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The Difference between an Essay and an Analysis

Every day, while you're watching television or driving your car or reading a book, you are analyzing what is in front of you. While that analysis may include complex internal discussions or just passing thoughts, your brain is endlessly analyzing your world.

Essay vs. Analysis

Essays are short, informative pieces of writing that focus on a specific, chosen topic that comes in four traditional forms. An expository essay requires no real written analysis, just a presentation of facts or positions on that topic. Descriptive essays only require that a writer paint a picture using words that puts a reader inside the scene as if they're experiencing it themselves. A narrative essay tells a story of a personal experience, and an analysis of what the writer learned from that experience may be included. A persuasive essay requires that a writer make arguments that support their point and includes the writer's analysis of those points to reach a conclusion.

An analysis requires an examination that deconstructs something in order to draw conclusions and make decisions. For instance, your brain analyzes the signs and traffic at a four-way stop to determine how to proceed when driving your car. Watching a television show requires your brain to analyze what you are seeing and reach a conclusion about it by making references to what you already know about the story. In both instances, even without thinking too hard about it, you are taking apart the information or experience in front of you to reach a conclusion.

A written analysis requires a writer to look at many different pieces of information available on a topic to form conclusions about it. The writer's thoughts on a topic are broken down into separate points to explain their reasoning and the conclusion is based on the synthesis of all of those separate points to explain how they work together to prove a writer's main point.

So, What's the Difference?

The difference is simply in the definition. An analysis can be performed and expressed verbally, through the decisions you make, or through writing. Analyzing information requires breaking down a topic to see how it works and then drawing a conclusion about it. Not all the essays you write will include an analysis.

An essay, on the other hand, will always require writing. Writing an essay may include forming an analysis of the information in front of you, but it may also require that you simply compile the information in order to present it in an organized structure.

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In academic writing, writers are often expected to use a combination of summary and analysis in their papers. However, the two processes are often confused especially by beginning writers. This handout aims to help you better identify the differences between summary and analysis.

  • The purpose of a summary is to reduce information already known down to its essential parts.
  • The information stated usually consists of the main points and key supporting points.
  • Summaries can use direct quotes or paraphrasing to convey the main or key points. However, more often, a paraphrase is used.
  • Summaries do not evaluate, judge, or interpret the information. They present the facts as the original writer or speaker intended.
  • When writing a summary, writers should avoid adding their personal reactions, biases, opinions, and beliefs.
  • Summaries are typically substantially shorter than their source texts, as they contain only the key points presented in an abbreviated form.
  • The purpose of an analysis is to interpret or find meanings or patterns in information.
  • Analyzing statements will take a step beyond summary and describe the writer’s personal findings and interpretations of the source material.
  • An analysis usually is presented after a statement of evidence, which can have direct quotes or summary. After the evidence is presented, the analysis of that evidence should not summarize or describe the information. Rather, an analysis will uncover something new about the evidence.
  • Analysis can provide readers a more thorough understanding of the facts presented, but writers should avoid adding their personal reactions, biases, opinions, and beliefs.
  • Although an analysis may be influenced by personal beliefs, an analysis tends to be based more in facts and patterns than thoughts and emotions.

Below, we have provided an example of a summary paragraph and an analysis paragraph to help you identify the differences between them.

Prompt : You will choose a short film, and determine what the short film is communicating to its audience through the marriage of narrative and technique. Your job is to construct an analysis around a thesis statement arguing what the message is that is being communicated within this short piece. This message isn’t the plot; rather, you need to find out what the main theme of the story is, and then tell us how the short film conveys that through the use of various techniques.

Summary Paragraph Example

In “Mr. Foley,” a short film directed by D.A.D.D.Y., the sound effects are the star. In film production, a Foley artist is the person who generates sound effects artificially to play over footage. This important job is exaggerated into absurdity in this short film, where a man named Mr. Foley wakes up in a hospital and suddenly all the sounds he makes and hears is produced by a team sitting in his room. The first thing we hear as an audience is white noise, almost like a record player’s static. Next, as Mr. Foley’s bandages are removed we hear music start to swell. We also catch glimpses of hands manipulating cloth and ripping tape off a surface as well. Sounds are exaggerated to the extreme: as the nurse clicks her pen one of the men across the room clicks a giant pen.

  • The preceding papragraph is a great example of a summary. It merely describes what is happening in this short film, without analyzing any meaning or providing any argument about the different sounds and shots it mentions.
  • However, this would not be appropriate for the prompt given above. It clearly asks for an analysis of the short film’s use of technique, so some revision of the paragraph above is needed to make it appropriate for the assignment. Below is a paragraph with more analysis added.

Analysis Paragraph Example

In “Mr. Foley,” a short film directed by D.A.D.D.Y., the sound effects are the star. In film production, a Foley artist is the person who generates sound effects artificially to play over footage. This important job is exaggerated into absurdity in this short film, where a man named Mr. Foley wakes up in a hospital and suddenly all the sounds he makes and hears is produced by a team sitting in his room.  Through the exaggeration of sound effects, “Mr. Foley” emphasizes the artificiality of sound production in Hollywood, and questions its efficacy and representation of reality.  For example, the very first sound we hear as an audience is white noise, almost like a record player’s static.  This ambient sound represents blank, neutral noise in absence of other sounds, but is quite obviously artificial. Thus, the message of the film begins to take shape within even the first few seconds of the story.  As Mr. Foley’s bandages begin to be removed, music swells and the camera cuts to close up shots of hands manipulating cloth and ripping tape off of a surface.  When the camera cuts back to Mr. Foley’s face (with surprise spreading across it), we understand that these sounds represent the gauze rubbing against itself and tearing away from his skin.  In the next shots, we see both occurring in the same frame as the nurse clicks her pen and one of the men making the sounds clicks a giant pen to create an extreme exaggerated version of that sound. However,  by visually pointing out the artificial production of the sounds, the film highlights their fake, false nature, calling into question Hollywood’s overproduction of sounds.

  • This version more appropriately responds to the above prompt, because it not only points out and describes details from the short film, but also follows through on them to connect them to the meaning presented in the thesis statement (italicized). The bolded portions indicate the analysis injected into this paragraph.

The Writing Center • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Summary: Using it Wisely

What this handout is about.

Knowing how to summarize something you have read, seen, or heard is a valuable skill, one you have probably used in many writing assignments. It is important, though, to recognize when you must go beyond describing, explaining, and restating texts and offer a more complex analysis. This handout will help you distinguish between summary and analysis and avoid inappropriate summary in your academic writing.

Is summary a bad thing?

Not necessarily. But it’s important that your keep your assignment and your audience in mind as you write. If your assignment requires an argument with a thesis statement and supporting evidence—as many academic writing assignments do—then you should limit the amount of summary in your paper. You might use summary to provide background, set the stage, or illustrate supporting evidence, but keep it very brief: a few sentences should do the trick. Most of your paper should focus on your argument. (Our handout on argument will help you construct a good one.)

Writing a summary of what you know about your topic before you start drafting your actual paper can sometimes be helpful. If you are unfamiliar with the material you’re analyzing, you may need to summarize what you’ve read in order to understand your reading and get your thoughts in order. Once you figure out what you know about a subject, it’s easier to decide what you want to argue.

You may also want to try some other pre-writing activities that can help you develop your own analysis. Outlining, freewriting, and mapping make it easier to get your thoughts on the page. (Check out our handout on brainstorming for some suggested techniques.)

Why is it so tempting to stick with summary and skip analysis?

Many writers rely too heavily on summary because it is what they can most easily write. If you’re stalled by a difficult writing prompt, summarizing the plot of The Great Gatsby may be more appealing than staring at the computer for three hours and wondering what to say about F. Scott Fitzgerald’s use of color symbolism. After all, the plot is usually the easiest part of a work to understand. Something similar can happen even when what you are writing about has no plot: if you don’t really understand an author’s argument, it might seem easiest to just repeat what he or she said.

To write a more analytical paper, you may need to review the text or film you are writing about, with a focus on the elements that are relevant to your thesis. If possible, carefully consider your writing assignment before reading, viewing, or listening to the material about which you’ll be writing so that your encounter with the material will be more purposeful. (We offer a handout on reading towards writing .)

How do I know if I’m summarizing?

As you read through your essay, ask yourself the following questions:

  • Am I stating something that would be obvious to a reader or viewer?
  • Does my essay move through the plot, history, or author’s argument in chronological order, or in the exact same order the author used?
  • Am I simply describing what happens, where it happens, or whom it happens to?

A “yes” to any of these questions may be a sign that you are summarizing. If you answer yes to the questions below, though, it is a sign that your paper may have more analysis (which is usually a good thing):

  • Am I making an original argument about the text?
  • Have I arranged my evidence around my own points, rather than just following the author’s or plot’s order?
  • Am I explaining why or how an aspect of the text is significant?

Certain phrases are warning signs of summary. Keep an eye out for these:

  • “[This essay] is about…”
  • “[This book] is the story of…”
  • “[This author] writes about…”
  • “[This movie] is set in…”

Here’s an example of an introductory paragraph containing unnecessary summary. Sentences that summarize are in italics:

The Great Gatsby is the story of a mysterious millionaire, Jay Gatsby, who lives alone on an island in New York. F. Scott Fitzgerald wrote the book, but the narrator is Nick Carraway. Nick is Gatsby’s neighbor, and he chronicles the story of Gatsby and his circle of friends, beginning with his introduction to the strange man and ending with Gatsby’s tragic death. In the story, Nick describes his environment through various colors, including green, white, and grey. Whereas white and grey symbolize false purity and decay respectively, the color green offers a symbol of hope.

Here’s how you might change the paragraph to make it a more effective introduction:

In The Great Gatsby, F. Scott Fitzgerald provides readers with detailed descriptions of the area surrounding East Egg, New York. In fact, Nick Carraway’s narration describes the setting with as much detail as the characters in the book. Nick’s description of the colors in his environment presents the book’s themes, symbolizing significant aspects of the post-World War I era. Whereas white and grey symbolize the false purity and decay of the 1920s, the color green offers a symbol of hope.

This version of the paragraph mentions the book’s title, author, setting, and narrator so that the reader is reminded of the text. And that sounds a lot like summary—but the paragraph quickly moves on to the writer’s own main topic: the setting and its relationship to the main themes of the book. The paragraph then closes with the writer’s specific thesis about the symbolism of white, grey, and green.

How do I write more analytically?

Analysis requires breaking something—like a story, poem, play, theory, or argument—into parts so you can understand how those parts work together to make the whole. Ideally, you should begin to analyze a work as you read or view it instead of waiting until after you’re done—it may help you to jot down some notes as you read. Your notes can be about major themes or ideas you notice, as well as anything that intrigues, puzzles, excites, or irritates you. Remember, analytic writing goes beyond the obvious to discuss questions of how and why—so ask yourself those questions as you read.

The St. Martin’s Handbook (the bulleted material below is quoted from p. 38 of the fifth edition) encourages readers to take the following steps in order to analyze a text:

  • Identify evidence that supports or illustrates the main point or theme as well as anything that seems to contradict it.
  • Consider the relationship between the words and the visuals in the work. Are they well integrated, or are they sometimes at odds with one another? What functions do the visuals serve? To capture attention? To provide more detailed information or illustration? To appeal to readers’ emotions?
  • Decide whether the sources used are trustworthy.
  • Identify the work’s underlying assumptions about the subject, as well as any biases it reveals.

Once you have written a draft, some questions you might want to ask yourself about your writing are “What’s my point?” or “What am I arguing in this paper?” If you can’t answer these questions, then you haven’t gone beyond summarizing. You may also want to think about how much of your writing comes from your own ideas or arguments. If you’re only reporting someone else’s ideas, you probably aren’t offering an analysis.

What strategies can help me avoid excessive summary?

  • Read the assignment (the prompt) as soon as you get it. Make sure to reread it before you start writing. Go back to your assignment often while you write. (Check out our handout on reading assignments ).
  • Formulate an argument (including a good thesis) and be sure that your final draft is structured around it, including aspects of the plot, story, history, background, etc. only as evidence for your argument. (You can refer to our handout on constructing thesis statements ).
  • Read critically—imagine having a dialogue with the work you are discussing. What parts do you agree with? What parts do you disagree with? What questions do you have about the work? Does it remind you of other works you’ve seen?
  • Make sure you have clear topic sentences that make arguments in support of your thesis statement. (Read our handout on paragraph development if you want to work on writing strong paragraphs).
  • Use two different highlighters to mark your paper. With one color, highlight areas of summary or description. With the other, highlight areas of analysis. For many college papers, it’s a good idea to have lots of analysis and minimal summary/description.
  • Ask yourself: What part of the essay would be obvious to a reader/viewer of the work being discussed? What parts (words, sentences, paragraphs) of the essay could be deleted without loss? In most cases, your paper should focus on points that are essential and that will be interesting to people who have already read or seen the work you are writing about.

