The Process of Creating a Bronze Sculpture

The Process of Creating a Bronze Sculpture

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bronze sculpture

From Auguste Rodin to Louise Bourgeois , bronze sculpture has never ceased to transcend art. But what are the stages of creation of these enduring and timeless works? Today, Artsper invites you to discover the fascinating and ancient process of creating bronze sculptures!

Step 1: making the model a bronze sculpture

The first step in making a bronze sculpture is to create a model. This model can be in clay, plaster, clay or resin . The next step is to make a mold of this sculpture in two parts and cover it with elastomer, a rubber-like substance. Once the mold is finished, then comes the stamping stage. Using a brush, the molten modeling wax is spread inside the two parts of the mold.

Once the excess wax is removed, it is important to close the two parts of the mold together. They must be very well welded, since the following step is to fill the mold to the brim with liquid wax. After about 30 seconds, you have to empty all the excess wax and wait for it to cool down. Once dry, it is time to reopen the mold by separating the two parts again. The wax model – also called a proof – is finally made, with an ideal thickness of about 3 millimeters.  It is often preferable to carry out a “wax check” with a few touch-ups with a scalpel.

Laurent Perbos, Niobé, 2021

Step 2: creating a network and making the pot mold

Then comes the creation of a supply and evacuation network on the wax model. It consists of a pouring funnel and a vent. Attached to the model, they allow the evacuation of the molten wax and air. The network also opens a passage adapted to the pouring of the liquid bronze. Finally, the model can be filled with refractory plaster to form its central core. In order to hold it in place, a few nails are then driven into the wax layer. The last phase of this process is the constitution of the pot mold. This is done by spraying, then spreading refractory plaster over the entire work. Once this step is complete, the mold looks like a large, uniform block of plaster. Only the ends of the evacuation network protrude.

bronze sculpture

Step 3: firing and casting of the bronze

The next part is the step-by-step firing, carried out by a foundry-man. It is usually done during two days and three nights, in a furnace that can reach 900 degrees Celsius. The process is as follows: the heat melts the wax, which becomes liquid again and gradually drains from the mold. The mold is then cooled, turned upside down and held in place with a sand-filled tray. It will finally be filled with bronze, whose melting temperature is around 1300 degrees Celsius.

Salvador Dali, Profil du temps, 1984

Step 4: Chiseling, finishing, patina and the signing of the bronze sculpture

Once the molten metal has cooled, after several hours it becomes solid. Now is the time to break the mold, to finally discover the solid sculpture of bronze !  It is still attached to its network, so that must be removed, as well as any remaining nails. Then comes the delicate stage called chasing, which consists of making the bronze sculpture identical to the first model. Once the polishing, sanding and finishing are done, we obtain a beautiful sculpture with bronze colors.

The next step is the patina, which protects the work from oxidation and gives it a certain color. Often done with a flashlight and a brush, the patina offers a wide choice of colors and renderings. Following its application, it will be necessary to wait for several days, even weeks, so that the patina dries completely. Then comes the final part: the part that makes the work unique. It is the inscription of the number of the casting, the stamp of the founder, the year of casting, and of course… the signature of the artist!

bronze sculpture

Bronze sculpture works to last a lifetime

With a creative process that is close to the work of an alchemist, bronze sculpture has seduced civilizations spanning the centuries. In spite of the sometimes very different creations, one approach remains constant in its realization: the search for an aesthetic ideal. And it is this dimension – transcending time and space – that gives each bronze sculpture a glimpse of eternity .

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How Are Concrete Statues Made?

  • Post author: Mark H.
  • Post published: April 8, 2021
  • Post category: Lawn, Garden & Backyard

Concrete statues are an attractive talking point for your outside space, especially if they’re stylish and tasteful. They can be expensive to buy, however, so you may want to consider making one yourself if you’ve got time for a project.

You can make a concrete statue with a wire frame, cast one with a mold or sculpt a small, free form shape by hand. For larger statues, t he mix for basic concrete is 1 part cement, 1 part coarse pebbles and 2 parts sandbox sand, with more sand and less pebbles used for medium and small statues.

Let’s dive down into this subject in more detail, looking at how to design concrete statues, mix concrete and make concrete molds. We’ll also look at sculpting and repairing your sculpted concrete masterpieces. 🙂

Check the latest prices on concrete statues at Amazon.com

How Are Concrete Statues Made?

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How Do You Make a Concrete Statue?

Making concrete statues is surprisingly easy. And fun! You can make a statue starting with a wire frame, cast one with a mold or sculpt a small, free form, concrete shape .

Concrete is a mixture of an aggregate, cement, and water. An aggregate is a collection or mixture. In concrete, an aggregate can be of sand, vermiculite, peat moss, limestone dust, small pebbles, coarse pebbles, slag, rip rap, or recycled concrete. 

Because concrete is liquid (ish), you can dip all kinds of things in it, then drape them over objects or frames, then let them harden. Dip towels, crocheted doilies, rags, or socks. Dip leaves or sticks.

You can pour or pack concrete into or around just about anything. Immortalize your favorite (but worn out) pair of high tops. Or those beloved wellies.

Make a wire frame – chicken wire works well but check out your favorite hobby store for more wire mesh. Then, smooth concrete over the frame. Rebar works for large, heavy pieces.

Or use cement to make a free form sculpture. Make up some thicker concrete, grab a handful, form a shape, and let it dry for a while. Then, use a knife or other sculpture tools to cut and shape the form. Add small pieces of glass or shells or writing.

Or make a silicone mold of your favorite piece of art. Pour in the concrete and voilà!

Check out this video where they use an old ball, wastebasket, blanket, plastic cups, and old plasticware to create a stunning cement sculpture.

What’s The Best Concrete For Sculpting?

Most experts recommend Portland cement (like Quikrete or Cement All) with a little sandbox (nice and fine) sand mixed in. If you are making a coarser statue, use some small pebbles. If you are making a fine, small piece, you can decrease the sand content.

The proportions for a basic statuary mix are 1 part cement, 1 part coarse pebbles and 2 parts sandbox sand. If you are making a medium-sized, but intricately detailed statue, you don’t want any pebbles in it. Replace the pebbles with sand, so the proportions are 1 part cement to 3 parts sand. 

If you are making a small piece, experts say go down to 1 part cement to 1 part sand. Or, don’t add sand .

Concrete sculptors say that the secrets to success are your creativity, willingness to practice, and to experiment. That goes for concrete, too. Not only are there different types of concretes, but there are different recipes for mixtures. 

Often, sculptors will use different mixes for the base – heavy with coarse aggregate – and then finer concrete, or just cement, for detailed areas.

Every sculptor has a different recipe that works for their own sculpture style. Experts recommend that beginners start their first project with a premixed bag of concrete and go from there.

When mixing concrete, wear gloves, as the cement can be caustic. Also, consider wearing a mask to protect your airways from the fine silica dust.

Here’s a video on concrete for statuary.

How Do You Make Cement Molds?

It’s super easy to make a mold out of a piece of art, then use the mold again and again. There are several great silicon, fiberglass, and latex rubber products available at hobby or hardware stores and lots of videos to help .

First, though, it’s not OK to replicate someone else’s art for your own profit. If possible, get the artist’s permission to replicate their art or create your own masterpiece.

Next, you are going to create a water-tight box around the piece of art. Use waterproof materials, like plastic, acetate, or melamine to create the box. Hobby stores have lots of choices or repurpose some old containers. 

Find or make a base that’s bigger than your art by a couple of inches all around. Then, glue or use double-sided tape to secure your art to the base.

Cut walls to fit around the base or repurpose a plastic container. If you are using a plastic container, glue it firmly to the base. If you are constructing a box from melamine, use a silicone sealant around the edges. The box must be watertight.

Pour some water into your box and check for leaks. Pouring water in will also give you a good idea about the volume of silicone (like Smooth-On) you will need.

Many mold-making products have tutorial videos. After watching some videos and reading the instructions, get some good gloves on. Then, mix the silicone. Most silicone products have two compounds to mix together. Then, pour the silicone into your mold and let it harden.

Once your mold is ready, use your favorite concrete recipe and pour or spoon it in. Make sure to get into all the cracks. Vibrate the cement to release all the air bubbles. Then wait until it’s set – check your instructions for timing.

You can cut small slits in the silicon mold to help get the cement art out. One expert recommends using a heat gun to soften the silicon, which makes demolding easier.

Here’s a great video on how to make a simple mold.

How Do You Glue Concrete Statues?

Many hobby or hardware stores have special concrete repair products. Repairing concrete statues is easier than many other types of statuary.

First, clean the surface. Remove any leaves or mold with water and a soft brush. Let the statue dry overnight. Read the instructions on the glue or epoxy and watch tutorial videos. You may need to wear gloves .

If there is a piece that’s broken off – and you found it – apply the glue or epoxy to both sides of the broken piece and press it into place. If the broken piece is nowhere to be found, then use a putty knife to apply the epoxy and smooth it over.

After 15 minutes, the glue or epoxy should still be soft enough for you to use a putty knife to remove any drips or ridges.

Allow the epoxy to dry for at least 24 hours in a protected area – or cover the statue so early morning dew or rain doesn’t soften it.

Garden pond with concrete statue

How Do You Smooth Concrete Statues?

Experts recommend smoothing concrete while it’s not totally cured. Use some wet/dry sandpaper or a bristle brush. Some sculptors use rub bricks . 

Be careful, though, as you can also over do the smoothing and leave gouges instead.

If your concrete is already dry, try spraying some water on and let it soak in. Then use some sandpaper or a hand planer. If you have them, a palm sander, orbital or belt sander will help.

How Do You Reinforce Concrete Sculptures?

Large concrete sculptures usually begin with wire or rebar . Concrete sculptors begin with a sketch. Sketch out your creation, then construct a wire or rebar version of the final sculpture. Make sure that every bend in the design is reinforced with wire.

One sculptor described the wire version as an “armature” of short rebar rods that he covered with galvanized lathe wire, tied with black tie wire. The sculpture base is poured concrete with a large aggregate – solid and heavy. 

Then, up to 3 inches of concrete are layered over the wire design. Each layer is dried up to a week. 

Concrete absorbs water, up to 1.5 inches deep. If your sculpture has less than that much concrete over wire or rebar, which can rust, experts recommend applying a sealant to 

the concrete when you are done.

You can also reinforce the concrete itself with fiberglass or nylon fibers (these mixes will say GFRC – glass fiber reinforced concrete).

Here’s a link about a concrete sculptor that makes very large, reinforced designs.

When it comes to making concrete statues, your process doesn’t have to be set in stone, (editor: easy does it Larry!). 

Once you’ve designed your statue on paper, then mixed your concrete – you can either sculpt it by hand, make it in a mold, or start with a rebar or wire frame and build it up from there.

Whatever method you choose, you can soon create some truly stunning outside statuary with really very limited experience. So let’s get creative!

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The Making of a Marble Sculpture: See Every Stage of the Process, from the Quarry to the Studio

in Art | June 29th, 2021 1 Comment

Some mar­ble stat­ues, even when stripped of their col­or by the sands of time since the hey­day of Greece and Rome , look prac­ti­cal­ly alive. But they began their “lives,” their appear­ance often makes us for­get, as rough-hewn blocks of stone. Not that just any mar­ble will do: fol­low­ing the exam­ple of Michelan­ge­lo , the dis­cern­ing sculp­tor must make the jour­ney to the Tus­can town of Car­rara, “home of the world’s finest mar­ble.” So claims the video above , a brief look at the process of Hun­gar­i­an sculp­tor Már­ton Váró. That entire process, it appears, takes place in the open air: most­ly in his out­door stu­dio space, but first at the Car­rara quar­ry (see bot­tom video) where he picks just the right block from which to make his vision emerge.

Like Michelan­ge­lo, Váró has a man­i­fest­ly high lev­el of skill at his dis­pos­al — and unlike Michelan­ge­lo, a full set of mod­ern pow­er tools as well. But even today, some sculp­tors work with­out the aid of angle cut­ters and dia­mond-edged blades, as you can see in the video from the Get­ty above .

In it a mod­ern-day sculp­tor intro­duces tra­di­tion­al tools like the point chis­el, the tooth chis­els, and the rasp, describ­ing the dif­fer­ent effects achiev­able with them by using dif­fer­ent tech­niques. If you “lose your ego and just flow into the stone through your tools,” he says, “there’s no end of pos­si­bil­i­ties of what you can do inside that space” — the space of lim­it­less pos­si­bil­i­ties, that is, afford­ed by a sim­ple block of mar­ble.

