Environmental sustainability, trade and economic growth in India: implications for public policy

International Trade, Politics and Development

ISSN : 2586-3932

Article publication date: 10 November 2020

Issue publication date: 14 December 2020

Based on the hypothesis of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC), the purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between environmental pollutants (as measured by CO 2 emissions) and GDP for India, over the period 1980–2012. The presence of an inverted “ U ” shape relationship is examined while controlling for factors such as the degree of trade openness, foreign direct investment, oil prices, the legal system and industrialization.

Design/methodology/approach

To verify whether the EKC follows a linear, quadratic or polynomial form, autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach for cointegration with structural breaks is adopted. The annual time series data for carbon emissions (CO 2 ), economic growth (GDP), industrial development (industrialization), foreign direct investment and trade openness have been obtained from World Development Indicators online database. Crude oil price (international price index) for the period is collected from the International Monetary Fund. Data for total petroleum consumption are collected from the US Energy Information Agency. Data for economic freedom variables are from the Fraser Institute's Economic Freedom Index's online database.

The findings support the existence of inverted U -shaped EKC in the short-run, but not in the long-run. A linear monotonic relationship has also been estimated in select model specifications. Additionally, trade openness has been estimated to reduce emissions in models, which incorporate FDI. Else, where significant, its impact on carbon emissions is adverse. A rise in fuel price leads to reduction in carbon emissions across model specifications. Further, the lower size of government degrades the environment both in the long-run and short-run.

Practical implications

Given the existence of the pollution haven hypothesis, wherein more trade and foreign direct investments cause environmental degradation, the paper proposes formulation of appropriate regulatory mechanisms that are environmentally friendly. Additionally, India's new economic policies, favoring liberalization, privatization and globalization, reinforces the need to strengthen environmental regulations.

Originality/value

Incorporation of economic freedom as measured by the “Size of Government” in the EKC model is unique. “Size of Government” deserves a special mention. The rationale for including this explanatory variable is to understand whether countries with lower government size are more polluting. After all, theory does suggest that goods and services, which have higher social cost vis-à-vis private cost, shall be overproduced in economies that adopt more market-friendly policies, necessitating government intervention. In the study, size of government is measured as per the definition and methodology adopted by Fraser Institute's Economic Freedom of the World Index.

  • Environmental Kuznets curve (EKC)
  • Trade openness
  • Foreign direct investment
  • Economic freedom
  • Size of government
  • Autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL)

Sajeev, A. and Kaur, S. (2020), "Environmental sustainability, trade and economic growth in India: implications for public policy", International Trade, Politics and Development , Vol. 4 No. 2, pp. 141-160. https://doi.org/10.1108/ITPD-09-2020-0079

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2020, Aparna Sajeev and Simrit Kaur

Published in International Trade, Politics and Development . Published by Emerald Publishing Limited. This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) license. Anyone may reproduce, distribute, translate and create derivative works of this article (for both commercial and non-commercial purposes), subject to full attribution to the original publication and authors. The full terms of this license may be seen at: http://creativecommons.org/licences/by/4.0/legalcode

1. Introduction

Energy has always been closely associated with economic growth and development. However, in the process the negative externalities associated with the usage of energy have not been taken care of adequately. Adverse externalities are major roadblocks to sustainable development. Climate change caused by anthropogenic global warming can undoubtedly be considered as the major hurdle to sustainable development. Left unmanaged, climate change may reverse the development progress and compromise the safety and security of present as well as future generations. According to the IPPC's fifth assessment report (AR5), the period between 1983 and 2012 has been the warmest 30-year period in the Northern Hemisphere. It is primarily caused by increased concentration of CO 2, CH 4 and nitrous oxide since industrialization. In fact, the concentration of CO 2 in 2012 was 40% more than it was in the mid-1800s [1] . Fossil fuel and land use changes primarily cause global increase of CO 2 concentration. Crude oil accounted for 39% of the world total primary energy source in 2017 and contributed to 33% of the global CO 2 emissions. In 2018, CO 2 emissions reached a historic high of 33.1 Gt. Nearly two-thirds of global emissions for 2011 originated from only 10 countries, with shares of China (25.4%) and the United States (16.9%) far surpassing the rest. Combined, these two countries alone produced 13.2 Gt of CO 2 . The two high emitter countries are followed by India, Russian Federation, Japan, Germany, Korea, Canada, Islamic Republic of Iran and Saudi Arabia. Further, by 2012, Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) countries emissions had increased to 39% of the total world emissions, from 27% in 1992. As represented in Figure 1 , a quarter of the total world emissions in fact are from China alone. India presently is the third largest emitter of CO 2 in the world. The emissions of Brazil and India as a percentage of total emissions in the world doubled in 2012 compared to 1992. Over the same period, Russia and South Africa's contribution to total world emissions decreased to 5 (from 9.44%) and 1% (from 1.5%), respectively, over the same period.

Globally, crude oil prices fell from 100US$ per barrel in mid-2014 to below 30US$ per barrel in early 2016. Natural gas and coal prices also fell during this period. International Monetary Fund (IMF) quantifies lower fossil fuel prices to act as a form of economic stimulus. According to World Energy Outlook ( WEO, 2015 ), lower oil prices not only supports growth, but stimulates oil use as well. It also diminishes the case for efficiency investments for switching to alternative fuels.

For emerging economies such as India, [2] it is important to understand how much environment friendly its economic growth is India's GDP growth rate and carbon emissions increased steadily over the period 1980–2013. India's GDP growth rate peaked at around 10% in 2010 and then slowly moved down to around 7% by 2013. In Figure 2 , India's real GDP and carbon emissions from total energy consumption, as well as, from petroleum consumption for the period 1980–2013 are presented. India's real GDP witnessed a steady increase from around US $0.2tn in 1980 to around US$1.48tn in 2013. A similar increasing pattern is witnessed in carbon emissions from total energy consumption, which increased from around 291 million metric tonnes in 1980 to around 1830 million metric tonnes in 2012. Similarly, India's carbon emissions from petroleum consumption also increased from around 100 million metric tonnes in 1980 to around 435 million metric tonnes in 2012.

Government policies in developing countries are crucial in deciding the flow of foreign direct investment (FDI) to these countries. According to the UN trade body, India is the 9th largest recipient of FDI of US$52 bn in 2019. The net inflow of FDI as a percentage of GDP though is considerably small for India, it has increased from 0.02% in 1991 to 3.62% in 2008. By 2019, the net flow of FDI is at 1.76%. India's new economic policy of liberalization, privatization and globalization adopted in 1991 led to this increase in FDI inflow/outflow. However, one of the key factors influencing foreign investment in developing countries like India, is that they set environmental standards below efficiency levels. As international trade relates one country to another, developing and underdeveloped economies rely on technology transfer through FDI that may reduce pollution in the long-run ( Dinda, 2004 ; Dean, 2004 ; Wheeler, 2000 ).

Pressure is mounting on India to commit for a legally binding agreement on cutting CO 2 emissions. Under such circumstances, the need to examine the impact of various contributing factors to CO 2 emissions cannot be negated. In this regard, an important element to analyze is the impact of GDP on CO 2 emissions. This hypothesized inverted U -shaped relationship between environment pollutant and economic growth in economic literature is referred to as the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC).

Simon Kuznets first proposed the inverted U -shaped relationship in 1955, while explaining the relationship between income inequality and per capita income. The Kuznets curve was adapted in environmental economics literature in 1990's by economists such as Grossman and Kruger (1991) , Shafik and Bandhyopadhay (1992) , Panayotou (1993) and Selden and Song (1994) . The EKC hypothesis summarizes a dynamic process of change – namely, as income of an economy grows over time, emission levels first grow; reach a crest and then start turning down after a threshold level of income ( Y 1 ) has been attained ( Figure 3 ). Further, as the economy reaches income levels higher than Y 2 , the direction of relationship between environmental degradation and per capita income (GDP) changes. Beyond Y 2 , both environmental degradation and GDP move in the same direction. EKC is a long-term phenomenon and does not make an explicit reference to time. It is a development path for a single economy that grows through different stages over time. Other things remaining constant, in their process of development, each country experiences income and emission situations lying on the specific EKC. While a typical EKC is an inverted U -shaped curve, linear and N-shaped curves are also plausible.

Scale effects, technological effects and composition effects are the three channels through which economic growth affects the environmental quality ( Grossman and Krueger, 1991 ). In this initial stage of economic development, pollution increases with increasing output. As, the economy transforms from an industrial to a service economy, the pollution level plateaus. Also, with technical progress like the adaption of cleaner technologies, pollution level further reduces. Thus, scale effect that has a negative impact on the environment dominates the first stage; then with economic growth, composition effect and the technological effect that has a positive impact on the environment start dominating; thereby the inverted- U shaped curve.

International trade is a crucial factor that can explain EKC. As trade volume increases, environmental quality could decline or improve because of opposing directional impacts of scale effect, composition effect and technique effect. The composition effect is associated with two related hypotheses: displacement hypothesis and pollution haven hypothesis (PHH) ( Dinda, 2004 ). The displacement hypothesis states that trade liberalization or openness will lead to the more rapid growth of pollution-intensive industries in less developed economies, as developed economies enforce strict environmental regulations ( Harrison, 1996 ; Rock, 1996 ; Tobey, 1990 ; Dinda, 2004 ). PHH argues that with trade increasing income levels, there will be more demand for a cleaner environment, thereby pushing heavy polluting industries to countries with weaker regulations. PHH refers to the possibility of multinational firms, especially the ones engaged in highly polluting activities, relocating to countries with lower environmental protection rules and regulations. Environmental regulation exerts a moderating effect on the inverted- U shaped relationship with economic development and carbon emissions.

Since EKC is a long-run phenomenon ( Lindmark, 2002 ), the same using time series technique is considered more appropriate ( Akbostanci, 2009 ). As such, we use a time series methodology for the present study. In this study, we hypothesize the EKC between carbon emissions and GDP. The control variables used are, crude oil prices, trade openness, FDI inflow and select variables of economic freedom, especially as captured by size of government.

The flow of the paper is as follows: Section 2 provides the review of literature. This is followed by Section 3 , where the methodology (pertaining to unit root test with structural break and ARDL technique) and data sources are discussed. Empirical results are reported in Section 4 . Finally, in Section 5 , the paper concludes from a broad policy perspective.

2. Review of literature

In last few decades, there has been an increasing attention on how economic growth impacts environmental degradation. Though literature documents this relationship, in general, the causal links and direction of impact remains ambiguous. While reviewing the EKC literature we begin by examining research papers that use similar econometric methodology as adopted in the present research. Thereafter, papers that adopt an alternative methodology have been reviewed. Accordingly, the next two subsections follow:

2.1 Papers based on autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) econometric methodology

In this subsection, papers that support the EKC relationship are reviewed first, followed by papers that do not support the EKC hypothesis. Thereafter, specific papers that examine the EKC relationship for India are reviewed.

Balaguer and Cantavella (2016) perform a structural analysis on EKC for Spain for the period 1874–2011. In the research paper, real oil prices are used as an indicator of variations in fuel energy consumption. Evidence supports the EKC hypothesis in the long-run, as well as, in the short-run. Further, empirical results support the idea that changes in real oil prices are relevant in order to explain CO 2 emissions. They observe that with a 1% rise in oil prices, the CO 2 emissions reduce by 0.4% in Spain. They also check the possibility of flatter EKC curve in presence of technological effectiveness put forward by Dasgupta et al. (2002) and reject the same for the sample period for Spain. Boluk and Mert (2015) provide empirical evidence for the potential of renewable energy within an EKC framework for Turkey. Using ARDL approach, the relationship between carbon emissions, income and the electricity production from renewable energy sources has been investigated for the period 1961–2010. Based on their analysis, the authors conclude that there is an inverted U -shaped relationship between per capita emissions and per capita real income, supporting the EKC hypothesis in both the long and short-run. Jelbi and Youssef (2015) investigate the dynamic causal relationships between CO 2 emissions, economic growth, renewable and nonrenewable energy consumption, and trade in Tunisia during the period 1980–2009. The authors observe that EKC hypothesis is not supported in the long-run, whereas in the short-run the inverted U -shaped EKC hypothesis is supported. In case of trade, both per capita exports and imports have a positive impact on per capita CO 2 emissions.

