaires used in preparing the report, or a bibliography.

References (optional)

For shorter reports, or information-type reports (such as financial reports or sales reports) the report sections may be:

Title Introduction Main Body / Discussion Recommendations (optional)

10 Report Writing Tips

These report writing tips will save you time and make sure that what you write is relevant. There are five writing tips followed by five language tips.

1. Write your executive summary and table of contents at the end

This means that the section headings and page numbers will be consistent. The executive summary is much easier to write if you have already written the rest.

2. Focus on the objective

Make sure you understand the purpose of your report and who you’re writing it for. If you’re writing a report as part of your university course, read the brief carefully and refer back to it so that everything you write and include is relevant.

If you’re writing a business report, write an objective statement first. This helps you decide what’s going to be relevant and important for the reader. You can use the objective as the title of the report, or put it in the introduction. For example:

[su_quote]To identify new market segments and analyse the competition[/su_quote] [su_quote]To evaluate current HR policies and present new recruitment methods[/su_quote] [su_quote]To examine our R&D strategy and suggest new product development ideas[/su_quote]

3. Plan before you start writing

Gather all your research and relevant information. You might need to interview people, do some background reading or carry out experiments.

Decide on a structure for your report. How are you going to organise the information you have into sections? How can you divide these sections into headings and sub-headings?

Plan your structure by writing all your points on a piece of paper, then grouping these ideas into sections and headings. Alternatively, try a “mind map”. Write a subject word in a box, and then write ideas around this subject word, drawing lines to connect them to the subject word. Doing this can help you see where information is related and where it can be grouped.

Make sure you keep a note of all your references so you can write the references section afterwards. As you plan out the structure of your report, think about how it’s linked to the objective of your report. What conclusions or recommendations can you make? Is there anything unusual that you might need to explain?

4. Use a clear layout

Make your report look more readable and inviting. Here are some ways to help you do this:

Use headings and sub-headings to break up the text. Remember to number these consistently. Here are two alternatives:

Section 1 Sub-section 1(a), 1(b) Sub-sub-section 1 (a) (i), 1 (a) (ii); 1 (b) (i), 1 (b), (ii) Or: Section 1 Sub-section 1.1, 1.2 Sub-sub-section 1.1.1, 1.1.2; 1.2.1, 1.2.2

Include adequate spacing and margins to make the text look less dense

Write well-structured paragraphs. Paragraphs shouldn’t be more than five sentences long. For example, your first sentence is the topic sentence – the main idea of the paragraph. The second to fourth sentences expand on this idea, giving supporting or additional information, commenting on the points raised, or referring to other data. The final sentence concludes the ideas presented, or leads on to the following paragraph.

5. Edit and proof read!

Here’s a check list of what you should ask yourself before submitting your report:

– Is it free of grammatical mistakes, concise and easy to read? – Do the sections follow on logically from each other? – Is each point supported with evidence or data? – Are the conclusions and recommendations persuasive? – Are all the sources correctly referenced?

And finally – have you kept to the report objective or brief?

Report Writing – Language Tips

Aim to write clearly and concisely. Here are five ways to help you do this:

6. Keep sentences short and simple

Include only one main idea in each sentence, with extra information in following sentences, introduced by a appropriate linking word (see below). Avoid writing long sentences with lots of sub-clauses which will make it difficult for your reader to follow you. Aim for sentences which are no longer than 15-20 words.

7. Use linking words

Words and phrases like “Therefore”, “However”, “For this reason”, etc help your reader follow your ideas. For a complete list of linking words (and examples of their use) check out our page on linking words .

8. Use everyday English

Explain jargon or technical language (if you’re writing for a non-technical audience) and include these terms in a glossary.

9. Avoid passive forms where possible

Scientific and technical reports often include passive forms instead of subject pronouns like “I” and “you”, but for business reports you can write more simply and directly.

To make your business report sound more objective, you can use the “third person”. For example, “This report outlines the advantages and disadvantages of company pension schemes.” Other verbs you can use in the “third person” are:

analyze (analyse BrE) “This section analyzes the differences between the two markets.”

describe “This report describes the procedures commonly used in assessing insurance claims.”

discuss “This report discusses the implications of the new building regulations.”

examine “This report examines the impact of natural disasters on our production facilities.”

explain “This section explains the decisions to suspend investment in Europe.”

identify “This report identifies the advantages and disadvantages of relocating our head office.”

illustrate “This report illustrates the main difficulties in opening new branches in Asia.”

outline “This section outlines our R&D priorities.”

review “This report reviews our franchising operations.”

summarize (summarise BrE) “This report summarizes the main points raised at the Shareholders Meeting.”

10. Keep an eye on punctuation

Correct punctuation helps your reader move more easily through your report. If you’re not sure on when to use commas or semi-colons (for example), check out our punctuation guide .

For more help with writing skills, take a look at Business Writing Essentials: How to Write Letters, Reports and Emails .

report writing key phrases

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Report writing

  • Features of good reports
  • Types of Report
  • Structuring your report
  • Introduction

Good writing style

Writing academically, the writing process, finishing touches, useful links for report writing.

  • Study Advice Helping students to achieve study success with guides, video tutorials, seminars and one-to-one advice sessions.
  • Maths Support A guide to Maths Support resources which may help if you're finding any mathematical or statistical topic difficult during the transition to University study.

report writing key phrases

  • Academic Phrasebank Use this site for examples of linking phrases and ways to refer to sources.
  • Academic writing LibGuide Expert guidance on punctuation, grammar, writing style and proof-reading.
  • Reading and notemaking LibGuide Expert guidance on managing your reading and making effective notes.
  • Guide to citing references Includes guidance on why, when and how to use references correctly in your academic writing.

Reports are professional documents so need to be written in a formal and concise style. The audience does not want to search through irrelevant or rambling writing to find the information they need. Keep returning to your report criteria or brief to ensure you are fulfilling the aims, and to test whether the information you want to include is relevant.

The advice on this page will help you write reports that are to the point and professional, and will suggest an effective order for writing the different sections of your report.

report writing key phrases

  • Write in paragraphs which have one main point that you introduce, expand on, and summarise
  • Using shorter sentences avoids over-complexity
  • Avoid using colloquialisms and informality in academic writing
  • Write words out in full, for instance use 'do not' instead of 'don't'
  • Do use appropriate technical terms, but try to avoid jargon – consider who is likely to read your report and whether they will understand the terms you use
  • Make sure you know how to use punctuation and grammar correctly to make your work look professional
  • Academic writing LibGuide Guidance on using punctuation, grammar and writing style.

Writing academically means writing in such a way that your information sounds credible and authoritative. It does not mean:

  • Using long words
  • Writing complicated sentences with lots of semi-colons and colons

report writing key phrases

Be objective  – report what the evidence tells you even if it isn't what you hoped to find. Don't present unsupported or personal opinions: for instance, 'Unsurprisingly, participants who recycled their refuse more regularly were also nicer people'. Take a balanced view.

Be accurate  – give clear non-subjective descriptions ('light blue' is better than 'sky blue') and definite figures ('after twenty five minutes', '80% of the participants'). Avoid vague or ambiguous terms like 'a long period of time', or 'most of the participants'.

Be direct  – don't leave it to your reader to work out what you are saying! Putting the emphasis on a strong verb can help the reader to see the important points: for instance, 'an analysis was performed on the results' is not as direct as 'the results were analysed'.

Be critical  – evaluate your own work as well as that of others. Have the confidence to say if something could have been done better if it had been done differently.

Be appropriate  – identify the purpose of your communication and the audience you are communicating to. Give them the information they need to understand your work.

  • Tips for scientific writing (pdf) Features of scientific writing from the University of Leeds

Reports are written to describe work completed in response to a particular brief, either one that has been given to you, or one you have set up yourself. So:

  • write in the past tense (as you are reporting on what has already happened)
  • always keep the brief in mind while you are writing

A suggested order for writing the main sections...