But I’m writing a review! Don’t I have to summarize?

That depends. If you’re writing a critique of a piece of literature, a film, or a dramatic performance, you don’t necessarily need to give away much of the plot. The point is to let readers decide whether they want to enjoy it for themselves. If you do summarize, keep your summary brief and to the point.

Instead of telling your readers that the play, book, or film was “boring,” “interesting,” or “really good,” tell them specifically what parts of the work you’re talking about. It’s also important that you go beyond adjectives and explain how the work achieved its effect (how was it interesting?) and why you think the author/director wanted the audience to react a certain way. (We have a special handout on writing reviews that offers more tips.)

If you’re writing a review of an academic book or article, it may be important for you to summarize the main ideas and give an overview of the organization so your readers can decide whether it is relevant to their specific research interests.

If you are unsure how much (if any) summary a particular assignment requires, ask your instructor for guidance.

Works consulted

We consulted these works while writing this handout. This is not a comprehensive list of resources on the handout’s topic, and we encourage you to do your own research to find additional publications. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial . We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback.

Barnet, Sylvan. 2015. A Short Guide to Writing about Art , 11th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Corrigan, Timothy. 2014. A Short Guide to Writing About Film , 9th ed. New York: Pearson.

Lunsford, Andrea A. 2015. The St. Martin’s Handbook , 8th ed. Boston: Bedford/St Martin’s.

Zinsser, William. 2001. On Writing Well: The Classic Guide to Writing Nonfiction , 6th ed. New York: Quill.

You may reproduce it for non-commercial use if you use the entire handout and attribute the source: The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

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Do you need to write an analytical essay for school? What sets this kind of essay apart from other types, and what must you include when you write your own analytical essay? In this guide, we break down the process of writing an analytical essay by explaining the key factors your essay needs to have, providing you with an outline to help you structure your essay, and analyzing a complete analytical essay example so you can see what a finished essay looks like.

What Is an Analytical Essay?

Before you begin writing an analytical essay, you must know what this type of essay is and what it includes. Analytical essays analyze something, often (but not always) a piece of writing or a film.

An analytical essay is more than just a synopsis of the issue though; in this type of essay you need to go beyond surface-level analysis and look at what the key arguments/points of this issue are and why. If you’re writing an analytical essay about a piece of writing, you’ll look into how the text was written and why the author chose to write it that way. Instead of summarizing, an analytical essay typically takes a narrower focus and looks at areas such as major themes in the work, how the author constructed and supported their argument, how the essay used  literary devices to enhance its messages, etc.

While you certainly want people to agree with what you’ve written, unlike with persuasive and argumentative essays, your main purpose when writing an analytical essay isn’t to try to convert readers to your side of the issue. Therefore, you won’t be using strong persuasive language like you would in those essay types. Rather, your goal is to have enough analysis and examples that the strength of your argument is clear to readers.

Besides typical essay components like an introduction and conclusion, a good analytical essay will include:

  • A thesis that states your main argument
  • Analysis that relates back to your thesis and supports it
  • Examples to support your analysis and allow a more in-depth look at the issue

In the rest of this article, we’ll explain how to include each of these in your analytical essay.

How to Structure Your Analytical Essay

Analytical essays are structured similarly to many other essays you’ve written, with an introduction (including a thesis), several body paragraphs, and a conclusion. Below is an outline you can follow when structuring your essay, and in the next section we go into more detail on how to write an analytical essay.

Introduction

Your introduction will begin with some sort of attention-grabbing sentence to get your audience interested, then you’ll give a few sentences setting up the topic so that readers have some context, and you’ll end with your thesis statement. Your introduction will include:

  • Brief background information explaining the issue/text
  • Your thesis

Body Paragraphs

Your analytical essay will typically have three or four body paragraphs, each covering a different point of analysis. Begin each body paragraph with a sentence that sets up the main point you’ll be discussing. Then you’ll give some analysis on that point, backing it up with evidence to support your claim. Continue analyzing and giving evidence for your analysis until you’re out of strong points for the topic. At the end of each body paragraph, you may choose to have a transition sentence that sets up what the next paragraph will be about, but this isn’t required. Body paragraphs will include:

  • Introductory sentence explaining what you’ll cover in the paragraph (sort of like a mini-thesis)
  • Analysis point
  • Evidence (either passages from the text or data/facts) that supports the analysis
  • (Repeat analysis and evidence until you run out of examples)

You won’t be making any new points in your conclusion; at this point you’re just reiterating key points you’ve already made and wrapping things up. Begin by rephrasing your thesis and summarizing the main points you made in the essay. Someone who reads just your conclusion should be able to come away with a basic idea of what your essay was about and how it was structured. After this, you may choose to make some final concluding thoughts, potentially by connecting your essay topic to larger issues to show why it’s important. A conclusion will include:

  • Paraphrase of thesis
  • Summary of key points of analysis
  • Final concluding thought(s)

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5 Steps for Writing an Analytical Essay

Follow these five tips to break down writing an analytical essay into manageable steps. By the end, you’ll have a fully-crafted analytical essay with both in-depth analysis and enough evidence to support your argument. All of these steps use the completed analytical essay in the next section as an example.

#1: Pick a Topic

You may have already had a topic assigned to you, and if that’s the case, you can skip this step. However, if you haven’t, or if the topic you’ve been assigned is broad enough that you still need to narrow it down, then you’ll need to decide on a topic for yourself. Choosing the right topic can mean the difference between an analytical essay that’s easy to research (and gets you a good grade) and one that takes hours just to find a few decent points to analyze

Before you decide on an analytical essay topic, do a bit of research to make sure you have enough examples to support your analysis. If you choose a topic that’s too narrow, you’ll struggle to find enough to write about.

For example, say your teacher assigns you to write an analytical essay about the theme in John Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath of exposing injustices against migrants. For it to be an analytical essay, you can’t just recount the injustices characters in the book faced; that’s only a summary and doesn’t include analysis. You need to choose a topic that allows you to analyze the theme. One of the best ways to explore a theme is to analyze how the author made his/her argument. One example here is that Steinbeck used literary devices in the intercalary chapters (short chapters that didn’t relate to the plot or contain the main characters of the book) to show what life was like for migrants as a whole during the Dust Bowl.

You could write about how Steinbeck used literary devices throughout the whole book, but, in the essay below, I chose to just focus on the intercalary chapters since they gave me enough examples. Having a narrower focus will nearly always result in a tighter and more convincing essay (and can make compiling examples less overwhelming).

#2: Write a Thesis Statement

Your thesis statement is the most important sentence of your essay; a reader should be able to read just your thesis and understand what the entire essay is about and what you’ll be analyzing. When you begin writing, remember that each sentence in your analytical essay should relate back to your thesis

In the analytical essay example below, the thesis is the final sentence of the first paragraph (the traditional spot for it). The thesis is: “In The Grapes of Wrath’s intercalary chapters, John Steinbeck employs a variety of literary devices and stylistic choices to better expose the injustices committed against migrants in the 1930s.” So what will this essay analyze? How Steinbeck used literary devices in the intercalary chapters to show how rough migrants could have it. Crystal clear.

#3: Do Research to Find Your Main Points

This is where you determine the bulk of your analysis--the information that makes your essay an analytical essay. My preferred method is to list every idea that I can think of, then research each of those and use the three or four strongest ones for your essay. Weaker points may be those that don’t relate back to the thesis, that you don’t have much analysis to discuss, or that you can’t find good examples for. A good rule of thumb is to have one body paragraph per main point

This essay has four main points, each of which analyzes a different literary device Steinbeck uses to better illustrate how difficult life was for migrants during the Dust Bowl. The four literary devices and their impact on the book are:

  • Lack of individual names in intercalary chapters to illustrate the scope of the problem
  • Parallels to the Bible to induce sympathy for the migrants
  • Non-showy, often grammatically-incorrect language so the migrants are more realistic and relatable to readers
  • Nature-related metaphors to affect the mood of the writing and reflect the plight of the migrants

#4: Find Excerpts or Evidence to Support Your Analysis

Now that you have your main points, you need to back them up. If you’re writing a paper about a text or film, use passages/clips from it as your main source of evidence. If you’re writing about something else, your evidence can come from a variety of sources, such as surveys, experiments, quotes from knowledgeable sources etc. Any evidence that would work for a regular research paper works here.

In this example, I quoted multiple passages from The Grapes of Wrath  in each paragraph to support my argument. You should be able to back up every claim you make with evidence in order to have a strong essay.

#5: Put It All Together

Now it's time to begin writing your essay, if you haven’t already. Create an introductory paragraph that ends with the thesis, make a body paragraph for each of your main points, including both analysis and evidence to back up your claims, and wrap it all up with a conclusion that recaps your thesis and main points and potentially explains the big picture importance of the topic.

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Analytical Essay Example + Analysis

So that you can see for yourself what a completed analytical essay looks like, here’s an essay I wrote back in my high school days. It’s followed by analysis of how I structured my essay, what its strengths are, and how it could be improved.

One way Steinbeck illustrates the connections all migrant people possessed and the struggles they faced is by refraining from using specific titles and names in his intercalary chapters. While The Grapes of Wrath focuses on the Joad family, the intercalary chapters show that all migrants share the same struggles and triumphs as the Joads. No individual names are used in these chapters; instead the people are referred to as part of a group. Steinbeck writes, “Frantic men pounded on the doors of the doctors; and the doctors were busy.  And sad men left word at country stores for the coroner to send a car,” (555). By using generic terms, Steinbeck shows how the migrants are all linked because they have gone through the same experiences. The grievances committed against one family were committed against thousands of other families; the abuse extends far beyond what the Joads experienced. The Grapes of Wrath frequently refers to the importance of coming together; how, when people connect with others their power and influence multiplies immensely. Throughout the novel, the goal of the migrants, the key to their triumph, has been to unite. While their plans are repeatedly frustrated by the government and police, Steinbeck’s intercalary chapters provide a way for the migrants to relate to one another because they have encountered the same experiences. Hundreds of thousands of migrants fled to the promised land of California, but Steinbeck was aware that numbers alone were impersonal and lacked the passion he desired to spread. Steinbeck created the intercalary chapters to show the massive numbers of people suffering, and he created the Joad family to evoke compassion from readers.  Because readers come to sympathize with the Joads, they become more sensitive to the struggles of migrants in general. However, John Steinbeck frequently made clear that the Joads were not an isolated incident; they were not unique. Their struggles and triumphs were part of something greater. Refraining from specific names in his intercalary chapters allows Steinbeck to show the vastness of the atrocities committed against migrants.

Steinbeck also creates significant parallels to the Bible in his intercalary chapters in order to enhance his writing and characters. By using simple sentences and stylized writing, Steinbeck evokes Biblical passages. The migrants despair, “No work till spring. No work,” (556).  Short, direct sentences help to better convey the desperateness of the migrants’ situation. Throughout his novel, John Steinbeck makes connections to the Bible through his characters and storyline. Jim Casy’s allusions to Christ and the cycle of drought and flooding are clear biblical references.  By choosing to relate The Grapes of Wrath to the Bible, Steinbeck’s characters become greater than themselves. Starving migrants become more than destitute vagrants; they are now the chosen people escaping to the promised land. When a forgotten man dies alone and unnoticed, it becomes a tragedy. Steinbeck writes, “If [the migrants] were shot at, they did not run, but splashed sullenly away; and if they were hit, they sank tiredly in the mud,” (556). Injustices committed against the migrants become greater because they are seen as children of God through Steinbeck’s choice of language. Referencing the Bible strengthens Steinbeck’s novel and purpose: to create understanding for the dispossessed.  It is easy for people to feel disdain for shabby vagabonds, but connecting them to such a fundamental aspect of Christianity induces sympathy from readers who might have otherwise disregarded the migrants as so many other people did.