The study by Ahmed and Long (2012) hypothesize EKC to investigate the relationship between CO 2 , energy consumption, economic growth, trade liberalization and population density in Pakistan. The study uses an ARDL model approach for a sample period from 1971 to 2009. Two main findings of the study are – first, while there is a long-run inverted U -shaped relationship between variables; there is no evidence to support the existence of EKC in the short-run. Second, trade openness improves the environment only in the short-run. Additionally, Pakistan's population density has been estimated to contribute to environmental degradation.

Tiwari et al. (2013) test the EKC hypothesis for Indian economy by incorporating coal consumption and trade openness. The study employs an ARDL model for the period 1966–2009, and reinforces the results using Johansen cointegration. Based on their analysis, the authors conclude that there is presence of EKC both in the long-run and short-run. Further, both coal consumption and trade openness also contribute to carbon emissions in the long-run. Jayanthakumaran et al. (2012) using ARDL methodology compares the relationship between growth, trade and energy use for India and China. Structural breaks are endogenously determined for the period 1971–2007 using the Lagrange multiplier unit root test proposed by Lee and Strazicich (2003 , 2004) . Further, existence of EKC relationship is established for both India and China. In India, the increase in energy consumption increases per capita emission by 0.97% in the long-run. However, the authors find that when manufacturing – GDP ratio is incorporated in the model, the long-run relationship between the variables no longer exists for India.

2.2 Papers based on econometric methodology, other than ARDL

For the period 1951–1986, Holtz-Eakin and Selden (1995) employ a panel data model for 130 countries. Their findings suggest evidence of diminishing marginal propensity to emit CO 2 as economies develop. Further, the forecast results indicate that global emissions of CO 2 will continue to grow at an annual rate of 1.8%. The study by Apergis (2016) assesses the “emission-income” relationship in EKC hypothesis using common correlated effects, fully modified ordinary least squares and the quantile estimation procedures. The analysis for 15 countries is done using data for the period 1960–2013. The results of the study indicate the presence of a nonlinear link between emissions per capita and personal income per capita across the majority of 15 countries. The paper concludes by recommending the use of more renewable sources of energy to reduce energy dependence and ensure energy security.

Using the panel data over the 1996–2012, Li et al. (2016) estimate the impact of economic development, energy consumption, trade openness and urbanization on the carbon dioxide, liquid waste and solid waste emissions for 28 Chinese provinces. The generalized method of moments estimate (GMM) estimator, as well as, ARDL estimates (long-run as well as short-run) support the EKC hypothesis for three major pollutants, namely, carbon dioxide, industrial waste water and industrial waste solid emissions in China. The results also indicate that trade openness and urbanization leads to environmental degradation in the long-run (estimates are insignificant in the short-run) in China, though the magnitude of severity varies across different pollutant emissions.

Robalion-Lopez et al. (2015) analyze various conditions for fulfillment of EKC hypothesis in the medium term for an oil-producing developing country, Venezuela. Using a model based on Kaya and Yokobori (1993) , they use data from 1980 to 2010. The value of the GDP, the energy consumption and the CO 2 emissions from 2011 to 2025 have also been estimated under four different scenarios which constrain GDP, productive sectoral structure, energy intensity and energy matrix. Based on the analysis, authors conclude that Venezuela does not fulfill the EKC hypothesis under any of the scenarios. The results show that Venezuela in 2010 is still in the first stage of the EKC. However, the authors state that the country could be on the way to achieve environmental stabilization in the medium term, if economic growth is accompanied with increasing use of renewable energy, appropriated changes in the energy matrix and in the productive sectoral structure.

Saidi and Hammami (2015) use a dynamic panel model to examine the impact of energy consumption and CO 2 emissions on economic growth of 58 countries. The results show that energy consumption and FDI have a positive and significant impact on economic growth in the panel of countries and that CO 2 emissions have a negative and statistically significant impact on economic growth. Zakaraya et al. (2015) analyze the interactions between total energy consumption, FDI, economic growth and CO 2 emissions in the BRICS countries for the period 1990–2012. The major contribution in their study is the consideration of environmental pollution and the amount of carbon emissions caused by foreign investment. Their study reinforces the view that environmental policies of developing countries are incomplete. Resultantly, foreign investors who are limited by policies in their own countries, are attracted to developing economies resulting in environmental degradation.

Tutulmaz (2015) investigates the EKC relationship between CO 2 emissions and GDP per capita for Turkey for the period 1968–2007. An initial phase of an inverted U -shape EKC relationship has been determined for Turkey from their estimations. Rather surprisingly, this result is conflicting with that of similar models for Turkey. Basis that, the authors title their paper as, “Environmental Kuznets Curve time series application for Turkey: Why controversial results exist for similar models?” Wang et al. (2015) provide specific application of EKC in explaining the effect of population growth on environment using overlapping generation model. Further, using data for 30 provinces from China between 2001 and 2010, effects of population growth on the population–income relationship is examined. The empirical analysis supports the presence of an inverted U -shaped relationship between polluting emissions and income. Simulation results in the paper illustrate that higher population growth makes the EKC steeper with higher peaks.

Pao and Tsai (2011) examine the dynamic relationship between CO 2 emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in Brazil for the period 1980–2007. The results support the EKC hypothesis as energy–income relationship appears to be an inverted U -shaped curve. Ghosh (2010) probes the relationship between CO 2 emission, energy supply and economic growth while controlling investment and employment in India for the period 1971–2006. The empirical results (using ARDL), establishes a long-run equilibrium among the variables. The results show the presence of bi-directional causality between CO 2 emissions and economic growth, justifying India's stand against mandatory emissions cut by developing nations. Further, results also establish presence of unidirectional causality from economic growth to energy supply and energy supply to carbon emissions.

Cole (2004) constructs a model to examine the evidence for the PHH and to assess the extent to which trade, through pollution haven effects and structural change has contributed to the EKC relationship. Using detailed data on North–South trade flows for pollution intensive products, the evidence for the PHH is assessed. EKC analysis for six air pollutants and four water pollutants has been undertaken; and pollution haven effects have not been found to exist for all pollutants. Also, when found, their economic significance has been limited. The author also interprets that the share of manufacturing output in GDP has a positive and statistically significant relationship with pollution. Hill and Magnani (2002) too examine the EKC relationship for a panel of 156 countries using generalized least squares model. However, they find no evidence of an inverted U -shaped EKC hypothesis as emissions monotonically increase with income per capita.

List and Gallet (1999a , b) use a state-level panel data of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions for the period 1929–1994 for several states of America to test the appropriateness of the “one size fits all” reduced-form regression used in EKC literature. The results provide evidence to support the presence of inverted- U path. Further, the results also indicate that state-level EKC's differ from one another and over time as well, which restricts cross-sections to undergo identical experiences over time. Another observed trend is that states whose EKCs peak to the left of the traditional confidence interval tends to have higher per capita emissions of the respective pollutant presumably because states with higher per capita emissions react more quickly to adopt policies designed to reduce pollution.

To summarize, while literature on EKC is rich, the specific EKC relationship is unique to each country. Resultantly, the motivation to take up the present EKC study for India. Also, since the environment impact of India's New Economic Policy (which promotes liberalization, privatization and globalization), remains largely unexplored, the present paper analyzes the same.

3. Research methodology and data sources

The objective of the study is to verify the EKC hypothesis for India. In order to do so we examine whether the EKC follows a linear, quadratic or polynomial form. Though literature predominantly discusses quadratic form, we also examine if a cubic form EKC relationship exists between environmental pollutants and economic growth. The time period of our study is from 1980 to 2012.

In this study, to test the validity of EKC hypothesis the following equation has been estimated [3] : (1) EP t = α t + β 1 Y t + β 2 Y t 3 + β 3 Y t 3 + β 4 Z t + e t

EP: It represents environmental pollutant as measured by carbon emissions (CO 2 ) . In our study, carbon emissions (CO 2 ) are from the consumption of petroleum. CO 2 is in million metric tons.

Y: It represents real GDP per capita. It is the gross value of goods and services produced within the domestic territory of India in a specific period, adjusted for inflation. Real GDP divided by mid-year population provides real GDP per capita. Data are in constant 2005 US$. As represented in Eqn (1) , its square and cubic form is also incorporated.

Z: It represents other variables such as trade openness, foreign direct investment, crude oil price, petroleum consumption and economic freedom as measured by Size of Government. Each of these is hereby described:

Trade openness is total value of import and exports as a percentage of GDP; FDI is net inflows as a percentage of GDP; Crude oil price is the simple average of three spot prices: Dated Brent, West Texas Intermediate and the Dubai Fateh (Base year −2005); Petroleum consumption is the total value of crude petroleum consumed. It is in thousand barrels per day and economic freedom as measured by “Size of Government”.

t : represents time

α ,   β : constant term and coefficient parameters

e : error term

β 1 , β 2   and   β 3 jointly determine the shape of EKC curve, i.e. a linear, inverted- U or N type EKC curve.

A linear relationship implies: β 1 > 0 and β 2 = β 3 = 0 .

An inverted U -shaped relationship implies: β 1 > 0 ,     β 2 < 0     and   β 3 = 0.

A U -shaped curve implies: β 1 < 0 ,     β 2 > 0   and   β 3 = 0.

A N -shaped figure or a cubic polynomial relationship implies: β 1 > 0 ,     β 2 < 0     and β 3 > 0.

The variables are briefly explained:

Data: The annual time series data for carbon emissions (CO 2 ), economic growth (GDP), industrial development (industrialization), FDI and trade openness has been obtained from World Development Indicators (WDI) online database. Crude oil price (international price index) for the period is collected from IMF. Data for total petroleum consumption is collected from the US Energy Information Agency. Data for economic freedom variables are from Fraser Institute's Economic Freedom Index's online database.

To examine the said relationships, unit root tests with structural break, and ARDL technique has been adopted.

Unit root tests: Numerous unit root tests are available in applied economics to test the stationarity properties of the variables. The unit root tests are augmented Dickey–Fuller by Dickey and Fuller (1979) , Phillips–Perron (P–P) by Phillips and Perron (1988) , Ng–Perron by Ng and Perron (2001) and Kwiatkowski–Phillips–Schmidt–Shin by Kwiatkowski et al. (1992) . All these do not have information about structural break points that occur in the series and hence provide biased and spurious results. Thus, in our paper, we perform a breakpoint unit root test similar to that of Perron (1989) . The null hypothesis is that the time series has a unit root with possibly nonzero drift, against the alternative that the process is “trend-stationary”. For carbon emissions, the break point has been estimated in the year 1993, for both the “intercept” and “intercept and trend” model

Autoregressive distributed lag model (ARDL): Cointegration is defined as a systematic comovement among two or more macroeconomic variables over the long-run. The presence of cointegration can be considered as a pretest for possibility of “spurious” correlation among variables. A standard ARDL equation with a dependent variable, y , and two other explanatory variables, x 1 and x 2 will be: (2) Δ y t = β 0 + θ 0 y t − 1 + θ 1 x 1 t − 1 + θ 2 x 2 t − 1 + ∑ β i Δ y t − i + ∑ γ j Δ x 1 t − j + ∑ δ k Δ x 2 t − k + e t where Δ is the first difference operator.

The ARDL method of cointegration analysis was first introduced by Hendry (1995) and extended by Pesaran and Shin (1999) and Pesaran et al. (2001) . An ARDL model gives a simple univariate framework for testing the existence of single level relationship between the dependent and independent variables, when it is not known with certainty whether the regressor are purely I(0) , purely I(1) or mutually cointegrated.

One of the key assumptions in the bounds testing methodology of Pesaran et al. (2001) is that the errors of Eqn (2) must be serially independent. To test for serial correlation of the residuals the Q -stat correlogram test is performed. Since we have a model with autoregressive structure we have to be sure that the model is “dynamically stable”. To test for the stability of the long-run relationship over time, the cumulative sum of recursive residuals (CUSUM) [5] test is utilized. This stability test is appropriate in time series data, especially when we do not know when structural change might happen.

θ 0 = θ 1 = θ 2 = 0 (No long-run relationship exists).