  • Methods and Data/Results : As a rough guide, the more factual the section, the earlier you should write it. So sections describing 'what you did and what you found' are likely to be written first.
  • Introduction and Literature Survey : Sections that explain or expand on the purpose of the research should be next: what questions are you seeking to answer, how did they arise, why are they worth investigating? These will help you to see how to interpret and analyse your findings.
  • Discussion : Once you've established the questions your research is seeking to answer, you will be able to see how your results contribute to the answers, and what kind of answers they point to. Write this early enough that you still have time to fill any gaps you find.
  • Conclusions and Recommendations : These should follow logically from your Discussion. They should state your conclusions and recommendations clearly and simply.
  • Abstract/Executive Summary : Once the main body is finished you can write a succinct and accurate summary of the main features.
  • Structuring your report How to decide where your information goes and how to write each section.

report writing key phrases

Referencing – Your course handbook should explain the style of referencing preferred by your department. Check that you have all the necessary details in the right places. If you've lost the details of a source, don't include it – unacknowledged sources could be read as plagiarism. See our Citing references guide for more support.

Proof reading  – Print your work off to proof read – you are more likely to spot errors. It can help to read aloud. Use spell and grammar checkers wisely – make sure changes won't affect what you wanted to say.

Title page, contents, list of illustrations – Not all reports will need all of these sections. If yours does, they will probably be the last sections to write, once you are certain that the page order will not change.

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  • Last Updated: Jan 29, 2024 11:27 AM
  • URL: https://libguides.reading.ac.uk/reports

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report writing key phrases

Useful Vocabulary for Writing Reports

Writing a report can be a long, daunting process. Fortunately, if you take it one step at a time and plan as you go, writing a report can an enjoyable learning experience.

Simply complete the following phrases and see for yourself.

INTRODUCTION

  • The aim / intention / purpose of this report is to outline / present / discuss / sum up …
  • Further to my visit to …, I have prepared the following report.
  • I have recently visited … and have prepared the following report for your consideration.
  • This involved visiting / looking at / investigating … / The data was obtained by …
  • In order to help make this report I asked / discussed / gave out a questionnaire …
  • It is based on my observations / the feedback from participants …
  • My findings are outlined / presented below. / I outline my findings below.
  • The report contains the relevant details concerning the problem as you required.

INTRODUCING POINTS

  • To begin with … / Let us start with …
  • First(ly) … / In the first place … / First of all … / The first aspect / thing to consider is …
  • Second(ly) … / Third(ly) …
  • Moreover … / Furthermore … / What is more …
  • Another aspect to consider … / Yet another aspect / consideration is …
  • Besides that … / Apart from that … / In addition to this … / On top of that …

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INTRODUCING YOUR OPINION

  • I think / believe that … / In my opinion … / I am of the opinion that … / It seems to me that …
  • Personally I believe that … / In my view … / If you ask me … / To my mind … / As far as I am concerned …
  • I would like to suggest / recommend … / I therefore suggest / recommend …
  • I (strongly) recommend … / My recommendation is to …

INTRODUCING SOMEONE ELSE’S OPINION

  • A few / Many / The majority / minority of people said / reported / complained …
  • According to … / As … said … / In the words of …
  • It is said that … / It is often suggested that …

GIVING EXAMPLES

  • For example / instance …
  • This can be shown / illustrated / demonstrated / clarified by …
  • Let me just give you an example, …
  • The picture / diagram shows / illustrates …
  • One of the main / biggest / most significant / … differences between … and … is …
  • Unlike …, … is … / While / Whereas / Although … is, … is …
  • … is completely / entirely / totally different from …
  • … is a little / slightly / somewhat / a great deal bigger / more elegant / … than …
  • … is not quite / nearly as comfortable / expensive / convenient / … as …
  • … is virtually / exactly the same as … when it comes to …

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  • It can be seen from the data / reactions / information above that …
  • All things considered, I believe that … / Taking everyone’s comments into consideration …
  • In general / On the whole I found that …
  • In conclusion … / To conclude … / To sum up … / In summary …
  • To put the matter in a nutshell … / In a nutshell …

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  • What is academic writing?
  • Academic Style
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  • Understanding the title
  • Brainstorming
  • Researching
  • First draft
  • Proofreading
  • Report writing
  • Compare & contrast
  • Cause & effect
  • Problem-solution
  • Classification
  • Essay structure

Introduction

  • Literature review
  • Book review
  • Research proposal
  • Thesis/dissertation
  • What is cohesion?
  • Cohesion vs coherence
  • Transition signals
  • What are references?
  • In-text citations
  • Reference sections
  • Reporting verbs
  • Band descriptors

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Language for reports Some formulaic phrases

On this page you will find some language for reports . The language provides further examples of the formulaic language used in academic contexts. As with other formulaic language (e.g. the language for presentations ), you do not need to learn all of these phrases. You should be able to use at least one phrase for each function (e.g. stating the aim(s) of your report, referring to figures in the Results section or the Discussion section ). How many more you learn after this is up to you. Good writing requires varying the expressions you use, rather than using the same ones all the time. On the other hand, you will only state the aim once in a report, so one phrase may be enough for life!

Preliminaries

report language

For another look at the same content, check out the video on YouTube (also available on Youku ).

The title of your report will depend very much on the subject matter, and will be very individual. Nonetheless, there are some useful verbs and phrases which can be used in titles, especially for science reports. These include:

  • Investigating X
  • Calculating X
  • Measuring X
  • Demonstrating X
  • Analysing X
  • Determining X
  • An Investigation into X
  • A Demonstration of X
  • An Analysis of X

There is no special language for writing abstracts or contents pages , which are the other components of the prilimaries of a report.

You may need to talk about something in general in the background section of your introduction. The most common way is to use [No article] + [plural]. For example:

  • Mobile phones have become very popular in China in recent years.

It is also possible to use [The] + [singular]. For example:

  • The mobile phone has become very popular in China in recent years.

The background section of your introduction is likely to require in-text citations. Some structures for citations are given below. For more, see the references and citations section.

You may need to give definitions and classify in this section. See the relevant pages on the website for language for definitions and classification.

If you want to refer to theories or principles, you can use the following structures.

The following structures can be used for presenting equations.

The following phrases can be used for stating what something stands for or represents.

  • X stands for/represents/denotes/symbolizes Y
  • Y is represented by X
  • Y is denoted by X
  • Y is symbolized by X
  • ...where X is/stands for/denotes/represents Y

This part of the report explains why you are writing the report. The tense you use will depend on whether the subject of the sentence is the report (which still exists) or the experiment (which has finished). If you are referring to the report, you should use present tense . If you are referring to the experiment, which has finished, you should use past tense .

Examples of aims, using the above structures, are given below.

  • The aim of this experiment was to measure the value of gravity in Guangzhou by using a simple pendulum.
  • The aim of this report is to investigate whether class size has a significant effect on student achievement.

The Method section outlines how you gathered information. Because academic language does not usually use 'I' or 'we', this section will often contain passive structures, usually the past passive (because the experiment or survey is finished). It can be useful to use transition signals to show sequence or process, such as the ones below.

  • First(ly)/Initially/At first/At the beginning/To begin with...
  • Second(ly)/Then/Next/Subsequently/After that...
  • Finally/At the end/Lastly...
  • After doing X, Y was done.
  • After X was done, Y was done.
  • Before/prior to doing X, Y was done.
  • Before X was done, Y was done.
  • Prior to X being done, Y was done.

For example:

  • After measuring the length of the string, the bob was moved several degrees.

Science reports will usually include apparatus for conducting the experiment. The following phrases can be used for describing the apparatus.

If you use tables, charts, etc., the following language can be used to refer to these. Note that this language is description, i.e. it does not analyse or draw conclusions.

The following language can be used for referring to graphs etc. in the Discussion section. Unlike similar phrases used for the Findings section , which merely describe, this language discusses, i.e. it says what the information means.

The following phrases can be used for science reports when comparing the results to those expected.

The following phrases can be used when discussing how errors may have affected the results.

There is not much language for conclusions, though conclusion signals such as 'In conclusion' are useful. For science reports, the following phrases can be used to indicate the degree of accuracy.

Recommendations

Recommendations can use the following modal verb constructions

Examples, using the above structures, are given below.

  • Based on the conclusions above, it is recommended that the company consider paying more attention to above-the-line promotion in order to attract new customers.
  • Further research should be carried out to find out if these opinions are true in other market segments.