In the video above , sculp­tor Sti­je­po Gavrić fur­ther demon­strates the prop­er use of such hand tools, painstak­ing­ly refin­ing a rough­ly human form into a life­like ver­sion of an already real­is­tic clay mod­el — and one that holds up quite well along­side the orig­i­nal mod­el, when she shows up for a com­par­i­son. The Great Big Sto­ry doc­u­men­tary short below takes us back to Tus­cany, and specif­i­cal­ly to the town of Pietrasan­ta, where mar­ble has been quar­ried for five cen­turies from a moun­tain first dis­cov­ered by Michelan­ge­lo.

It’s also home to hard­work­ing sculp­tors well known for their abil­i­ty to repli­cate clas­sic and sacred works of art. “Mar­ble is my life, because in this area you feed off mar­ble,” says one who’s been at such work for about 60 years. If stone gives the artist life, it does so only to the extent that he breathes life into it.

Relat­ed Con­tent:

Watch a Mas­ter­piece Emerge from a Sol­id Block of Stone

Michelangelo’s David: The Fas­ci­nat­ing Sto­ry Behind the Renais­sance Mar­ble Cre­ation

How Ancient Greek Stat­ues Real­ly Looked: Research Reveals Their Bold, Bright Col­ors and Pat­terns

Roman Stat­ues Weren’t White; They Were Once Paint­ed in Vivid, Bright Col­ors

3D Print 18,000 Famous Sculp­tures, Stat­ues & Art­works: Rodin’s Thinker, Michelangelo’s David & More

Rare Film of Sculp­tor Auguste Rodin Work­ing at His Stu­dio in Paris (1915)

Based in Seoul,  Col­in Mar­shall  writes and broad­casts on cities, lan­guage, and cul­ture. His projects include the Sub­stack newslet­ter   Books on Cities ,  the book  The State­less City: a Walk through 21st-Cen­tu­ry Los Ange­les  and the video series  The City in Cin­e­ma . Fol­low him on Twit­ter at  @colinmarshall  or on  Face­book .

by Colin Marshall | Permalink | Comments (1) |

process writing of making a statue

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Comments (1), 1 comment so far.

Get the finest qual­i­ty nat­ur­al stone from our exten­sive col­lec­tion. Com­plete your mar­ble needs only at Rk Mar­bles India. Buy rare and unique stones from our prod­uct range that will help mes­mer­ize your eyes. Get the finest qual­i­ty nat­ur­al stone from our exten­sive col­lec­tion. Com­plete you mar­ble needs only at Rk Mar­bles India. Buy rare and unique stones from our prod­uct range that will help mes­mer­ize your eyes.

Get the finest qual­i­ty nat­ur­al stone from our exten­sive col­lec­tion. Com­plete your mar­ble needs only at Rk Mar­bles India. Buy rare and unique stones from our prod­uct range that will help mes­mer­ize your eyes.

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Sculpture techniques

The V&A's sculpture collection contains approximately 26,000 objects, including masterpieces from the Italian Renaissance, Rodin bronzes and British Neoclassical marble sculpture. Find out more about the processes used to create these magnificent pieces.

Bronze casting

Bronze is an alloy of copper and tin, and often contains lead or zinc. It is strong and durable, but can also capture the fine, complex detailing inside a casting mould. The term 'bronze' is sometimes used for other metals such as brass, which is an alloy of copper and zinc.

Brown patinated bronze plaque depicting Solomon and the Queen of Sheba by Giuseppe Piamontini

It has been used in Europe since antiquity to make tools, weapons, sculpture and decorative works. This continued throughout the medieval period, and in the 15th century there was a deliberate revival of ancient Greek and Roman techniques and artforms.

There are two basic methods of casting a bronze – the simple technique of sand casting which uses moulds made of compact, fine sand, or the more complex lost-wax casting, which uses wax models.

Watch the lost-wax bronze casting process in action:

Stone carving

For centuries sculptors have used stone for figurative carvings and ornamental architectural work. Different types of stone were used in different regions as sculptors used materials that were geologically available nearby. Different types of limestone were utilised all over Europe, and alabaster was popular in England, northern France, the Netherlands, Germany and Spain. Marble was commonly used in Italy, and exported to northern Europe from about 1550 onwards. As it is a particularly brittle stone, supports were used to connect arms and legs to the main part of the sculpture. These were meant to be removed once the statue was installed, although this was not always done.

Creamy white stone statue of Judith, holding the head of Holofernes by her hip

As stone is so heavy, stability is important. Many free-standing marble figures in dynamic poses are portrayed with tree trunks or columns attached to the legs in order to provide a stable base. Figures displayed in niches were usually hollowed out to reduce their weight.

The tools used for stone-carving have largely remained unchanged since antiquity. A mason’s axe cuts out the basic form of the sculpture. This is further shaped or roughed out using picks, points and punches struck by a hammer or mallet. Different sizes of tool are used throughout the carving process to achieve different effects. Roughing-out tools leave deep, uneven grooves, whereas flat chisels achieve finer results and are used for finishing the surface of sandstone, limestone and marble. A flat chisel struck at 45 degree angle (the ‘mason’s stroke’) leaves a ridged channel, and its edge can be used to define lines. The serrated edges of claw chisels allow for the rapid but controlled removal of material, whilst drills can both excavate stone and create decorative effects.

Further smoothing is achieved using rasps or rifflers (metal tools with rough surfaces), or minerals such as sand or emery (stone grit). Polishes can then be applied to fine-grained stone after it has been abraded. Marble and alabaster are polished with pumice, producing a smooth, translucent and reflective surface. They can also be left partially unpolished to create different textures.

Wood carving

Regional availability determined which wood was chosen for a sculpture, along with the properties of individual trees. The hardness of a wood depends on the density of its grain. Softwoods from evergreens such as cedar and pine are coarser, less dense and easier to carve, whereas hardwoods from deciduous trees such as oak, boxwood, walnut and limewood are harder but more durable, allowing for elaborate carving and finer details.

Wooden carving of the nativity

In southern Germany sculptors favoured limewood, whilst oak was more widely used in northern Germany, the Netherlands, northern France and England. Walnut was used in France. In Italy, Spain and the Alpine regions, poplar or pine were more frequently used.

Wood is carved in a similar way to stone. The design is drawn onto a split tree-trunk. The trunk size determines the dimensions of the finished sculpture, but extra sections can be pieced in. The form of the sculpture is roughly carved with a broad axe and then shaped with tools such as the narrow axe, flat-headed chisels, gouges and skew-bladed firmers (a chisel with a hooked end for cutting folds in drapery). After carving, the surface is normally smoothed with sandpaper or other abrasives.

Although wood naturally contains moisture when first felled and can re-absorb it later in damp conditions, it can become damaged. When parts of the wood dry at different rates, cracks along the grain of the wood can form. Sculptors therefore try to minimize cracking by removing all surplus wood, especially the heartwood at the centre of a log. The holes and burrows of woodworm also affect wood carvings, and can be visible on the surface of older pieces.

Wood sculpture was sometimes painted, decorated with gilding, or embellished with glass or semi-precious stone. At the end of the 15th century, limewood sculptors in southern Germany produced unpainted wood sculptures, which were coated with transparent glazes, and sometimes tinted brown.

Ivory carving

Ivory is the dense, hard, creamy white substance that forms the tusks of mammals – though the term is also used for other similar materials. For centuries it has been highly valued by craftsmen and patrons for use in religious and secular objects.

Circular white ivory carving depicting Jesus' descent from the cross

The main source of ivory was elephant tusks from North Africa and India. Since the 10th century the bone from the Finner whale and the tusks of the Atlantic walrus and were popular in western and northern Europe. Animal bones were also used by the Embriachi workshop in northern Italy during the 15th century.

The structure of ivory varies from one species of animal to another. Elephant tusks grow outward in layers and have a cone-shaped interior cavity (the 'pulp cavity') which extends into a very small nerve along the length of the tusk.

Carving semi-precious stone and shell

Specialist craftsmen used a wide variety of materials for carvings. These ranged from gemstones and hardstones like rock crystal, to softer organic materials such as shell, coral and mother-of-pearl.

White shell carving of  the side of a Roman Emperor's face

Hardstones were worked using metal tools, diamond drills and abrasive powders. Organic materials and softer mineral substances like jet and amber were carved with different types of knives and chisels. Some of these materials such as jet and coral were believed to have magical or medicinal powers, and in the medieval times rock crystal symbolised light and purity. These carvings had many functions, including cameo portraits, gems with mythological subjects, religious artefacts such as devotional pendants, containers carved in precious rock crystal, and inexpensive pilgrimage badges made of jet.

From about 1540 – 60, rulers and wealthy burghers (higher ranking medieval citizens) assembled collections of gems, cameos and other virtuoso carvings, which were displayed in special cabinets or rooms, alongside curiosities from the natural world and foreign countries.

Shell cameos

Shell cameos are much easier to cut than gemstone cameos, and the raw material is cheaper and easier to acquire. They were popular in the 16th century and again in the 18th and 19th centuries when the passion for carved gemstones led to an explosion in the market for cheaper shell cameos. They still remain popular today.

Modelling in clay

Clay is a very versatile, relatively cheap and widely available material. It can be modelled to form a unique object, or pressed into moulds to make multiple copies.

Circular clay piece with leaves around the edge and a yellow pot with wings in the centre

Sculptors often made rapid sketches in clay to capture initial ideas and then developed more finished models to show to patrons. They also used clay models when transferring compositions into more permanent materials such as marble.

Modelling marks are not usually visible in finished pieces of ceramic sculpture but can often be seen in ceramic models made in other mediums. Typical are rough, uneven grooves and ridges caused when clay is pushed to one side as marks are made.

Fired clay is known as 'terracotta', meaning cooked earth. The firing irreversibly changes the clay, making it stronger and suitable for different surface finishes. Clay models were sometimes fired to preserve them. Large European works, such as the ‘stemma’ (coat of arms) by Luca della Robbia (1399/1400 – 1482) were cut into pieces with cheesewire in order to fit into the kiln, and then joined together after firing.

Wax modelling

Wax model of two children embracing

Wax models are original and unique creations that could either be works of art in their own right, or an intermediary stage in the sculptural process. Many bronze sculptures are cast from models that were first made in wax, through the highly-skilled process of lost-wax casting.

How did sculptors make wax models?

Surface decoration.

The rough surface of European limestone and sandstone sculptures was usually concealed by paint, gilding, inlaid glass, or semi-precious stones. A plain white surface like those of classical Greek and Roman marble sculptures was considered the most desirable finish, so marble was rarely decorated. In actual fact, these classical sculptures would probably have originally been painted, but by the time they were rediscovered in post-classical times, the paint had worn away.

Golden cupid figure standing on a winged dolphin's tail

Wood sculpture was also painted, gilded or decorated with incised and punched patterns, and occasionally inset glass, though at the end of the 15th century, unpainted limewood sculptures were produced in southern Germany.

The appearance of a bronze sculpture can also vary, depending on the alloy used and the surface treatment. Chemical and organic lacquers can produce a variety of colours including black, green and reddish-brown. Bronzes can also be gilded, sometimes using the fire-gilding method – although this is now largely banned due to the toxicity of mercury vapour. In this process a paste of milled gold and mercury is spread over the sculpture which is then heated, fusing the gold to the surface and driving off the mercury. Gold lacquer can also be used to give a gilded appearance, but is not as permanent as fire-gilding.

In Renaissance Italy, terracotta sculptures were usually coloured. Luca della Robbia, developed a method of tin-glazing terracotta sculpture that had previously only been used on pottery. Della Robbia's method used pigment suspended in a tin-oxide glaze, rather than painted onto slip. The resulting enamelled terracottas were particularly durable and had an attractive, bright and reflective, surface. By the late 18th century however, unglazed terracotta had become popular with many European artists such as the French sculptor Clodion (1738 – 1814).

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Neptune and Triton, Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini, about 1622-23, Italy. Museum no. A.18:1-1950. © Victoria and Albert Museum, London

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The Stone Sculpting Process

Lori McNee

Since prehistoric times, artists have sought to set free the images that they see trapped within stone. The methods they use have evolved over the centuries but, the basic process stays the same – the artist must remove the unnecessary material. It is a process of elimination.

I think Auguste Rodin said it best… “I choose a block of marble and chop-off whatever I don’t need.”