θ 0 ≠ θ 1 ≠ θ 2 ≠ 0 (A long-run relationship exists).

The computed F -statistic value is evaluated with the critical values tabulated in Pesaran et al. (2001) . Pesaran et al. (2001) supply bounds on the critical values of the asymptotic distribution of the F -statistic. They give lower and upper bound critical values for various situations (different number of variables, ( k +1)). In each case, the lower bound is based on the assumption that all the variables are I(0), and the upper bound is based on the assumption that all of the variables are I(1). If the computed F -statistic falls below the lower bound one concludes that the variables are I(0), so no cointegration is possible. If the F -statistic exceeds the upper bound, it is concluded that cointegration exists. Finally, if the computed F -statistic falls between the lower and upper bound values, then the results are inconclusive. Further, if there is evidence of long-run relationship (cointegration) among the variables, ARDL-EC model is used to estimate the long-run relationship and also to estimate the short-run dynamics.

4. Empirical results

4.1 unit root test.

To ensure that none of the variables are stationary at I (2) or beyond that order of integration, breakpoint unit root test has been conducted. All variables have been tested at level and at first differences. Table 1 reports the results of the breakpoint unit root tests with “intercept” and “intercept and trend”. It shows that all variables are stationary at I (0) or I (1).

Thereafter, the ARDL bound testing approach has been applied to examine the long-run relationship between variables. The advantage of bound testing is that it is flexible regarding the order of integration of the series [6] . Following the Schwarz criteria (SC), a lag length of 2 was chosen, for all models. The structural break of CO 2 emissions series estimated at year 1993 is taken across all model specifications.

The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between environmental pollutant (as measured by CO 2 emissions) and GDP for India. Following the methodology as developed by Jebli and Youssef (2015) and Jayanthakumaran et al. (2012) , among others, we develop two models based on EKC hypothesis: Model 1 and Model 2 [7] .

The general empirical form of Model 1 is: C O 2 = f ( GDP t ,   GDP t 2 ,   GDP t 3 ,   CrudePrice t ,   Petroleum   Consumption t ,   Trade   Openness t )

Model 1 can be rewritten as an ARDL model with intercept and trend as follows: (3) Δ CO 2 = α 0 + α 1 t + ∑ i = 1 m β 1 i Δ CO 2 t − 1 + ∑ i = 0 m β 2 i Δ GDP t − i + ∑ i = 0 m β 3 i Δ GDP t − 1 2 + ∑ i = 0 m β 4 i Δ GDP t − 1 3 + + ∑ i = 0 m β 5 i Δ Crude   Price t − 1 + ∑ i = 0 m β 6 i Δ Petroleum   Consumption t − 1 + ∑ i = 0 m β 7 i Trade   Openness t − 1 + β 9 CO 2 t − 1 + β 10 GDP t − 1 + β 11 GDP t − 1 2 + β 12 GDP t − 1 3 + β 13 Crude   Price t − 1 + β 14 Petroleum   Consumption t − 1 + β 15 Trade   Openness t − 1 + β 16 Break + β 17 Trend + v t Model 2 is an extension of Model 1 and includes two more explanatory variables, namely, size of government and FDI.

Table 2 reports the results of ARDL bounds testing approach to cointegration in the presence of a structural break in the series. The results show that our calculated F -statistics is greater than upper bound at 1 and 10% levels in models 1 and 2, respectively. This leads us to reject the null hypothesis of no cointegration. This indicates that there is a cointegrating relationship among the variables across models in the long-run. Q -stat for Model 1 and Model 2 are provided in Tables A1 and A2 .

As for the expected sign of explanatory variables other than β 2 , β 3 and β 4 (estimated coefficients of GDP PC , GDP PC 2 and GDP PC 3 , respectively), one expects the coefficient of crude oil price to be negative since an increase in price of oil is expected to reduce oil consumption. Further, the coefficient for petroleum consumption is expected to be positive, as higher consumption is expected to promote pollution. The coefficients of trade openness and FDI may be positive or negative depending upon the level of economic development. In general, if developing economies have less stringent environment regulations, greater trade openness and more FDI are expected to increase pollution. Finally, coefficient of economic freedom index as measured by “Lower Size of Government” is expected to be positive as economies with greater private sector participation may overproduce goods and services for which social costs outweigh private costs. This certainly is the case with pollution emitting industries where negative externalities are immense.

The results of cointegration tests are reported in Table 3 . We proceed with a cubic form for EKC hypothesis for both the models.

In models 1 and 2 [8] , the coefficient of GDP PC remains positive and significant across specifications. For Model 1, the coefficient of GDP PC square and GDP PC cube equals zero implying that there is a monotonic increase in carbon emissions with an increase in per capita GDP. This largely implies that EKC's linear model hypothesis (and not inverted U -shaped hypothesis) is valid for India both in the long-run and short-run. However, in Model 2, in the short-run, presence of an inverted U -shaped EKC has been estimated. Further, as expected, increase in crude oil price has a negative and significant effect on carbon emissions, as the estimated coefficient is negative (and significant) across model specifications. Also, where significant, the coefficient of petroleum consumption is positive. This implies that higher consumption of energy is associated with increase in carbon emissions. This result is also as per expectation. In Model 1, the coefficient of trade openness is positive and significant at 5% level in the long-run. This implies that increase in trade openness is expected to be linked with higher carbon emissions in the long-run. However, in Model 2, the coefficient of trade openness is negative and significant at 1% level, both in the long-run and short-run.

Further, in Model 2, the coefficient of FDI is positive and significant at 1% level in the long-run but negative and significant in the short-run. This implies that an increase in FDI is expected to be linked directly with carbon emissions in the long-run, but not in the short-run. In Model 2, the coefficient of economic freedom as measured by lower “size of government” is positive and significant. This means that periods during which size of government is lower are associated with higher carbon emissions. In Model 2, the coefficient of trade openness and size of government in the short-term corroborates with the long-term relationship established.

In the short-run as expected, the coefficient of the error correction terms is negative and significant across model specification (at 1% level). This corroborates with our established long-run relationship between carbon emissions, GDP PC and other variables. The changes in carbon emissions are expected to be corrected within a year. Further, it is expected that full convergence will take place within a year and reach the stable path of equilibrium. Thus, we may conclude that the adjustment process is fast for the Indian economy.

5. Conclusion and policy recommendations

Based on the hypothesis of EKC, the study investigates the relationship between environmental pollutants (as measured by CO 2 emissions) and per capita GDP for India, over the period 1980–2012. Making use of the ARDL bounds testing approach for cointegration with structural breaks, the presence of EKC has been examined (in two model specifications: both long-run and short-run) while controlling for factors such as oil prices, petroleum consumption and trade openness in Model 1, as also, FDI and size of government in Model 2.

A monotonic relationship is observed between per capita carbon emissions and per capita GDP in Model 1, both in the long-run and short-run. Evidence to support existence of an inverted “ U ” shaped EKC, in India is validated only in the short-run for Model specification 2. This implies that carbon emissions begin to decline, once the threshold level of GDP per capita is achieved.

Rise in fuel price leads to reduction in carbon emissions and increase in petroleum consumption promotes emissions.

Impact of trade openness is ambiguous across model specifications. While in Model 1, the long-run impact of trade openness induces carbon emissions,in model 2, increase in trade is associated with lower levels of carbon emissions. The short-run impact of trade openness in Model 2 is negative (and significant) implying that as the Indian economy opened to trade, in the short-run, the CO 2 emissions reduced.This can be on account of technological and composition effects that are expected with economic growth and FDI inflow in an open economy.

In Model 2, an increase in net FDI inflow has an adverse effect on environment in the long-run, though the short-run impacts on environment are favorable. Some of these findings are in line with those of Pao and Tsai (2011) , Jian and Rencheng (2007) and Havens (1999), as they too have estimated that higher FDI increases environmental degradation. This indicates that India (like other developing countries) attracts FDI in polluting industries, maybe because of lower environmental standards. This incentivizes heavy polluters to move to countries with lower environment regulations. The migration or displacement of “dirty” industries from the developed regions to the developing regions is referred to as “Pollution Haven Hypothesis (PHH)”. The PHH theory of polluting multinational companies coming to countries with lower environmental standards is supported by our results. In addition, the environmental quality could decline through the scale effect as increasing FDI/trade volume raises the size of economy, which per se increases pollution as well.

Our findings indicate that higher economic freedom as measured by lower size of government has a positive impact on carbon emissions. Adverse impact of lower size of government on environment is in sync with the theory of negative externalities as proposed by Stiglitz. This relationship validates the theory that greater participation by the private sector in economic activities of a nation, promotes negative externalities such as those caused by smoke or air pollution. To address concerns of market failure, governments must introduce effective regulations to address climate concerns.

Adopting interventionist policies to control environmental degradation : Several studies ( Tiwari et al. , 2013 ; Jayanthakumaran et al. , 2012 ; Agras and Chapman, 1999 ; Sajeev, 2018 ) have shown that one may expect a delinking between environmental degradation and economic growth beyond the threshold limit, as and when it is attained. In such cases, promotion of economic growth seems to be a sufficient condition for safeguarding environment. However, our finding suggests that growth and carbon emissions go together. Since economic growth cannot be compromised, especially for developing economies such as India, governments need to actively introduce interventionist policies to control environmental degradation.

Rationalizing and phasing of government fossil fuel subsidies: According to the IEA statistics, oil subsidies in India were 29.7bnUS$ in 2014 (Real, 2013). For the same period, China's oil subsidies stood at 11.8bn US$. Such high subsidies need to be reduced and rationalized. IEA reports that removing fossil fuel subsidy can limit carbon emissions by 2.6Gt by 2035, which is nearly half of the reduction needed to limit global warming to 2°C. While the main aim for subsidy is to make it more affordable, especially for the poor and vulnerable, often the impacts are not optimal due to poor targeting and/or associated systemic leakages. Since subsidies reduce the incentive to curb wasteful energy consumption, there is an associated environment cost of subsidy as well. Straining of government budgets in such cases also reduces government's flexibility to invest in greener technologies. To mitigate the adverse social consequences of removal of fossil fuel subsidies, cross-subsidization can be introduced for promoting use of renewable energy sources, as also more energy efficient technologies.

Imposition of carbon tax : The explicit costs of carbon emissions, in general, are paid by the public in the form of rising health care costs and higher food prices due to crop failures. Stern Review ( 2006 ) suggests that climate change is a classic example of market failure. By introducing carbon tax, governments can reduce the gap between private and social cost of fossil fuel consumption. This shall promote more efficient usage and utilization of the fuel as carbon tax increases the price that consumers pay for energy. IMF proposes a global carbon tax at $75 per tonne of carbon to help limit global warming to 2°C above preindustrial levels. The IMF estimates that a carbon tax of $75 per tonne of carbon consumed in India will increase the price of coal by 230%, natural gas by 25%, electricity by 83% and petrol by 13%. Fortunately, the current fall in oil prices have presented an opportunity to emerging economies to introduce a flexible regime of carbon taxing that can be linked with crude oil prices. Removal of fossil fuel subsidy and carbon taxation should be integrated with clean energy and energy savings scheme derived from technology transfers that are aimed under the Kyoto Protocol. Usage of renewable energy sources is to be promoted as well for energy secure future.

To conclude, reinforced by India's stance on promoting liberalization, privatization and globalization, effective environment friendly regulatory mechanisms must be in place.

environmental economics research topics india

Total carbon emissions in BRICS (1992 and 2012)

environmental economics research topics india

India's real GDP and carbon emissions (1980–2013)

environmental economics research topics india

Environmental Kuznets curve

Breakpoint unit root test

Note(s) : *Probabilities may not be valid for this equation specification

International Energy Agency Report, 2015, Outlook-India report. International Energy Agency.

Fastest growing economy in 2018 with a growth rate of 7.3%, ADB.

De Bryun and Heintz (2002)

Economic freedom of the world measures the degree to which the policies and institutions of the countries are supportive to economic freedom.