If you are writing a lab report, the following conditional structures can be used to indicate how the experiment could have been improved.

There is no language for reference sections, but you can refer to the section on reference sections for more information on these.

There is no language for appendices, though the following may be used in the main body to refer to the appendices.

  • A complete copy of X is shown in Appendix 1.
  • For more detail, refer to Appendix 1, which shows...
  • See Appendix 1 for more information.

Academic Writing Genres

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There is a downloadable checklist for reports ( structure and language) in the writing resources section.

Next section

Read more about writing essays in the next section.

Previous section

Read the previous article about report structure .

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Author: Sheldon Smith    ‖    Last modified: 10 April 2022.

Sheldon Smith is the founder and editor of EAPFoundation.com. He has been teaching English for Academic Purposes since 2004. Find out more about him in the about section and connect with him on Twitter , Facebook and LinkedIn .

Compare & contrast essays examine the similarities of two or more objects, and the differences.

Cause & effect essays consider the reasons (or causes) for something, then discuss the results (or effects).

Discussion essays require you to examine both sides of a situation and to conclude by saying which side you favour.

Problem-solution essays are a sub-type of SPSE essays (Situation, Problem, Solution, Evaluation).

Transition signals are useful in achieving good cohesion and coherence in your writing.

Reporting verbs are used to link your in-text citations to the information cited.

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  • 40 Useful Words and Phrases for Top-Notch Essays

report writing key phrases

To be truly brilliant, an essay needs to utilise the right language. You could make a great point, but if it’s not intelligently articulated, you almost needn’t have bothered.

Developing the language skills to build an argument and to write persuasively is crucial if you’re to write outstanding essays every time. In this article, we’re going to equip you with the words and phrases you need to write a top-notch essay, along with examples of how to utilise them.

It’s by no means an exhaustive list, and there will often be other ways of using the words and phrases we describe that we won’t have room to include, but there should be more than enough below to help you make an instant improvement to your essay-writing skills.

If you’re interested in developing your language and persuasive skills, Oxford Royale offers summer courses at its Oxford Summer School , Cambridge Summer School , London Summer School , San Francisco Summer School and Yale Summer School . You can study courses to learn english , prepare for careers in law , medicine , business , engineering and leadership.

General explaining

Let’s start by looking at language for general explanations of complex points.

1. In order to

Usage: “In order to” can be used to introduce an explanation for the purpose of an argument. Example: “In order to understand X, we need first to understand Y.”

2. In other words

Usage: Use “in other words” when you want to express something in a different way (more simply), to make it easier to understand, or to emphasise or expand on a point. Example: “Frogs are amphibians. In other words, they live on the land and in the water.”

3. To put it another way

Usage: This phrase is another way of saying “in other words”, and can be used in particularly complex points, when you feel that an alternative way of wording a problem may help the reader achieve a better understanding of its significance. Example: “Plants rely on photosynthesis. To put it another way, they will die without the sun.”

4. That is to say

Usage: “That is” and “that is to say” can be used to add further detail to your explanation, or to be more precise. Example: “Whales are mammals. That is to say, they must breathe air.”

5. To that end

Usage: Use “to that end” or “to this end” in a similar way to “in order to” or “so”. Example: “Zoologists have long sought to understand how animals communicate with each other. To that end, a new study has been launched that looks at elephant sounds and their possible meanings.”

Adding additional information to support a point

Students often make the mistake of using synonyms of “and” each time they want to add further information in support of a point they’re making, or to build an argument . Here are some cleverer ways of doing this.

6. Moreover

Usage: Employ “moreover” at the start of a sentence to add extra information in support of a point you’re making. Example: “Moreover, the results of a recent piece of research provide compelling evidence in support of…”

7. Furthermore

Usage:This is also generally used at the start of a sentence, to add extra information. Example: “Furthermore, there is evidence to suggest that…”

8. What’s more

Usage: This is used in the same way as “moreover” and “furthermore”. Example: “What’s more, this isn’t the only evidence that supports this hypothesis.”

9. Likewise

Usage: Use “likewise” when you want to talk about something that agrees with what you’ve just mentioned. Example: “Scholar A believes X. Likewise, Scholar B argues compellingly in favour of this point of view.”

10. Similarly

Usage: Use “similarly” in the same way as “likewise”. Example: “Audiences at the time reacted with shock to Beethoven’s new work, because it was very different to what they were used to. Similarly, we have a tendency to react with surprise to the unfamiliar.”

11. Another key thing to remember

Usage: Use the phrase “another key point to remember” or “another key fact to remember” to introduce additional facts without using the word “also”. Example: “As a Romantic, Blake was a proponent of a closer relationship between humans and nature. Another key point to remember is that Blake was writing during the Industrial Revolution, which had a major impact on the world around him.”

12. As well as

Usage: Use “as well as” instead of “also” or “and”. Example: “Scholar A argued that this was due to X, as well as Y.”

13. Not only… but also

Usage: This wording is used to add an extra piece of information, often something that’s in some way more surprising or unexpected than the first piece of information. Example: “Not only did Edmund Hillary have the honour of being the first to reach the summit of Everest, but he was also appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire.”

14. Coupled with

Usage: Used when considering two or more arguments at a time. Example: “Coupled with the literary evidence, the statistics paint a compelling view of…”

15. Firstly, secondly, thirdly…

Usage: This can be used to structure an argument, presenting facts clearly one after the other. Example: “There are many points in support of this view. Firstly, X. Secondly, Y. And thirdly, Z.

16. Not to mention/to say nothing of

Usage: “Not to mention” and “to say nothing of” can be used to add extra information with a bit of emphasis. Example: “The war caused unprecedented suffering to millions of people, not to mention its impact on the country’s economy.”

Words and phrases for demonstrating contrast

When you’re developing an argument, you will often need to present contrasting or opposing opinions or evidence – “it could show this, but it could also show this”, or “X says this, but Y disagrees”. This section covers words you can use instead of the “but” in these examples, to make your writing sound more intelligent and interesting.

17. However

Usage: Use “however” to introduce a point that disagrees with what you’ve just said. Example: “Scholar A thinks this. However, Scholar B reached a different conclusion.”

18. On the other hand

Usage: Usage of this phrase includes introducing a contrasting interpretation of the same piece of evidence, a different piece of evidence that suggests something else, or an opposing opinion. Example: “The historical evidence appears to suggest a clear-cut situation. On the other hand, the archaeological evidence presents a somewhat less straightforward picture of what happened that day.”

19. Having said that

Usage: Used in a similar manner to “on the other hand” or “but”. Example: “The historians are unanimous in telling us X, an agreement that suggests that this version of events must be an accurate account. Having said that, the archaeology tells a different story.”

20. By contrast/in comparison

Usage: Use “by contrast” or “in comparison” when you’re comparing and contrasting pieces of evidence. Example: “Scholar A’s opinion, then, is based on insufficient evidence. By contrast, Scholar B’s opinion seems more plausible.”

21. Then again

Usage: Use this to cast doubt on an assertion. Example: “Writer A asserts that this was the reason for what happened. Then again, it’s possible that he was being paid to say this.”

22. That said

Usage: This is used in the same way as “then again”. Example: “The evidence ostensibly appears to point to this conclusion. That said, much of the evidence is unreliable at best.”

Usage: Use this when you want to introduce a contrasting idea. Example: “Much of scholarship has focused on this evidence. Yet not everyone agrees that this is the most important aspect of the situation.”

Adding a proviso or acknowledging reservations

Sometimes, you may need to acknowledge a shortfalling in a piece of evidence, or add a proviso. Here are some ways of doing so.

24. Despite this

Usage: Use “despite this” or “in spite of this” when you want to outline a point that stands regardless of a shortfalling in the evidence. Example: “The sample size was small, but the results were important despite this.”

25. With this in mind

Usage: Use this when you want your reader to consider a point in the knowledge of something else. Example: “We’ve seen that the methods used in the 19th century study did not always live up to the rigorous standards expected in scientific research today, which makes it difficult to draw definite conclusions. With this in mind, let’s look at a more recent study to see how the results compare.”