Step One: The first step is to obtain tools, equipment and personal safety gear. Although, having the right tools is very important, one doesn’t need to spend a lot of money to begin.

  • a few rasps

These hand tools have changed little since ancient times and many of the greatest marble masterpieces were created with nothing more. However, modern power tools can speed-up the process…

  • I use a combination of pneumatic and electric rotary tools (with diamond accessories) as well the traditional tools.
  • Some items at the top of my “wish list”, include a pneumatic hammer and chisel set (about $500) and a ring saw, for making deep cuts on large boulders/blocks (about $7,000).

I am currently working in a home-based studio (my garage) and it is far from ideal; I don’t have running water, an overhead crane, or a good ventilation system. Eventually, I’d like to move into a larger, industrial type setting where I could more easily work on monumental scale projects.

stone sculptor sculpting large

Step Two: Choosing a stone is the next step. Ideally, the sculptor will go to a quarry or the warehouse of a stone distributor and look around until a stone speaks to him. Sometimes, a rock will speak to the sculptor, but, they won’t know what it is saying… in that case, the sculptor should take it home and study it.

  • Let the stone dictate the subject matter
  • Do not try to force it to be something it was not meant to be.

However, at this point in my career I have to buy most of my stone un-seen, because there are no quarries or distributors nearby. I buy most of my stone (and tools) from Neolithic Sculpting Stone: http://www.neolithicstone.com/ They are a major distributor located in Vancouver. I know that I can trust them to provide good quality stone at a competitive price. If I need a specific type, shape and size for a commission, I know I can rely on them to find me something suitable.

process writing of making a statue

I usually order at least a ton at a time. For me, the day that a stone shipment arrives, is like Christmas morning for a child. I typically set aside the best specimens for my own sculptures, keep some for making bowls and other functional items and sell some to other local sculptors and local art-supply stores. In general, I think sculptors should buy the best quality stone that they can afford.

Step Three:  I like to have a clear vision in my mind of what the final form will be, before I begin. Some stone sculptors start chipping away without a clear idea of what the finished sculpture will look like; theirs is a true voyage of discovery and evolution.

  • If it is to be a representational sculpture, I often do some sketches to use as reference material before beginning the actual carving, especially if it is a subject that I haven’t carved before or if it is a major project.
  • This helps to cement the image in my mind, and work-out the relationship between the negative and positive space.
  • Before I begin carving I also study the stone, carefully… I look for fractures and other flaws that could cause problems and decide how to best highlight the natural beauty of the stone while staying true to my vision of what the final form should be.

There is still one more thing that I need, before the actual carving can begin; and that is courage. All art forms require courage , but, I think this is especially true of stone sculpting because of its permanent nature. The more valuable or beautiful a stone is, the more intimidating it may be. Once one removes stone, one can’t put it back…

sculpting stone marble

Step Four: The techniques, tools and equipment that I use vary, depending on the size and type of stone that I’m carving. I’ve worked on everything from tiny gemstone specimens to a block of marble weighing over a ton. Some tools work great on soft stones, but are useless when carving harder stones such as jade.

  • When carving hard stone one needs to use diamond tools and preferably, one should “work wet”.
  • Water should be used because otherwise the friction will cause a lot of heat that can damage both the tools and the stone.

For small blocks under 100 lbs and for naturally shaped stones up to several hundred lbs, (that don’t have much surface area in contact with the work table), I use sand-bags to brace the stone and hold it steady, because it helps to have both hands free to hold tools. For very small stones, one can either put the stone in a vise, or, hold the stone in one hand and the tools in the other, or, use table tools that are attached to the workbench so that one is holding the stone, rather than the tools.

When carving a large sculpture (that starts from a boulder or block weighing over 100 lbs), I typically start the “roughing-out” with a 14” diamond blade mounted on my hand-held, electric, circular saw. I use this to “chop off”, off as much as possible, so that I will have some small pieces left-over that I can either sell as raw stone or make small sculptures or functional items out of. This saw can cut up to 5½” deep; for cuts deeper than this I must flip the stone over and cut from the other side as well, and/or use a mallet and wedges to split the stone.

This powerful saw really makes the dust fly and even with my dust collector running, a thick cloud quickly forms… so thick, that it becomes difficult to see. Although, my half-mask respirator protects my lungs, and I also wear a face shield, the dust is still hard on my eyes; another item on my “wish-list” is a fully enclosed facemask respirator combination.

process of stone sculpting sculpture marble

Once I have done all that I dare to do with my large saw, I switch to pneumatic and electric angle-grinders, with 5” diamond blade/faceplates that can be used both for cutting and grinding. At this point I often start using a mallet and chisels as well; I will make a few parallel cuts spaced less than an inch apart and up to a couple inches deep and then use a chisel to break off little slabs. I also use diamond “cup-wheels” which are mounted on angle grinders, for heavy grinding of the stone. I currently have three shapes to choose from; a convex wheel, a cone/bullet and a ball.

Step Five: After I have achieved the rough shape that I want, I switch to smaller tools to refine the shape and/or add details. These include die-grinders with diamond “point”, accessories, smaller chisels, diamond rasps and files. These smaller power tools and hand-tools offer more control and precision and they are able to reach into smaller, recessed areas. The rasps are used to remove any high/low spots left over from the grinders and chisels. Files are used to remove the deep gouges left from the rasps.

Step Six:  Some sculptors prefer to leave their sculptures, or portions of their sculptures, with a rough texture, or perhaps some portions might even be left with a naturally weathered surface. However, if a glossy/shiny, smooth surface is desired, then sanding is necessary.

sanding sculpture marble

Like most stone sculptors, I have a love/hate relationship with the sanding process; I love it because this is when the natural beauty of the stone is fully revealed in all its glory. However, it can be tedious work and I have sanded till my fingers bled on more than one occasion. Wet sanding is usually preferable. I use a variety of sanding accessories and techniques, depending on the size and type of stone, but, I most often sand by hand using standard wet/dry silicon carbide paper that can be purchased in any hardware store. If it is a small sculpture or bowl I usually sand it in/beside my laundry room sink. For larger sculptures I work in my studio, filling a large, plastic sandbox (the type that kids play in) with water.

Leonardo once said, “Art is never finished, only abandoned” .

However, when I decide to stop sanding and polishing a sculpture, it is not yet time to abandon it…

Step Seven: The next stage is marketing. Photos need to be made and posted on my website, social media pages and group sites. Perhaps, e-mails will be sent to potential buyers. Maybe, it will be delivered to a local art gallery.

Step Eight:  If it is a commissioned sculpture for an out-of-town customer,  careful packing  might be required. If it is a large sculpture, I may need to build a crate and  make shipping  arrangements.The final parting of ways can be bitter sweet; on the one hand I am very grateful that someone liked my artwork enough to buy it, but, on the other hand it can be sad to part with something that you have put your blood sweat and tears into.

blue marble sculpture whales

Guest artist/author:  Jason Nelson is an award wining artist that specializes in carving fine art sculpture and bowls are carved in many types of stone including jade, marble, alabaster, pyrophyllite and soapstone. His favorite subjects include marine-life, figurative and symbolic sculpture. Wow, thank you Jason for such an informative post! I really enjoyed it and learned a lot about the sculpting process, and I know my readers will too. To learn more about Jason, please visit the links below.

http://www.thestonesculptor.com http://twitter.com/StoneSculptorJN http://www.facebook.com/TheStoneSculptorJPNelson http://www.linkedin.com/in/stonesculptor

PS. Let’s meet on  Twitter ,  and on   Google Plus ,   Pinterest ,  and join in the fun at  Fine Art Tips Facebook Fan Page ! Please checkout my art too  LoriMcNee.com , or find me on  Instagram   lorimcneeartist . ~Lori

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Grande, grande, grande!!! Artista nata, con grandi doti e qualità.

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Thank you Glanni! Lori

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Hi. I am blind, and always wanted to learn to sculpt. This year I got a chance. I went to a free class at the Washington School for the Blind. Anyway, I was planning to make a raven or crow. But the teacher looked at it at one point. And said: It looks like a penguin. So, a penguin it was. Everybody liked it. I left its back a little rougher than its front. But now, and this is where I need your help. Ha ha. I got a graduation gift, from my friends. They gave me another stone. A rough soapstone. It almost looks like some kind of animal lying down. And they agreed. But, for the life of me, I can’t figure out what it is!!! The problem is, is that I’m not sure if there is enough stone to make any ears, sticking up, like maybe a fox, cat, lioness, cow, etc. I would attach a picture, if I could, but, if you could just give me some tips to start, it would be great. Thank you!

Hello Dewald, I am so happy to receive your unique comment. I am not the author of this guest post, but I will forward your question onto Jason, the guest author. I would love to see some examples of your sculpture and learn more about how you are creating even though you are blind. Do you use taxidermy animals as reference? Many thanks and I will pass your question over to Jason. Happy sculpting, Lori 🙂

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I liked your tip to make sure that you have all of the equipment and safety gear that you need to start your sculpture. You also mentioned that some of those tools are mallets and chisels. I think it’s a good idea to have your sculpture completely planned out before you start.

Hello Cindy, I am obviously waaay behind on comments. Thank so much for sharing your thoughts. I do agree with you about planning.

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Four Basic Methods For Making A Sculpture Are

Four basic methods for making a sculpture are:

  • Constructing and Assembling

Four Basic Methods For Making A Sculpture Are

The aesthetic effect of certain types of sculptures mostly depends on the way artists directly manipulate their materials. For many sculptors, the actual physical process of the work material is an integral part of the art of sculpture. In the finished work, their response to the work quality of the material (such as its plasticity, hardness and texture) is obvious. Design and craftsmanship are closely integrated in this kind of work, which is a highly personal expression.

No matter which material is used, the basic characteristics of the direct carving method are the same. The sculptor starts with a solid material and then systematically reduces it to the desired form. First he or she has determined the main objects and planes that define the outer limits of the forms. Then he or she works step by step throughout the sculpture, sculpting the larger containing forms and planes. The forms and planes are sculpting smaller , until the final surface details are formed. Finally the artist finishes the required surface treatment. Even with a preliminary model as a guide, as the work progresses, the concept of the sculptor will continue to evolve and clarify. Therefore, when he or she adjusts the design according to the carving process and the nature of the material, the work develops into an organic whole.

The process of direct carving gives a characteristic sequence to the form of the sculpture. Usually, the surface of the original block, flat plate or cylinder can still be felt. These surfaces exist as an implicit spatial envelope in the finished work, thus limiting the extension of the form in space and connecting its highest points to the entire space. In a similar way, in the entire carving process, smaller shapes and planes can be regarded as being contained in implicitly larger shapes and planes. Therefore, an ordered sequence of containing forms and planes, from the largest to the smallest, gives unity to the work.

Wood Carving Sculpture

Indirect carving

In Western civilization during the 19th and early 20th centuries direct carving became customary for stone. And to a lesser extent, wood sculpture to be produced by the indirect method. This requires the production of the finished clay model, which is then cast in plaster. And then more or less mechanically copied in stone or wood by a pointing machine.

Usually, the carving is not done by the sculptor himself. In the worst case, this process will produce a carved copy of the design conceived from the clay model. Although indirect carving cannot achieve the aesthetic quality of engraved sculptures. It also does not necessarily lead to a decline in carving quality. For example, Rodin’s marble sculptures are generally regarded as great works of art, even by those who oppose indirect carving. Since the revival of direct carving in the early 20th century and the innovation of 3D printing at the end of the century, indirect methods have been steadily losing ground.

Carving tools and techniques

The tools used for carving differ depending on the material being carved. The stone is mainly carved with steel tools similar to cold chiseling. To knock off the corners and angles of the block, use a heavy hammer to drive a tool called a pitcher into the surface. The pitcher is a thick chisel-like tool with wide beveled edges that can break rather than cut stones. Then focus on the main roughing and then the fine points, which can be used within a short distance from the final surface. These pointed tools hammer into the surface at an angle, causing the stone to break into pieces of different sizes.

Claw chisels, which have toothed edges, may then be worked in all directions over the surface, removing the stone in granule form and thus refining the surface forms. Flat chisels are used to complete surface carving and cutting sharp details. There are many other special tools, including stone chisels, drill bits, toothed hammers (called bushhammers or bouchardes), as well as electro-pneumatic tools that are often used today to strike the surface of the stone. The surface can be polished using a variety of processes and materials.

chisel

Because most engravers in the Middle Ages used softer stones and used flat chisel extensively, their works often had avant-garde cutting quality and could be carved freely and deeply. In contrast, the work that people do on hard stone lacks metal tools that are hard enough to cut the stone. For example, Egyptian granite sculptures are mainly made by abrasion; that is, by hitting the surface and rubbing it with abrasive materials. The result is a compact sculpture, not deeply hollowed out, with soft edges and a flowing surface. It usually has a high tactile appeal.