The simple, uneducated dialogue Steinbeck employs also helps to create a more honest and meaningful representation of the migrants, and it makes the migrants more relatable to readers. Steinbeck chooses to accurately represent the language of the migrants in order to more clearly illustrate their lives and make them seem more like real paper than just characters in a book. The migrants lament, “They ain’t gonna be no kinda work for three months,” (555). There are multiple grammatical errors in that single sentence, but it vividly conveys the despair the migrants felt better than a technically perfect sentence would. The Grapes of Wrath is intended to show the severe difficulties facing the migrants so Steinbeck employs a clear, pragmatic style of writing.  Steinbeck shows the harsh, truthful realities of the migrants’ lives and he would be hypocritical if he chose to give the migrants a more refined voice and not portray them with all their shortcomings. The depiction of the migrants as imperfect through their language also makes them easier to relate to. Steinbeck’s primary audience was the middle class, the less affluent of society. Repeatedly in The Grapes of Wrath , the wealthy make it obvious that they scorn the plight of the migrants. The wealthy, not bad luck or natural disasters, were the prominent cause of the suffering of migrant families such as the Joads. Thus, Steinbeck turns to the less prosperous for support in his novel. When referring to the superior living conditions barnyard animals have, the migrants remark, “Them’s horses-we’re men,” (556).  The perfect simplicity of this quote expresses the absurdness of the migrants’ situation better than any flowery expression could.

In The Grapes of Wrath , John Steinbeck uses metaphors, particularly about nature, in order to illustrate the mood and the overall plight of migrants. Throughout most of the book, the land is described as dusty, barren, and dead. Towards the end, however; floods come and the landscape begins to change. At the end of chapter twenty-nine, Steinbeck describes a hill after the floods saying, “Tiny points of grass came through the earth, and in a few days the hills were pale green with the beginning year,” (556). This description offers a stark contrast from the earlier passages which were filled with despair and destruction. Steinbeck’s tone from the beginning of the chapter changes drastically. Early in the chapter, Steinbeck had used heavy imagery in order to convey the destruction caused by the rain, “The streams and the little rivers edged up to the bank sides and worked at willows and tree roots, bent the willows deep in the current, cut out the roots of cottonwoods and brought down the trees,” (553). However, at the end of the chapter the rain has caused new life to grow in California. The new grass becomes a metaphor representing hope. When the migrants are at a loss over how they will survive the winter, the grass offers reassurance. The story of the migrants in the intercalary chapters parallels that of the Joads. At the end of the novel, the family is breaking apart and has been forced to flee their home. However, both the book and final intercalary chapter end on a hopeful note after so much suffering has occurred. The grass metaphor strengthens Steinbeck’s message because it offers a tangible example of hope. Through his language Steinbeck’s themes become apparent at the end of the novel. Steinbeck affirms that persistence, even when problems appear insurmountable, leads to success. These metaphors help to strengthen Steinbeck’s themes in The Grapes of Wrath because they provide a more memorable way to recall important messages.

John Steinbeck’s language choices help to intensify his writing in his intercalary chapters and allow him to more clearly show how difficult life for migrants could be. Refraining from using specific names and terms allows Steinbeck to show that many thousands of migrants suffered through the same wrongs. Imitating the style of the Bible strengthens Steinbeck’s characters and connects them to the Bible, perhaps the most famous book in history. When Steinbeck writes in the imperfect dialogue of the migrants, he creates a more accurate portrayal and makes the migrants easier to relate to for a less affluent audience. Metaphors, particularly relating to nature, strengthen the themes in The Grapes of Wrath by enhancing the mood Steinbeck wants readers to feel at different points in the book. Overall, the intercalary chapters that Steinbeck includes improve his novel by making it more memorable and reinforcing the themes Steinbeck embraces throughout the novel. Exemplary stylistic devices further persuade readers of John Steinbeck’s personal beliefs. Steinbeck wrote The Grapes of Wrath to bring to light cruelties against migrants, and by using literary devices effectively, he continuously reminds readers of his purpose. Steinbeck’s impressive language choices in his intercalary chapters advance the entire novel and help to create a classic work of literature that people still are able to relate to today. 

This essay sticks pretty closely to the standard analytical essay outline. It starts with an introduction, where I chose to use a quote to start off the essay. (This became my favorite way to start essays in high school because, if I wasn’t sure what to say, I could outsource the work and find a quote that related to what I’d be writing about.) The quote in this essay doesn’t relate to the themes I’m discussing quite as much as it could, but it’s still a slightly different way to start an essay and can intrigue readers. I then give a bit of background on The Grapes of Wrath and its themes before ending the intro paragraph with my thesis: that Steinbeck used literary devices in intercalary chapters to show how rough migrants had it.

Each of my four body paragraphs is formatted in roughly the same way: an intro sentence that explains what I’ll be discussing, analysis of that main point, and at least two quotes from the book as evidence.

My conclusion restates my thesis, summarizes each of four points I discussed in my body paragraphs, and ends the essay by briefly discussing how Steinbeck’s writing helped introduce a world of readers to the injustices migrants experienced during the dust bowl.

What does this analytical essay example do well? For starters, it contains everything that a strong analytical essay should, and it makes that easy to find. The thesis clearly lays out what the essay will be about, the first sentence of each of the body paragraph introduces the topic it’ll cover, and the conclusion neatly recaps all the main points. Within each of the body paragraphs, there’s analysis along with multiple excerpts from the book in order to add legitimacy to my points.

Additionally, the essay does a good job of taking an in-depth look at the issue introduced in the thesis. Four ways Steinbeck used literary devices are discussed, and for each of the examples are given and analysis is provided so readers can understand why Steinbeck included those devices and how they helped shaped how readers viewed migrants and their plight.

Where could this essay be improved? I believe the weakest body paragraph is the third one, the one that discusses how Steinbeck used plain, grammatically incorrect language to both accurately depict the migrants and make them more relatable to readers. The paragraph tries to touch on both of those reasons and ends up being somewhat unfocused as a result. It would have been better for it to focus on just one of those reasons (likely how it made the migrants more relatable) in order to be clearer and more effective. It’s a good example of how adding more ideas to an essay often doesn’t make it better if they don’t work with the rest of what you’re writing. This essay also could explain the excerpts that are included more and how they relate to the points being made. Sometimes they’re just dropped in the essay with the expectation that the readers will make the connection between the example and the analysis. This is perhaps especially true in the second body paragraph, the one that discusses similarities to Biblical passages. Additional analysis of the quotes would have strengthened it.

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Summary: How to Write an Analytical Essay

What is an analytical essay? A critical analytical essay analyzes a topic, often a text or film. The analysis paper uses evidence to support the argument, such as excerpts from the piece of writing. All analytical papers include a thesis, analysis of the topic, and evidence to support that analysis.

When developing an analytical essay outline and writing your essay, follow these five steps:

Reading analytical essay examples can also give you a better sense of how to structure your essay and what to include in it.

What's Next?

Learning about different writing styles in school?  There are four main writing styles, and it's important to understand each of them. Learn about them in our guide to writing styles , complete with examples.

Writing a research paper for school but not sure what to write about?   Our guide to research paper topics has over 100 topics in ten categories so you can be sure to find the perfect topic for you. 

Literary devices can both be used to enhance your writing and communication. Check out this list of 31 literary devices to learn more !

Need more help with this topic? Check out Tutorbase!

Our vetted tutor database includes a range of experienced educators who can help you polish an essay for English or explain how derivatives work for Calculus. You can use dozens of filters and search criteria to find the perfect person for your needs.

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Christine graduated from Michigan State University with degrees in Environmental Biology and Geography and received her Master's from Duke University. In high school she scored in the 99th percentile on the SAT and was named a National Merit Finalist. She has taught English and biology in several countries.

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Critical Writing 101

Descriptive vs analytical vs critical writing.

By: Derek Jansen (MBA) | Expert Reviewed By: Dr Eunice Rautenbach | April 2017

Across the thousands of students we work with , descriptive writing (as opposed to critical or analytical writing) is an incredibly pervasive problem . In fact, it’s probably the biggest killer of marks in dissertations, theses and research papers. So, in this post, we’ll explain the difference between descriptive and analytical writing in straightforward terms, along with plenty of practical examples.

analytical and descriptive writing

Descriptive vs Analytical Writing

Writing critically is one of the most important skills you’ll need to master for your academic journey, but what exactly does this mean?

Well, when it comes to writing, at least for academic purposes, there are two main types – descriptive writing and critical writing. Critical writing is also sometimes referred to as analytical writing, so we’ll use these two terms interchangeably.

To understand what constitutes critical (or analytical) writing, it’s useful to compare it against its opposite, descriptive writing. At the most basic level, descriptive writing merely communicates the “ what ”, “ where ”, “ when ” or “ who ”. In other words, it describes a thing, place, time or person. It doesn’t consider anything beyond that or explore the situation’s impact, importance or meaning. Here’s an example of a descriptive sentence:

  “Yesterday, the president unexpectedly fired the minister of finance.”

As you can see, this sentence just states what happened, when it happened and who was involved. Classic descriptive writing.

Contrasted to this, critical writing takes things a step further and unveils the “ so what? ” – in other words, it explains the impact or consequence of a given situation. Let’s stick with the same event and look at an example of analytical writing:

“The president’s unexpected firing of the well-respected finance minister had an immediate negative impact on investor confidence. This led to a sharp decrease in the value of the local currency, especially against the US dollar. This devaluation means that all dollar-based imports are now expected to rise in cost, thereby raising the cost of living for citizens, and reducing disposable income.”

As you can see in this example, the descriptive version only tells us what happened (the president fired the finance minister), whereas the critical version goes on to discuss some of the impacts of the president’s actions.

Analysis

Ideally, critical writing should always link back to the broader objectives of the paper or project, explaining what each thing or event means in relation to those objectives. In a dissertation or thesis, this would involve linking the discussion back to the research aims, objectives and research questions – in other words, the golden thread .

Sounds a bit fluffy and conceptual? Let’s look at an example:

If your research aims involved understanding how the local environment impacts demand for specialty imported vegetables, you would need to explain how the devaluation of the local currency means that the imported vegetables would become more expensive relative to locally farmed options. This in turn would likely have a negative impact on sales, as consumers would turn to cheaper local alternatives.

As you can see, critical (or analytical) writing goes beyond just describing (that’s what descriptive writing covers) and instead focuses on the meaning of things, events or situations, especially in relation to the core research aims and questions.

Need a helping hand?

essay vs analysis

But wait, there’s more.

This “ what vs so what”  distinction is important in understanding the difference between description and analysis, but it is not the only difference – the differences go deeper than this. The table below explains some other key differences between descriptive and analytical writing.

Should I avoid descriptive writing altogether?

Not quite. For the most part, you’ll need some descriptive writing to lay the foundation for the critical, analytical writing. In other words, you’ll usually need to state the “what” before you can discuss the “so what”. Therefore, description is simply unavoidable and in fact quite essential , but you do want to keep it to a minimum and focus your word count on the analytical side of things.

As you write, a good rule of thumb is to identify every what (in other words, every descriptive point you make) and then check whether it is accompanied by a so what (in other words, a critical conclusion regarding its meaning or impact).

Of course, this won’t always be necessary as some conclusions are fairly obvious and go without saying. But, this basic practice should help you minimise description, maximise analysis, and most importantly, earn you marks!

Let’s recap.

So, the key takeaways for this post are as follows:

  • Descriptive writing focuses on the what , while critical/analytical writing focuses on the so what .
  • Analytical writing should link the discussion back to the research aims, objectives or research questions (the golden thread).
  • Some amount of description will always be needed, but aim to minimise description and maximise analysis to earn higher marks.

essay vs analysis

Psst… there’s more (for free)

This post is part of our dissertation mini-course, which covers everything you need to get started with your dissertation, thesis or research project. 

You Might Also Like:

5 dos & don'ts when writing a research proposal

18 Comments

Sarah

Thank you so much. This was helpful and a switch from the bad writing habits to the good habits.

Derek Jansen

Great to hear that, Sarah. Glad you found it useful!

Anne Marie

I am currently working on my Masters Thesis and found this extremely informative and helpful. Thank you kindly.

Marisa

I’m currently a University student and this is so helpful. Thank you.

Divya Madhuri Nankiya

It really helped me to get the exact meaning of analytical writing. Differences between the two explains it well

Linda Odero

Thank you! this was very useful

Bridget

With much appreciation, I say thank you. Your explanations are down to earth. It has been helpful.

joan

very helpful

very helpful indeed

Felix

Thanks Derek for the useful coaching

Diana Rose Oyula

Thank you for sharing this. I was stuck on descriptive now I can do my corrections. Thank you.

Siu Tang

I was struggling to differentiate between descriptive and analytical writing. I googled and found this as it is so helpful. Thank you for sharing.