26. Provided that

Usage: This means “on condition that”. You can also say “providing that” or just “providing” to mean the same thing. Example: “We may use this as evidence to support our argument, provided that we bear in mind the limitations of the methods used to obtain it.”

27. In view of/in light of

Usage: These phrases are used when something has shed light on something else. Example: “In light of the evidence from the 2013 study, we have a better understanding of…”

28. Nonetheless

Usage: This is similar to “despite this”. Example: “The study had its limitations, but it was nonetheless groundbreaking for its day.”

29. Nevertheless

Usage: This is the same as “nonetheless”. Example: “The study was flawed, but it was important nevertheless.”

30. Notwithstanding

Usage: This is another way of saying “nonetheless”. Example: “Notwithstanding the limitations of the methodology used, it was an important study in the development of how we view the workings of the human mind.”

Giving examples

Good essays always back up points with examples, but it’s going to get boring if you use the expression “for example” every time. Here are a couple of other ways of saying the same thing.

31. For instance

Example: “Some birds migrate to avoid harsher winter climates. Swallows, for instance, leave the UK in early winter and fly south…”

32. To give an illustration

Example: “To give an illustration of what I mean, let’s look at the case of…”

Signifying importance

When you want to demonstrate that a point is particularly important, there are several ways of highlighting it as such.

33. Significantly

Usage: Used to introduce a point that is loaded with meaning that might not be immediately apparent. Example: “Significantly, Tacitus omits to tell us the kind of gossip prevalent in Suetonius’ accounts of the same period.”

34. Notably

Usage: This can be used to mean “significantly” (as above), and it can also be used interchangeably with “in particular” (the example below demonstrates the first of these ways of using it). Example: “Actual figures are notably absent from Scholar A’s analysis.”

35. Importantly

Usage: Use “importantly” interchangeably with “significantly”. Example: “Importantly, Scholar A was being employed by X when he wrote this work, and was presumably therefore under pressure to portray the situation more favourably than he perhaps might otherwise have done.”

Summarising

You’ve almost made it to the end of the essay, but your work isn’t over yet. You need to end by wrapping up everything you’ve talked about, showing that you’ve considered the arguments on both sides and reached the most likely conclusion. Here are some words and phrases to help you.

36. In conclusion

Usage: Typically used to introduce the concluding paragraph or sentence of an essay, summarising what you’ve discussed in a broad overview. Example: “In conclusion, the evidence points almost exclusively to Argument A.”

37. Above all

Usage: Used to signify what you believe to be the most significant point, and the main takeaway from the essay. Example: “Above all, it seems pertinent to remember that…”

38. Persuasive

Usage: This is a useful word to use when summarising which argument you find most convincing. Example: “Scholar A’s point – that Constanze Mozart was motivated by financial gain – seems to me to be the most persuasive argument for her actions following Mozart’s death.”

39. Compelling

Usage: Use in the same way as “persuasive” above. Example: “The most compelling argument is presented by Scholar A.”

40. All things considered

Usage: This means “taking everything into account”. Example: “All things considered, it seems reasonable to assume that…”

How many of these words and phrases will you get into your next essay? And are any of your favourite essay terms missing from our list? Let us know in the comments below, or get in touch here to find out more about courses that can help you with your essays.

At Oxford Royale Academy, we offer a number of  summer school courses for young people who are keen to improve their essay writing skills. Click here to apply for one of our courses today, including law , business , medicine  and engineering .

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report

Useful phrases for your report

Writing a concise, reader-friendly, and informative report is challenging for many employees, students, and pupils. That’s why I compiled this article for you, to provide you with useful phrases for your report. Read on and become a pro-report writer. 

useful phrases for your report

What to write in your introduction? 

The introduction section of your report lets the reader know about the content of your writing. So, it’s essential to use these first sentences to let the reader know 

  • what the purpose of your report is 
  • what the topic is 

In most cases, reports aim to present or summarise information. 

useful introduction phrases for your report

  • The purpose of this report is to …. (e.g. summarise, show, examine, analyse, present, inform, etc.) 
  • The aim of this report is to … 
  • This report (examines, analyses, shows, summarises, presents, inform, etc.) 
  • This report/It is based on… (a survey, a study) … 
  • The source for this report is (a recent survey on , a study on…etc.) 
  • ….(Insert number) people were questioned/interviewed and the results are presented below. 
  • The key findings are presented/outlined below. 

What to write in your main body?

The main body of your report contains the necessary information you need to pass on to your reader. For example, you summarise the most important findings of a study. Depending on what you are expected to cover in your report, you need to also analyse the findings and write about the impact they have on your company, product, school, etc. 

Make sure you know what you are expected to write about in your report! 

useful main body phrases for your report

  • According to the data, … 
  • There is a slight/moderate/steady increase/decrease in… 
  • Around/Nearly/Almost/About/Approximately … percent of… 
  • The amount/number of … has remained steady/stable/constant/unchanged at… 
  • The figures for… have risen/fallen since … 
  • Compared to …., the figures for … are high/low. 
  • There are several factors which affect… 
  • Several people claim/suggest/state that…. 
  • There are a number of reasons for… 
  • As might have been expected… 
  • Contrary to expectations,… 
  • It is important to add that… 
  • It should not be forgotten that… 
  • It should be mentioned/added that… 
  • It should be kept in mind that… 
  • Reasons for this development/trend could be…. 

What to write in your conclusion? 

The conclusion is the place where you give suggestions, recommandations, and shortly summarise the most vital points made in the main body of your report. 

useful summary phrases for your report 

  • In the light of these findings, …
  • Taking into account the findings, … 
  • For this reason/ these reasons, it might be a good idea to… 
  • A possible solution would be… 
  • It is suggested/recommended/proposed that… 
  • I/We would (strongly) recommend that… 
  • It is essential/vital/important/necessary to… 
  • It would be advisable to…. 
  • It would be beneficial to… 
  • It is clear/obvious that
  • After a thorough data analysis, it is clear that… 
  • A further consideration could also be… 
  • In short/brief, it should be therefore concluded that… 
  • To summarise/sum up, it has been shown that… 
  • All in all, it can be summarised that… 
  • Finally, it should be mentioned that… 

I am sure that this collection of phrases for reports will help you to write a great report. 

If you want to know more about report writing, you can check out the following articles: 

5 steps on how to write a report

How to write effective reports

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Vocabulary to use when writing business reports in English exercise

Writing a good report is not only about knowing how you structure it and what type of things to include (and not include), but also how you say what you do include: the words and phrases you use.

Although your choice of vocabulary is not as important for writing good reports as what you actually write about, to look professional you should you try the right type of vocabulary and not overuse the same words and phrases in your reports.

To help you know what words and phrases to use in your own reports, I have created the below online exercise. Through reading an example of a good report and doing a quiz/test, you'll learn and remember some English vocabulary which will make your reports look more professional and read better.

If you have already done the exercise on ' how to write business reports ' (which explains what type of things to write about and how to structure them in a report), you don't need to reread the report below again. Just focus on the words and phrases in bold in the report and from the context which you find them in (e.g. the sentence they are in), think about what their purpose is and their meaning.

Example & Exercise: The report

The following report evaulates the performance of a help desk in a small bank. From the context, try to guess what the meaning and purpose of the words/phrases in bold are. Then do the quiz at the end to check if you are right.

Report on the customer help desk's inbound customer call performance

Introduction.

The following report evaluates the current performance level of our customer help desk based in Pudsey, Leeds. It focuses on its performance when dealing with inbound/incoming customer enquiries made by phone.

This report was produced in response to the results of a recent customer survey. This survey identified a high level of customer dissatisfaction with our company's help desk. Of the 1506 customers who left a rating for the help desk in the survey, 1254 of those rated the service as bad or terrible. Of this 1254, 67% gave the reason for their dissatisfaction as 'call waiting time', while 25% said that the 'service is unhelpful'.

The purpose of this report is to identify failings with the current set up of the help desk which could account for this low customer rating. And to recommend changes to the help desk to improve the service provided to customers.

The findings which are contained in this report are predominantly based on a combination of statistics from the help desk's call management system (CallCom) and random monitoring of calls (100 in total) between customers and help desk analysts. Both the statistics and the call monitoring stem from the same 7 day period (4 May to the 11 May 2015).