Although the carving process of wood or stone is basically the same, the physical structure of wood requires different types of tools. For the first carving of woodcarving, the sculptor may use a saw and axe, but his main tools are various woodcarving chisels. The sharp curved edge of the chisel can easily penetrate the fiber bundle and will not split the wood if used properly. A flat chisel is also used, especially for carving sharp details. A wooden file or rasps and sandpaper can be used to smooth the surface, or, if desired, a faceted, well-defined appearance can be left. The woodcarving tools have hardwood handles and are struck with a round mallet. African woodcarvers use various adzes instead of chisels and mallets. Ivory is carved with various saws, knives, files, files, chisels, drills and scrapers.

Contrary to the restoration process of sculpture, modeling is essentially a construction process in which the sculpture grows organically from the inside. Many plastic materials are used for modeling. There are mainly clay, gypsum, and wax; but concrete, synthetic resin, plastic wood, plaster, and even molten metal can also be modeled. A design modeled in plastic materials may be designed to be replicated by casting more durable and rigid materials (such as metal, plaster, concrete, and fiberglass), or it may itself be made rigid and more durable through the self-defined properties of its materials (For example, gypsum) or by firing.

Modeling for casting

The most widely used material for making positive models for casting is clay. Small and compact design or low relief can be firmly modeled in clay without any internal support; but a large clay model must be formed on a strong skeleton made of wood and metal. Since the armature can be very delicate and can only be changed slightly, if any, once the work starts, the modeler must get a fairly clear idea from his drawings and the model of the main shape arrangement of the finished model. The underlying main mass of the sculpture is firmly established on the armature, and then smaller forms, surface modeling and details are modeled on them. The main tool of the stylist is his fingers, but for fine work, he may use various wooden modeling tools to apply clay and wire loop tools to cut them off. The relief is modeled on a vertical or nearly vertical plank. The clay is fixed or fixed to the board with galvanized nails or wooden slats. The number of armatures required depends on the height of the relief and the weight of the clay involved.

Cold Casting

In order to make metal castings, the foundry needs a sculptor to make a model made of a rigid material, usually plaster. The sculptor can make by modeling in clay and then casting plaster from the clay model or directly modeling in plaster. For direct plaster modeling, since the material is fragile, a strong skeleton is required. The main form can be roughly constructed with expanded wire on the armature and then covered with a scrim (loosely woven sacks) impregnated with gypsum. This provides a hollow foundation for the final shape, which is done by applying plaster with a metal spatula and scraping and cutting with a file and chisel.

The fiberglass and concrete sculptures were cast in plaster molds taken from the sculptor’s original model. The model is usually clay rather than plaster, because if the form of the sculpture is very complex, it is easier to remove the plaster mold from the soft clay model than from the hard material (such as plaster).

A large number of metal sculptures in the past, including Nigeria, India and many Renaissance bronzes, were produced through a direct lost wax process, which involved a special modeling technique (see casting and molding below). The design is first modeled in some refractory materials to within a fraction of an inch of the final surface, and then the final model is completed in a layer of wax. Using fingers and metal tools, it can be heated to make the wax more flexible. Medals are usually made of wax originals, but due to their small size, they can be cast in solid, so no core is required.

Modeling for pottery sculpture

In order to withstand the pressure of firing, large pottery sculptures must be hollow and uniform in thickness. There are two main ways to achieve this. In the process of hollow modeling, this is the typical modeling method of potters. The main form of the clay model is directly constructed as a hollow shape with approximately uniform wall thickness. The construction method is similar to the method used to make handmade pottery-coiling, kneading and slab. Then add smaller forms and details, and let the finished work dry out slowly and thoroughly before firing. The process of solid modeling is more like the traditional modeling method of sculptors. Sculptures are modeled in solid clay, sometimes on a carefully considered skeleton, through the usual clay modeling methods of the sculptor. Then cut it open and hollow it out, if there is an armature, remove the armature. Then the pieces were reconnected, and the work was dried and fired.

General characteristics of modeled sculpture

The modeling process affects the design of the sculpture in three important ways. First, the form of sculpture tends to be sorted from the inside. There are no external forms and planes, such as carved sculptures. The overall design of the work-its main volume, proportions and axial arrangement-is determined by the underlying form; and smaller forms, surface shapes and decorative details are formed around and supported by this underlying structure. Secondly, because its extension to the space is not limited by the size of the material block, model sculptures are often more free and expansive in space design than sculpture sculptures. If you want to use the tensile strength of metal in the finished product, you have almost unlimited freedom; the design of brittle materials such as concrete or plaster is more restricted. Third, the plasticity of clay and wax encourages smooth and direct manipulation. Many sculptors, such as Auguste Rodin, Giacomo Manzu and Sir Jacob Epstein, like to keep it in the finished work. This direct handling of media recording. Their method contrasts sharply with the methods of Benin and Indian bronze sculptors, who improved the surface of the work to remove all traces of personal “handwriting”.

Constructing and assembling

Constructed or assembled sculptures are made by connecting pre-formed materials. In principle, it is completely different from sculpture and model sculpture, both of which are made of the same material. Man-made sculptures are made of basic prefabricated components such as metal tubes, rods, plates, rods and sheets; wooden slats, planks, dowels and blocks; laminated wood and chipboard; plexiglass, formica and glass sheets; fabrics; and wires And thread. These are cut into various sizes and can be shaped before assembly or used as is. The term “combination” usually refers to a structural sculpture that contains a large number of ready-made, so-called ready-made objects, such as old boilers, typewriters, engine parts, mirrors, chairs, table legs, and other old furniture. Many techniques are used to connect these components, of which large Part of it comes from processes other than traditional sculpture; for example, metal welding and brazing, carpentry, bolting, screwing, riveting, nails, and bonding with new strong adhesives.

The use of architectural techniques to make sculptures is the main technological development of art in recent years. One of the reasons for its popularity is that it can easily emphasize the spatial aspect of sculpture, which is what many artists in the 20th century paid attention to. It is faster than sculpting and modeling; many sculptors and critics believe that it is particularly suitable for technological civilization; it opens up new image fields and new symbolic meanings and forms.

For the “gallery” sculptures constructed, almost any material and technique can be used, and the products are often very short-lived. But architectural sculptures, outdoor sculptures, and virtually any sculpture in actual use must be constructed in a safe and at least reasonably permanent way. Therefore, the materials and technology used are limited to some extent. Metal sculptures constructed by riveting, bolting, and most importantly welding and brazing are most suitable for outdoor use.

In recent years, the introduction of oxyacetylene torches as a tool for sculptors has revolutionized metal sculptures. Around 1930, Spanish sculptor Julio González took the lead in combining welding and forging techniques; in the 1940s and 1950s, it became a major sculpture technique, especially in the United Kingdom and the United States. Its biggest representative is David Smith. In the 1960s and early 1970s, more complex electric welding processes were replacing flame welding.

1I730001 stainless steel statue maker manufacturer (4)

Welding equipment can be used to join and cut metals. Welded joints are made by melting and fusing the surfaces of two pieces of metal together, usually adding a small amount of the same metal as a filler. The most widely used metal for welding sculptures is mild steel, but other metals can also be welded. In brazed joints, the base materials are not actually fused together, but are joined together by an alloy that melts at a lower temperature than the base materials. Brazing is particularly useful for joints between different types of metals that cannot be welded, and for connecting non-ferrous metals. Forging is the direct shaping of metal through bending, hammering and cutting.

Direct metal processing technology has opened up a whole new range of forms for sculptors-open skeleton structure, linear and highly extended forms, and complex curved sheet forms. The constructed metal sculpture may be precise and clean, like the minimalist sculptors Donald Judd and Philip King, or it may use the texture effect of molten metal in a free, “romantic” way.

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12 Steps know - how to make a bronze sculpture? (2021)

Step 1: collecting materials.

The first step in the production of bronze sculpture is to collect the material, find the picture of the position of the work, and then do the 1:1 mud, to provide a solid foundation for the stereotype, the stereotype clay sculpture reference scale is enlarged and then modified, until the work and the reference material After the same, the mold is re-formed.

Step 2: Design drawings

The design of the sculpture is first of all to design the drawings for the overall conception of the sculpture and then cast the bronze sculpture according to the pattern.

Step 3: Make A Mud Draft

Then, we will make a rough model of the designed pattern with the mud draft, which is convenient for us to shape. If there is anything wrong, we can change it on the clay.

step 4: mold reversal

There are two types of molds: one that is made of gypsum if it is not too complicated. The other is complicated and it is made with silicone. The remanufacturing mold is determined according to the complexity of the work. The simpler works can be cast by gypsum, and the more complicated ones must be made of silicone.

Step 4 Mold Reversal

Step 5: Wax filling

After the mold is finished, the melted paraffin is poured into the already-made plaster mold or silica gel mold. After the paraffin is cooled and the mold is opened, the wax-shaped work is formed. In this step, we call it “wax-type filling”.

Step 6: Shelling

The next step is to “shell”. There are two ways to make the shell. For small pieces or complex ones, we should use precision casting. The so-called precision production is to wrap the made wax pattern with fine quartz sand layer by layer, and then Then use high temperature to burn the paraffin inside the shell. The other is the production of resin sandboxes, which are generally suitable for simple, flat relief, large copper coins, the back of bronze Buddha statues, and so on.

Step 7: Casting

After the shell is finished, it will be in the casting process. At the high temperature, the copper rod or copper ingot will be turned into copper water and then poured into the finished shell or the sandbox. After the copper water is cooled, the shell is opened, the sharp mouth is polished, and then the bronze sculptures have been polished together, and a rough bronze sculpture can be seen.

Step 8: Polishing

It is relatively simple to clean the mouth.

Step 9: Splicing cast bronze sculpture

Put the polished bronzes together and become a complete whole. After this step is completed, we can see that our bronze sculpture is roughly the same.

Step 10: Clean the weld

Next, we began to clean the welding joints, and the welded parts of the spliced, copper sculptures were treated like mud.

Step 11: Surface coloring

Then the surface coloring, bronze coloring is to be determined according to customer requirements, mainly because the bronze sculpture is reflected in what period if it is ancient, it is suitable for bronze, modern is suitable for bronze, of course, modern is a lot. Cast bronze sculptures, some with gold, gold, and painted.

step 12: oiling, sealing wax

After the coloring is finished, it is the last process of oiling and sealing wax. Oiling and sealing wax can keep our cast bronze sculptures up to date. After so many steps, a piece of bronze sculpture is finished.

process writing of making a statue

How Law is Made: An In-Depth Look at the Legislative Process

Making law is a complicated process that varies depending on the country in question. In this blog post, we will take an in-depth look at the legislative process and explore how law is made. We will discuss the different steps involved in making legislation, from drafting a bill to signing it into law. This is an important topic for anyone interested in politics or government.

Table of Contents

How is the Law Made?

The process of making law varies from country to country. In some countries, the legislature (the law-making body) is very powerful and can pass laws without much input from the executive branch (the branch of government that carries out the laws). 

In other countries, the executive branch has more power and can veto legislation that it does not agree with. In still other countries, the two branches must work together in order to pass laws .

What is Law?

Before we can discuss how law is made, it is important to understand what law is. According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary , law is “a binding custom or practice of a community : a rule of conduct or action prescribed or formally recognized as binding or enforced by a controlling authority.” 

In other words, law is a set of rules that everyone in a community must follow. These rules can be written down or they can be passed down through tradition.

Why is Law Important?

Law is important because it provides a structure for society. It sets out the rules that people must follow and establishes consequences for breaking those rules. Without law, there would be chaos and disorder.

Hierarchy of Laws

Not all laws are created equal. There are different levels of law, each with its own authority and jurisdiction. The hierarchy of laws is as follows:

The Constitution

The constitution is the highest level of law in the land. It is the document that establishes the government and sets out the rights of citizens. The constitution can be amended, but only through a difficult and lengthy process.

Federal Statutes

Federal statutes are laws that are passed by Congress and signed by the president. These laws apply to all citizens of the United States .

State Statutes

State statutes are laws that are passed by state legislatures and signed by the governor. These laws apply to all citizens of the state in question.