Leonard Ngowo

I am glad to see this differences of descriptive against analytical writing. This is going to improve my masters dissertation

Thanks in deed. It was helpful

Abdurrahman Abdullahi Babale

Thank you so much. I’m now better informed

Stew

Busy with MBA in South Africa, this is very helpful as most of the writing requires one to expound on the topics. thanks for this, it’s a salvation from watching the blinking cursor for hours while figuring out what to write to hit the 5000 word target 😂

Ggracious Enwoods Soko

It’s been fantastic and enriching. Thanks a lot, GRAD COACH.

Sunil Pradhan

Wonderful explanation of descriptive vs analytic writing with examples. This is going to be greatly helpful for me as I am writing my thesis at the moment. Thank you Grad Coach. I follow your YouTube videos and subscribed and liked every time I watch one.

Abdulai Gariba Abanga

Very useful piece. thanks

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Humanities LibreTexts

8.5: Summary vs. Analysis

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  • Page ID 101135

  • Heather Ringo & Athena Kashyap
  • City College of San Francisco via ASCCC Open Educational Resources Initiative

Summary: Using it Wisely

Knowing how to summarize something you have read, seen, or heard is a valuable skill, one you have probably used in many writing assignments. It is important, though, to recognize when you must go beyond describing, explaining, and restating texts and offer a more complex analysis. This handout will help you distinguish between summary and analysis and avoid inappropriate summary in your academic writing.

Is summary a bad thing?

Not necessarily. But it’s important that your keep your assignment and your audience in mind as you write. If your assignment requires an argument with a thesis statement and supporting evidence—as many academic writing assignments do—then you should limit the amount of summary in your paper. You might use summary to provide background, set the stage, or illustrate supporting evidence, but keep it very brief: a few sentences should do the trick. Most of your paper should focus on your argument. (Our handout on argument will help you construct a good one.)

Writing a summary of what you know about your topic before you start drafting your actual paper can sometimes be helpful. If you are unfamiliar with the material you’re analyzing, you may need to summarize what you’ve read in order to understand your reading and get your thoughts in order. Once you figure out what you know about a subject, it’s easier to decide what you want to argue.

You may also want to try some other pre-writing activities that can help you develop your own analysis. Outlining, freewriting, and mapping make it easier to get your thoughts on the page. (Check out our handout on brainstorming for some suggested techniques.)

Why is it so tempting to stick with summary and skip analysis?

Many writers rely too heavily on summary because it is what they can most easily write. If you’re stalled by a difficult writing prompt, summarizing the plot of The Great Gatsby may be more appealing than staring at the computer for three hours and wondering what to say about F. Scott Fitzgerald’s use of color symbolism. After all, the plot is usually the easiest part of a work to understand. Something similar can happen even when what you are writing about has no plot: if you don’t really understand an author’s argument, it might seem easiest to just repeat what he or she said.

To write a more analytical paper, you may need to review the text or film you are writing about, with a focus on the elements that are relevant to your thesis. If possible, carefully consider your writing assignment before reading, viewing, or listening to the material about which you’ll be writing so that your encounter with the material will be more purposeful. (We offer a handout on reading towards writing .)

How do I know if I’m summarizing?

As you read through your essay, ask yourself the following questions:

  • Am I stating something that would be obvious to a reader or viewer?
  • Does my essay move through the plot, history, or author’s argument in chronological order, or in the exact same order the author used?
  • Am I simply describing what happens, where it happens, or to whom it happens?

A “yes” to any of these questions may be a sign that you are summarizing. If you answer yes to the questions below, though, it is a sign that your paper may have more analysis (which is usually a good thing):

  • Am I making an original argument about the text?
  • Have I arranged my evidence around my own points, rather than just following the author’s or plot’s order?
  • Am I explaining why or how an aspect of the text is significant?

Certain phrases are warning signs of summary. Keep an eye out for these:

  • “[This essay] is about…”
  • “[This book] is the story of…”
  • “[This author] writes about…”
  • “[This movie] is set in…”

Here’s an example of an introductory paragraph containing unnecessary summary. Sentences that summarize are in italics:

  • The Great Gatsby is the story of a mysterious millionaire, Jay Gatsby, who lives alone on an island in New York. F. Scott Fitzgerald wrote the book, but the narrator is Nick Carraway. Nick is Gatsby’s neighbor, and he chronicles the story of Gatsby and his circle of friends, beginning with his introduction to the strange man and ending with Gatsby’s tragic death. In the story, Nick describes his environment through various colors, including green, white, and grey. Whereas white and grey symbolize false purity and decay, respectively, the color green offers a symbol of hope.

Here’s how you might change the paragraph to make it a more effective introduction:

  • In The Great Gatsby, F. Scott Fitzgerald provides readers with detailed descriptions of the area surrounding East Egg, New York. In fact, Nick Carraway’s narration describes the setting with as much detail as the characters in the book. Nick’s description of the colors in his environment presents the book’s themes, symbolizing significant aspects of the post-World War I era. Whereas white and grey symbolize the false purity and decay of the 1920s, the color green offers a symbol of hope.

This version of the paragraph mentions the book’s title, author, setting, and narrator so that the reader is reminded of the text. And that sounds a lot like summary—but the paragraph quickly moves on to the writer’s own main topic: the setting and its relationship to the main themes of the book. The paragraph then closes with the writer’s specific thesis about the symbolism of white, grey, and green.

How do I write more analytically?

Analysis requires breaking something—like a story, poem, play, theory, or argument—into parts so you can understand how those parts work together to make the whole. Ideally, you should begin to analyze a work as you read or view it instead of waiting until after you’re done—it may help you to jot down some notes as you read. Your notes can be about major themes or ideas you notice, as well as anything that intrigues, puzzles, excites, or irritates you. Remember, analytic writing goes beyond the obvious to discuss questions of how and why—so ask yourself those questions as you read.

The St. Martin’s Handbook encourages readers to take the following steps in order to analyze a text:

  • Identify evidence that supports or illustrates the main point or theme as well as anything that seems to contradict it.
  • Consider the relationship between the words and the visuals in the work. Are they well integrated, or are they sometimes at odds with one another? What functions do the visuals serve? To capture attention? To provide more detailed information or illustration? To appeal to readers’ emotions?
  • Decide whether the sources used are trustworthy.
  • Identify the work’s underlying assumptions about the subject, as well as any biases it reveals. (Lunsford 38)

Once you have written a draft, some questions you might want to ask yourself about your writing are, “What’s my point?” or, “What am I arguing in this paper?” If you can’t answer these questions, then you haven’t gone beyond summarizing. You may also want to think about how much of your writing comes from your own ideas or arguments. If you’re only reporting someone else’s ideas, you probably aren’t offering an analysis.

What strategies can help me avoid excessive summary?

  • Read the assignment (the prompt) as soon as you get it. Make sure to reread it before you start writing. Go back to your assignment often while you write. (Check out our handout on reading assignments ).
  • Formulate an argument (including a good thesis) and be sure that your final draft is structured around it, including aspects of the plot, story, history, background, etc. only as evidence for your argument. (You can refer to our handout on constructing thesis statements ).
  • Read critically—imagine having a dialogue with the work you are discussing. What parts do you agree with? What parts do you disagree with? What questions do you have about the work? Does it remind you of other works you’ve seen?
  • Make sure you have clear topic sentences that make arguments in support of your thesis statement. (Read our handout on paragraph development if you want to work on writing strong paragraphs).
  • Use two different highlighters to mark your paper. With one color, highlight areas of summary or description. With the other, highlight areas of analysis. For many college papers, it’s a good idea to have lots of analysis and minimal summary/description.
  • Ask yourself: What part of the essay would be obvious to a reader/viewer of the work being discussed? What parts (words, sentences, paragraphs) of the essay could be deleted without loss? In most cases, your paper should focus on points that are essential, and will be interesting to people who have already read or seen the work you are writing about.

Works consulted

We consulted these works while writing this handout. This is not a comprehensive list of resources on the handout’s topic, and we encourage you to do your own research to find the latest publications on this topic. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial .

Barnet, Sylvan and William E. Cain. A Short Guide to Writing about Literature. 12th ed. New York: Pearson, 2011.

Corrigan, Timothy. A Short Guide to Writing About Film. 9th ed. New York: Pearson, 2014.

Lunsford, Andrea A. The St. Martin’s Handbook. 5th ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2003.

Zinsser, William. On Writing Well. 6th ed. New York: Quill, 2001.

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Analytical vs Argumentative Essay: How Do They Compare?

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by  Antony W

May 2, 2023

analytical vs argumentative essay explained

In this guide, we’ll tell you everything you should know about analytical vs argumentative essay.

While the two require concise writing without skipping the most significant points, they have quite dissimilar fundamentals.

Key Takeaways 

  • An argumentative essay presents two sides of an argument and then uses evidence and facts to demonstrate why one side of an issue is stronger, better, or more favorable.
  • The analytical essay, on the other hand, is an evaluation of information collected from different sources put together in one document.
  • An analytical essay gives a sound explanation and interpretation while an argumentative essay communicates your strong stand on a controversial topic to an audience that may or may not agree with you.

What is Argumentative Writing?

The argumentative writing goes beyond demonstrating your ideas in a manner that support your thesis statement. An author takes one side of an argument and develops it.

By using irrefutable and solid evidence, they attempt to convince the reader that the position they hold on the claim or subject at hand is the correct one.

An important element that must reflect in argumentative writing is the credibility of the sources used. In other words, you can only use reliable scholarly sources as evidence to support your arguments.

What is Analytical Writing?

In analytical writing , an author gathers information from a number of credible and reliable sources and then combines the information to come up with an analysis in the form of an essay.

Instead of taking a side and defending your argument, analytical writing requires you to present both positive and negative viewpoint.

In order to come up with a well-written analytical paper, you need to conduct more research to dig up as much data and information as you possibly can.

Analytical vs Argumentative Essay: Objective

Purpose of an argumentative essay.

The primary objective of an argumentative essay is to demonstrate to your reader that you can take a strong stand on a controversial subject.

When it comes to writing this essay, you should first highlight opposing views and then use strong argument to refute those views.

The secret to writing a thought-provoking argumentative essay is to make sure you choose opposing arguments that are inferior to your own.

Again, your logic has to be as authentic as possible, which means you must never include logical fallacies in the essay.

Purpose of an Analytical Essay

In analytical essay, your objective is to examine a subject for the purpose of accurate explanation and sound interpretation.

You’ll analyze different aspects of literary work, an event in history, or a concept, depending on the subject area, and relate its purpose to a theme or structure.

Literary essays require you to analyze the form and structure of the work, or its content in terms of the characters, plot, or setting.

In analyzing a concept, the analyst needs to evaluate a concept and provide means for defining and understanding the concept and its overall implication.

Analytical vs Argumentative Essay: Writing

Writing an analytical essay.

In analytical writing, you have to use a balanced or neutral approach to present a clear picture of the topic and draw an appropriate conclusion.

To present your ideas clearly , you should divide the analytical essay into four major parts. The assignment should have an introduction, an analysis of the text, a personal response, and a conclusion.

In the introduction of your analytical essay, tell your audience what to expect from your writing.

As with any literary writing, your analytical essay should include a thesis statement or research question , and  make sure you bring out the major theme so that they focus of the essay is very clear to understand.

The analysis part of the essay is more than likely going to be the longest. That means you have sufficient room to analyze an issue and connect it with your argument.

As you analyze the text, make sure you pay close attention to the literary devices that the author uses for communication. 

An in-depth analysis should make it easy for you to draw an objective conclusion on whether make their ideas or goals clear to their intended reader. 

More importantly, rather than just making personal assumption when doing your analysis, you should accompany them with reasonable evidence.

The third step to writing an analytical essay is to write your personal response.

Here is your chance to show that you understand the topic. You should use a critical approach when writing your response. And don’t forget to give reasonable evidence throughout.

Include a strong conclusion for your analytical essay.

The goal here isn’t to introduce an idea or find a quote to conclude the essay .

Instead, you should show a clear relationship between the text or subject that you’ve analyzed and the argument that you have presented.

If you need help to get your analytical essay written, check out our analysis paper writing service and place your order. You get a coupon of up to 15% discount on your first order. Plus, our team will do custom writing, so you don’t have to worry about plagiarism.

Writing an Argumentative Essay 

Unlike an analytical essay, an argumentative essay doesn’t take a balanced approach on a topic.

You take a persuasive approach instead, in which case you have to show that your opinion, claim , theory, or hypothesis is either correct or more truthful than other arguments.

When writing an argumentative assignment, it’s important to make sure your arguments are clear, focused, and concise.

For a chance to stand out and prove that your position on an issue is convincingly more truthful, you should pick a side that you can easily support with strong evidence.