In order to ensure the integrity of the results, during the period of evaluation, nobody in the help desk section was aware that an evaluation was being conducted.

After this 7 day period, a number of interviews with staff at the help desk (the manager of the section, a team leader and 6 help desk analysts) were then conducted to hear their views and opinions.

In addition to the above, I also reviewed the processes and procedures in place at the help desk for dealing with inbound/incoming call customer enquiries.

Customer waiting time

From reviewing the statistics from CallCom, one thing did stand out , the customer waiting time (before a call is answered by an help desk analyst). The length of customer waiting time varied throughout the day. During most of the day, the average waiting time for customers was around 25 seconds, but during 5pm to 9pm (except on weekends), this rose to an average of 3 minutes and 44 seconds.

These 4 hours of the day, coincide with the highest call volume of the day for the help desk. On average, 41% of all calls each day were received during these 4 hours.

Chart showing the average customer weekday waiting time and the average percentage of calls received during the period of the study.

During these peak hours of call volume, the help desk does have more analysts answering customer calls. On average 10 extra staff (mainly part-time) are answering customer calls during these peak hours.

Length of call

Not only did customer waiting time increase during these peak hours, but there was also an increase in how long staff were actually speaking with customers during these hours as well. During 5pm to 9pm (except on weekends), the average time that analysts spoke to customers increased from 4 minutes 23 seconds to 7 minutes and 59 seconds.

Chart showing the average length of help desk analyst speaking time with customers during the period of the study.

During these peak hours of call volume, the nature of the calls did not differ significantly from those received during the rest of the day. But what did stand out was a difference between the length of time that full-time analysts spoke to customers during these peaks hours (on average 6 minutes and 56 seconds) and part-time analysts (on average 9 minutes and 28 seconds).

The statistics from ComCall indicated that although part-time analysts performed only slightly slower than their full-time counterparts on simple enquiries (e.g. confirming account and balance information), they performed significantly slower on more complex enquiries (e.g. freezing and resetting accounts).

Monitoring of customers calls supports this. On more complex enquiries, part-time staff put their customers on hold more often and for longer while they consulted with other staff to find out what they had to do.

Call procedures and processes

The procedures and processes that are in place in the help desk for dealing with customer enquiries meet the industry's highest standards (the standards set down in the Financial Services Association's customer service best practices).

Through monitoring calls between customers and help desk analysts, I can confirm that the vast majority of analysts always followed set procedures when dealing with customer enquiries. Furthermore , except for one or two occasions, they dealt with customers in a professional manner (even when customers were aggressive).

  • The help desk's customer application system

From conducting interviews with help desk analysts, one of the things they stated was an issue was the slowness of the help desk's customer application system. In particular, they stated that the system had a tendency to run slow at peak hours (between 5pm to 9pm on weekdays). Resulting in them taking longer to deal with customer enquiries.

The monitoring of customer calls seems to confirm this. Analysts performed tasks using the system a lot slower when there were more staff taking calls (during peak call volume hours) than when there were less staff taking calls during the rest of the day.

The findings of this report on the help desk's performance would strongly seem to indicate that there is a problem with dealing with customer calls only during the hours of peak call volume (between 5pm to 9pm on weekdays). During these peak hours, the average waiting time for customers was nearly 10 times higher than during other times of the day (from an average of 25 seconds to an average of 3 minutes and 44 seconds).

Although it would appear that simply increasing the number of help desk staff taking calls would resolve this issue, the rise in the average time that analysts spoke to customers when dealing with enquiries (an average of 7 minutes and 59 seconds at peak call volumes in comparison with an average 4 minutes 23 seconds outside of these hours) would indicate that it is not only a problem of not having enough staff on at these times.

Although having more staff taking customer calls at these times should reduce the average customer waiting time, it would not address the issue of customer enquiries taking longer to resolve at these times. It would appear that this is the main factor causing the longer waiting times that customers are experiencing.

The findings would appear to demonstrate that this issue is caused by two main reasons:

  • The underperformance of part-time staff

The first (and most important) reason is that there appears to be a problem with the help desk's customer application system. It appears to run a lot slower during periods of peak call volume when more analysts are logged on and using it.

The second reason is that part-time staff complete tasks slower on average than their full-time colleagues. This would appear to not stem from a lack of willingness on their part to answer calls quickly, but that they have less experience on resolving more complex customer enquiries.

Recommendations

On the basis of the above findings, I make the following recommendations:

1. Request the I.T. department to perform an investigation into the problems experienced with the help desk customer application system as soon as possible.

2. Undertake a training programme for part-time help desk staff to improve their knowledge and speed in dealing with customer enquiries (especially more complex enquiries).

If you require any clarification or further information on the report, please do not hesitate to contact myself (James Smith) by email ([email protected]) or by phone (01535 666541).

Below is a definition/description of each of the words/phrases in bold from the above text. Now choose the word/phrase from the question's selection box which you believe answers each question. Only use one word/phrase once. Click on the "Check Answers" button at the bottom of the quiz to check your answers.

1. A formal way to say 'said', is

2. A more formal way of saying 'strongly suggested that', is

3. A phrase which is used to begin the paragraph where you explain to the readers the reasons behind why you are writing the report, is

4. A more formal way to say 'wasn't caused by' is

5. A more formal way to say 'carrying out', which you can use to say how you got the data that you are using in the report, is

6. A phrase which you use to introduce the part of the report where you say from where and how you obtained the data that you are using in it, is

7. A verb which you use when you want to say that you noticed something important when you were investigating or evaluating, is

8. A phrase which is used to begin the paragraph where you tell the readers what the report looks at, is

9. A formal way to say that there 'wasn't a big difference' between two things, is

10. A different way of saying 'causing', is

11. A phrase you would use when you want to say that doing an action 'won't have any impact on resolving' a particular problem, is

12. A more formal way of saying 'clearly show that', is

13. A phrase which is used to begin the paragraph where you tell the readers what you want to achieve in the report, is

14. A different way to say 'in addition', is

Now that you understand the vocabulary, practise it by writing your writing your own report with these words/phrases.

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report writing key phrases

How to write a report? | C1 Advanced (CAE)

report writing key phrases

There are three main areas of focus when writing a report:

  • Present factual information Obviously, these facts might be made up (not real) by you but you need to present them as if they were factual.
  • Effective and efficient text organization That means you need to think about the right paragraph structure , relevant headings as well as different linking words and expressions that we can use to connect our ideas.
  • Making suggestions/recommendations Every report has a suggestion or recommendation at the end of it because that’s the sole purpose of writing a report.

Check our Writing Guide – to see how to write a CAE report in detail.

FCE, CAE, CPE

Practice tests online, c1 advanced (cae) report: structure, c1 advanced (cae) report: writing guide.

We will use the example topic below:

You have just completed six months in a new job. In preparation for a progress meeting, you have been asked to write a report to your manager.

Your report should explain what you feel you have achieved in the job so far, describe an problems you have had, and suggest any future training that would be suitable.

Write your  report (around 220 – 260  words)

Step 1: Find the topic points & topic

Knowing the topic can help you set the tone as well as think about vocabulary and expressions that you might want to include in your text. Also, we need to find the main topic points that we need to address in the task because they will make up the main portion of our text.

You have just completed six months in a new job. (topic: Job) In preparation for a progress meeting, you have been asked to write a report to your manager. (report is for : manager)

Your report should explain what you feel you have achieved (topic point) in the job so far, describe any problems you have had, (topic point) and suggest any future training (topic point) that would be suitable.

Topic: six months in a new job

Main key points:

  • explain what you feel you have achieved
  • describe any problems you have had
  • suggest any future training

The topic is your new job and we have three points which we must comment on.

The last thing we should think about in our task analysis s who’s going to read our report by finding out this kind of information we can decide on the correct style and most appropriate register for our text.

Target reader: your manager.

As soon as we’ve analyzed the task and extracted all the information that we need we can start building our structure and writing a report.

Practice, Write & Improve

Step 2: title.