Local Ordinances

Local ordinances are laws that are passed by city or county governments. These laws usually deal with issues like noise, parking, and building codes. They apply to all citizens of the city or county in question.

Introduction of a Bill

The first step in the legislative process is the introduction of a bill. This can be done by any member of Congress, and often multiple bills are introduced on the same day. The bill is then assigned to a committee, where it will be considered by lawmakers.

How is a Bill Drafted?

The process of drafting a bill can vary depending on the country and the level of government in question. In the United States , a bill can be drafted by anyone – including members of the public, interest groups, or legislators. Once a bill is drafted, it must be submitted to the legislature for consideration.

What Happens Once a Bill is Submitted?

Once a bill is submitted, it must go through a series of steps before it can become law. These steps include:

Reading and Referral

The first step in the legislative process is reading and referral. This is when the bill is read aloud and assigned to a committee.

Committee Stage

During this stage, the bill will undergo a number of changes. amendments may be made to the bill, and it may be amended multiple times. The committee will also vote on whether or not to send the bill to the floor for a vote by the full House or Senate.

If the bill passes out of committee, it moves on to the next stage. If it fails, the bill dies and does not become law.

Bill is Introduced to the Floor of Parliament

The bill is introduced to the floor of Parliament, where it will be debated by lawmakers. During this stage, amendments may be made to the bill. Once debate is finished, the bill is put to a vote. If it passes, it moves on to the next stage. If it fails, the bill dies and does not become law.

The next stage is the committee of the whole, where the bill is considered by all members of Parliament. This is followed by a final vote on the bill. If it passes, it moves on to the next stage. If it fails, the bill dies and does not become law.

Presidential/Royal Ascent

The bill is then sent to the president or king for approval. The president or king may sign the bill into law, veto it, or send it back to Parliament with amendments. If the president or king signs the bill, it becomes law. If the president or king vetoes the bill, it does not become law. If the president or king sends the bill back to Parliament, it may be amended and put to a vote again.

If the bill passes both houses of Parliament, it becomes law. If the bill fails to pass one house of Parliament, it does not become law.

Once a bill has been signed into law by the president or king, it is enacted and becomes part of the law of the land .

Judiciary Made Law Judicial Precedence

The judiciary may also make law, through the process of judicial precedent. This is when a court interprets the law and sets a precedent for future cases . This precedent becomes binding on all lower courts, and must be followed by those courts.

Differences Between a Statute and a Subsidiary Regulation

There are two types of primary legislation: statutes and subsidiary legislation.

A statute is a law that is made by Parliament. It can be amended or repealed by Parliament. A subsidiary piece of legislation is a law that is made by the government, but it cannot be amended or repealed by Parliament. Instead, it can only be changed by the government.

Subsidiary legislation is also known as delegated legislation or secondary legislation. It is made by Ministers of the Crown, using powers that have been given to them by Parliament. This type of legislation includes things like regulations, rules, and orders.

Ministers are given the power to make this type of legislation so that they can respond quickly to changes in circumstances, without having to go through the lengthy process of getting Parliament to pass a new law.

There are some important differences between statutes and subsidiary legislation.

  • First, statutes are made by Parliament, while subsidiary legislation is made by the government.
  • Second, statutes can be amended or repealed by Parliament, while subsidiary legislation can only be changed by the government.
  • Third, statutes are public laws that apply to everyone, while subsidiary legislation is usually private law that applies to a specific group or situation.
  • Fourth, statutes are usually more complex than subsidiary legislation.
  • Finally, it is important to note that some countries do not have a distinction between statutes and subsidiary legislation. In these countries, all primary legislation is made by Parliament.

Changing the Law

Can constitutions be amended amendability of a constitution.

One of the most fundamental questions about any constitution is whether it can be amended.

The answer to this question depends on the type of constitution that a country has.

There are two main types of constitutions: rigid and flexible.

A rigid constitution is one that cannot be easily changed. It usually requires a supermajority or a referendum in order to be amended. A flexible constitution, on the other hand, can be easily changed by the legislature.

The vast majority of countries have a rigid constitution. This is because it provides stability and ensures that there are checks and balances in the system. It also prevents the government from making changes that could be harmful to the country.

There are a few countries, however, that have a flexible constitution. These countries usually have a history of political instability or violence. They also tend to be newer democracies.

One example of a country with a flexible constitution is Nepal. Nepal’s constitution was amended more than 50 times between 1947 and 2006. The country has a history of political instability, and the constitution was amended in order to accommodate changes in the government.

Another example is Iraq. Iraq’s constitution was amended several times between 2003 and 2006. The country has a history of violence, and the amendments were made in order to accommodate changes in the government.

Repealing of Amendment of a Statute

There are two ways in which an amendment to a statute can be made: by express repeal or by enactment of a new law. A law or a statute can be amended by another law being enacted that contradicts the initial law, or an express repeal of the initial law or amendment of specific clauses of the law.

In express repeal, the old law is repealed and replaced with a new law. This can be done by passing a new law that contradicts the old law, or by specifically repealing the old law.

In enactment of a new law, the old law is not repealed but rather modified. This is done by passing a new law that modifies the old law.

The process of amending a statute is different from repealing a statute because, in amending a statute, the old law still exists but with some modifications. When a statute is repealed, the old law ceases to exist and is no longer in force.

One example of express repeal is the repealing of the 18th amendment to the United States Constitution. The 18th amendment was passed in 1919 and prohibited the manufacture, sale, and transport of alcohol.

The 21st amendment, which was passed in 1933, repealed the 18th amendment. This was done by specifically repealing the 18th amendment.

Another example of express repeal is the repealing of the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2003. The Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act was passed in 2003 and prohibited a specific type of abortion.

The act was repealed in 2009 by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. This was done by passing a new law that contradicted the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act.

One example of the enactment of a new law is the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The Civil Rights Act was passed in 1964 and prohibited discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.

The act was amended in 1972 by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. This was done by passing a new law that modified the Civil Rights Act.

Another example of the enactment of a new law is the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. The Americans with Disabilities Act was passed in 1990 and prohibited discrimination on the basis of disability.

The act was amended in 2009 by the ADA Amendments Act. This was done by passing a new law that modified the Americans with Disabilities Act.

In conclusion, it is important to understand the difference between a statute and a subsidiary regulation.

Statutes are made by Parliament, while subsidiary legislation is made by the government. Statutes can be amended or repealed by Parliament, while subsidiary legislation can only be changed by the government.

It is also important to note that some countries do not have a distinction between statutes and subsidiary legislation. In these countries, all primary legislation is made by Parliament.

Finally, Constitutions can be either rigid or flexible depending on the country in question. The majority of countries have a rigid Constitution to provide stability. A few examples of countries with a flexible Constitution are Nepal and Iraq who usually have a history of political instability or violence.

Making law is a complicated process that varies depending on the country in question. In this blog post, we have taken an in-depth look at the legislative process and explored how law is made. We have discussed the different steps involved in making legislation, from drafting a bill to signing it into law. This is an important topic for anyone interested in politics or government.

I hope you have found this blog post informative and helpful. If you have any questions, please feel free to leave a comment below. Thanks for reading!

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How to Sculpt Clay

Last Updated: November 29, 2023 References

This article was co-authored by Natasha Dikareva, MFA . Natasha Dikareva is a San Francisco, California based sculptor, and installation artist. With over 25 years of ceramics, sculpting, and installation experience, Natasha also teaches a ceramic sculpture workshop titled "Adventures in Clay" covering concept development, hand-building techniques, texture, and glazing techniques. Her work has been featured in solo and group exhibitions at the Beatrice Wood Center for the Arts, Abrams Claghorn Gallery, Bloomington Center for the Arts, Maria Kravetz Gallery, and the American Museum of Ceramic Art. She has taught at the University of Minnesota and the American Indian OIC School. She has been awarded the Excellence Award at the 1st World Teapot Competition, Best in Show at the 4th Clay & Glass Biennial Competition, and a Grand Prize at the American Museum of Ceramic Art. Natasha holds an MFA from the University of Minnesota and a BFA from Kiev Fine Arts College. There are 7 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been viewed 137,861 times.

Sculpting clay is a great way to engage your creative side! Clay can be sculpted into decorative or functional pieces. It can be messy, so make sure to cover your work surface and wear old clothes. Sculpt the clay using basic hand techniques and add decorative patterns using simple household items.

Practicing Sculpting Techniques

  • Repeat this process until all the clay has an even texture and there are no air bubbles. This can take up to 50 kneads.
  • Try to use your palms instead of your fingertips when pushing the clay down.
  • Take a fist-sized piece of clay and roll into a ball.
  • Place the ball down on your hard surface and push it down slightly so that it has a flat bottom and can stand by itself.
  • Gently push your thumb into the middle of the bowl to create a small dent. Don’t press any further than your first knuckle. This hole makes the opening of the bowl.
  • Place your thumb inside the bowl and your index finger outside the bowl. Pinch them together and pull them up to create the sides of the bowl.
  • Keep pinching and pulling the bowl until you are happy with its shape and size.
  • Stop rolling once the coils are your desired width and length.
  • If you are wanting to make a vessel from your coils, note that a longer coil will make a wider structure and a shorter coil will create a narrower structure.
  • Coils are useful for creating many sculptures and details such as caterpillars, eyebrows or patterns.
  • Pinch the ends of each coil together and shape the coil into the shape you want. For example, if you want a heart-shaped vase you would shape each coil into a heart shape and pinch the ends together.
  • Place the coils on top of each other to form a stack.
  • Put gentle pressure on the top of the coil stack to help the coils join together. Gently press on the side of the structure to smooth out the walls.
  • If you’re stack isn’t stable, start again and use thicker coils.

How can I support weaker parts of my sculpture while I work?

Natasha Dikareva, MFA

Natasha Dikareva, MFA

You can use blocks of clay to prop pieces up while you work and then fix any marks they leave behind after the sculpture has hardened a bit. Alternatively, you can use sticks to support any structures that are sticking out from the main part of your piece.

  • Roll a lump of clay using a rolling pin, until the whole slab is an even height.
  • Cut the slab into your desired shapes using a knife. When making a cube, cut the slab into 6 squares of the same size. Place a ruler over the clay to help you make slabs that are the same size. [3] X Research source
  • Make small cuts along the edges of the slabs to roughen them up. This will help the slabs join together.
  • Place the rough edges of your slabs together. Gently push the edges of the slabs together with your hands to help them fuse. Repeat this process until all of the squares are joined together to make a cube.

Creating and Decorating Your Sculpture

  • For example, fuse a coil onto the side of a pinch pot to add decoration. Be creative and express your personal style in your creations.
  • If you are using standard clay, sprinkle a few drops of water onto the rough edges before pressing them together.
  • Experiment and be creative with using different household objects to create patterns. [4] X Research source

Step 3 Consider pressing decorations, such as glitter or rocks, into the clay.

  • Glitter is a fun and sparkly option for polymer and air-dry clay. Sprinkle the glitter over the sculpture and lightly push it into the surface of the clay.
  • If you are using oven-dry clay, wait for your sculpture to cool before you try to paint it.
  • Be creative with your patterns. Try polka dots, flowers or zig-zags.
  • Cover the table with newspaper before painting.
  • Leave the paint to dry for 24 hours before moving the sculpture.

Step 5 Improve yourself by watching videos or attending a pottery class.

  • Try searching YouTube for "Clay sculpting techniques".

Preparing and Selecting Materials

Step 1 Choose polymer, oven bake, or air-dry clay if you don’t have a kiln.

  • If you are looking for a bright colored clay, polymer will be your best option.
  • Air dry clay is a good option for all ages as it requires no use of heat.
  • These 3 varieties of clay have a similar appearance to kiln-baked clay once they are dry.

Step 2 Select standard clay if you want to glaze and fire your sculpture.

  • Contact a local pottery or university ceramic department to rent some space in a kiln.
  • Standard clay can come in a variety of natural shades. Choose one which most suits the style of your sculpture.

Step 3 Cover your work surface with newspaper.

  • If you are sculpting clay with young children, consider working outside or over a wipeable floor.

Step 4 Wear old clothes.

  • If you have long hair, tie it back into a bun or a ponytail

Step 5 Decide what you would like to sculpt.

  • Draw inspiration from objects and nature around you. Take pictures of things you might like to try sculpting.