The most important writing rule when it comes to writing your argument is to work with a proper formatting in mind. In other words, you need to structure your arguments properly.

Write an interesting introduction with a thesis statement. Also, you need to get your body paragraphs right, making sure that each covers a single idea.

Ensure there are proper transitions between paragraph, each ending with a closing link and easily taking the reader to the next idea. End the essay with a very strong conclusion.

Do in-depth research before working on your arguments. Even if you already understand your audience and know what can win them over, you need to look into the evidence that you want to present to make sure it’s convincing.

Keep your language formal, easy to read and understand, and add a bit of attention-grabbing clauses or phrases to make the essay easy to read.  

Writing an argumentative essay isn’t as easy. Even if you have an interesting topic to explore, you must invest hundreds of hours in research, evidence extraction, and writing. With the help of our argumentative essay writer , you can spend less time on the task and get high quality paper delivered.

Similarities Between Analytical and Argumentative Essays?

While there are obvious differences in writing analytical and argumentative essay, there is one thing that both essays must reflect.

When working on either paper, your writing should reflect logical thinking, in-depth research, and comprehensive evaluation of the information you include in them.

About the author 

Antony W is a professional writer and coach at Help for Assessment. He spends countless hours every day researching and writing great content filled with expert advice on how to write engaging essays, research papers, and assignments.

Naval Postgraduate School

Graduate Writing Center

Analysis versus summary - graduate writing center.

  • Citations / Avoiding Plagiarism
  • Analysis versus Summary
  • Argument and Analysis
  • So What? On Significance
  • Discipline-Specific Resources
  • Generative AI
  • iThenticate FAQ
  • Organization and Structure
  • Punctuation
  • Style: Clarity and Concision
  • Writing Process
  • Writing a Thesis
  • Quick Clips & Tips
  • Presentations and Graphics

Analysis versus Summary

When asked to analyze a document, we don't always know what to do. Faced with an assignment that calls for analysis of a topic—say, how the Civil War ended slavery—one might be tempted to simply restate facts. That is summarizing.

Analysis, on the other hand, requires more than simply paraphrasing what a source says or reciting some data: it means examining the facts and reaching your own conclusions regarding the subject. What is the writer trying to say? What does it mean? Is it convincing ? Analysis is breaking down the parts to see how they fit and presenting your own synthesis. 

Readers especially love seeing analysis in thesis statements and topic sentences  because analysis equals your own ideas.

A good test for whether you are analyzing or summarizing is to ask whether anyone (other than a conspiracy theorist) could argue with your statement:

  • The 1964 Civil Rights Act legally ended employment discrimination. (Summary: a matter of historical record.)
  • Though the 1964 Civil Rights Act legally ended employment discrimination, the battle for equal employment opportunity in the United States remains incomplete almost 60 years later. (Analysis: it calls for additional explanation and evidence.) 

There is a difference between quantitative and qualitative analysis, but, in both, you express how the facts or data and your ideas interact.

Analysis and Summary Links

  • " Summary: Using It Wisely ," UNC Chapel Hill Writing Center
  • " Writing an Analytical Research Paper ," University of Richmond Writing Center
  • " What Is Analysis? " (2:25), The Seahorse Project
  • " Analyzing Qualitative Data " (15:14), Center for Innovation in Research and Teaching
  • " What Is Secondary Analysis of Qualitative Data? " (18:18), Libby Bishop

Writing Topics A–Z

This index makes findings topics easy and links to the most relevant page for each item. Please email us at [email protected] if we're missing something!

A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H    I    J   K   L    M    N    O    P    Q   R    S    T    U    V    W   X  Y   Z

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6 Summary vs. Analysis

Dr. Sandi Van Lieu

In your classes, you may be asked to analyze text. Analysis is not simply summary—summary gives the reader a shortened overview of the topic.

A summary would be telling the reader what happened in the story. Take for example, summaries about the short story “The Lottery” by Shirley Jackson:

Example 1 Summary:

“The Lottery” is about a town that comes together every year for a tradition. The town’s people draw a name, and the person’s whose name is drawn is killed by everyone else.

Example 2 Summary:

The black box in “The Lottery” is used to hold slips of paper with the names of the townspeople. It is old and splintered, and every year the townspeople talk about replacing the box, but no one wants to break tradition.

The examples above tell us what the story is about. They present facts, but they are not arguments.

In your courses, you’ll be asked do higher-level thinking . Summary, which gives a brief overview of the main points, is a lower level of thinking. Using analysis and evaluation are higher levels of thinking. Analysis is when you break down something (in this case, breaking down the story) into parts in order to see how they relate.

Evaluation is to make a judgment about something based on evidence. Analysis and evaluation go above and beyond summary to explain, examine, and tell us what you think or what you believe about the text or topic. They give arguments . Take, for example, the same above summaries about “The Lottery,” but revised to show analytical thinking:

“The Lottery,” a fiction story by Shirley Jackson, was written to portray the point that tradition often overtakes reason, and humans sometimes stick to traditions that are outdated or irrelevant simply because they don’t want to make changes.

The above examples don’t just give facts; they make arguments about the text. The second example breaks down the symbol of the black box and makes arguments about what it represents.

Using Analysis for Arguments and Support

Each body paragraph of an essay should include analysis. When you’re revising your essay, look at each individual body paragraph and ask yourself: Am I simply re-telling the story/text and giving facts, or am I making an argument about the story?

In addition to having analysis in each body paragraph, you should also include support. You can tell me that “The Lottery” is an argument for breaking traditions, but I need to “see” that—you have to prove it to me. This is where using the text and outside sources as quotes, paraphrases, and summaries will come in.

Find a passage of something you have read for a college course—an article, a story, a textbook pages, etc. Then do the following:

1. Read the passage. Then without looking at it, write a summary of it.

2. Now, make an argument in the form of analysis  or evaluation of the passage.

Additional Resources:

  • A professor’s explanation and examples of an analysis essay.
  • OWL’s basic information on what is a literary analysis, with a presentation.
  • OWL’s information on writing a thesis for a literary analysis.
  • A college handout that breaks down writing an analysis essay in an easy format.
  • This is a professor’s assignment and helps break the analysis down.
  • A college document with great advice about how to write an analysis (and specific examples of such).

Attribution

  • “Summary vs. Analysis,” created by Dr. Sandi Van Lieu and licensed under CC BY NC SA 3.0 .

The RoughWriter's Guide Copyright © 2020 by Dr. Sandi Van Lieu is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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Analyzing the Differences: Research Paper vs. Analysis Paper

This article seeks to analyze the differences between two types of writing – research papers and analysis papers. While both require a similar level of thought, each type requires a different approach when it comes to researching and presenting information. Through an examination of the respective characteristics that distinguish these forms of writing from one another, we can gain valuable insight into what factors make for effective written communication in either format. Furthermore, by considering how best to utilize these features within our own work, we can enhance its overall quality and effectiveness in conveying our ideas and messages accurately.

I. Introduction: Exploring the Distinction between a Research Paper and an Analysis Paper

Ii. understanding the purpose of a research paper, iii. defining elements of analysing in an analysis paper, iv. identifying common formats for writing each type of paper.

  • V. Assessing Sources Appropriate to Use for each Kind of Assignment
  • VI. Examining Strategies Used by Writers When Composing either Type of Document

VII. Conclusion: Analyzing the Key Differences Between A Research and An Analysis Paper

Understanding the Variance in Research and Analysis Papers

It is essential to understand how research papers and analysis papers differ, as many of their features can be easily confused. They are both academic documents used for assessment or scholarly communication, but they present information differently. The most notable distinction between them lies in the presentation of evidence: while a research paper relies on facts gathered from an extensive background search, an analysis paper takes this data further by exploring deeper implications that provide greater insight into the topic at hand.

The first step when writing either type of document is proper organization; structure is key to getting your point across accurately and effectively. When constructing a research paper you must maintain objectivity with clear explanations supported by accurate sources; conversely, an analysis involves interpretation rather than straightforward facts – so strong reasoning skills should take precedence here as well. In addition to providing reliable arguments based upon sound logic throughout your composition, there are other areas where these two forms vary substantially including content length and depth of discussion required around each issue addressed within them respectively.

  • Research Paper:
  • >May be longer (5-10 pages)

Research Papers vs Analysis Papers

At first glance, the terms research paper and analysis paper may appear interchangeable. However, these two types of writing projects have distinct purposes that must be understood before starting any project. A research paper involves a deep dive into a particular subject to uncover new facts or data while an analysis paper uses those facts and data in order to form an argument.

When conducting research for a research paper, it is important to source information from reliable sources such as academic journals and books written by professionals on the topic at hand. With this knowledge, authors are then able to generate their own original ideas regarding the researched material which can further inform their findings in additional ways than what was originally found through researching existing literature on said topics. This newfound understanding can provide insight into different interpretations of similar material which adds depth and understanding beyond simply recounting someone else’s work; it provides readers with various perspectives based off objective fact-finding methods rather than personal opinion or bias towards one side over another.

In contrast, when writing an analysis essay all of this prior contextual information serves only as evidence that informs your conclusion – not necessarily as primary content within your argument itself; meaning instead you should focus on organizing these pieces of evidence provided alongside relevant examples/data (elements like logos & ethos) with well structured statements designed around persuasively conveying your perspective(s). Additionally depending upon who you’re attempting to reach via said piece you should also seek out counterarguments along with rebuttals so that any audience reading feels both informed and engaged throughout each part of its composition without feeling bias coming through too strongly either way at times too – resulting in effective arguments more akin most closely resembling judicial decisions rather than complex philosophical musings about life!

Exploring the Different Types of Analysis Papers

When writing an analysis paper, it’s important to understand that there are two primary types: research papers and analytical papers. Research papers present information about a specific topic through investigation, while analytical papers focus more on exploring and breaking down a concept or idea into its components in order to explain how they work together. Each type serves different purposes depending upon the scope of the assignment; however, both share some common elements.

The defining elements for analyzing in an analysis paper include gathering relevant data related to the topic at hand, evaluating this data objectively with logical reasoning processes such as deductive thinking methods, researching evidence-based sources for further clarification and validation of points being made within the paper itself. Further understanding can be gained by constructing strong arguments based on supportive evidence that has been collected from reliable source material. Ultimately any conclusions should be drawn from these objective evaluations and supported with thorough research so as not to bias opinion when forming argumentative claims throughout one’s essay.

When writing papers, the formatting and content of each document may vary based on its purpose. To ensure your paper is correctly formatted, it’s important to consider which type you are creating. Here are two popular formats for different types of documents:

  • Research Papers:
  • Analysis Papers:

In conclusion, there are a number of key differences between research and analysis papers. Research focuses on investigating existing knowledge from primary and secondary sources while analysis centers around interpretation of the collected information to generate new ideas or draw specific conclusions. A research paper involves extensive literature review which helps build an understanding for further investigation into a topic, whereas an analysis paper requires one to delve deeper into data in order to dissect patterns that may exist within it.

When creating either type of document, researchers should be sure they approach the task with the right mindset: when researching ask “what has been said”; when analyzing ask “how does this change what we know?” To truly understand both concepts fully is paramount for successful outcomes – whether it is uncovering trends through statistical methods or writing compelling essays based on evidence found from credible sources.

The analysis of the differences between research papers and analysis papers has been explored in great detail, providing useful insights for readers. From outlining the characteristics of each type to highlighting the appropriate purpose for each paper, this article has provided a comprehensive look at how these two types of writing differ from one another. Furthermore, it is important that students recognize when an assignment calls for a research paper or an analysis paper so they can successfully meet their academic requirements. Ultimately, with all this information now available to them regarding analyzing the differences between research papers and analytical papers, students should be well-equipped to tackle any task ahead of them!

Critical Concepts

Explication

vs. Analysis

"To explicate" something is, in the most general sense of the term, to spell out its implications .  Thus the noun "explication," in the corresponding sense, is, in the first instance, the process of spelling out the implications of something.   And derived from this, in turn, is the sense of "explication" that refers to the product of this process:  some account of what the implications of something are.  Explication, in other words, is a kind of explanation (note 1) .  But usually the thing whose implications are being explicated is a text, or something that is being treated as a text.  Thus we say that a lawyer tries to persuade a judge that his opponent's explication of some previous decision is mistaken -- the implications of the previous case, for the case the judge must decide today, are different from what opposing counsel represents them to be.  Or we might note that theologians, historically, have disagreed on how to explicate this or that passage of the Bible.  But in ordinary usage we probably would say, of a doctor who manages to diagnose a patient's symptoms, that he has explained them, rather than that he has "explicated" them (though we could sensically stretch the term "explicate" to cover this if we wanted to and there was some special reason for doing so).