The report should start with the title it could be something like:

  • Report on …….   and then you write the topic of what you’re reporting.
  • or you can write the topic and end it with phrase  : a report

in this way, the title will have an appropriately formal connotation. See both examples below:  Title: Report on six-month progress as a teacher Title: Six-month teacher progress : a report

Step 3: Introduction

The introduction must contain all the necessary information covered by the report:

  • appropriate beginning in which you should explain your purpose for writing your report The purpose of this report is to…..
  • The topic of the report (see step 1) 
  • The three main key points that you discovered (see step 1)

See sample introduction:

Report on six-month progress as a teacher The purpose of this report is to (appropriate beginning) evaluate the progress following the first half year in my current position as an English Teacher (topic)   as well as enumerate achievements (point 1) , outline issues (point 2)  and make suggestions (point 3)  for professional development measures.

Step 4: The body paragraphs (main content) 

In the main content, you should comment on/answer the main key points that you discovered in the task  (see step 1) under suitable subheadings (positive/negative points), and each is placed in a separate section/paragraph .

Main key points  (see step 1):

See the example main content below, with additional annotations you may find useful:

Achievements – add heading/simple, informative, formal Throughout the first six months of employment at XYZ School, I have made important strides in professional development by incorporating several new methods such as the task-based approach in daily teaching practice, which has improved my students’ experience tremendously . Apart from personal progress , numerous students have achieved their goals and advanced to higher education providers under my guidance. [describes  first point – what you have achieved]

Problems – add heading Despite all of this organisation of internal exams is underdeveloped as there does not seem to exist policy and students have expressed their displeasure with other groups at the same level receiving easier or more difficult questions in their tests. Additionally , my mentor has not always been available even though a certain level of guidance in specific areas, for example developing teaching materials, is still required . [describes the second point – problems]

Future opportunities – add heading  Considering all of the above, two main areas of possible improvement can be identified . Firstly , student and teacher satisfaction could be increased by establishing a resource bank for tests and exams and by training all the teachers to use them so as to ensure a consistent experience for our students. Secondly , regular meetings with a mentor should be mandatory in order to provide guidance and to help teachers become independent and confident with teaching materials. [describe the third point – suggestions]

                      – topic paragraphs / contain the main information about a given section

                   – useful language, formal expressions

                    – transitional words, expressions and conjunctions, which link the sentences and make the text more fluid

Step 5: Conclusion

The conclusion should contain a final assessment of the report , providing information, conclusions and giving a final answer.

If the task of the report was, for example, to answer some questions, then this information should be included in the summary.

Conclusion – add heading  In the final analysis, the situation of the teachers and students at our school is very likely to improve and overall satisfaction will probably increase due to more efficient work processes if ideas included in the report are implemented.                 – persuasive language

See full report…

Full report.

Report on six-month progress as a teacher

The purpose of this report is to evaluate the progress following the first half year in my current position as an English Teacher as well as enumerate achievements outline issues and make suggestions for professional development measures.

Achievements Throughout the first six months of employment at XYZ School, I have made important strides in professional development by incorporating several new methods such as the task-based approach in daily teaching practice, which has improved my students’ experience tremendously. Apart from personal progress, numerous students have achieved their goals and advanced to higher education providers under my guidance.

Problems Despite all of this organisation of internal exams is underdeveloped as there does not seem to exist policy and students have expressed their displeasure with other groups at the same level receiving easier or more difficult questions in their tests. Additionally, my mentor has not always been available even though a certain level of guidance in specific areas, for example developing teaching materials, is still required.

Future opportunities Considering all of the above, two main areas of possible improvement can be identified. Firstly, student and teacher satisfaction could be increased by establishing a resource bank for tests and exams and by training all the teachers to use them so as to ensure a consistent experience for our students. Secondly, regular meetings with a mentor should be mandatory in order to provide guidance and to help teachers become independent and confident with teaching materials.

Conclusion In the final analysis, the situation of the teachers and students at our school is very likely to improve and overall satisfaction will probably increase due to more efficient work processes if ideas included in the report are implemented.

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Submit your (CAE) Report for review

C1 advanced (cae) report: example answers, cae report sample 1.

You have been helping to run a new music club at your college. Now the college principal wants to get more people involved with the club and attract new members. The club organiser has asked you to write a report for the principal outlining what the club currently does, explaining the club’s future plans and suggesting ways of getting more people involved with the music club.

Student’s CAE Report Answer:

RockSun – present situation, future plans and improvement suggestions (title)

The objective of this report is to outline the current condition of the RockSun music club, shed some light on the club’s plans in the near future, and propose novel ways of attracting new visitors.

Present situation

At present, the activities that the club organises are twofold:

  • gigs of indie bands at least once a week at weekends;
  • musical instrument courses for wannabe musicians on weekdays.

Regrettably, he club does not enjoy much popularity among students, despite it being located in the heart of the campus near the dorms . This is, firstly, due to the prices at the club which are on the expensive side and, secondly, the fact that performers visiting the club are chiefly little-known artists. Both factors greatly discourage many potential customers.

The future of the club looks bleak and some corrective actions are required. The club management, aware of the gravity of the situation, is planning to expand its operations to attract new visitors. In the first place, additional musical courses, including singing lessons by reputable teachers, are planned. Additionally, the club intends to attract better known artists for the weekend concerts.

Suggestions to attract more visitors

The actions planned, which are certainly a step in the right direction, may not be sufficient. What could attract more visitors is reducing food and drink prices as it is one of the most important factors on which any club’s popularity is based. Furthermore, weekly musical quizzes with prizes might appeal to the club’s target customers.

Get Your (CAE) Report Checked!

Cae report sample 2.

You have recently attended a week’s training course and on your return you receive the following note from your boss:

Hope you enjoyed the training modules. We’re compiling a report to help us evaluate our Staff Development programme. P lease send me an outline of what you did on the course, which modules were the most useful and your opinion of how colleagues would benefit from attending in the future. Thanks.

Student’s CAE Report Answer:

Report on the Staff Development Programme – a description of the training course carried out to improve the performance of our staff at work.

Organisation of the training modules

I have recently attended the training course organised by the company in order to workers get more information and develop some skills required in this activity.

I have to say that the information given in the course is hugely useful, but it should be scheduled in other date. At this moment, everybody is really busy and workers find it difficult to set aside time to not miss the course.

There is no point arguing that the sessions are too long and dense, what makes even harder to get the most of the training.

Alternative course

I would recommend to divide the content is several shorter sessions according to the main topics to deal with.

Perhaps, not everybody needs to receive the whole information. So, there can be some specific sessions to people involved in that area, whereas who is not working on that subject would only receive a short session just to get some knowledge.

Recommendations

I would like to make the following recommendations:

1.Schedule the training course in a less busy time.

2.Divide the sessions into shorter modules to ease people to attend.

3.Ensure the content is targeted to the people who are meant to attend them. 

If these recommendations are implemented, the training programme will be much more successful.

Get Your (CAE)m Report Checked!

C1 advanced (cae) report: writing topics, example topic 1.

Your report should explain what you feel you have achieved in the job so far, describe any problems you have had, and suggest any future training that would be suitable.

Write your report .

Example Topic 2

An international youth organisation is planning to publish a report looking at attitudes between different generations:

We are very keen to hear how elderly people are regarded by younger people in different countries and why the younger generation feel the way they do about elderly people. Suggestions regarding how positive attitudes can be developed are welcome.

Write the report for the organisation.

Example Topic 3

You have been asked to write a report for the World Information Organisation on the following topic:

What are the greatest threats to the environment in your country today? What are the solutions?

Write your report

C1 Advanced (CAE) Report: Common Mistakes

What is recommended to include in the report.

report writing key phrases

  • Inverted conditional (Were we to..)
  • Participle clause (Being…/Having gone..)
  • Double comparative (The more we… the more)
  • Passive structures (The committee has been informed about …)
  • Cleft sentence (What is most crucial is..)
  •   Linkers (Notwithstanding / despite / due to / consequently)

What is not recommended in the report?

report writing key phrases

  • Idioms (are informal)
  • Phrasal Verbs  (are informal)
  • Contractions (We’ve, It’s been said)
  • Giving personal opinions (I think, | guess)

More than Practice Tests

C1 advanced (cae) report: writing checklist.

report writing key phrases

After writing your text, you can check it yourself using the writing checklist below.