CUSUM test and the cumulative sum of squares of recursive residuals (CUSUMSQ) test was proposed by Brown et al. (1975) . The null hypothesis is that the coefficient vector is the same in every period and the alternative hypothesis is that they are different. The CUMSUM and CUSUMSQ statistics are plotted against their 5% critical bound. If the plot of these statistics remains within the critical bound, one fails to reject the null hypothesis of no structural change.

The variables can be integrated of the order I(0) or I(1) or I(0)/I(1).

Only the Models that are stable and without autocorrelation are reported in the study.

Model 1, controls for trade as a factor influencing EKC, whereas in Model 2, FDI and size of government along with trade and other variables are considered. Thereby, contributing to the differences in results of EKC between Models 1 and 2. In Model 2, both in the long- and short-run an increase in volume of trade is associated with lower levels of carbon emissions. This can be attributed to technological and composition effects on account of economic growth and FDI.

Agras , J. and Chapman , D. ( 1999 ), “ A dynamic approach to the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis ”, Ecological Economics , Vol. 28 No. 2 , pp. 267 - 277 .

Ahmed , K. and Long , W. ( 2012 ), “ Environmental Kuznets Curve and Pakistan: an empirical analysis ”, Prodedia Economics and Finance , Vol. 1 , pp. 4 - 13 .

Akbostanci , E. , Turut-Asik , S. and Tunc , G.I. ( 2009 ), “ The relationship between income and environment in Turkey: is there an Environmental Kuznets Curve? ”, Energy Policy , Vol. 37 No. 3 , pp. 861 - 867 .

Apergis , N. ( 2016 ), “ Environmental Kuznets Curves: new evidence on both panel and country-level CO 2 emissions ”, Energy Economics , Vol. 54 , pp. 263 - 271 .

Balaguer , J. and Cantavella , M. ( 2016 ), “ Estimating the Environmental Kuznets Curve for Spain by considering fuel oil prices (1874-2011) ”, Ecological Indicators , Vol. 60 , pp. 853 - 859 .

Brown , R.L. , Durbin , J. and Evans , J.M. ( 1975 ), “ Techniques for testing the constancy of regression relationships over time ”, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B (Methodological) , Vol. 37 No. 2 , pp. 149 - 163 .

Boluk , G. and Mert , M. ( 2015 ), “ The renewable energy, growth and Environmental Kuznets Curve in Turkey: an ARDL approach ”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews , Vol. 52 , pp. 587 - 595 .

Cole , M.A. ( 2004 ), “ Trade, the pollution haven hypothesis and the Environmental Kuznets Curve: examining the linkages ”, Ecological Economics , Vol. 48 , pp. 71 - 81 .

Dasgupta , S. , Laplante , B. , Wang , H. and Wheeler , D. ( 2002 ), “ Confronting the environmental Kuznets curve ”, Journal of Economic Perspectives , Vol. 16 No. 1 , pp. 147 - 168 .

Dean , J.M. ( 2004 ), “ Foreign direct investment and pollution havens: evaluating the evidence from China ”, ( No. 1506-2016-130788 ), Meeting of American Associations .

De Bryun , S.M. and Heintz , R.J. ( 2002 ), “ The Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis ”, in Van Den Bergh , J. (Ed.), Handbook of Environmental and Resource Economics , Edward Elgar Publishing , pp. 656 - 77 .

Dickey , D.A. and Fuller , W.A. ( 1979 ), “ Distribution of the estimators for autoregressive time series with a unit root ”, Journal of the American Statistical Association , Vol. 74 , pp. 427 - 431 .

Dinda , S. ( 2004 ), “ Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis: a survey ”, Ecological Economics , Vol. 49 , pp. 431 - 455 .

Ghosh , S. ( 2010 ), “ Examining carbon emissions economic growth nexus in India: a multivariate cointegration approach ”, Energy Policy , Vol. 38 , pp. 3008 - 3014 .

Grossman , G.M. and Krueger , A.B. ( 1991 ), “ Environmental impacts of a North American free trade agreement ”, National Bureau of Economic Research , w3914 .

Harrison , A. ( 1996 ), “ Openness and growth: a time-series, cross-country analysis for developing countries ”, Journal of Development Economics , Vol. 48 No. 2 , pp. 419 - 447 .

Hendry , D.F. ( 1995 ), Dynamic Econometrics , Oxford University Press on Demand , Oxford, New York .

Hill , R.J. and Magnani , E. ( 2002 ), “ An exploration of the conceptual and empirical basis of the Environmental Kuznets Curve ”, Australian Economic Papers , Vol. 41 No. 2 , pp. 239 - 254 .

Holtz-Eakin , D. and Selden , T.M. ( 1995 ), “ Stoking the fires? CO 2 emissions and economic growth ”, Journal of Public Economics , Vol. 57 , pp. 85 - 101 .

Jayanthakumaran , K. , Verma , R. and Liu , Y. ( 2012 ), “ CO 2 emissions, energy consumption, trade and income: a comparative analysis of China and India ”, Energy Policy , No. 42 , pp. 450 - 460 .

Jebli , M.B. and Youssef , S.B. ( 2015 ), “ The Environmental Kuznets Curve, economic growth, renewable and non-renewable energy, and trade in Tunisia ”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews , Vol. 47 , pp. 173 - 185 .

Jian , W. and Rencheng , T. ( 2007 ), “ Environmental effect of foreign direct investment in China ”, 16th International Intput-Ouput Conference , Istanbul .

Kaya , Y. and Yokobori , K. ( 1993 ), Environment, Energy and Economy: Strategies for Sustainability , BROOK-0356/XAB , United Nations University Press , Tokyo .

Kwiatkowski , D. , Phillips , P.C. , Schmidt , P. and Shin , Y. ( 1992 ), “ Testing the null hypothesis of stationarity against the alternative of a unit root: how sure are we that economic time series have a unit root? ”, Journal of Econometrics , Vol. 54 Nos 1-3 , pp. 159 - 178 .

Lee , J. and Strazicich , M.C. ( 2003 ), “ Minimum Lagrange multiplier unit root test with two structural breaks ”, Review of Economics and Statistics , Vol. 85 No. 4 , pp. 1082 - 1089 .

Lee , J. and Strazicich , M.C. ( 2004 ), “ Minimum LM unit root test with one structural break ”, Manuscript, Department of Economics, Appalachian State University , Vol. 33 No. 4 , pp. 2483 - 2492 .

Li , T. , Wang , Y. and Zhao , D. ( 2016 ), “ Environmental Kuznets curve in China: new evidence from dynamic panel analysis ”, Energy Policy , Vol. 91 , pp. 138 - 147 .

Lindmark , M. ( 2002 ), “ An EKC-pattern in historical perspective: carbon dioxide emissions, technology, fuel prices and growth in Sweden 18700-1997 ”, Ecological Economics , Vol. 42 No. 1 , pp. 333 - 347 .

List , J.A. and Gallet , C.A. ( 1999a ), “ Environmental Kuznets Curve: does one size fit all? ”, Ecological Economics , Vol. 31 , pp. 409 - 423 .

List , J.A. and Gallet , C.A. ( 1999b ), “ The Kuznets curve: what happens after the inverted-U? ”, Review of Development Economics , Vol. 3 No. 2 , pp. 200 - 206 .

Ng , S. and Perron , P. ( 2001 ), “ Lag length selection and the construction of unit root tests with good size and power ”, Econometrica , Vol. 69 No. 6 , pp. 1519 - 1554 .

Outlook , S.A.E. ( 2015 ), “ World energy outlook special report ”, International Energy Agency, 135 .

Panayotou , T. ( 1993 ), “ Empirical tests and policy analysis of environmental degradation at different stages of economic development (No. 992927783402676) ”, International Labour Organization , p. 292778 .

Pao , H.-T. and Tsai , C.-M. ( 2011 ), “ Modeling and forecasting the CO 2 emissions, energy consumtion, and economic growth in Brazil ”, Energy , Vol. 36 , pp. 2450 - 2458 .

Perron , P. ( 1989 ), “ The great crash, the oil price shock, and the unit root hypothesis ”, Econometrica: Journal of Econometric Society , pp. 1361 - 1401 .

Pesaran , M.H. , Shin , Y. and Smith , R.P. ( 1999 ), “ Pooled mean group estimation of dynamic heterogeneous panels ”, Journal of the American Statistical Association , Vol. 94 No. 446 , pp. 621 - 634 .

Pesaran , M. , Shin , Y. and Smith , R.J. ( 2001 ), “ Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships ”, Journal of Applied Econometrics , Vol. 16 No. 3 , pp. 289 - 326 .

Phillips , P.C. and Perron , P. ( 1988 ), “ Testing for a unit root in time series regression ”, Biometrika , Vol. 75 No. 2 , pp. 335 - 346 .

Robalino-Lopez , A. , Mena-Nieto , A. , Garcia-Ramos , J.-E. and Golpe , A.A. ( 2015 ), “ Studying the relationship between economic growth, CO 2 emissions, and the Environmental Kuznets Curve in Venezuela (1980-2025) ”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews , Vol. 41 , pp. 602 - 614 .

Rock , M.T. ( 1996 ), “ Pollution intensity of GDP and trade policy: can the World Bank be wrong? ”, World Development , Vol. 24 No. 3 , pp. 471 - 479 .

Saidi , K. and Hammami , S. ( 2015 ), “ The impact of energy consumption and CO 2 emissions on economic growth: fresh evidence from dynamic simultaneous-equations models ”, Sustainable Cities and Society , Vol. 14 , pp. 178 - 186 .

Sajeev , A. ( 2018 ), Macroeconomic Effects of Petroluem Pricing in India , Doctoral Research Work undertaken at the University of Delhi, Delhi .

Selden , T.M. and Song , D. ( 1994 ), “ Environmental quality and development: is there a Kuznets curve for an air pollution emission? ”, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management , Vol. 27 No. 2 , pp. 147 - 162 .

Shafik , N. and Bandyopadhyay , S. ( 1992 ), Economic Growth and Environmental Quality: Time-Series and Cross-Country Evidence , Vol. 904 , World Bank Publications .

Stern , N. ( 2006 ), Stern Review Report on the Economics of Climate Change , Cambridge University Press , Cambridge , Vol. 30 , p. 2006 .

Tiwari , A.K. , Shahbaz , M. and Hye , Q.M. ( 2013 ), “ The Environmental Kuznets Curve and the role of coal consumption in India: cointegration and causality analysis in an open economy ”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews , Vol. 18 , pp. 519 - 527 .

Tobey , J.A. ( 1990 ), “ The effects of domestic environmental policies on patterns of world trade: an empirical test ”, The Economics of International Trade and the Environment , pp. 205 - 216 .

Tutulmaz , O. ( 2015 ), “ Environmental Kuznets Curve time series application for Turkey: why controversial results exist for similar models? ”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews , Vol. 50 , pp. 73 - 81 .

Wang , S.X. , Fu , Y.B. and Zhang , Z.G. ( 2015 ), “ Population growth and the Environmental Kuznets Curve ”, China Economic Review , Vol. 36 , pp. 146 - 165 .

Wheeler , D. ( 2000 ), “ Racing to the bottom? Foreign investment and air quality in developing countries ”, Unpublished Working Paper , The World Bank , November .

Zakarya , G.Y. , Mostefa , B. and Abbes , S.M. ( 2015 ), “ Factors affecting CO 2 emissions in the BRIC countries: a panel data analysis ”, Procedia Economics and Finance , Vol. 26 , pp. 114 - 125 .

Further reading

Alam , M.J. , Begum , I.A. , Buysse , J. and Rahman , S. ( 2011 ), “ Dynamic modeling of causal relationship between energy consumption, CO 2 emissions and economic growth in India ”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews , Vol. 15 , pp. 3243 - 3251 .

Begum , R.A. , Sohag , K. , Abdullah , S.M. and Jaafar , M. ( 2015 ), “ CO 2 emissions, energy consumption, economic and population growth in Malaysia ”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews , Vol. 41 , pp. 594 - 601 .

Chang , M.-C. ( 2015 ), “ Room for improvement in low carbon economies of G7 and BRICS countries based on the analysis of energy efficiency and Environmental Kuznets Curves ”, Journal of Cleaner Production , Vol. 99 , pp. 140 - 151 .