Expert Q&A

Natasha Dikareva, MFA

Things You'll Need

  • Fork, knife, and spoon
  • Rolling pin

You Might Also Like

process writing of making a statue

  • ↑ http://ceramicsweb.org/articles/tech_handouts/basic_throwing.html
  • ↑ https://people.goshen.edu/~marvinpb/throw/preparation.html
  • ↑ https://www.thesprucecrafts.com/making-clay-slabs-2746176
  • ↑ http://www.communityplaythings.com/resources/articles/2016/the-potential-of-playdough
  • ↑ https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artists/henry-moore-om-ch-1659/henry-moores-sculptures
  • ↑ Natasha Dikareva, MFA. Ceramics & Sculpting Instructor. Expert Interview. 5 May 2020.
  • ↑ https://www.incredibleart.org/files/ceramics.htm

About This Article

Natasha Dikareva, MFA

To sculpt with clay, start by choosing a standard clay if you're glazing or firing your sculpture in an oven. Alternatively, pick a polymer, air dry, or oven bake clay if you don't have access to a kiln. Next, knead the clay to make it more pliable and to remove any air bubbles. Once it's ready, try pinching or rolling it to make shapes. You can also use textured objects to create patterns, or press glitter or pebbles into the clay for decoration. To learn how to paint your sculpture, keep reading! Did this summary help you? Yes No

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Step By Step On How To Make Resin Art - Resin Sculpture

how to make a resin sculpture

Looking for a step-by-step on how to make resin sculptures? Are you a first-time sculptor or just trying out this craft? Here you will find a straightforward guide that you can follow. The process of making a concrete resin sculpture is not as complicated as some people make it look. All you need to know are the basic techniques to make decorative items such as statues, vases, bowls, and pots.

Resin Art -

Resin art is a type of art that is crafted with resin. It can be applied to other materials, but it's typically used on its own. It's not just any kind of resin. Resins are chemicals or organic materials that are thickened, so they have the consistency of bread dough.

The different kinds of resin art are:

Resin jewelry - jewelry made from a transparent resin

Resin painting - painting was done with acrylic paint and a transparent resin

Resin encapsulation - a three-dimensional object or image encapsulated in a protective layer of a clear matrix to protect the original object/painting, make it waterproof, and make it easier to display.

Resin sculpture - three-dimensional objects or paintings made from clear resin

1st Step:  Prepare The Needed Material

First of all, you have to prepare the material you will use for the item you are about to create. This may include sand, cement, and paint. Get a good collection of these materials ready before you start. You also have to check whether the cement you use is appropriate for the type of material you will use. There are  different types of cement , and you have to choose one that fits the material properly.

2nd Step:  Decide What To Create

Then you have to decide what design you want to create from the sand, cement, and paint. There is no hard and fast rule in doing so. You have to experiment with your mind. Once you have selected the design, you have to determine where you want to put the model in the piece. This is an essential step in how to make resin sculptures.

3rd Step:  Put Marking

Next, you need to mark the location on the model where you will drill the holes. You do this by using a pencil. Keeping the right place is very important. It will let you know where you will need to take the model out after finishing it. It also allows you to fill the hole you have made.

sculpture making

4th Step:  Mix Cement and Sand

The next step in how to make resin sculptures is mixing cement and sand. For this, you will need to have at hand a container of glue, a tube with the correct size for your tube brush, and sand. You have to experiment with the sizes until you get the right consistency. Start by adding only a tiny amount to see if it is too dry before increasing it.

5th Step:  Leave The Sand For A While

After you have mixed the ingredients, you have to let them stand for some time. This will allow you to prepare all the materials that you will need to finish the sculpture. Next, you will have to find a proper setting for the statue. The easiest way is to leave it outdoors to air out for about a week.

6th Step:  Spray Paint Your Model

Now that everything is ready, you will have to go back to your tube brush and spray paint the model in smooth motions. Again, make sure to work in smooth succession and ensure that all the paint remains on the model. Once the entire area has been sprayed, you can move on to the next step by filling in the gaps. Start by filling in the most significant gaps with medium and then add more layers of medium. Continue this process until you reach the desired thickness, and then you can rinse and allow it to dry.

resin sculpture

7th Step:  Allow The Model Dry

The last step is to allow the model to dry. You will need to bring it inside to avoid over-drying or possibly damaging the material. Check it periodically for signs of drying out. Once it is all dried, you will be able to put your new creation on display and be proud of your new and unique craftsmanship!

If you are a beginner and want to start learning how to make resin sculptures, plenty of resources are available. There are starter kits available at your local craft store, or you could also purchase a book and follow the step-by-step instructions. Even without a piece of equipment or text, you can create exciting results by using stencils and other decorative tools. Before you know it, you will be  creating unique masterpieces  on the go, and you will be the talk of the neighborhood.

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process writing of making a statue

Step 1: Inspiration for the Artwork

Every sculpture starts with an inspiration and design in our minds. For commissioned work, we will research the sculpture’s history, meaning and purpose to bring the vision for the project alive. We consider commissions to be a partnership for success, and we enter into each project with open minds and a desire to understand others’ concepts. As an artist team, we are unique in our process because we see the same vision together, and can work as one artist to approach projects. As our designs form, we create illustrated renderings that depict the composition, scale and gestures of the art piece. For commissioned projects, we will seek design approval at this stage with a rendering before moving forward in clay.

process writing of making a statue

Step 2: Sculpting in Clay

We begin the creation process by working with models and reference to start the clay work. We will create a “bone structure” or armature, either made of wire or foam to support the clay. For this piece, we carved the entire monument out of foam based on real-life measurements, and layered clay over the foam. At that point, we began the arduous phase of sculpting details in clay.

In preparation for the casting process, this piece was cut into multiple sections that were individually molded and cast. The number of sections depends on the size and complexity of the piece. Each section was marked with notches to ensure proper alignment when rejoined in metal.

process writing of making a statue

Working with a Model

process writing of making a statue

Sculpting in Clay

Step 3: Making the Mold

process writing of making a statue

silicon rubber mold for sculpture

process writing of making a statue

Step 4: Creating a Wax Pattern

process writing of making a statue

Making a bronze pouring wax

Step 5: Creating the Gating System

Creating the Wax Gating System

Creating the Wax Gating System

Step 6: Creating a Ceramic Mold

process writing of making a statue

Creating a Ceramic Shell Mode

Step 7: Burning out the Wax

process writing of making a statue

Burning Out Lost Wax Process

Step 8: Pouring the Bronze

process writing of making a statue

Pouring Bronze Process

Step 9: Welding the Bronze

process writing of making a statue

Bronze Parts for Welding

process writing of making a statue

Making Bronze Horse

process writing of making a statue

Building the Bronze

process writing of making a statue

Bronze Casting

Step 10: Applying the Patina

process writing of making a statue

Applying the Patina

Step 11: Installing the Sculpture

process writing of making a statue

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The Making Of The Statue Of Unity: An Untold Story

Swarajya Staff

Feb 27, 2019, 04:41 PM | Updated Oct 31, 2020, 08:21 AM IST

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The site of the Statue of Unity near Sardar Sarovar Dam on October 18, 2018 in Kevadiya, India. (Siddharaj Solanki/Hindustan Times via Getty Images)&nbsp;

  • This is an account of the monumental work that went into building the towering Statue of Unity – from planning, design, detailing, construction to completion.

By Rakesh Kaul

When Vinita Kapur was young, she would doodle and solve puzzles. That childhood dream led her to getting a PhD in architecture from the University of Pennsylvania. After all, in her own words, “is architecture itself nothing but a ginormous 3D visual puzzle with an aesthetic slant?” Little did she know that she would have the supreme honour of working on the Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel statue as director, India Projects at Michael Graves Architecture & Design in Princeton, New Jersey.

Michael Graves Architecture & Design (MGA&D), the global architecture and design firm, went into the statue bidding process as part of a consortium that included Turner Construction as project manager, and Meindhart structural engineers. It was the very first project that MGA&D would work on in India and it was a project that they knew was guaranteed to see the light of day. The team was filled with exhilaration at the prospect of designing a famous historical project of national importance and significance.

MGA&D’s brand statement, ‘We Create Designs that Strike the Senses’ gives the first insight as to how they approached this ginormous assignment. The ancient writer Narayana couldn’t agree more. He maintained that no sentiment ( rasa) would arise if it was not triggered by a sense of marvelling by the self, implying that wonder ( adbhuta ) was basic to all emotions. Descartes similarly said that wonderment or a ‘sudden surprise to the soul’ was basic to all emotions.

In The Pursuit Of realness

In the interview, Vinita Kapur stressed that the priority in creating the Sardar Patel statue was to ensure that the experience was to be real, not abstract, not synthetic, not idealised. Real is what would lead to instant recognition of Patel’s towering idea that ‘Manpower without Unity is not strength unless it is harmonized and…. united properly, then it becomes a spiritual power’. The statue was to serve as a remembrance that Patel’s unification of the states into the Dominion of India was the single biggest achievement of the first Government of India. Even the naming of the statue was not after the man but after the narrative of unity that he was a symbol of.

Unity is always accompanied by universality. Notwithstanding the allegations of small minds that this initiative was aggrandizement on the part of a sectarian ‘Hindu’ government, the statue itself was designed shorn of all traditional mudras , religious and regional symbols or meanings, as befitted the great man.

Real also meant a search for the traditional garb of Sardar Patel, down to the detail of his sandal-clad feet and exposed ankles. Patel has been given the honorific of the Iron Man. So, iron was collected from citizens across India and laid inside the foundation of the statue. Then earth was collected from all the states and districts of the India. A rammed earth wall has been built with layers of this earth, and acts as a backdrop for the flagpole with the national flag of India and the motto engraved on it: United India Best India. Simple but true. If one wants to see Mere Desh Ki Dharti in one place this is it, this is it.

The search for real took the MGA&D team to museums. Ultimately, the Ahmedabad airport which houses the Sardar Patel statue by the sculptor Ram V Sutar became the model prototype. The team had found their man. Padma Bushan awardee Ram Sutar is a legend who has created more than 50 world-class sculptures. He and his son Anil joined the team, modelled the statue at a relatively small size and eventually worked up to a 30‐foot tall version. The statue is a made in India design and made by ‘superstar’ Sutar. From this physical model, two full‐size digital models were created.

This phase required skilled artists and fabricators to adjust the details of the face, body and clothing so that they could be read from a distance. MGA&D retained a conceptual digital sculptor, Joseph Menna, in the US. The statue was planned to be 182 metres (597 feet) high, nearly 50 storeys tall. Creating this digital model demonstrated in 3D how the statue would be viewed as a tall building and how the building elements would function within an envelope.

Inspiration From The Subject

During the interview, Vinita Kapur shared how the design team was inspired by Sardar Patel as they did their research. She said, “The statue is a unique expression of realism, the pole opposite of minimalism. It represents the reality of a wise man who fought for India’s independence, and the ravages of time are visible on the creases on his ageing face. Sutar’s sculpture is all about careful delineation of realism with fine details, of facial expression and creases, the attributes of the human body, and elements down to the folds in the dhoti .”

The statue had to be placed in a natural context that would do justice to the historiography of the man. Simultaneous to the design effort on the statue was the parallel effort to create the master plan and design the hub. Time and space elements thus became the next concern of the team. The location was centreed on the Sadhu Bet island on the eastern bend on the spine of the Narmada river as it turns to provide a grand vista of the Sardar Sarovar dam – the dam first envisioned by the great man. How apt that the creation of the metaphysical Sardar now gazes at his own creation! But when the design team created the hub comprising the visitor’s centre, the Bridge Museum and the statue, they were also looking to unlock the trifecta of the energy of that space, the electric power, the river power and the people power.

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This energy will catapult the region’s economy. Vinita Kapur expanded on the vision: “In future phases, the Narmada river and its banks were designed to emerge as a central public spine connecting an eco-tourist resort to create a rich, contextual river front, spanning the entire stretch of the transit centre and Shreshtha Bhawan (a small hotel cum conference centre) to the Sardar Sarovar Dam. The open space along the riverfront will host a continuity of plazas, parks, gardens, boating facilities, walking and cycling tracks, quiet spaces to reflect and view the Sarovar Dam, and other public gathering places. The recreational landscape planning will also preserve and restore the vital habitat of plants and trees. These public uses will blend with cultural, entertainment, residential, and educational areas such as museums, restaurants, lodges, hotels, amphitheatres and retail areas.”