How to do that? Simply check your text/email by answering the questions one by one:

  • Have I covered all the key information required by the task?
  • Have I written only information which is relevant to the task?
  • Have I developed the basic points in the task with my own ideas?

Communicative Achievement

  • Have I achieved the main purpose(s) of the text (for example, explaining, persuading, suggesting, apologising, comparing, etc.)?
  • Have I used a suitable mix of fact and opinion?
  • Have I used a suitable style and register (formal or informal) for the task?

Organisation

  • Have I used paragraphs appropriately to organise my ideas?
  • Have I used other organisational features appropriately for the genre of the text (for example, titles, headings, openings, closings, etc.)?
  • Is the connection between my ideas clear and easy for the reader to follow? (For example, have I used appropriate linking words, pronouns, etc. to refer to different things within the text?)
  • Are the ideas balanced appropriately, with suitable attention and space given to each one?
  • Have I used a wide range of vocabulary?
  • Have I avoided repeating the same words and phrases?
  • Have I used a range of simple and more complex grammatical structures?
  • Have I correctly used any common phrases which are relevant to the specific task or topic?
  • Is my use of grammar accurate?
  • Is my spelling accurate?

C1 Advanced (CAE) Report: Tips

Tips on structure:.

report writing key phrases

  • You don’t need a heading for the introduction – a line or two describing the report will be sufficient.
  • Cover the content points in the order in the text, and try to link between them where possible. One way to link is to report something good, followed by something bad, and then use an appropriate linking word.

Tips on language:

  • Think who wants to read your Report?
  • Usually, it’s somebody who wants some specific information.
  • The information is about something that happened in the past.
  • The Target Reader of a Report usually doesn’t have much time – help them find the information they need by using headings.
  • The Target Reader doesn’t need to be entertained, but they will be better informed if there is specific informat ion in the Report.

C1 Advanced (CAE) Report: Mark Scheme

C1 advanced (cae) report: useful phrases & expressions.

We will finish it with some useful vocabulary mostly used to organize information. Although it is taking a shortcut, if you learn several expressions for each paragraph in each type of text that could be on your exam, you will certainly be able to create a very consistent and well-organized text.

Introduction (the goal of the report)

The objective of this report is to compare ….. and ….. The purpose of this report is to examine / evaluate / explain / describe / analyse / present / outline… This report aims to… It is based on a survey conducted among… It is the result of a discussion which took place among…

Development

The first observation to make concerns… First of all,… Firstly,… Secondly,… Furthermore,… Moreover,… In fact,… Lastly,… Finally,… It has to been stressed that… According to (the majority of respondents)… In spite of (the fact that)… Despite (the fact that)… The outlook for …… is (far from) bright/optimistic/depressing/daunting The future looks bleak/remains uncertain/is promising This seems unlikely in the near/foreseeable future

I would strongly recommend that… The following measures should be implemented: In the light of the results of the survey I would advise against… Given the results of the survey, I would advise for… I feel it would be to our advantage if… The best solution would be to… In order to improve …… it is necessary to.. This will have an impact on …….

Provided that these recommendations are taken into consideration,… In conclusion,… From the research one can conclude that…

Would you pass C1 Advanced (CAE)?

Writing Reports and Proposals: 40 Useful Performance Feedback Phrases

Writing Reports and Proposals: Use these sample phrases to craft meaningful performance evaluations, drive change and motivate your workforce.

Writing Reports and Proposals is the ability to record business reports and plans for the company or project following the policies and procedures of the company.

Writing Reports and Proposals: Exceeds Expectations Phrases

  • Demonstrates deep understanding of all the key components of reports and proposals
  • Conveys technical and complex information and ideas in an appropriate format and language
  • Excels at connecting with the target audience when writing reports and proposals
  • Excels at classifying information and structuring reports and proposals in an appropriate format
  • Demonstrates exceptional understanding of the appropriate writing styles when expressing ideas
  • Acknowledges cited works and demonstrates deep understanding of the appropriate referencing styles
  • Integrates primary data and secondary sources accurately, persuasively, and logically
  • Leads in preparing reports and proposals that persuade and provide information
  • Excels at developing paragraphs that introduce, develop, connect, and conclude ideas
  • Uses a clear, logical structure that achieves internal cohesion and coherence

Writing Reports and Proposals: Meets Expectations Phrases

  • Employs proofreading and editing techniques to improve accuracy when writing reports and proposals
  • Evaluates samples of published reports and proposals to gain confidence in preparing and writing reports and proposals
  • Puts extra effort to understand the audience in order to target the message in reports and proposals appropriately
  • Demonstrates willingness to learn how to apply appropriate writing conventions when expressing ideas in reports and proposals
  • Makes enough effort to use a reader-friendly writing style that meets the needs of the target audience
  • Shows willingness to learn how to acknowledge cited works appropriately
  • Understands several components of writing reports and proposals and is willing to learn more
  • Encourages others to develop paragraphs that introduce, develop, connect, and conclude ideas
  • Shows willingness to learn the value of good written communication when writing reports and proposals
  • Demonstrates willingness to learn how to integrate primary data and secondary sources accurately

Writing Reports and Proposals: Needs Improvement Phrases

  • Demonstrates little understanding of the appropriate writing styles when expressing ideas
  • Often fails to proofread and edit reports and proposals before submitting
  • Hardly conveys information and ideas in an appropriate format and language when writing technical reports and proposals
  • Demonstrates little understanding of all the key components of reports and proposals
  • Often fails to acknowledge cited works and shows little understanding of the appropriate referencing styles
  • Employs writing styles that are not reader-friendly and hardly meets the needs of the target audience
  • Does not demonstrate willingness to learn how to integrate primary data and secondary sources accurately
  • Shows little willingness to learn the value of good written communication when writing reports and proposals
  • Does not connect with the target audience when writing reports and proposals
  • Understands very few components of writing reports and proposals and does not show interest to learn more

Writing Reports and Proposals: Self Evaluation Questions

  • What efforts are you making to learn the value of good written communication when writing reports and proposals?
  • What are you doing to improve how you connect with target audience when writing reports and proposals?
  • How often do you encourage others to learn how to integrate primary data and secondary sources accurately?
  • Have you ever failed to proofread and edit a report or proposal before submitting? How did you correct the situation?
  • How often do you encourage others to acknowledge cited works?
  • Can you think of a situation you failed to use an appropriate writing style? How did you correct the mistake?
  • What efforts are you making to meet the needs of the target audience when writing reports and proposals?
  • What efforts are you making to learn how to convey technical ideas in an appropriate and reader-friendly language?
  • What efforts are you making to understand all the components of reports and proposals?
  • How often do you encourage others to employ writing styles that are reader-friendly?

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  • Words and Phrases For Writing Report Card Comments

100 Useful Words and Phrases to Use When Writing Report Card Comments For Elementary Students

In writing report card comments for elementary school students, the words and phrases that are used can have a significant impact on the child, and on the family. The purpose of a report card is not only to enlighten the parent and student about the student's progress in school. Report cards can also show parents where room for improvement lies, as long as the report card keeps a positive spin even during negative situations. In order to be most effective when it comes to writing report card comments down for these young students, teachers should make use of the most useful and effective words and phrases in order to better drive their points across.

The best way to write report card comments for elementary school students is to form the comments in a way that is constructive rather than focusing on negative aspects of each child's academic career. An effective report card is one that focuses on areas of improvement rather than dwelling on the negative nature of a child's past performance. Even if a student has received a failing grade in a particular subject or class, there is no reason to turn that experience into a negative one. This is especially true when it comes to report cards, which are an innovative way to get the parent involved with whatever needs the child has.

Using the right modifiers and descriptors when referring to the strengths and weaknesses of the student will allow you to relate report card comments to the achievement of certain expectations. Rather than focusing on the negative aspects of a failing grade for example, an effective instructor will turn poor performance into an opportunity for additional learning and growth.

F grade, failing grade or equivalent: When there are areas for improvement, rather than focusing on the negative aspect, instructors can positively spin the needs of students by using the right descriptors and modifiers for each area. There is no reason to be directly negative, and nothing good or productive will come of being that way.

D grade, just above a failing grade or equivalent: Rather than looking at a D grade as a negative grade, instructors can use these phrases to describe making an attempt, beginning to show progress, or simply needing assistance.