Dhakal , S. ( 2009 ), “ Urban energy use and carbon emissions from cities in China and policy implications ”, Energy Policy , Vol. 37 No. 11 , pp. 4208 - 4219 .

Engle , R.F. and Granger , C.W.J. ( 1987 ), “ Co-integration and error correction: representation, estimation, and testing ”, Econometrica: Journal of Econometric Society , Vol. 55 No. 2 , pp. 251 - 276 .

Greene , W.H. ( 2003 ), Econometric Analysis , 5th ed. , Pearson Education .

Gregory , A.W. , Nason , J.M. and Watt , D.G. ( 1996 ), “ Testing for structural breaks in cointegrated relationships ”, Journal of Econometrics , Vol. 71 , pp. 321 - 341 .

Gujarati , D.N. , Porter , D. and Gunasekar , S. ( 2012 ), Basic Econometrics , 5th ed. , Tata McGraw Hill Education Private , New Delhi .

Hamilton , J.D. ( 2009 ), “ Causes and consequences of the oil shock of 2007-08 ”, NBER , w15002 .

Hoffman , R. ( 2012 ), “ Estimates of oil price elasticity ”, Vol. 19 , pp. 19 - 23 .

Jalil , A. and Mahmud , S.A. ( 2009 ), “ Environmental Kuznets Curve of CO 2 emissions: a cointegrating analysis for China ”, Energy Policy , Vol. 37 No. 12 , pp. 5167 - 5172 .

Johansen , S. ( 1988 ), “ Statistical analysis of cointegrating vectors ”, Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control , pp. 231 - 254 .

Johansen , S. and Juselius , K. ( 1992 ), “ Testing structural hypotheses in a multivariate cointegration analysis of the PPP and the UIP for UK ”, Journal of Econometrics , Vol. 53 Nos 1-3 , pp. 211 - 44 .

Johasen , S. and Juselius , K. ( 1990 ), “ Maximum likelihood estimation and inference on coiintegraion-with applications to the demand for money ”, Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics , Vol. 52 No. 2 , pp. 169 - 210 .

Kilian , L. and Park , C. ( 2009 ), “ The impact of oil price shocks on the US stock market ”, International Economic Review , Vol. 50 No. 4 , pp. 1267 - 1287 .

Lütkepohl , H. and Poskitt , D.S. ( 1991 ), “ Estimating orthogonal impulse responses via vector autoregressive models ”, Econometric Theory , Vol. 7 No. 4 , pp. 487 - 496 .

Managi , S. and Jena , P.R. ( 2008 ), “ Evironmental productivity and Kuznets curve in India ”, Ecological Economics , pp. 432 - 440 .

Miah , M.D. , Masum , M.F. and Koike , M. ( 2010 ), “ Global observation of EKC hypothesis for CO 2 , SOx, NOx emission: a policy understanding for climate change mitigation in Bangladesh ”, Energy Policy , Vol. 38 , pp. 4643 - 4651 .

Pesaran , H.H. and Shin , Y. ( 1998 ), “ Generalised impulse response analysis in linear multivariate models ”, Economic Letters , Vol. 58 No. 1 , pp. 17 - 29 .

Philips , P.C. and Ouliaris , S. ( 1990 ), “ Asymptotic properties of residual based tests for cointegration ”, Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society , pp. 165 - 193 .

Philips , P.B. and Perron , P. ( 1988 ), Testing for a Unit Root in Time Series Regression , Biometrika , Eioneria , Vol. 75 , pp. 335 - 346 .

Poumanyvong , P. and Kaneko , S. ( 2010 ), “ Does urbanisation lead to less energy use and lower CO 2 emissions? A cross-country analysis ”, Ecological Economics , Vol. 70 No. 2 , pp. 434 - 444 .

Shahbaz , M. , Hye , Q.M. and Tiwari , A.K. ( 2013 ), “ Economic growth, energy consumption, financial development, international trade and CO 2 emissions in Indonesia ”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews , Vol. 25 , pp. 109 - 121 .

Stern , D.I. ( 2004 ), “ The rise and fall of the Environmental Kuznets Curve ”, World Development , Vol. 32 No. 8 , pp. 1419 - 1439 .

Stern , D.I. ( 2015 ), “ The environmental Kuznets curve after 25 years ”, CCEP Working Paper No. 1514 , Crawford .

Stern , D.I. , Jotzo , F. and Dobes , L. ( 2014 ) The Economics of Global Climate Change: A Historical Literature Review , Crawford School of Public Policy, Centre for Climate Economic & Policy. Australian National Univeristy .

Tamazian , A. , Chousa , J.P. and Vadlamannati , K.C. ( 2009 ), “ Does higher economic and financial development lead to environmental degradation: evidence from BRIC countries ”, Energy Policy , Vol. 37 , pp. 246 - 253 .

Wang , Q. , Zeng , Y.-E. and Wu , B.-W. ( 2016 ), “ Exploring the relationship between urbanisation, energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in different provinces of China ”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews , Vol. 54 , pp. 1563 - 1579 .

Yang , Z. and Zhao , Y. ( 2014 ), “ Energy consumption, carbon emissions, and economic growth in India: evidence from directed acyclic graphs ”, Economic Modelling , Vol. 38 , pp. 533 - 540 .

Yin , J. , Zheng , M. and Chena , J. ( 2015 ), “ The effects of environmental regulation and technical progress on CO 2 Kuznets curve: an evidence from China ”, Energy Policy , Vol. 77 , pp. 97 - 108 .

Zivot , E. and Andrews , D.W. ( 1992 ), “ Further evidence on the great crash, the oil-price shock, and the unit-root hypothesis ”, Journal of Business and Economic Statistics , Vol. 10 No. 3 , pp. 251 - 270 .

Corresponding author

Related articles, we’re listening — tell us what you think, something didn’t work….

Report bugs here

All feedback is valuable

Please share your general feedback

Join us on our journey

Platform update page.

Visit emeraldpublishing.com/platformupdate to discover the latest news and updates

Questions & More Information

Answers to the most commonly asked questions here

Environmental Economics Research Paper Topics

Academic Writing Service

This comprehensive guide to environmental economics research paper topics is designed to assist students and researchers in selecting a subject for their study. Environmental economics, a field at the intersection of economics and environmental science, offers a wide array of topics that explore the economic aspects of environmental issues. From policy and natural resource economics to sustainability and climate change, this guide provides a diverse list of topics to inspire your research journey. Additionally, it offers expert advice on choosing a topic and writing a research paper in environmental economics. The guide also introduces iResearchNet’s writing services, which offer custom research papers on any topic in environmental economics, ensuring high-quality, in-depth research, and timely delivery.

Environmental economics is a fascinating field that combines the principles of economics with the study of environmental issues. It seeks to understand the economic impacts of environmental policies and to develop solutions that can balance economic growth with environmental sustainability. Here is a comprehensive list of environmental economics research paper topics that you can explore:

Academic Writing, Editing, Proofreading, And Problem Solving Services

Get 10% off with 24start discount code.

Environmental Policies and Economic Growth

  • The impact of environmental regulations on economic growth.
  • The role of green taxes in promoting sustainable development.
  • The economic benefits of renewable energy policies.
  • The cost-effectiveness of carbon pricing mechanisms.
  • The impact of environmental policies on job creation.
  • The role of government subsidies in promoting green technologies.
  • The economic implications of the Paris Agreement.
  • The effect of environmental policies on industrial competitiveness.
  • The role of environmental policies in shaping market behavior.
  • The economic feasibility of transitioning to a circular economy.

Natural Resource Economics

  • The economic valuation of natural resources.
  • The role of property rights in natural resource management.
  • The economic implications of overfishing.
  • The impact of mineral extraction on local economies.
  • The economics of water scarcity.
  • The role of economic incentives in promoting sustainable forestry.
  • The impact of climate change on agricultural economics.
  • The economic costs and benefits of biodiversity conservation.
  • The role of natural resources in economic development.
  • The economic implications of soil degradation.

Environmental Cost-Benefit Analysis

  • The use of cost-benefit analysis in environmental decision making.
  • The challenges of monetizing environmental benefits.
  • The role of discount rates in environmental cost-benefit analysis.
  • The use of cost-effectiveness analysis in environmental policy.
  • The limitations of cost-benefit analysis in addressing environmental justice issues.
  • The role of cost-benefit analysis in climate change mitigation strategies.
  • The use of multi-criteria analysis in environmental decision making.
  • The role of risk analysis in environmental cost-benefit analysis.
  • The impact of uncertainty on environmental cost-benefit analysis.
  • The use of cost-benefit analysis in ecosystem service valuation.

Economics of Climate Change

  • The economic impacts of climate change.
  • The role of carbon markets in mitigating climate change.
  • The economic feasibility of climate change adaptation strategies.
  • The impact of climate change on global trade.
  • The role of climate finance in promoting low-carbon development.
  • The economic implications of sea level rise.
  • The impact of climate change on agricultural productivity.
  • The role of economic modeling in climate change projections.
  • The economic costs and benefits of geoengineering.
  • The impact of climate change on energy economics.

Environmental Justice and Economics

  • The economic dimensions of environmental justice.
  • The role of economic inequality in environmental degradation.
  • The impact of environmental policies on marginalized communities.
  • The role of green jobs in promoting environmental justice.
  • The economic implications of environmental racism.
  • The impact of environmental displacement on economic wellbeing.
  • The role of economic empowerment in promoting environmental justice.
  • The economic costs of environmental health disparities.
  • The impact of environmental gentrification on urban economies.
  • The role of economic policy in addressing environmental justice issues.

Green Economy and Sustainable Development

  • The economic benefits of transitioning to a green economy.
  • The role of green jobs in sustainable development.
  • The economic implications of sustainable consumption and production.
  • The impact of green growth strategies on economic competitiveness.
  • The role of green finance in promoting sustainable development.
  • The economic implications of the circular economy.
  • The impact of green innovation on economic growth.
  • The role of sustainable tourism in the green economy.
  • The economic feasibility of green infrastructure projects.

Environmental Economics and Policy

  • The economic impacts of environmental regulations.
  • The role of economic incentives in environmental policy.
  • The impact of environmental taxes on economic behavior.
  • The role of trade policy in environmental protection.
  • The economic implications of the polluter pays principle.
  • The impact of environmental subsidies on market behavior.
  • The role of economic instruments in biodiversity conservation.
  • The economic feasibility of ecosystem service payments.
  • The impact of environmental policy on economic competitiveness.
  • The role of economic analysis in environmental policy making.

Economics of Energy and Environment

  • The economic impacts of renewable energy policies.
  • The role of energy economics in environmental sustainability.
  • The impact of fossil fuel subsidies on the environment.
  • The role of energy efficiency in economic growth.
  • The economic implications of the energy transition.
  • The impact of energy prices on environmental quality.
  • The role of energy policy in climate change mitigation.
  • The economic feasibility of carbon capture and storage.
  • The impact of energy security on environmental sustainability.
  • The role of energy markets in environmental protection.

Environmental Economics and Agriculture

  • The economic impacts of agricultural pollution.
  • The role of agricultural economics in environmental sustainability.
  • The impact of agricultural subsidies on the environment.
  • The role of sustainable agriculture in economic development.
  • The economic implications of organic farming.
  • The impact of agricultural trade on the environment.
  • The role of agricultural policy in environmental protection.
  • The economic feasibility of agroecology.
  • The impact of agricultural innovation on environmental sustainability.
  • The role of agricultural markets in environmental protection.

Environmental Economics and Urbanization

  • The economic impacts of urban pollution.
  • The role of urban economics in environmental sustainability.
  • The impact of urban sprawl on the environment.
  • The role of sustainable urban development in economic growth.
  • The economic implications of urban green spaces.
  • The impact of urban transportation on environmental quality.
  • The role of urban planning in environmental protection.
  • The economic feasibility of green buildings.
  • The impact of urbanization on biodiversity.
  • The role of urban infrastructure in environmental protection.

These environmental economics research paper topics cover a wide range of issues in the field of environmental economics, from policy and law to energy and agriculture. They provide a starting point for your research and can be tailored to fit your specific interests and the requirements of your assignment. Remember, choosing the right topic is the first step in writing a successful research paper. So take your time, explore these topics, and choose one that you find interesting and meaningful.