To the extent it also becomes a residence of artists and will give a boost to local crafts and traditions. Little children vacationing with their families will play under the benevolent gaze of the Sardar. He will leave an indelible impression on their minds and the experience will birth hundreds of future Sardars, a force multiplier for society that will defy all return on investment calculations.

The Construction Challenges

The design elements had now taken shape. As Karen Nichols, principal of MGA&D put it: ‘’Our task was to create a concept design for the statue and the rest of the development in enough detail so that it could be executed by an EPC (engineering-procurement‐construction) team.”

This was the beginning of the stressful phase of the project. There were two types of stress: the first was of dealing with a relatively scarce and unknown typology and the process of construction. The second was about the construction problems and issues that arose based on choices made regarding the statue. The Turner‐Meinhardt‐Graves team provided the basis of design for bid to an EPC contractor that would further develop the design and execute the project. The selected project construction/delivery team was led by Indian engineering giant Larsen & Toubro (L&T) and included Woods Bagot as the executing architect and ARUP as the structural and mechanical engineers.

Two special challenges confronted the combined team. The statue is thinner at the base than at upper levels (the opposite of most monumental statuary). This challenged L&T’s engineering team to design the structure to withstand wind and earthquakes, necessitating two large tuned mass dampers (harmonic absorbers) above chest height to reduce vibrations and minimise sway.

The other issue was adopting a process of construction that was feasible. Hung on the two concrete cores are large steel space frames to which the bronze panels are attached. The bronze panels are assembled in a mock‐up area in a series of rings that are supported by the space frames attached to the concrete cores. The rings are each tested for fit on the ground, which allows the workers to make any final adjustments before the panels are craned into place on the statue. Once the section is measured, adjusted and approved, the panels are separated into manageable sections and lifted one by one into place. The most challenging aspect was that the statue is a double curve at every segment.

The Vista And The Visual Impact

The views out of the statute are carefully coordinated. The openings in the surface of the statue that allow the visitors to see out are coordinated in the pattern of the threads in his tunic in order to minimise the visual impact of this large opening on the exterior of the statue. One of the buttons in Sardar Patel’s tunic is purposely located within the open area of the observation level at an elevation of 193 metres so that visitors can get a sense of the scale even when standing inside the statue.

Another portion of the gallery is open to the wind and weather, enhancing the visitor’s experience and the sense of height, while providing a grand vista of the Sardar Sarovar Dam and river without any intervening glass. There would be an opening of the mind from the panoramic views of the Narmada River, the Sardar Sarovar Dam and reservoirs, the lush Shoolpaneshwar Wildlife Sanctuary and surrounding mountain ranges.

In Peter’s words, when he beheld the final complete work he was enthralled and filled with awe, “My first thought is always ‘wow’. I am continually impressed that the government built such a massive and impressive structure. It is imagination turned into reality. I will remember it fondly as one of the greatest achievements of my work as an architect”. The statue was an unparalleled effort, astounding in the caliber of work, the dedication that the team in India brought to the mission and the pace at which the design manifested itself into reality.”

Best of all, the statue is a living statue in the sense that it will keep on growing as more narratives and stories are added to it. Vinita Kapur said, “At the ideation stage, MGA&D thought of showcasing history in a manner that is visible in the facade, the podium and interior spaces in the first phase. In the future phases, the streets and plazas could also showcase some histories, including through India’s own special street theatre and dance mediums. On the skin – the shawl – MGA&D wanted to visually display the story of Patel

uniting 500+ states into a united India on a lighted shawl. On the podium, the team had discussed planting another narrative: The no tax campaign and returning land to the farmers by the Britishers; placed in objects at the feet of the statue. Finally, in the interior spaces of the museum more historical narratives were contemplated.”

The museum’s main level is a three-storeyed, large continuous exhibit hall, that will house interactive educational and entertaining audio‐visual exhibits focusing on the life and accomplishments of Sardar Patel. Currently, there is a 3D projection system that projects a rendered life image onto the surface of the bronze statue as well as one that shows the construction of the statue at different stages. Other narratives will be added as time and budget allow, creating a night life for the complex.

I asked Vinita as to how she had changed after this experience?

“On a professional level, an intense respect for collaboration in architecture, and a willingness to enter into relatively unknown territories,” she replied, adding, “on a personal level, a deep admiration for Sardar Patel and his role in uniting India at Independence.”

I could not agree more. In just three months, 781,349 people have visited and generated revenues of Rs 20 crore. I saluted Vinita Kapur and through her all her team mates and collaborators who have created a marvel for the ages. When you visit the Sardar’s statue, visit you must, and if you happen to see a young girl resting on the grass and doodling, pay attention. There is a future wonder of wonders ginormous dreamer there.

  • Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
  • Sardar Sarovar Dam
  • Statue of Unity
  • Michael Graves Architecture & Design in Princeton
  • India Projects
  • Vinita Kapur

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Statue of Liberty: The Making of an Icon

By: Patrick J. Kiger

Updated: October 6, 2023 | Original: May 14, 2019

Statue of Liberty: The Making of an Icon

The Statue of Liberty , which towers 305 feet, six inches over New York Harbor, is one of the most instantly recognizable symbols of America. It has inspired countless souvenir replicas and been referenced in everything from posters for war bonds to the final scene of the 1968 movie “Planet of the Apes,” in which an astronaut who returns to Earth in the distant future discovers it partially buried in sand.

But the statue that’s known across the planet went through an odd, serendipitous journey to iconic status. It was conceived by a French sculptor, Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi, who had never even been to the United States before arriving in 1871 in hopes of convincing Americans to support his dream of building a monumental statue.

His design for the Statue of Liberty borrowed from an earlier idea he’d had for a colossal woman bearing a lantern at the entrance of the Suez Canal . The proposed figure he called “Liberty Enlightening the World,” was a woman wearing a crown of rays and holding a torch aloft in one hand and a tablet in the other. He originally scouted Central Park as a possible location, before settling upon what was then Bedloe’s Island.

Bartholdi traveled across the United States from Washington, D.C. to Los Angeles to promote his idea, but when he wasn’t able to secure government support, he went back to France and started working with his friend Edouard de Laboulaye , who for years had wanted to build a French-American monument.

Building the Statue of Liberty

“Laboulaye was a very great admirer of the United States,” American University historian Alan Kraut says in a podcast, “Raising the Torch,” created for the Statue of Liberty Museum. “He was particularly excited about the outcome of the America Civil War, the emancipation of 4 million slaves, and also the long relationship the United States had had with France.”

In 1875, Laboulaye formed the Franco-American Union to raise $250,000 to finance Bartholdi’s creation of the statue. The idea was that Americans, in turn, would raise money for the statue’s base.

But it wasn’t that easy to get people in the United States—particularly in New York City, where it was to be located—excited about putting up money for the project. In 1876, to drum up more enthusiasm, Bartholdi exhibited the statue’s hand and torch at the Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition. When skeptics in New York questioned why he wasn’t showing more of the body, Bartholdi dropped hints that he might just put the finished statue in Philadelphia instead. New Yorkers, not wanting to be shown up, quickly agreed to exhibit the hand and torch in Madison Square to advertise the project and stimulate more contributions, according to the New York Public Library .

process writing of making a statue

In the 1880s, the American Committee for the Statue of Liberty raised money for the construction of the statue’s pedestal by selling small souvenir models of the planned statue, which ranged from $1 for a six-inch replica to $5 for a foot-high version, which were marketed through a nationwide campaign. The effort led to the spread of miniature Statues of Liberty throughout the United States and the world and helped establish the statue in the public imagination as a symbol of America.

A variety of other fundraising efforts were staged, ranging from theatrical galas to prizefights, according to Christine Garnaut’s and Donald Langmead’s Encyclopedia of Architectural and Engineering Feats. Emma Lazarus wrote a poem, “The New Colossus,” which was read at a fundraising art exhibition in 1883. (Two decades later, it was inscribed on a bronze plaque on the inner wall of the pedestal.) Lazarus’ stirring plea to "Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free” helped to make the statue more than just a celebration of American democracy, by linking it with the waves of immigrants arriving in America in the late 1800s, and their aspirations for a better life.

“Laboulaye uses America as a symbol of good things. He sees Bartholdi as the tool by which he can achieve his aim of giving a gift,” Barry Moreno, historian and curator for the Ellis Island National Museum of Immigration, says in the “Raising the Torch” podcast.

Men in a workshop hammering sheets of copper for the construction of the Statue of Liberty, circa 1883.

When even those heroic fundraising efforts weren’t enough, Joseph Pulitzer , publisher of the tabloid New York World , came to the project’s rescue. Pulitzer ran a March 1885 article in his newspaper, which prodded readers into contributing more money for the base by pointing out that the statue itself had been paid for by “the masses of the French people—by the working men, the tradesmen, the shop girls, the artisans—by all, irrespective of class or condition.” Americans had to do their part as well, Pulitzer exhorted, and it worked. The newspaper was able to raise $100,000 to complete the project, most of it in donations of $1 or less.

But while the campaign to finish the pedestal—in some ways, an early version of today’s GoFundMe campaigns—required hustle, it ultimately helped Americans to feel a sense of ownership and connection to the statue, even though it had been created on the other side of the Atlantic.

As Magnuson-Cannady, supervising ranger for the National Park Service tells the “Raising the Torch” podcast, “The Statue of Liberty was really of the people in that the people of the United States and the people of France...not the super wealthy, not the super powerful—it was everyday folks contributing to the fundraising efforts and paying for the Statue of Liberty and the pedestal.”

Construction of the Statue of Liberty

In 1885, the statue arrived—in 350 pieces —in New York, where it took a year to be assembled because the pedestal hadn’t yet been completed. Finally, in October 1886, the Statue of Liberty was dedicated at a ceremony during which the crowd was interrupted by a full 15 minutes of applause before President Grover Cleveland could begin a brief speech in which he proclaimed that “she holds aloft the light which illumines the way to man’s enfranchisement.”

The massive statue’s magnificence instantly made it into a tourist magnet. As Barry Moreno explains in his 2017 pictorial history of the Statue of Liberty , Congress’s passage of the Private Card Mailing Act of 1898, which authorized private companies to produce postcards as long as they adhered to certain size and quality standards, also helped boost its profile, because people who visited bought inexpensive color postcards and sent them to friends and neighbors.

The market for Statue of Liberty postcards, in fact, became so lucrative that 11 years later, American printers convinced Congress to ban the importation of foreign-made postcards that depicted the statue and other quintessential “American scenes.”

The statue became an even more prominent American symbol during World War I , when it became one of the sights that U.S. soldiers gazed upon as they sailed off to fight in Europe, as well as one of the first things they glimpsed when they finally returned home.

The opening of a new $100 million museum on Liberty Island in 2019, paid for by private donations, further reinforces the Statue of Liberty as a monument cherished by people around the world. Timed to the May 2019 opening of the museum, the Statue of Liberty-Ellis Island Foundation created an app featuring Apple’s augmented reality software, along with the “Raising the Torch” podcast to enhance the museum experience. Also featured in the new museum are a series of eight short films by HISTORY that outline fundraising and construction efforts behind the Statue of Liberty, how it became a symbol of home and democracy during wartime and its global significance as an icon representing equality and immigration.

“The statue is a kind of malleable or plastic figure,” Kraut says. “It can come to embody the kinds of definitions that one lends to the notion of freedom, itself.”

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How to Make A Concrete Statue?

Statues are popular for lawn decoration. They can be made from various materials, but the most common sculptures are stone or concrete. Statues can be costly, and some people spend thousands of dollars on them. Permanent concrete statues are sometimes made of stone, but they are more common in the form of concrete. So, how to make a concrete statue?

Stay tuned! I will explain the process in this article.

how to make a concrete statue

The process of making concrete statues is very simple. And it’s also fun! Wire-frame, mold-cast, or free-form concrete sculptures work well for creating statues.

Concrete is made up of an aggregate, cement, and water, and it looks like this: An aggregate is a group or mix of things. As part of making concrete, a sum can be made of sand and other materials like vermiculite. Peat moss and limestone dust can also be used as an aggregate.

There are many different things you can dip in concrete, then put on something or frames, and then let them harden. This is because concrete is liquid-like. Dip towels, crocheted doilies, rags, or socks are things you can use to clean your hands. 

Concrete can be poured into or around anything. Make your favorite pair of high tops last forever. Or, of course, those beloved wellies.

Make a wireframe. Chicken wire works well, but check out your favorite hobby store for more wire mesh to make your frame. When the frame is smoothed out, pour concrete on top of the frame. Rebar can be used to make things that are big and heavy.