"Explication" in a literary critical sense often refers to nothing more than this:  spelling out the implications of the text -- this bit, or that bit, on whatever occasion may arise.  In this sense, any time one draws an inference from any explicit detail of the work, one is "doing explication."  From a gesture or remark, in some social context, one "sees" this or that motive at work.  From the phrasing of a narrator's or character's remarks, one understands that the speaker is being ironic.  From the realization that two characters (or two settings or whatever) stand in the relation of foil, or of equivalent ("double") to one another, one notices something unstated about the one on the basis of what has noticed (stated or unstated) about the other.  It may be that this interpretive activity is embedded in an essay whose overall organization is some form of logical hierarchy of claims; but whenever one is drawing out implications, one is doing explication in this broad, general sense.

But there is another sense of the term that has arisen in literary critical discourse, that is much more specific, and that takes into account the organization of the interpretive activity, or at least of its presentation.  In this more specific sense of the term, "explication" involves going through the explicit text, from beginning to end (as a whole, or within a section), and systematically spelling out what the given string of explicit details, or events, or episodes, or scenes, or stanzas, brings to mind to an appropriately engaged reader's mind.   When this is done, the resulting interpretation, the interpretive discourse (whether oral or written) will be organized chronologically rather than logically .  That is, the organization of an explication, considered as a particular type of critical discourse, is taken over from the work under discussion.  And if we are dealing with fiction, plays, films, and most poems, the order of explicit details, events, episodes, that constitutes them is typically going to be temporal.  The reason for this is that time is the mode of experience, and works of literature are generally designed, first and foremost, to convey some experience.  If we then undertake to unpack "on the fly" the unfolding of the implicit dimensions of that unfolding experience, the order of our own observations will be dictated by the order of the facts as presented in the work that is seeking to sponsor or convey that experience.

This is something that we do lots in class, though our doing of it is typically confined to a passage, rather than carried through over the entire text.  But it is not what will be asked for in most of the writing you will be called upon to do in our course.  Here, the job will be something that, for lack of a better term, we will call "analysis."  If the fiction writer's task (or the dramatist's or film-maker's or poet's) is to afford us some clarifiable, intelligible experience , our task (unless you are definitely told otherwise) will be to clarify some particular aspect of the significance of that experience .  The internal grammatical structure of these phrases is instructive.

In the first, the direct object of the verb is "experience," and the concepts "clarifiable" and "intelligible" are adjectives that modify (are subordinate to) that notion. Writers select and arrange the details that, together, constitute the experience they want to convey in such a manner as to suggest what the significance of it is, or may be supposed to be.  But because they are interested in getting us vicariously to undergo that experience, the overall organizational framework within which these details will be presented will be chronological (even if interrupted by flashbacks, flashforwards, or commentary), because the mode of experience is temporal.  That is, what we call experience is something that by its very nature flows from moment to moment. We might say that, here, the order of events is the dog, and the implications / inferences / ideas to which they logically give rise are the tail.  Except in very special circumstances (note 2) , for a fiction writer to organize the text as an argument or exposition, rather than as a narrative, is to be at cross-purposes with himself.  Like a carpenter trying to drive nails with a saw, this would be to pick the wrong tool for the job.  Or (to return to the metaphor we began with):  it is to make the tail wag the dog.

In the second, the verbal concept "clarify" governs the direct object, "some particular aspect of the significance of that experience."  And within that phrase, in turn, the concept "experience" appears as part of the adjectival prepositional phrase that is subordinate to "significance."

Between "significance" and "experience" here, in other words, it is "significance" that is the dog, and "experience" that is the tail.  Now significance is constituted by a network of implications.  And if we want systematically to clarify some particular aspect of that significance, what will concern us will be some discernable hierarchy of implications that fall under that aspect.  And since the relationships that constitute a hierarchy of implications will be logical, the organizational strategy appropriate to clarifying them will be expository-argumentative rather than narrative.  Of course, we will constantly need to be referring to the explicit facts of the story, but when we do, we will be taking them up as evidence for our interpretive claims.  And it is the logical relationships among these interpretive inferences, and between them and the evidence for them -- not the original order of the events referred to as evidence for them -- that governs our moving from one to the other.  So:  if we are trying to clarify some particular aspect of the significance of a literary work, we will be working at cross-purposes with ourselves if we organize the body of our essay around the plot or story-sequence of the work we are analyzing.  Like a carpenter trying to cut a board with a claw hammer, we are taking up the wrong tool for the job.  If we are doing analysis, for us to adopt the organizational framework of the work we are analyzing is to let what is for us the tail wag what is for us the dog. For useful pointers on devising an essay organized around a logically integrated hierarchy of claims, see Craig Waddell's "Threads of Thought:  Thesis Development in Analytical Writing."   This memo discusses how to define, focus, and develop a thesis, and explains the important difference between a tentative (provisional) and definitive (final) thesis.  (This is one of a number of helpful handouts on-line at the Rensselaer Writing Center at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.)  Or consult Chuck Guilford's Paradigm Online Writing Assistant on "Writing Thesis/Support Essays" and "Writing Argumentative Essays" (which are a special subcategory of thesis/support essays). On the minimal requirements for a logical framework of organization in an analytical paper, see "Developing an Outline," which is one of over a hundred handouts -- Resources for Writers -- made available at the Purdue University On-Line Writing Lab.  There is also good advice on "Organizing Your Writing" on the Paradigm Online Writing Assistant. For an excellent set of pointers by an obviously experienced reader of undergraduate papers, see the memo "Writing Pages of Literary Analysis" by Seamus Cooney at the University of Northern Michigan.  (Unfortunately, you may have to content yourself with reading this on line:  I have not had success in getting it to print out.) If you would like to consult a "handbook" on points of grammar and style , check out the one provided by Jack Lynch of the University of Pennsylvania. (For a rich page of links to various kinds of writing resources all over the Web, you might want to bookmark Jack Lynch's "Resources for Writers and Writing Instructors."   This is worth exploring someday when you have a little time on your hands.  [Hm.])

Finally, on our own site there is a checklist of criteria for evaluating exams , which applies both to out-of-class essays and to shorter essay-type answers on in-class exams.

Why our assignments call for analysis rather than explication.

In our assignments, you’ll want to move beyond the "parasitic narrative structure" characteristic of explication.  There is a powerful reason for this.

If you will insist on coming up with an appropriate expository/argumentative strategy, you will force yourself to discover insights that will elude you if you confine yourself to more passive description. This is because the organizational framework of an expository/argumentative essay will be based on logical and causal relationships implicit in the material under discussion, rather than a chronology taken over from the story . It is these logical and causal relationships that should govern the order in which you present the successive points that, together, make up your analysis as a whole. And it is these that show up in the transitions that you craft to point to the rationale for taking the turns that constitute the "trip" on which you are conducting the reader. But before you can build an edifice on the basis of such implicit logical and causal relationships, you have to arrive at a clear awareness of them yourself. In other words, going beyond retelling the story pushes you into a deeper understanding of the significance of the story . 

See also   Critical Concepts:  Criticism and Critical Analysis See also   An explication of a sample student essay in critical analysis

Note 1.  The etymology of "explicit" and "implicit" is worth noting.  In contemporary English, these convey abstract concepts.  Both come from Latin, where they originated in quite vivid concrete metaphors.  The root plic- means "bend" or "fold," and by extension "layer."  (In fact the English word fold like the modern German word Falten ("wrinkles") are Germanic cousins to this Latin morpheme.)  One or another of these notions is at work, under different spellings, in a number of words with which you are quite familiar:  com plex , com ply , com plic it; ply wood, plex iglass; multi plic ation, multi ply , multi ple ; du plex , dou ble , du ple , sim ple ("one-fold"); re plic ation, re ply ; sup plic ation, sup ply ; etc..

Something that is implicit , then, is something "folded up inside" something (often, inside "itself").  Though present, it is not "out in plain view."  Something that is explicit is something that is "folded out," so that (for example) it is disclosed, visible, evident.  To explicate something (something already explicit) is to lay out what is folded up in (or layered behind) it.  We begin with what is already explicit, exposed to view, openly said and bring to that condition what, in the text, is conveyed only indirectly, by means of the explicit.  If we want a more specific concrete image still to remind us of all this, we can think of a bud on a stem as an example of something that is mostly "implicit":  only the outer leaf is "explicit."  When the bud blossoms, it performs a kind of "self-explication."  If we want to see what's inside before this comes about, our "explication" of it would have to take the form of dissection.   Return.

Note 2.   An example of a fiction that is organized as exposition is Stanislaw Lem's " De Impossibilitate Vitae and De Impossibilitate Prognoscendi ," which is a pretended review of two (non-existent) philosophical treatises.  An example of a fiction that is organized as an argument is Jonathan Swift's "A Modest Proposal," which is a pretended pamphlet putting forward a solution to a pressing social problem.  One approach open to us in analyzing these works as fiction is to treat them as dramatic monologues.  As it happens, this will turn out to be more profitable with "A Modest Proposal" than with Lem's "story."  One approach that promises to be worthwhile with Lem's piece is to consider it in the light of the author's own "review" of the collection of works (all of them reviews of non-existent books) within which it was published.  Another is to consider the implications of the theories "under review" for the sensicality of traditional narrative practices.   

In either case, though, the basic point about the difference between explication and analysis, as genres of discourse, remains valid.  If we explicate these, we follow the order of details (sentences, rhetorical gestures, arguments) in the work under discussion.  If we analyze them, we develop an expository-argumentative structure appropriate to the insights to which we are devoting our essay.  In this case, the organization of the original will be argumentative (in Swift's work) or expository (in Lem's), and the organization of an analysis of either will be argumentative or expository or both -- some hierarchy of claims.  But the heirarchy of claims that constitues the analysis will not be the same as the hierarchy of claims that constitutes the original.  Why?  Because the two essays (original and analysis of the original) will not be devoted to developing the same thesis.    Return.
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Regions & Countries

Americans’ social media use, youtube and facebook are by far the most used online platforms among u.s. adults; tiktok’s user base has grown since 2021.

To better understand Americans’ social media use, Pew Research Center surveyed 5,733 U.S. adults from May 19 to Sept. 5, 2023. Ipsos conducted this National Public Opinion Reference Survey (NPORS) for the Center using address-based sampling and a multimode protocol that included both web and mail. This way nearly all U.S. adults have a chance of selection. The survey is weighted to be representative of the U.S. adult population by gender, race and ethnicity, education and other categories.

Polls from 2000 to 2021 were conducted via phone. For more on this mode shift, read our Q&A .

Here are the questions used for this analysis , along with responses, and  its methodology ­­­.

A note on terminology: Our May-September 2023 survey was already in the field when Twitter changed its name to “X.” The terms  Twitter  and  X  are both used in this report to refer to the same platform.

Social media platforms faced a range of controversies in recent years, including concerns over misinformation and data privacy . Even so, U.S. adults use a wide range of sites and apps, especially YouTube and Facebook. And TikTok – which some Congress members previously called to ban – saw growth in its user base.

These findings come from a Pew Research Center survey of 5,733 U.S. adults conducted May 19-Sept. 5, 2023.

Which social media sites do Americans use most?

A horizontal bar chart showing that most U.S. adults use YouTube and Facebook; about half use Instagram.

YouTube by and large is the most widely used online platform measured in our survey. Roughly eight-in-ten U.S. adults (83%) report ever using the video-based platform.

While a somewhat lower share reports using it, Facebook is also a dominant player in the online landscape. Most Americans (68%) report using the social media platform.

Additionally, roughly half of U.S. adults (47%) say they use Instagram .

The other sites and apps asked about are not as widely used , but a fair portion of Americans still use them:

  • 27% to 35% of U.S. adults use Pinterest, TikTok, LinkedIn, WhatsApp and Snapchat.
  • About one-in-five say they use Twitter (recently renamed “X”) and Reddit.  

This year is the first time we asked about BeReal, a photo-based platform launched in 2020. Just 3% of U.S. adults report using it.

Recent Center findings show that YouTube also dominates the social media landscape among U.S. teens .

TikTok sees growth since 2021

One platform – TikTok – stands out for growth of its user base. A third of U.S. adults (33%) say they use the video-based platform, up 12 percentage points from 2021 (21%).

A line chart showing that a third of U.S. adults say they use TikTok, up from 21% in 2021.