Environmental Economics Research Guide

Environmental economics is a vital field that examines the interplay between economic systems and the environment. As our world faces increasingly complex environmental challenges, understanding the economic dimensions of these issues becomes crucial for developing effective solutions. This page aims to provide a comprehensive resource for students studying environmental science and seeking research paper topics in the field of environmental economics.

Environmental economics focuses on analyzing the costs and benefits associated with environmental policies, natural resource management, pollution control, and sustainable development. It explores the ways in which economic activities impact the environment and how environmental factors influence economic decision-making. By studying environmental economics, students gain insights into the intricate relationship between human activities and the natural world, enabling them to propose informed strategies for sustainable development.

For students pursuing a degree in environmental science, conducting research in environmental economics offers a unique perspective on addressing environmental challenges. It provides a framework to assess the economic implications of environmental issues and develop innovative solutions that balance ecological sustainability and economic prosperity. Research papers in environmental economics not only contribute to the academic discourse but also equip students with the knowledge and skills necessary to effect positive change in their future careers.

The purpose of this page is to serve as a valuable resource for students seeking inspiration and guidance for their research papers in environmental economics. We aim to provide a curated list of diverse research paper topics, expert advice on topic selection, and practical tips on writing an effective environmental economics research paper. Additionally, we introduce the writing services offered by iResearchNet, providing students the opportunity to order custom research papers tailored to their specific needs.

By exploring the topics and advice presented on this page, students will be equipped with the tools and insights necessary to delve into the fascinating field of environmental economics. Whether you are interested in studying the economic impact of climate change, analyzing environmental policies, or exploring sustainable development strategies, this page will help you navigate the vast landscape of environmental economics research.

We invite you to embark on this exciting journey of exploring environmental economics research paper topics and discovering the potential to make a meaningful impact on the environmental challenges of our time.

Choosing an Environmental Economics Topic

Choosing the right research paper topic is a crucial step in the process of writing an impactful and successful environmental economics research paper. With the vast scope of environmental economics, it is essential to select a topic that is not only interesting but also relevant, feasible, and has the potential to contribute to the field. Here are ten expert tips to help you navigate the process of choosing environmental economics research paper topics:

  • Identify your Interests : Start by identifying your personal interests within the field of environmental economics. Think about the environmental issues that resonate with you, such as climate change, natural resource management, pollution control, or sustainable development. Choosing a topic that genuinely interests you will make the research process more enjoyable and motivating.
  • Stay Updated with Current Issues : Keep yourself informed about the latest environmental issues and developments in environmental economics. Follow reputable news sources, academic journals, and research publications to stay abreast of emerging trends, debates, and areas of active research. This will enable you to select topics that are timely and relevant.
  • Conduct Preliminary Research : Before finalizing a research topic, conduct preliminary research to gain a broad understanding of the existing literature in the field. Review academic papers, books, and reports related to environmental economics to identify gaps in knowledge and potential research areas that warrant further exploration.
  • Narrow Down the Scope : Environmental economics is a vast field, and it is essential to narrow down the scope of your research topic. Focus on a specific aspect, problem, or geographic region that you can realistically address within the scope of your research paper. Narrowing down the topic will allow you to delve deeper and provide a more comprehensive analysis.
  • Consult with Your Advisor : Seek guidance from your academic advisor or faculty members specializing in environmental economics. They can provide valuable insights, suggest potential research topics, and offer guidance on selecting a topic that aligns with your academic goals and interests.
  • Consider the Research Gap : Look for areas in environmental economics where there is a research gap or limited literature available. Identifying gaps in the existing body of knowledge will allow you to contribute to the field by conducting original research and generating new insights.
  • Balance Practicality and Significance : When choosing a research topic, consider the practicality of data collection and analysis. Ensure that you have access to relevant data sources and research methods required to investigate the topic effectively. Additionally, evaluate the potential significance of the research topic in addressing real-world environmental challenges.
  • Engage in Discussions and Seminars : Participate in discussions, seminars, and conferences related to environmental economics. Engaging with peers and experts in the field will expose you to diverse perspectives and help you discover potential research topics and areas of interest that you may not have considered before.
  • Seek Interdisciplinary Approaches : Environmental economics often intersects with other disciplines such as ecology, policy studies, sociology, and public health. Consider incorporating interdisciplinary approaches into your research topic to explore the interconnectedness between environmental and social factors, which can provide a more holistic understanding of the issues at hand.
  • Reflect on Practical Applications : Reflect on the practical applications of your research topic. Consider how your findings and analysis can contribute to policy development, inform decision-making processes, or propose sustainable solutions. Topics that have practical implications and can make a positive impact in real-world contexts tend to be more compelling and meaningful.

By following these expert tips, you will be well-equipped to choose a compelling and relevant environmental economics research paper topic that aligns with your interests, addresses knowledge gaps, and has the potential to contribute to the field. Remember to consult with your academic advisor throughout the process to ensure that your chosen topic aligns with the requirements and objectives of your research paper.

How to Write an Environmental Economics Research Paper

Writing an environmental economics research paper requires a systematic and well-structured approach to effectively communicate your research findings and contribute to the field. Here are ten essential tips to help you navigate the process of writing an impactful environmental economics research paper:

  • Understand the Research Question : Start by clearly understanding the research question or objective of your paper. Identify the specific problem or issue you aim to address and formulate a concise and focused research question. This will serve as the guiding principle throughout your research and writing process.
  • Conduct In-depth Literature Review : Before delving into your own research, conduct a comprehensive literature review to familiarize yourself with the existing body of knowledge. Identify key theories, concepts, methodologies, and empirical studies relevant to your research question. This will help you establish the context for your research and identify research gaps to address.
  • Develop a Solid Research Methodology : Choose an appropriate research methodology that aligns with your research question and objectives. Whether it’s quantitative, qualitative, or a combination of both, ensure that your chosen methodology allows you to collect and analyze data effectively to answer your research question.
  • Collect and Analyze Data : Depending on your research question, collect relevant data from credible sources. This may include primary data collected through surveys, interviews, or experiments, or secondary data from academic journals, government reports, or databases. Analyze the data using appropriate statistical or qualitative analysis techniques to derive meaningful insights.
  • Organize Your Paper : Structure your research paper in a logical and coherent manner. Start with an introduction that provides background information, states the research question, and outlines the paper’s structure. Follow this with a literature review, methodology section, presentation and analysis of findings, discussion of results, and a conclusion that summarizes your key findings and their implications.
  • Provide Clear and Concise Writing : Ensure that your writing is clear, concise, and accessible to your target audience. Use plain language and avoid unnecessary jargon. Clearly articulate your arguments, provide sufficient evidence, and use appropriate citations to support your claims. Use subheadings, bullet points, and paragraph breaks to improve readability.
  • Support Your Arguments with Evidence : Back up your claims and arguments with reliable evidence. Use empirical data, case studies, academic research, and real-world examples to support your analysis. Be critical of your sources and ensure they are reputable and peer-reviewed.
  • Engage in Critical Analysis : Demonstrate critical thinking skills by analyzing and interpreting your findings in the context of existing literature and theories. Identify strengths, limitations, and potential biases in your research. Discuss alternative explanations and consider counterarguments to strengthen the validity of your research.
  • Discuss Policy Implications : Environmental economics research often has policy implications. Discuss the implications of your research findings for environmental policies, regulations, or economic decision-making. Highlight the potential benefits and challenges of implementing your research outcomes in real-world scenarios.
  • Revise and Edit : Revise and edit your research paper thoroughly before final submission. Pay attention to clarity, grammar, spelling, and formatting. Read your paper multiple times, seek feedback from peers or advisors, and make necessary revisions to improve the overall quality and coherence of your work.

By following these tips, you can effectively write an environmental economics research paper that is well-structured, evidence-based, and contributes to the understanding of environmental issues from an economic perspective. Remember to maintain a systematic approach, stay focused on your research question, and continuously refine your writing through feedback and revisions.

Custom Research Paper Writing Services

When it comes to writing a custom environmental economics research paper, iResearchNet is here to assist you. Our writing services offer a range of features that ensure the highest quality and professionalism in delivering customized research papers. By ordering a custom paper from us, you can benefit from the following:

  • Expert Degree-Holding Writers : We have a team of experienced writers with advanced degrees in environmental economics and related fields. They possess the expertise and knowledge to write high-quality research papers tailored to your specific requirements.
  • Custom Written Works : Each research paper we deliver is 100% original and tailored to your unique needs. Our writers follow your instructions and conduct thorough research to provide you with a custom-written paper that meets your academic standards.
  • In-depth Research : Our writers are skilled in conducting in-depth research on environmental economics topics. They access reputable academic sources, scholarly journals, and up-to-date research databases to ensure your paper is well-informed and based on the latest findings in the field.
  • Custom Formatting : We understand the importance of adhering to specific formatting styles. Whether it’s APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard, or any other style, we ensure that your research paper is formatted correctly, including citations, references, and bibliography.
  • Top Quality : Our commitment to quality is unwavering. We strive to deliver research papers that meet the highest standards of excellence. Our rigorous quality control measures ensure that your paper is well-written, well-structured, and free from errors.
  • Customized Solutions : We recognize that every research paper is unique. Our writers work closely with you to understand your specific requirements and tailor the paper accordingly. We take into account your research question, objectives, and any specific guidelines provided by your institution.
  • Flexible Pricing : We offer competitive and flexible pricing options to accommodate your budget. Our pricing structure considers factors such as the complexity of the research paper, deadline, and additional services required. We strive to provide affordable solutions without compromising on quality.
  • Short Deadlines : We understand that deadlines can be tight. That’s why we offer short deadlines of up to 3 hours for urgent research paper requests. Our dedicated team works efficiently to ensure timely delivery, even for tight schedules.
  • Timely Delivery : We value your time and strive to deliver your research paper within the agreed-upon deadline. Our writers and support team work collaboratively to ensure your paper is completed and delivered to you on time.
  • 24/7 Support : Our customer support team is available round-the-clock to assist you with any queries or concerns you may have. Whether it’s assistance with placing an order, tracking your paper’s progress, or addressing any post-delivery concerns, we are here to support you.
  • Absolute Privacy : We prioritize the privacy and confidentiality of our customers. All personal information and details of your order are treated with the utmost confidentiality. We never share your information with third parties, and all transactions are secured.
  • Easy Order Tracking : We provide a user-friendly platform that allows you to easily track the progress of your order. You can communicate directly with your assigned writer, monitor the writing process, and receive updates on the status of your paper.
  • Money Back Guarantee : We stand behind the quality of our work. If, for any reason, you are not satisfied with the final research paper, we offer a money back guarantee. Your satisfaction is our top priority, and we are committed to ensuring your academic success.

By choosing our writing services, you can rest assured that your environmental economics research paper will be handled by professionals who are dedicated to delivering customized and high-quality work. Our extensive features and commitment to excellence make us the ideal choice for students seeking reliable and professional assistance in their research paper endeavors.

Unlock Your Academic Success with iResearchNet!

Are you ready to take the next step towards achieving your academic goals in environmental economics? Don’t let the challenges of writing a research paper hold you back. Take advantage of our professional writing services at iResearchNet and order your custom environmental economics research paper today.

Why settle for generic research papers when you can have a paper tailored specifically to your requirements? Our team of expert degree-holding writers is ready to assist you in crafting a research paper that showcases your understanding of environmental economics concepts and explores your chosen topic in-depth. Whether you need a paper on pollution pricing mechanisms, environmental policy analysis, or sustainable resource management, we have the expertise to deliver outstanding results.

With our user-friendly platform and 24/7 support, the process of ordering your custom research paper is simple and hassle-free. Just provide us with the details of your assignment, including the topic, formatting requirements, and any specific guidelines. Our writers will meticulously research and develop your paper, ensuring that it meets your academic standards and reflects your unique perspective.

Take the leap and order your custom environmental economics research paper today. Experience the benefits of working with a trusted writing service and unlock your full potential in the field of environmental science. Let us assist you in making a significant impact through your research and contribute to the sustainable future of our planet.

Order now and embark on a rewarding academic journey with iResearchNet!