C grade, average grade or equivalent: Although a C grade is an average grade, a positive spin can be placed on it by explaining how the student is showing improvement, is gaining clarity or is developing or improving in certain aspects of his or her schoolwork.

B grade, above average grade or equivalent: B grades are above average, and the descriptors and modifiers that are used should reflect that.

A grade, near perfect grade or equivalent:

Using simple verbs will allow you to describe the strengths of each student in his or her report card. Recognizing a student's strengths, even when the student is having difficulty in class, is a great way to allow development of strong, positive characteristics in addition to improving upon weaker characteristics.

Teachers should make a point to avoid judgmental or negative phrases that are worded strongly, in addition to describing weaknesses. Even when a need is present to describe a particular weakness, there are ways to create a positive spin by turning what a student lacks into what a student simply needs assistance with. The following phrases are generally suggested to meet these needs:

The purpose behind filling comments out on a report card for elementary students is simple, especially when this space is used to create a positive summary of a student's achievements and their needs. Rather than focus on negative characteristics or issues that a student is dealing with, an instructor can focus on points of improvement, putting a positive spin on a child's needs to help foster growth in those areas. Obviously there are specific phrases and words that are more powerful than others for this purpose, and using the aforementioned modifiers, descriptors and simple verbs will greatly simplify the process in order to create better results.

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COMMENTS

  1. PDF USEFUL PHRASES FOR WRITING REPORTS

    − The purpose of this report is to… − I have written this report to… − This report has been written in order to… Explaining what you did in order to write the report − In order to prepare this report… − To do so, I… − The data in this report was obtained by… − In order to help make this decision,…

  2. PDF USEFUL PHRASES [REPORT]

    In order to help make this report I asked / discussed / gave out a questionnaire … It is based on my observations / the feedback from participants … My findings are outlined / presented below. / I outline my findings below. The report contains the relevant details concerning the problem as you required. INTRODUCING POINTS

  3. PDF phrases for reports brainstorming

    Compare with the phrases below Topic/ Purpose of report As the head of PR, I was asked to write a report on… The purpose of this proposal is to compare/ describe/ evaluate/ outline (the shortcomings of)/ summarise (the findings of a survey on)… This report aims to/ will investigate/ examine…

  4. How to Write a Report: A Guide to Report Formats with Examples

    1 Choose a topic based on the assignment. Before you start writing, you need to pick the topic of your report. Often, the topic is assigned for you, as with most business reports, or predetermined by the nature of your work, as with scientific reports. If that's the case, you can ignore this step and move on.

  5. Transitional Words and Phrases

    Transitional words and phrases can create powerful links between ideas in your paper and can help your reader understand the logic of your paper. However, these words all have different meanings, nuances, and connotations. Before using a particular transitional word in your paper, be sure you understand its meaning and usage completely and be sure…

  6. How to write a report (with tips and examples)

    1. Understand Your Purpose: Always start with a clear understanding of your report's objective. This clarity guides your research, the writing process, and the way you present your findings. 2. Emphasize Clarity and Precision: Your report should be written in clear, simple language.

  7. How to write a report

    Main body 1: This contains the findings and analysis related to the topic. Main body 2: This contains further analysis and recommendations. Conclusion: This summarises the key points made in the report and a call to action for the main recommendations. Paragraph headings should be descriptive and focussed on the content of each section.

  8. PDF Task 7: Writing a Report Useful Vocabulary for Writing a Report

    TASK 7: WRITING A REPORT . USEFUL VOCABULARY FOR WRITING A REPORT . The problem . There is a significant problem of . This can be looked at by …ing . One way to examine this point is… It is important to . Response to the problem . Thus . Therefore . As a result . Introduction language . sets out . shows . demonstrates . establishes . shows ...

  9. PDF Writing a report

    Identify and group the key information, facts and details your report needs to include before you start writing - the structure of a report is usually in three parts. For example: 1. an overview - briefly introduce the topic of the report and the key areas you will consider. Your

  10. 10 Tips for Perfect Report Writing

    Avoid writing long sentences with lots of sub-clauses which will make it difficult for your reader to follow you. Aim for sentences which are no longer than 15-20 words. 7. Use linking words. Words and phrases like "Therefore", "However", "For this reason", etc help your reader follow your ideas.

  11. How to Summarize a Report: Expert Techniques and Methods

    A summary, like a report, is an objective piece of writing that discusses the report's key ideas and supporting details. Leaving out important information for the sake of brevity. ... Always give credit to the original source through citations, and use quotation marks for any phrases or terms taken directly from the report. Avoid copying the ...

  12. Writing up your report

    Good writing style. When you write a report you are communicating your knowledge about a set of actions to a reader. The key here is communication. A good piece of advice is to 'write to express, not to impress'. Here are some tips for achieving this: Write in paragraphs which have one main point that you introduce, expand on, and summarise.

  13. Useful Vocabulary for Writing Reports

    Writing a report can be a long, daunting process. Fortunately, if you take it one step at a time and plan as you go, writing a report can an enjoyable learning experience. Simply complete the following phrases and see for yourself. INTRODUCTION. The aim / intention / purpose of this report is to outline / present / discuss / sum up …

  14. Language for reports

    The title of your report will depend very much on the subject matter, and will be very individual. Nonetheless, there are some useful verbs and phrases which can be used in titles, especially for science reports. These include: Investigating X. Calculating X. Measuring X. Demonstrating X. Analysing X. Determining X.

  15. 40 Useful Words and Phrases for Top-Notch Essays

    4. That is to say. Usage: "That is" and "that is to say" can be used to add further detail to your explanation, or to be more precise. Example: "Whales are mammals. That is to say, they must breathe air.". 5. To that end. Usage: Use "to that end" or "to this end" in a similar way to "in order to" or "so".

  16. Useful phrases for your report

    useful introduction phrases for your report. The purpose of this report is to …. (e.g. summarise, show, examine, analyse, present, inform, etc.) The aim of this report is to …. This report (examines, analyses, shows, summarises, presents, inform, etc.) This report/It is based on… (a survey, a study) …. The source for this report is (a ...

  17. How to write a report?

    A report is a formal piece of writing similar in tone to an essay. You always write reports in B2 First (FCE) to a superior, this could be a teacher a director or anyone who you should be respectful. A report. analyses a present situation and often has recommendations. is divided into sections and contains factual information.

  18. Vocabulary to use when writing business reports in English exercise

    Resulting in: (phrase) In a report or any type of formal writing, you will probably use 'causing' quite a few times. The art of good writing is to not repeat the use of the same words or phrase too many times. So in addition to using 'causing', I would recommend that you also use 'resulting in' or 'leading to' as well.

  19. How to Write Effective Report Titles and Headings

    Tip 1: Use keywords and phrases. 2. Tip 2: Use parallel structure. Be the first to add your personal experience. 3. Tip 3: Use informative and descriptive language. 4. Tip 4: Use active and ...

  20. How to write a report?

    Step 1: Find the topic points & topic. Knowing the topic can help you set the tone as well as think about vocabulary and expressions that you might want to include in your text. Also, we need to find the main topic points that we need to address in the task because they will make up the main portion of our text.

  21. Writing Reports and Proposals: 40 Useful Performance Feedback Phrases

    Writing Reports and Proposals: Exceeds Expectations Phrases. Demonstrates deep understanding of all the key components of reports and proposals. Conveys technical and complex information and ideas in an appropriate format and language. Excels at connecting with the target audience when writing reports and proposals.

  22. 100 Useful Words and Phrases to Use When Writing Report Card Comments

    The following phrases are generally suggested to meet these needs: - Attempts to, Makes attempts. - Continues to Need Help with. - Encouragement with. - Experiences Difficulty with. - Is being encouraged to. - Is benefiting from practice with. - Is learning to. - Is receiving additional help with.

  23. Report Writing Statements

    The new Twinkl Report Writer makes writing reports easier than ever before. Simply input a child's name, choose the relevant subject and review the comment banks included. In no time at all, these sentence starters and stock phrases will get you writing helpful and accurate reports. The answer to your report writing needs. This huge Excel document contains differentiated statements and general ...