Or, you could use cement to make a cement sculpture. This is how it works: Make some thicker concrete. Grab some, make a shape, and let it dry for a long time. Use a knife or other tools to cut and shape the figure. Then, add some small pieces of glass, shells, or writing.

Or, you could make a silicone mold of your favorite piece of art and put it in a box. It’s done!

What’s The Best Concrete For Sculpting?

There are a lot of experts who think you should use Portland cement (like Quikrete or Cement All) with a bit of fine sand (like from a sandbox). If you want to make a more rough statue, use some small pebbles to make it. If you are making a small, fine piece, you can cut back on the amount of sand.

1 part cement, 1 part coarse pebbles, and 2 parts sandbox sand make up the essential statuary mix, which most people start with. If you are making a medium-sized statue with a lot of detail, you don’t want pebbles. Instead of using pebbles, you’ll use sand. The proportions will be 1 part cement to 3 parts sand.

Experts say that you should only mix cement and sand with 1 part cement to 1 part sand for a small piece. Or, don’t put sand in.

Concrete sculptors say that the keys to success are your creativity, willingness to practice, and desire to try new things. As for concrete, the same thing is true. It’s not just that there are different types of concretes. There are also various recipes for mixing them together.

Sculptors often use two different mixes for the base: one with a lot of coarse aggregates and another with a lot of fine aggregates, or just cement, for the more detailed parts.

Every sculptor comes up with a unique recipe that works best for their own work style. First, experts say novices should start with a bag of pre-mixed concrete and work their way up from there.

Mixing cement can be dangerous if you don’t wear gloves. Also, think about wearing a mask to protect your lungs from the fine silica dust.

How Do You Make Cement Molds?

Making a mold from a piece of art is a cinch, and you can reuse the mold time and time again. Silicone, fiberglass, and latex rubber supplies are readily available in hobby and hardware stores and in numerous instructional videos.

However, first and foremost, plagiarising another artist’s work for personal gain is unacceptable. Obtain the artist’s permission if at all feasible before duplicating or creating a work of art of your own.

The next step is to design a watertight enclosure for the artwork. Create the box using water-resistant materials like plastic, acetate, or melamine. It’s possible to buy new containers from hobby shops or recycle old ones.

Make or buy a base at least two inches larger than your artwork on all sides. Then, attach your artwork to the base with glue or double-sided tape.

Repurpose a plastic container or cut walls to fit around the base. Glue the plastic container firmly to the base if you’re going to use it. If you’re building a melamine box, seal the edges with silicone. The container must be completely watertight.

Check your box for leaks by adding some water to it. To get an idea of how much silicone you’ll need, try pouring some water into the container.

Much mold-making equipment comes with instructional films. “Put on your best gloves once you’ve studied the manual and seen a few movies. Mix the silicone after that. To use most silicone goods, you must combine two different compounds. Next, add the silicone to your mold and let it set up for a few hours.

Pour or spoon your preferred concrete recipe into the mold once it’s done. Keep an eye out for any gaps or holes. To get rid of all the air bubbles, shake the cement. As soon as it’s ready, check your directions to make sure you’re following them correctly and wait for it to set.

Slitting the silicone mold with tiny slots will make removing your finished cement sculpture easier. As one expert puts it, the easiest way to demold silicone is to heat it up.

How Do You Glue Concrete Statues?

A concrete statue is a great way to add life to your garden. It’s also a great way to show off your love for gardening or your passion for architecture. If you’re new to concrete statues, you may want to learn how to glue them. There are a few ways to glue concrete statues. The easiest method is to use a cement-based epoxy to hold them together even if the statue falls over and cracks. You can also use silicone adhesive, but it’s not as strong as epoxy.

Here’s how you can glue a concrete statue:

  • Begin by cleaning the statue’s surface with a wire brush. This will help the adhesive bond better.
  • Apply a layer of adhesive to the statue’s surface and let it dry for about an hour.
  • Place the statue in its desired location and press down firmly for about 30 seconds.
  • Wait 24 hours for the adhesive to fully cure before disturbing the statue.

How Do You Smooth Concrete Statues?

When you are creating a concrete statue, you may find some bumps and lumps that need to be smoothed out. This can be done with a few simple steps. First, you will need to get some sandpaper.

You can use various grades, depending on how smooth you want the statue to be. Start by sanding the most enormous bumps and lumps first. Then, move on to the smaller bumps and lumps. Be sure to take your time and go over the entire surface of the statue until it is smooth. If any areas still need attention, repeat the process until they are soft.

How Do You Reinforce Concrete Sculptures?

Reinforcing concrete sculptures can be accomplished in a variety of ways. Steel rebar is a standard method of reinforcing concrete. You can inject it to strengthen it as it dries in wet concrete. Besides that, you can use wire mesh to support the concrete.

When concrete is still wet, add wire mesh into the mix to avoid cracking and chipping. In high-traffic areas or areas where terrible weather conditions are expected, the concrete sculpture must be reinforced with either steel rebar or wire mesh.

Over time, the sculpture concrete may crack or crumble if not correctly maintained.

How to Make Large Concrete Sculptures?

There are a few ways to make large concrete sculptures. You can use a mold, a pre-made form that the concrete will be poured into. The disadvantage of using a mold is that getting the statue out of it can be challenging without damaging it.

Another option is to build the sculpture out of smaller pieces of concrete and then attach them together. This is often called “casting.” The advantage of this method is that it is easier to make changes to the sculpture if needed.

The third option is to use a technique called “throwing.” This involves shaping the wet concrete by hand into the desired form and then letting it dry.

Final Remark

Making a concrete statue is not as difficult as it may seem. With the right tools and instructions, anyone can create a beautiful statue to display in their home or garden.

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process writing of making a statue

Wood Carving - Kerala

process writing of making a statue

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COMMENTS

  1. Process of making a statue

    Process of making a statue | Process writing on making a statue. The new model activity task for class X, English, Second Series/ 2nd series, Part-5, given i...

  2. PDF Sculpture Handout

    contemporary sculpture. Chapters arranged by the type of process used to work the materials, with suggestions and lists of suppliers at the end of each chapter. Covers clay, plaster, cold casting, cement, stone, wood, plastics, metal fabrication, lost wax and sand cast bronze, and planning a studio. Well illustrated.

  3. How to Make a Sculpture: 2 Easy Methods

    2. Create a base. If your sculpture will have a base, it's a good idea to build that first and build the sculpture on the base. The base will be less structurally sound if added later. You can build a base from wood, metal, clay, stone, or any other material you want. 3.

  4. How to Make Concrete Statues: The Ultimate Guide

    Unleash Your Creativity: The Ultimate Guide to Making Concrete Statues • Unleash Your Creativity: Concrete Statue Guide • Discover the step-by-step process o...

  5. How to Start Sculpting in Clay (a beginners guide)

    The best clay to start sculpting for beginners is a low-fire clay, sometimes called earthenware. It requires a lower temperature to mature in the kiln - usually under 2000 F. You can also choose to have grog in your clay body. Grog is small particles of fired clay added in to create additional stability. It will feel like sand.

  6. How to Carve Stone: A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners

    Wear goggles, an N95, and gloves, and work in an outdoor space to avoid breathing in dust. Place your stone on a sandbag to keep it steady as you carve. Use a hammer and chisel to chip at the stone. Chisel in the same direction as the grain of the stone, then use a file to smooth out your finished sculpture. Part 1.

  7. The Process of Creating a Bronze Sculpture

    The first step in making a bronze sculpture is to create a model. This model can be in clay, plaster, clay or resin. The next step is to make a mold of this sculpture in two parts and cover it with elastomer, a rubber-like substance. Once the mold is finished, then comes the stamping stage. Using a brush, the molten modeling wax is spread ...

  8. How Are Concrete Statues Made?

    The proportions for a basic statuary mix are 1 part cement, 1 part coarse pebbles and 2 parts sandbox sand. If you are making a medium-sized, but intricately detailed statue, you don't want any pebbles in it. Replace the pebbles with sand, so the proportions are 1 part cement to 3 parts sand.

  9. The Making of a Marble Sculpture: See Every Stage of the Process, from

    That entire process, it appears, takes place in the open air: most­ly in his out­door stu­dio space, but first at the Car­rara quar­ry (see bot­tom video) where he picks just the right block from which to make his vision emerge. Like Michelan­ge­lo, Váró has a man­i­fest­ly high lev­el of skill at his dis­pos­al — and unlike ...

  10. Sculpture techniques · V&A

    Sculpture techniques. The V&A's sculpture collection contains approximately 26,000 objects, including masterpieces from the Italian Renaissance, Rodin bronzes and British Neoclassical marble sculpture. Find out more about the processes used to create these magnificent pieces.

  11. The Stone Sculpting Process

    However, modern power tools can speed-up the process… I use a combination of pneumatic and electric rotary tools (with diamond accessories) as well the traditional tools. Some items at the top of my "wish list", include a pneumatic hammer and chisel set (about $500) and a ring saw, for making deep cuts on large boulders/blocks (about $7,000).

  12. Four Basic Methods For Making A Sculpture Are

    Four basic methods for making a sculpture are: Carving. Modeling. Constructing and Assembling. Welding. The aesthetic effect of certain types of sculptures mostly depends on the way artists directly manipulate their materials. For many sculptors, the actual physical process of the work material is an integral part of the art of sculpture.

  13. 12 Steps Know-How Are Bronze Statues Made? (2021 ...

    step 12: oiling, sealing wax. After the coloring is finished, it is the last process of oiling and sealing wax. Oiling and sealing wax can keep our cast bronze sculptures up to date. After so many steps, a piece of bronze sculpture is finished. The first step in the production of bronze sculpture is to collect the material, find the picture of ...

  14. How Law is Made: An In-Depth Look at the Legislative Process

    The process of making law varies from country to country. In some countries, the legislature (the law-making body) is very powerful and can pass laws without much input from the executive branch (the branch of government that carries out the laws). In other countries, the executive branch has more power and can veto legislation that it does not agree with. In still other countries, the two ...

  15. How to Sculpt Clay: 15 Steps (with Pictures)

    Download Article. 1. Knead the clay using your palms. Place the clay on a hard surface that is covered with newspaper. Knead the clay to make it more pliable and to remove any air bubbles. [1] Use a knife to cut your clay in half and then place one half on top of the other.

  16. Step By Step On How To Make Resin Art

    4th Step: Mix Cement and Sand. The next step in how to make resin sculptures is mixing cement and sand. For this, you will need to have at hand a container of glue, a tube with the correct size for your tube brush, and sand. You have to experiment with the sizes until you get the right consistency. Start by adding only a tiny amount to see if ...

  17. Bronze Casting: How Are Bronze Sculptures Made?

    Step 2: Sculpting in Clay. We begin the creation process by working with models and reference to start the clay work. We will create a "bone structure" or armature, either made of wire or foam to support the clay. For this piece, we carved the entire monument out of foam based on real-life measurements, and layered clay over the foam.

  18. Process Of Making A Statue

    《Describe in about 100 words the process of making a statue》Use the following points: [Plaster-of-paris mixed with warm water - cast of statue made with w...

  19. The Making Of The Statue Of Unity: An Untold Story

    Currently, there is a 3D projection system that projects a rendered life image onto the surface of the bronze statue as well as one that shows the construction of the statue at different stages.

  20. Statue of Liberty: The Making of an Icon

    The construction of the Statue of Liberty on the front page of Scientific American, circa 1886. In 1885, the statue arrived—in 350 pieces —in New York, where it took a year to be assembled ...

  21. How to Make A Concrete Statue?

    Begin by cleaning the statue's surface with a wire brush. This will help the adhesive bond better. Apply a layer of adhesive to the statue's surface and let it dry for about an hour. Place the statue in its desired location and press down firmly for about 30 seconds.

  22. process of making a statue

    #processofmakingastatue#howastatueismade#processwritingonstatuemaking#shikharthamDescribe in about 100 words the process of making a statue using the followi...

  23. D'source Statue Making

    The woodcarvers of Kerala are skilfulin making and carving statues of various shapes and sizes. The difference in the process of making a statue and furniture is that for making a statue, they only use hand tools. However, for making furniture, machines are used. This is a traditional art inherited from their earlier generations. They use the template only for outlining and the remainder is ...

  24. How To Start Writing A Business Plan That Works

    1. Regular reviews and updates. Markets shift, consumer behavior changes, and your business will grow. Your plan must evolve with these factors, which makes regular reviews and updates a must-do ...