ORDER HIGH QUALITY CUSTOM PAPER

environmental economics research topics india

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

  • View all journals

Environmental economics articles from across Nature Portfolio

Environmental economics is the study of the economics of ecological and environmental issues. It focuses on the monetary value of ecosystems and the costs and benefits of environmental policies.

Latest Research and Reviews

environmental economics research topics india

China’s low-carbon policy intensity dataset from national- to prefecture-level over 2007–2022

  • Xinyang Dong
  • Chengqi Xia

environmental economics research topics india

Prosocial preferences improve climate risk management in subsistence farming communities

Optimal risk management involves maintaining formal and informal risk instruments, which is difficult under increasing climate risks. A study now investigates the issue and finds that policies cultivating moderate altruism and solidarity can help farmers better manage climate risks.

  • Nicolas Choquette-Levy
  • Matthias Wildemeersch
  • Elke U. Weber

environmental economics research topics india

The impact of corporate governance on the total factor productivity of pharmaceutical enterprises: a study based on the fsQCA method

environmental economics research topics india

Global poverty estimation using private and public sector big data sources

  • Robert Marty
  • Alice Duhaut

environmental economics research topics india

Comparing access to US marine and terrestrial protected areas

Efforts to protect and conserve the planet’s land and oceans should also guarantee that people can access them equitably. Comparing marine and terrestrial protected areas in the United States, a study shows different access patterns based on income and race.

  • Anna Lou Abatayo
  • Madelon van Adrichem
  • John Lynham

environmental economics research topics india

The impact of COVID-19 fiscal spending on climate change adaptation and resilience

Government spending for COVID-19 recovery could have enhanced society’s resilience to environmental shocks, but it is unclear whether this was adequately reflected in policies. A study now sheds light on this issue by applying a fiscal policy taxonomy for climate change adaptation and resilience to policies across different countries.

  • Alexandra Sadler
  • Nicola Ranger
  • Brian O’Callaghan

Advertisement

News and Comment

environmental economics research topics india

The Global Climate Hub

Phoebe Koundouri, Professor of Environmental Economics and Sustainability at Athens University of Economics and Business, talks to Nature Sustainability about how the Global Climate Hub can help countries achieve sustainability against the backdrop of interconnected, complex challenges.

  • Angelos Alamanos

environmental economics research topics india

Rapidly growing subsidization of crop insurance in Europe ignores potential environmental effects

  • Tobias Dalhaus
  • Niklas Möhring

environmental economics research topics india

Disaster and capital stock

  • Lingxiao Yan

environmental economics research topics india

Cross-scale plastic policy ambition

Policy making is entering a phase of more transformative strategies targeting the full life cycle of plastics, argues Patrick Schröder.

  • Patrick Schröder

Economics of adaptation

  • Bronwyn Wake

environmental economics research topics india

Green premiums are a challenge and an opportunity for climate policy design

Adjusting green public support programmes to green premiums can reduce public spending, yet this is challenged by uncertainty. Underfunding green technologies can delay the green transition, and overfunding them can increase transition costs. Both risks of under- and overfunding can be reduced using responsive adjustments.

  • Till Köveker
  • Olga Chiappinelli

Quick links

  • Explore articles by subject
  • Guide to authors
  • Editorial policies

environmental economics research topics india

  • The Carbon Pricing Incidence Calculator
  • EfD reports
  • Organization
  • Partners and Donors
  • EfD Global Hub
  • Publications
  • Academic programs
  • Impact stories
  • Policy workshops
  • In-service training
  • Seminars & events
  • EfD Central America
  • EfD Colombia
  • EfD Ethiopia
  • EfD Nigeria
  • EfD South Africa
  • Research overview
  • EfD Tanzania
  • EfD Vietnam
  • EfD Blue Resources for Development (BlueRforD)
  • About Blue Resources for Delepment
  • Leadership BlueRforD
  • EfD Emission Pricing for Development (EPFD)
  • Leadership EPfD
  • Acceptability surveys
  • The Shadow Pricing Project
  • Carbon pricing incidence map
  • Political economy of coal
  • EfD Forest Collaborative
  • Leadership Forest Collaborative
  • Governance Decentralization
  • Forests and Human Health
  • Seventh Workshop - Bogotá, Columbia
  • Sixth Workshop - Manchester, UK
  • Fifth Workshop - Hanoi, Vietnam
  • Fourth Workshop - Gothenburg, Sweden
  • Third Workshop - Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
  • Second Workshop - Athens, Greece
  • First Workshop - Pucón, Chile
  • EfD Inclusive Green Economy in Practice
  • About the Inclusive Green Economy in Practice program
  • EfD Natural Capital Collaborative (NatCap)
  • Leadership NatCap
  • EfD Sustainable Energy Transitions Initiative (SETI)
  • Leadership SETI
  • EfD Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCOPE)
  • Leadership SCOPE
  • EfD Women in Environmental Economics for Development (WinEED)
  • Leadership WinEED
  • EfD by SDGs
  • EfD Data Access Unit
  • List of recommended journals
  • Bilateral programs
  • Collaborative program in Climate Change and Development Economics (3CSD)
  • The EfD Early Career Fellowship Program
  • Policy Engagement and Science Communication
  • EfD Annual Meeting
  • EfD in the media
  • Jobs in the field
  • Previous EfD Annual Meetings
  • Previous newsletters

This site uses cookies to optimize functionality and give you the best possible experience. If you continue to navigate this website beyond this page, cookies will be placed on your browser. To learn more about cookies, click here .

(Stanford users can avoid this Captcha by logging in.)

  • Send to text email RefWorks EndNote printer

Handbook of environmental economics in India

Available online, at the library.

environmental economics research topics india

Green Library

More options.

  • Find it at other libraries via WorldCat
  • Contributors

Description

Creators/contributors, contents/summary.

  • LIST OF TABLES, LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS, PREFACE-- PART I OVERVIEW AND EVOLVING THEORETICAL APPROACHES
  • 1. Overview: Environmental Economics in India (Kanchan Chopra and Vikram Dayal)---- 2. Environmental and Resource Economics: Some Recent Developments (Partha Dasgupta and Karl Goran-Maler)---- PART II ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES AND DEVELOPMENTAL CONCERNS: LAND AND WATER
  • 3. Rights to Land and Water and Watershed Development in India (Amita Shah)---- 4. India's Groundwater Irrigation Economy: The Challenge of Balancing Livelihoods and Environment (Tushaar Shah)---- PART III ACOUNTING AND VALUATION
  • 5. Discussing Recent Environmental and Natural Resource Accounting in India while Acknowledging the Imperfect Economy (Vikram Dayal)---- 6. Valuation of Ecosystem Services: Methodologies, Illustrations, and Use (Purnamita Dasgupta)---- PART IV ENERGY AND INDUSTRY
  • 7. High Economic Growth, Equity, and Sustainable Energy Development of India (R.P. Sengupta)---- 8. Water and Air Pollution Abatement in India: An Assessment (M.N. Murty)-- PART V International Concerns-- 9. Trade, Environment, and Natural Resources: A Developing Country Perspective (Meeta Keswani Mehra)---- 10. Climate Change: Negotiations and Mitigations Policy (Joyashree Roy)---- 11. Climate Change: Negotiations and Adaptation Policy (Kavi Kumar)-- PART VI Interdisciplinary Issues-- 12. Reflections on Interdisciplinary Research (S. Lele)-- Some Useful Websites.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)

Bibliographic information

Browse related items.

Stanford University

  • Stanford Home
  • Maps & Directions
  • Search Stanford
  • Emergency Info
  • Terms of Use
  • Non-Discrimination
  • Accessibility

© Stanford University , Stanford , California 94305 .

environmental economics research topics india

Environmental and Resource Economics

The Official Journal of the European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists

The primary concern of Environmental & Resource Economics is the application of economic theory and methods to environmental issues and problems that require detailed analysis in order to improve management strategies. The contemporary environmental debate is in a constant state of flux, with new or relatively unexplored topics continually emerging. The Journal provides a forum for the further exploration of causes, consequences and policy responses linked to these topics, across a range of spatial and temporal scales up to the global dimension. Areas of particular interest include evaluation and development of instruments of environmental policy; cost-benefit and cost effectiveness analysis; sectoral environmental policy impact analysis; modeling and simulation; institutional arrangements; resource pricing and the valuation of environmental goods; and indicators of environmental quality. The contents are chosen for their relevance to the process of policy formulation and application.

  • Ian J. Bateman,
  • Ana Espinola-Arredondo,
  • Alistair Munro

Societies and partnerships

New Content Item

Latest issue

Volume 87, Issue 2

Special Issue: Renewable Energy Externalities

Latest articles

Robust abatement policy with uncertainty about environmental disasters.

  • Yingjie Niu
  • Zhentao Zou

environmental economics research topics india

Unsynchronised Legislation and Unintended Pollution: Estimating Regulation-Induced Substitution in China

  • Xunyong Xiang

environmental economics research topics india

Factors Influencing Customer Participation in a Program to Replace Lead Pipes for Drinking Water

  • Heather Klemick
  • Ann Wolverton
  • Sarah Armstrong

environmental economics research topics india

Relative Price Changes of Ecosystem Services: Evidence from Germany

  • Jonas Heckenhahn
  • Moritz A. Drupp

environmental economics research topics india

Escaping Damocles’ Sword: Endogenous Climate Shocks in a Growing Economy

  • Alexandra Brausmann
  • Lucas Bretschger

environmental economics research topics india

Journal updates

Special issue by invitation only: green resources for the energy transition.

This Special Issue is a compendium of articles with important value added to the discussion of the opportunities and challenges for the achievement of a green and sustainable economy, characterized by its inclusiveness and resilience.

Call for Papers: Special Issue on Environmental Economics and Economic Dynamics

The NED (Nonlinear Economic Dynamics) conference provides a platform for an interdisciplinary exchange of ideas between researchers in economics and mathematics to understand economic dynamics from several viewpoints and for the study of a vast range of economic problems. Over the years, increasing attention has been devoted to the interaction between economic and environmental dynamics. This issue has recently been prioritised by several academic scholars, politicians and governments all around the world pinpointing well-known concerns about the environment (e.g., climate change, demographic-economic-environmental transitions, etc.). The main goal of this special issue is to integrate environmental economics and economic dynamics (both at the micro and macro levels) possibly also considering the related public policies.

Call for submissions to a special issue of Environmental and Resource Economics in honour of Anastasios Xepapadeas

Anastasios Xepapadeas is now emeritus professor in Greece. To honour his large and influential contribution to the field, Environmental & Resource Economics will bring out a special issue. 

Call for Papers for a Special Issue: Economics of the Impacts of Natural Ecosystem Loss and Degradation on Human Health

This special issue will consist of papers that address these limitations using explicit models of human behavior and rigorous quantitative methods in order to strengthen the evidence base on the relationship between ecosystem change and human health.

Journal information

  • ABS Academic Journal Quality Guide
  • Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
  • Australian Business Deans Council (ABDC) Journal Quality List
  • CAB Abstracts
  • Current Contents/Social & Behavioral Sciences
  • EI Compendex
  • Engineering Village – GEOBASE
  • Google Scholar
  • INIS Atomindex
  • Japanese Science and Technology Agency (JST)
  • OCLC WorldCat Discovery Service
  • Research Papers in Economics (RePEc)
  • Social Science Citation Index
  • TD Net Discovery Service
  • UGC-CARE List (India)

Rights and permissions

Springer policies

© Springer Nature B.V.

  • Find a journal
  • Publish with us
  • Track your research

Articles on Environmental economics

Displaying 1 - 20 of 24 articles.

environmental economics research topics india

Consulting firms provided low-quality research on crucial water policies. It shows we have a deeper problem

Sarah Ann Wheeler , University of Adelaide ; Alec Zuo , University of Adelaide , and Ying Xu , University of Adelaide

environmental economics research topics india

The Murray-Darling Basin shows why the ‘social cost of water’ concept won’t work

Sarah Ann Wheeler , University of Adelaide and Claudia Ringler , International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)

environmental economics research topics india

A new strategy for western states to adapt to long-term drought: Customized water pricing

Matthew E. Kahn , USC Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences and Bhaskar Krishnamachari , University of Southern California

environmental economics research topics india

The inconvenient truth of Herman Daly: There is no economy without environment

Jon D. Erickson , University of Vermont

environmental economics research topics india

GDP ignores the environment: why it’s time for a more sustainable growth metric

Stephen Onakuse , University College Cork

environmental economics research topics india

About 500,000 Australian species are undiscovered – and scientists are on a 25-year mission to finish the job

Kevin Thiele , The University of Western Australia and Jane Melville , Museums Victoria Research Institute

environmental economics research topics india

Nature: how do you put a price on something that has infinite worth?