The other sites asked about had more modest or no growth over the past couple of years. For instance, while YouTube and Facebook dominate the social media landscape, the shares of adults who use these platforms has remained stable since 2021.

The Center has been tracking use of online platforms for many years. Recently, we shifted from gathering responses via telephone to the web and mail. Mode changes can affect study results in a number of ways, therefore we have to take a cautious approach when examining how things have – or have not – changed since our last study on these topics in 2021. For more details on this shift, please read our Q&A .

Stark age differences in who uses each app or site

Adults under 30 are far more likely than their older counterparts to use many of the online platforms. These findings are consistent with previous Center data .

A dot plot showing that the youngest U.S. adults are far more likely to use Instagram, Snapchat and TikTok; age differences are less pronounced for Facebook.

Age gaps are especially large for Instagram, Snapchat and TikTok – platforms that are used by majorities of adults under 30. For example:

  • 78% of 18- to 29-year-olds say they use Instagram, far higher than the share among those 65 and older (15%).
  • 65% of U.S. adults under 30 report using Snapchat, compared with just 4% of the oldest age cohort.
  • 62% of 18- to 29-year-olds say they use TikTok, much higher than the share among adults ages 65 years and older (10%).
  • Americans ages 30 to 49 and 50 to 64 fall somewhere in between for all three platforms.

YouTube and Facebook are the only two platforms that majorities of all age groups use. That said, there is still a large age gap between the youngest and oldest adults when it comes to use of YouTube. The age gap for Facebook, though, is much smaller.

Americans ages 30 to 49 stand out for using three of the platforms – LinkedIn, WhatsApp and Facebook – at higher rates. For instance, 40% of this age group uses LinkedIn, higher than the roughly three-in-ten among those ages 18 to 29 and 50 to 64. And just 12% of those 65 and older say the same. 

Overall, a large majority of the youngest adults use multiple sites and apps. About three-quarters of adults under 30 (74%) use at least five of the platforms asked about. This is far higher than the shares of those ages 30 to 49 (53%), 50 to 64 (30%), and ages 65 and older (8%) who say the same.  

Refer to our social media fact sheet for more detailed data by age for each site and app.

Other demographic differences in use of online platforms

A number of demographic differences emerge in who uses each platform. Some of these include the following:

  • Race and ethnicity: Roughly six-in-ten Hispanic (58%) and Asian (57%) adults report using Instagram, somewhat higher than the shares among Black (46%) and White (43%) adults. 1
  • Gender: Women are more likely than their male counterparts to say they use the platform.
  • Education: Those with some college education and those with a college degree report using it at somewhat higher rates than those who have a high school degree or less education.
  • Race and ethnicity: Hispanic adults are particularly likely to use TikTok, with 49% saying they use it, higher than Black adults (39%). Even smaller shares of Asian (29%) and White (28%) adults say the same.
  • Gender: Women use the platform at higher rates than men (40% vs. 25%).
  • Education: Americans with higher levels of formal education are especially likely to use LinkedIn. For instance, 53% of Americans with at least a bachelor’s degree report using the platform, far higher than among those who have some college education (28%) and those who have a high school degree or less education (10%). This is the largest educational difference measured across any of the platforms asked about.

Twitter (renamed “X”)

  • Household income: Adults with higher household incomes use Twitter at somewhat higher rates. For instance, 29% of U.S. adults who have an annual household income of at least $100,000 say they use the platform. This compares with one-in-five among those with annual household incomes of $70,000 to $99,999, and around one-in-five among those with annual incomes of less than $30,000 and those between $30,000 and $69,999.
  • Gender: Women are far more likely to use Pinterest than men (50% vs. 19%).
  • Race and ethnicity: 54% of Hispanic adults and 51% of Asian adults report using WhatsApp. This compares with 31% of Black adults and even smaller shares of those who are White (20%).

A heat map showing how use of online platforms – such as Facebook, Instagram or TikTok – differs among some U.S. demographic groups.

  • Estimates for Asian adults are representative of English speakers only. ↩

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  • How to write a rhetorical analysis | Key concepts & examples

How to Write a Rhetorical Analysis | Key Concepts & Examples

Published on August 28, 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on July 23, 2023.

A rhetorical analysis is a type of essay  that looks at a text in terms of rhetoric. This means it is less concerned with what the author is saying than with how they say it: their goals, techniques, and appeals to the audience.

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Table of contents

Key concepts in rhetoric, analyzing the text, introducing your rhetorical analysis, the body: doing the analysis, concluding a rhetorical analysis, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about rhetorical analysis.

Rhetoric, the art of effective speaking and writing, is a subject that trains you to look at texts, arguments and speeches in terms of how they are designed to persuade the audience. This section introduces a few of the key concepts of this field.

Appeals: Logos, ethos, pathos

Appeals are how the author convinces their audience. Three central appeals are discussed in rhetoric, established by the philosopher Aristotle and sometimes called the rhetorical triangle: logos, ethos, and pathos.

Logos , or the logical appeal, refers to the use of reasoned argument to persuade. This is the dominant approach in academic writing , where arguments are built up using reasoning and evidence.

Ethos , or the ethical appeal, involves the author presenting themselves as an authority on their subject. For example, someone making a moral argument might highlight their own morally admirable behavior; someone speaking about a technical subject might present themselves as an expert by mentioning their qualifications.

Pathos , or the pathetic appeal, evokes the audience’s emotions. This might involve speaking in a passionate way, employing vivid imagery, or trying to provoke anger, sympathy, or any other emotional response in the audience.

These three appeals are all treated as integral parts of rhetoric, and a given author may combine all three of them to convince their audience.

Text and context

In rhetoric, a text is not necessarily a piece of writing (though it may be this). A text is whatever piece of communication you are analyzing. This could be, for example, a speech, an advertisement, or a satirical image.

In these cases, your analysis would focus on more than just language—you might look at visual or sonic elements of the text too.

The context is everything surrounding the text: Who is the author (or speaker, designer, etc.)? Who is their (intended or actual) audience? When and where was the text produced, and for what purpose?

Looking at the context can help to inform your rhetorical analysis. For example, Martin Luther King, Jr.’s “I Have a Dream” speech has universal power, but the context of the civil rights movement is an important part of understanding why.

Claims, supports, and warrants

A piece of rhetoric is always making some sort of argument, whether it’s a very clearly defined and logical one (e.g. in a philosophy essay) or one that the reader has to infer (e.g. in a satirical article). These arguments are built up with claims, supports, and warrants.

A claim is the fact or idea the author wants to convince the reader of. An argument might center on a single claim, or be built up out of many. Claims are usually explicitly stated, but they may also just be implied in some kinds of text.

The author uses supports to back up each claim they make. These might range from hard evidence to emotional appeals—anything that is used to convince the reader to accept a claim.

The warrant is the logic or assumption that connects a support with a claim. Outside of quite formal argumentation, the warrant is often unstated—the author assumes their audience will understand the connection without it. But that doesn’t mean you can’t still explore the implicit warrant in these cases.

For example, look at the following statement:

We can see a claim and a support here, but the warrant is implicit. Here, the warrant is the assumption that more likeable candidates would have inspired greater turnout. We might be more or less convinced by the argument depending on whether we think this is a fair assumption.

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essay vs analysis

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Rhetorical analysis isn’t a matter of choosing concepts in advance and applying them to a text. Instead, it starts with looking at the text in detail and asking the appropriate questions about how it works:

  • What is the author’s purpose?
  • Do they focus closely on their key claims, or do they discuss various topics?
  • What tone do they take—angry or sympathetic? Personal or authoritative? Formal or informal?
  • Who seems to be the intended audience? Is this audience likely to be successfully reached and convinced?
  • What kinds of evidence are presented?

By asking these questions, you’ll discover the various rhetorical devices the text uses. Don’t feel that you have to cram in every rhetorical term you know—focus on those that are most important to the text.

The following sections show how to write the different parts of a rhetorical analysis.

Like all essays, a rhetorical analysis begins with an introduction . The introduction tells readers what text you’ll be discussing, provides relevant background information, and presents your thesis statement .

Hover over different parts of the example below to see how an introduction works.

Martin Luther King, Jr.’s “I Have a Dream” speech is widely regarded as one of the most important pieces of oratory in American history. Delivered in 1963 to thousands of civil rights activists outside the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C., the speech has come to symbolize the spirit of the civil rights movement and even to function as a major part of the American national myth. This rhetorical analysis argues that King’s assumption of the prophetic voice, amplified by the historic size of his audience, creates a powerful sense of ethos that has retained its inspirational power over the years.

The body of your rhetorical analysis is where you’ll tackle the text directly. It’s often divided into three paragraphs, although it may be more in a longer essay.

Each paragraph should focus on a different element of the text, and they should all contribute to your overall argument for your thesis statement.

Hover over the example to explore how a typical body paragraph is constructed.

King’s speech is infused with prophetic language throughout. Even before the famous “dream” part of the speech, King’s language consistently strikes a prophetic tone. He refers to the Lincoln Memorial as a “hallowed spot” and speaks of rising “from the dark and desolate valley of segregation” to “make justice a reality for all of God’s children.” The assumption of this prophetic voice constitutes the text’s strongest ethical appeal; after linking himself with political figures like Lincoln and the Founding Fathers, King’s ethos adopts a distinctly religious tone, recalling Biblical prophets and preachers of change from across history. This adds significant force to his words; standing before an audience of hundreds of thousands, he states not just what the future should be, but what it will be: “The whirlwinds of revolt will continue to shake the foundations of our nation until the bright day of justice emerges.” This warning is almost apocalyptic in tone, though it concludes with the positive image of the “bright day of justice.” The power of King’s rhetoric thus stems not only from the pathos of his vision of a brighter future, but from the ethos of the prophetic voice he adopts in expressing this vision.

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essay vs analysis

The conclusion of a rhetorical analysis wraps up the essay by restating the main argument and showing how it has been developed by your analysis. It may also try to link the text, and your analysis of it, with broader concerns.

Explore the example below to get a sense of the conclusion.

It is clear from this analysis that the effectiveness of King’s rhetoric stems less from the pathetic appeal of his utopian “dream” than it does from the ethos he carefully constructs to give force to his statements. By framing contemporary upheavals as part of a prophecy whose fulfillment will result in the better future he imagines, King ensures not only the effectiveness of his words in the moment but their continuing resonance today. Even if we have not yet achieved King’s dream, we cannot deny the role his words played in setting us on the path toward it.

If you want to know more about AI tools , college essays , or fallacies make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

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The goal of a rhetorical analysis is to explain the effect a piece of writing or oratory has on its audience, how successful it is, and the devices and appeals it uses to achieve its goals.

Unlike a standard argumentative essay , it’s less about taking a position on the arguments presented, and more about exploring how they are constructed.

The term “text” in a rhetorical analysis essay refers to whatever object you’re analyzing. It’s frequently a piece of writing or a speech, but it doesn’t have to be. For example, you could also treat an advertisement or political cartoon as a text.

Logos appeals to the audience’s reason, building up logical arguments . Ethos appeals to the speaker’s status or authority, making the audience more likely to trust them. Pathos appeals to the emotions, trying to make the audience feel angry or sympathetic, for example.

Collectively, these three appeals are sometimes called the rhetorical triangle . They are central to rhetorical analysis , though a piece of rhetoric might not necessarily use all of them.

In rhetorical analysis , a claim is something the author wants the audience to believe. A support is the evidence or appeal they use to convince the reader to believe the claim. A warrant is the (often implicit) assumption that links the support with the claim.

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Super Bowl LVIII matchups, analysis and prediction

The Super Bowl trophy is flanked by San Francisco 49ers and Kansas City Chiefs helmets.

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LAS VEGAS — Los Angeles Times NFL writer Sam Farmer breaks down the Super Bowl LVIII matchup between the San Francisco 49ers and the defending champion Kansas City Chiefs . Kickoff is scheduled for 3:30 p.m. Sunday and will be televised by CBS (Channel 2 in the Los Angeles area):

49ers pass offense vs. Chiefs pass defense

San Francisco 49ers wide receiver Deebo Samuel starts to run a route.

The 49ers are all about precision and play calling, which presents a different challenge than the Chiefs saw from AFC championship game opponent Baltimore, whose quarterback, Lamar Jackson could break a big play at any time. Kansas City cannot be overly aggressive with cool-under-pressure quarterback Brock Purdy because the 49ers have so many places they can go with the ball — George Kittle, Brandon Aiyuk, Deebo Samuel and Christian McCaffrey out of the backfield. So the Chiefs have to make sure that 49ers coach Kyle Shanahan’s formations and camouflage don’t mess up their coverages. Look for more conservative zone coverages than the Baltimore game. EDGE : 49ers

49ers run offense vs. Chiefs run defense

San Francisco 49ers running back Christian McCaffrey (23) runs against the Kansas City Chiefs in 2022.

San Francisco can grind out those yards on the ground with McCaffrey , who is so versatile and dangerous. The Chiefs did a really good job of shutting down the run against Baltimore, but the Ravens were complicit in that too. The big problem defenses have with the 49ers is San Francisco has so many ways to go with the ball, so committing to stop the run means all sorts of receiving options pop open. The 49ers were third in rushing yards per game this season, whereas the Chiefs were 17th when it came to stopping the run — and 26th in giving up yards after contact. EDGE : 49ers

Chiefs pass offense vs. 49ers pass defense

Kansas City Chiefs wide receiver Marquez Valdes-Scantling (11) runs in open field against the Baltimore Ravens.

Everybody knows the ball is going to Chiefs tight end Travis Kelce often, and rookie receiver Rashee Rice has stepped up in a big way. Now, who is the third option? That has been a mixed bag for quarterback Patrick Mahomes . That might be receiver Marquez Valdes-Scantling, and the Chiefs could test the 49ers by taking some deep shots with him. If the 49ers can mitigate the damage of Kelce and Rice, they will force Kansas City to rely on someone else. The wild card is Mahomes. He turns broken plays into big gains and can take off running at any point. The Chiefs have been more conservative with him this season, in part because their defense has improved. EDGE : Chiefs

Chiefs run offense vs. 49ers run defense

Kansas City Chiefs quarterback Patrick Mahomes hands off the ball to running back Isiah Pacheco.

Kansas City doesn’t have an overpowering run game but the Chiefs can use the ground game effectively at times. They did that in the divisional round in Buffalo, where Isiah Pacheco gained 97 yards against the Bills. The 49ers are so-so against the run and have been punished in the playoffs: Green Bay and Detroit averaged a combined 5.6 yards per carry. The Chiefs would love those numbers. CBS analyst Charles Davis said the 49ers need to focus on clogging the middle. “To me, it’s got to be muddy up front,” he said. “That defensive front has got to give their linebackers a chance. If they’re meeting Pacheco four yards downfield, it’s a lost cause and the chains are going to keep moving.” EDGE : Chiefs

Special teams

San Francisco 49ers placekicker Jake Moody awkwardly kicks a field goal against the Detroit Lions.

Both teams have to applaud the fact this game is being played indoors and weather won’t be a factor. The Chiefs have a seasoned veteran in kicker Harrison Butker, who has been in this situation before. That gives him a significant leg up on the 49ers’ rookie kicker, Jake Moody. There are aspects to like about both punters, San Francisco’s Mitch Wishnowsky and Kansas City’s Tommy Townsend, but neither team plans to do much punting. EDGE : Chiefs

Chiefs coach Andy Reid (right) and 49ers coach Kyle Shanahan talk on the field after a game in 2021.

This matchup features Kansas City’s Andy Reid and San Francisco’s Shanahan, two exceptional play callers. Reid broke through with his first Super Bowl victory four years ago, then won again last season. He’s Canton-bound. Shanahan has a chance to redefine his legacy after epic fourth-quarter Super Bowl collapses to New England and the Chiefs. EDGE : Chiefs

Three 49ers you should know

San Francisco 49ers linebackers Fred Warner (54) and Dre Greenlaw (57) celebrate a defensive play.

DRE GREENLAW, inside linebacker: Greenlaw and Fred Warner form one of the NFL’s best linebacker tandems. Although Warner has been a three-time All-Pro, Greenlaw has not received those accolades. Still, they have great chemistry working the middle of the field and that will be key in slowing Kelce.

JAKE BRENDEL, center: Brendel is a solid, under-the-radar player whose challenge will be keeping the offensive line on the same page to counter the blitzes of Chiefs defensive coordinator Steve Spagnuolo. Brendel also will need to help to neutralize Chris Jones so the Chiefs lineman doesn’t wreck San Francisco’s plans the way he did in the Super Bowl four years ago.

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DEOMMODORE LENOIR, cornerback: Charvarius Ward is the more decorated of 49ers corners, but Lenoir is a young player who continues to improve. He isn’t big but Lenoir can make those big hits and game-changing plays. He starts on the outside but moves inside to the slot in clear passing situations.

Three 49ers who must come through

San Francisco defensive end Nick Bosa adjusts his chin strap.

BROCK PURDY, quarterback: This one is obvious. Purdy needs to take care of the football and be a distributor, making the right decisions and taking advantage of all his playmakers. He’s done that for most of the season, although he had four interceptions against Baltimore and has been somewhat hit-and-miss during the playoffs.

NICK BOSA, defensive end: The 49ers already are planting the seed that the Chiefs hold on the offensive line and, in truth, that has been a problem at the tackle position for Kansas City. Bosa is a dangerous pass rusher, and the Chiefs will need to account for him at all times. He’s fast enough to catch Mahomes.

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JAKE MOODY, placekicker: Moody was a controversial pick in the third round — early to take a kicker. He has had a decent rookie season, although he has missed two kicks in the playoffs. He also missed a 41-yarder that cost San Francisco the game at Cleveland. Key for the 49ers is to make sure he’s kicking extra points, not field goals.

Three Chiefs you should know

Kansas City Chiefs cornerback L'Jarius Sneed (38) falls into coverage during the AFC championship game.

MARQUEZ VALDES-SCANTLING, wide receiver: The Chiefs have searched for that deep threat and appear to have found one in Valdes-Scantling, who has had receptions of 32 yards in each of the last two playoff games. He averaged 15 yards per catch this season.

JAWAAN TAYLOR, right tackle: Taylor and left tackle Donovan Smith are hoping not to hear their numbers called in the Super Bowl, because that would mean something went wrong. Both have had holding issues, particularly Taylor, and that could be an issue against a ferocious San Francisco pass rush.

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L’JARIUS SNEED, cornerback: If Sneed doesn’t put up eye-catching numbers Sunday, it’s probably because the 49ers are throwing away from his side of the field. He’s a smothering corner and that is critical against a team with so many receiving weapons. He made a key strip at the goal line in the win over Baltimore.

Three Chiefs who must come through

Kansas City Chiefs defensive tackle Chris Jones (95) celebrates a defensive play.

PATRICK MAHOMES, quarterback: A no-brainer. Mahomes, playing in his fourth Super Bowl in five years, already has two rings at age 28 and could one day eclipse Tom Brady as the greatest quarterback in NFL history. His ability to scramble and throw off all sorts of platforms and with so many arm angles make every snap a potential huge play. Just as dangerous with his legs.

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TRAVIS KELCE, tight end: Even if he weren’t dating Taylor Swift, Kelce would be squarely in the spotlight. Baltimore couldn’t stop him, and that’s not unusual considering the trail of wreckage the sure-handed Kelce has left in his wake. There figures to be a lot of action in the middle of the field.

CHRIS JONES, defensive tackle: Jones is a terror in the middle, just as he was against the 49ers four years ago when he tipped three passes at the line of scrimmage. Despite missing training camp and the season opener because of a contract dispute, he earned All-Pro honors and finished with 10½ sacks, second-most in the league for an interior defensive lineman.

Sam Farmer’s prediction

The 49ers have so many effective weapons, and a distributor in Purdy who is calm and poised beyond his years. Their roster is better, top to bottom, than Kansas City’s. However, after underestimating them in the run-up to the Super Bowl, just cannot bet against Mahomes and Reid finding a way to win their third Lombardi Trophy in five years. CHIEFS 31, 49ERS 27

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Honored by the Pro Football Hall of Fame in recognition of his “long and distinguished reporting in the field of pro football,” Sam Farmer has covered the NFL for 25 seasons. A graduate of Occidental College, he’s a two-time winner of California Sportswriter of the Year and first place for beat writing by Associated Press Sports Editors.

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    The Great Gatsby is the story of a mysterious millionaire, Jay Gatsby, who lives alone on an island in New York. F. Scott Fitzgerald wrote the book, but the narrator is Nick Carraway. Nick is Gatsby's neighbor, and he chronicles the story of Gatsby and his circle of friends, beginning with his introduction to the strange man and ending with ...

  14. Analytical vs Argumentative Essay: How Do They Compare?

    Key Takeaways An argumentative essay presents two sides of an argument and then uses evidence and facts to demonstrate why one side of an issue is stronger, better, or more favorable. The analytical essay, on the other hand, is an evaluation of information collected from different sources put together in one document.

  15. Analysis versus Summary

    Analysis versus Summary. When asked to analyze a document, we don't always know what to do. Faced with an assignment that calls for analysis of a topic—say, how the Civil War ended slavery—one might be tempted to simply restate facts. That is summarizing. Analysis, on the other hand, requires more than simply paraphrasing what a source says ...

  16. How To Write an Analysis (With Examples and Tips)

    Writing an analysis requires a particular structure and key components to create a compelling argument. The following steps can help you format and write your analysis: Choose your argument. Define your thesis. Write the introduction. Write the body paragraphs. Add a conclusion. 1. Choose your argument.

  17. Summary vs. Analysis

    6 Summary vs. Analysis Dr. Sandi Van Lieu. In your classes, you may be asked to analyze text. Analysis is not simply summary—summary gives the reader a shortened overview of the topic. Summary. A summary would be telling the reader what happened in the story. Take for example, summaries about the short story "The Lottery" by Shirley Jackson:

  18. How to Write a Literary Analysis Essay

    Step 1: Reading the text and identifying literary devices The first step is to carefully read the text (s) and take initial notes. As you read, pay attention to the things that are most intriguing, surprising, or even confusing in the writing—these are things you can dig into in your analysis.

  19. Summary vs. Analysis: What's the Difference?

    Purpose A summary uses paraphrasing to help readers understand the original document. Even if readers are unfamiliar with the original document, the summary provides enough context to make the main ideas clear. People often write summaries to save readers the effort of reviewing longer documents.

  20. Analyzing the Differences: Research Paper vs. Analysis Paper

    A research paper involves a deep dive into a particular subject to uncover new facts or data while an analysis paper uses those facts and data in order to form an argument.

  21. How to Write a Critical Analysis Essay

    How to Write a Critical Analysis Essay. Written by MasterClass. Last updated: Jun 7, 2021 • 3 min read. Critical analysis essays can be a daunting form of academic writing, but crafting a good critical analysis paper can be straightforward if you have the right approach. Critical analysis essays can be a daunting form of academic writing, but ...

  22. Critical Concepts: Explication vs. Analysis

    Explication vs. Analysis "To explicate" something is, in the most general sense of the term, to spell out its implications . Thus the noun "explication," in the corresponding sense, is, in the first instance, the process of spelling out the implications of something.

  23. How Americans Use Social Media

    78% of 18- to 29-year-olds say they use Instagram, far higher than the share among those 65 and older (15%). 65% of U.S. adults under 30 report using Snapchat, compared with just 4% of the oldest age cohort. 62% of 18- to 29-year-olds say they use TikTok, much higher than the share among adults ages 65 years and older (10%).

  24. The Poetry Analysis Of William Shakespeare: Sonnet 18 Vs Sonnet 73

    In Comparison, Natural figure of speech ry is used by Shakspere within both Sonnet 18 and Sonnet 73 to communicate his sexual honey to the referee. In Sonnet 18, Shakspere suggests that his sexual passion could not be compared to a summer's Clarence Day because 'Rough winds do shake the Darling bud s of May'.

  25. GATE 2024 Paper Analysis: Difficulty Level, Branch Wise Paper Review

    GATE 2024 Exam is being conducted for 30 test papers. Candidates must appear in either of one or up to two test papers. Each paper is for a total of 100 marks, General Aptitude (GA) is common for all papers (15 marks), and the rest of the paper covers the respective test paper syllabus (85 marks). ... After providing the GATE ECE 2024 analysis ...

  26. How to Write a Rhetorical Analysis

    A rhetorical analysis is a type of essay that looks at a text in terms of rhetoric. This means it is less concerned with what the author is saying than with how they say it: their goals, techniques, and appeals to the audience. A rhetorical analysis is structured similarly to other essays: an introduction presenting the thesis, a body analyzing ...

  27. 2024 Super Bowl: Chiefs vs. 49ers score prediction and analysis

    Feb. 8, 2024 3 AM PT. LAS VEGAS — Los Angeles Times NFL writer Sam Farmer breaks down the Super Bowl LVIII matchup between the San Francisco 49ers and the defending champion Kansas City Chiefs ...