Tom Oliver , University of Reading

environmental economics research topics india

Climate change, migration and urbanisation: patterns in sub-Saharan  Africa

Roman Hoffmann , Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research

environmental economics research topics india

Market-based policies work to fight climate change, from India to Jamaica

Jason Scorse , Middlebury

environmental economics research topics india

Resource depletion is a serious problem, but ‘footprint’ estimates don’t tell us much about it

Robert B. Richardson , Michigan State University

environmental economics research topics india

George H.W. Bush understood that markets and the environment weren’t enemies

Matthew E. Kahn , USC Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences

environmental economics research topics india

Yes, humans are depleting Earth’s resources, but ‘footprint’ estimates don’t tell the full story

environmental economics research topics india

What’s the value of a clean beach? Here’s how economists do the numbers

Timothy Haab , The Ohio State University

environmental economics research topics india

Why California’s new rooftop mandate isn’t good enough for some solar power enthusiasts

Garth Heutel , Georgia State University

environmental economics research topics india

What’s the economic value of the Great Barrier Reef? It’s priceless

Neil Perry , Western Sydney University

environmental economics research topics india

Curbing climate change has a dollar value — here’s how and why we measure it

Joseph Aldy , Harvard Kennedy School

environmental economics research topics india

New Zealand is letting economics rule its environmental policies

Stephen Knight-Lenihan , University of Auckland, Waipapa Taumata Rau

environmental economics research topics india

Offshore drilling: why it makes economic sense to wait

Michael A. Livermore , University of Virginia

environmental economics research topics india

Two visions of the ‘new economy’ collide where people and technology intersect

Bronwen Morgan , UNSW Sydney

environmental economics research topics india

Consumed: why more stuff does not mean more happiness

Judith Stark , Seton Hall University

Related Topics

  • Climate change
  • Climate change policy
  • Climate policy
  • Consumption
  • Ecosystem services
  • Natural resources
  • Sustainability

Top contributors

environmental economics research topics india

Professor in Water Economics, University of Adelaide

environmental economics research topics india

Provost Professor of Economics and Spatial Sciences, USC Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences

environmental economics research topics india

Professor of Sustainable Development, Michigan State University

environmental economics research topics india

Research Fellow, London School of Economics and Political Science

environmental economics research topics india

MSc student, Environmental Economics and Policy, Imperial College London

environmental economics research topics india

Lecturer, Cardiff University

environmental economics research topics india

Adjunct Assoc. Professor, The University of Western Australia

environmental economics research topics india

Director, Institute of Development Studies

environmental economics research topics india

Professor of Philosophy, Seton Hall University

environmental economics research topics india

Associate Professor of Public Policy, Harvard Kennedy School

environmental economics research topics india

Associate Professor of Economics, Georgia State University

environmental economics research topics india

Associate Professor of Law, University of Virginia

environmental economics research topics india

Lecturer in environmental planning, University of Auckland, Waipapa Taumata Rau

environmental economics research topics india

Research Fellow, School of Economics and Public Policy, University of Adelaide

environmental economics research topics india

Senior Curator, Terrestrial Vertebrates, Museums Victoria Research Institute

  • X (Twitter)
  • Unfollow topic Follow topic
  • Society ›
  • Geography & Nature

Environment of India - statistics & facts

Emerging climate-risks, environmental sustainability, key insights.

Detailed statistics

Urbanization in India 2022

Area of forest cover in India 2000-2021

Conservation areas India 2022, by type

Editor’s Picks Current statistics on this topic

Current statistics on this topic.

Natural Catastrophes

Number of heat wave days in India 2010-2022

Average monthly PM2.5 concentration in India 2020-2022, by select city

Related topics

Recommended.

  • Environmental quality in China
  • Natural disasters
  • Environmental pollution worldwide

Recommended statistics

  • Basic Statistic Global perception on impact of COP26 commitments on climate change 2022
  • Basic Statistic Largest countries in the world by area
  • Basic Statistic Land area in India 2021, by state and union territory
  • Premium Statistic Global natural resource value leading countries 2021
  • Premium Statistic Protected terrestrial area, by region 2000-2017
  • Premium Statistic Protected marine area, by selected region 2000-2019

Global perception on impact of COP26 commitments on climate change 2022

Public perception on the impacts of COP26 commitments on climate change in selected countries worldwide in 2022

Largest countries in the world by area

The 30 largest countries in the world by total area (in square kilometers)

Land area in India 2021, by state and union territory

Geographical area of India in 2021, by state and union territory (in square kilometers)

Global natural resource value leading countries 2021

Leading countries worldwide based on natural resource value as of 2021 (in trillion U.S. dollars)

Protected terrestrial area, by region 2000-2017

Percentage of key biodiversity land* under protection worldwide in 2000, 2010 and 2017, by region

Protected marine area, by selected region 2000-2019

Percentage of key biodiversity marine areas under protection worldwide from 2000 to 2019, by region

  • Premium Statistic Highest mountains in India by elevation 2023
  • Premium Statistic Longest rivers in India 2023
  • Premium Statistic Estimated length of coastline in India 2021, by state
  • Premium Statistic Mangrove cover distribution in India 2021, by state
  • Premium Statistic Number of natural inland wetlands across India FY 2018, by type
  • Premium Statistic Area of forest cover in India 2000-2021

Highest mountains in India by elevation 2023

Highest mountains in India as of 2023, by elevation (in meters above sea level)

Longest rivers in India 2023

Longest rivers in India as of 2023 (in kilometers)

Estimated length of coastline in India 2021, by state

Estimated length of India's coastline in 2021, based on state (in kilometers)

Mangrove cover distribution in India 2021, by state

Mangrove cover distribution in India in 2021, by state

Number of natural inland wetlands across India FY 2018, by type

Number of natural inland wetlands located across India in financial year 2018, by type

Area of forest cover in India from 2000 to 2021 (in 1,000 square kilometers)

  • Premium Statistic Average annual temperature in India 2001-2022
  • Premium Statistic Annual rainfall volume in India 2012-2022
  • Premium Statistic Monthly rainfall volume in India 2022
  • Premium Statistic Annual rainfall in India 2022, by region
  • Premium Statistic Number of heat wave days in India 2010-2022
  • Premium Statistic Number of cold wave days in India 2010-2022

Average annual temperature in India 2001-2022

Average annual temperature in India from 2001 to 2022 (in degrees Celsius)

Annual rainfall volume in India 2012-2022

Annual rainfall in India from 2012 to 2022 (in millimeters)

Monthly rainfall volume in India 2022

Monthly rainfall in India in 2022 (in millimeters)

Annual rainfall in India 2022, by region

Annual rainfall in India in 2022, by region (in millimeters)

Average number of heat wave days in India from 2010 to 2022

Number of cold wave days in India 2010-2022

Average number of cold wave days in India from 2010 to 2022

Flora and fauna

  • Premium Statistic Share of forest cover India 2021, by leading state
  • Premium Statistic Number of wildlife sanctuaries in India 2023, by state
  • Premium Statistic Number of national parks India 2023, by state
  • Premium Statistic Estimated number of tigers in India 2006-2022
  • Premium Statistic Number of known species of angiosperms India 2013-2019
  • Premium Statistic Number of known species of gymnosperms India 2013-2019
  • Premium Statistic Number of known species of fungi in India 2013-2019

Share of forest cover India 2021, by leading state

Share of forest cover as a percentage of geographical area in India in 2021, by leading state

Number of wildlife sanctuaries in India 2023, by state

Number of wildlife sanctuaries in India as of January 2023, by state

Number of national parks India 2023, by state

Number of national parks in India as of January 2023, by state

Estimated number of tigers in India 2006-2022

Estimated number of tigers in India from 2006 to 2022

Number of known species of angiosperms India 2013-2019

Number of known species of angiosperms in India from 2013 to 2019

Number of known species of gymnosperms India 2013-2019

Number of known species of gymnosperms in India from 2013 to 2019

Number of known species of fungi in India 2013-2019

Number of known species of fungi in India from 2013 to 2019

Opinion on climate change

  • Premium Statistic Share of consumers trying to change their transport for climate change worldwide 2022
  • Premium Statistic Share of consumers trying to replace flights for climate change worldwide 2022
  • Premium Statistic Share of respondents likely to save water at home worldwide 2022
  • Premium Statistic Consumers propensity to limit their contribution to climate change India 2022
  • Premium Statistic Awareness of general population towards COP26 India 2022

Share of consumers trying to change their transport for climate change worldwide 2022

Share of consumers likely to walk, cycle, or use public transport instead of driving a car to limit their contribution to climate change in selected countries worldwide in 2022

Share of consumers trying to replace flights for climate change worldwide 2022

Share of consumers likely to stop flying, or replace some flights with trains or bus journeys to limit their contribution to climate change in selected countries worldwide in 2022

Share of respondents likely to save water at home worldwide 2022

Share of respondents who are likely to save water at their homes to limit their contribution to climate change in selected countries worldwide in 2022

Consumers propensity to limit their contribution to climate change India 2022

Propensity of consumers to limit their contribution to climate change in India as of March 2022

Awareness of general population towards COP26 India 2022

Awareness of general population towards COP26 in India as of March 2022

Further reports Get the best reports to understand your industry

Get the best reports to understand your industry.

Mon - Fri, 9am - 6pm (EST)

Mon - Fri, 9am - 5pm (SGT)

Mon - Fri, 10:00am - 6:00pm (JST)

Mon - Fri, 9:30am - 5pm (GMT)

U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Here’s how you know

Official websites use .gov A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS A lock ( Lock A locked padlock ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

JavaScript appears to be disabled on this computer. Please click here to see any active alerts .

Current Environmental Economic Topics

Economic analysis plays a central role in informing EPA decision-making. The Agency’s work in this area covers a wide range of topics, focusing on evaluating the economic costs, benefits and impacts of proposed environmental regulations and policies on the national economy.

Learn more about economic analysis and research in the following topic areas:

  • Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program — Community Edition (BenMAP-CE) BenMAP-CE is an open-source computer program that calculates the number and economic value of air pollution-related deaths and illnesses.
  • Regulation Development for Drinking Water Contaminants — Economic Analysis and Statutory Requirements EPA conducts economic analysis when developing standards for drinking water contaminants. Cost-benefit analysis is an important source of information to evaluate the impacts of alternative policy choices.
  • Economic and Waste Management Trend for Manufacturing in the 2017 TRI National Analysis The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) National Analysis summarizes trends in releases, waste management practices, and pollution prevention activities for listed chemicals, including economic and waste management trends.
  • Economics of Green Infrastructure EPA researches the economics of green infrastructure strategies to identify the costs of implementation and ways to make the practices economically and legally viable.
  • Technology Transfer Network — Economics & Cost Analysis Support EPA develops tools and guidance to support cost, benefit, and economic impact analyses of air quality regulations and policies. 
  • Economic Incentives EPA uses incentives to control pollution and improve environmental and health protection.
  • Environmental Economics Home
  • Overview of Environmental Economics
  • Current EPA Guidelines for Preparing Economic Analyses (2016)
  • Environmental Economics Reports
  • Climate Change
  • Mortality Risk Valuation
  • EPA Datasets
  • EPA Handbook on Land Cleanup and Reuse
  • Peer Review of TSD: Social Cost of Greenhouse Gas Estimates (2023)
  • Retrospective Study of the Costs of EPA Regulations

50 Best universities for Environmental Economics in India

Updated: July 18, 2023

  • Art & Design
  • Computer Science
  • Engineering
  • Environmental Science
  • Liberal Arts & Social Sciences
  • Mathematics

Below is a list of best universities in India ranked based on their research performance in Environmental Economics. A graph of 25.3M citations received by 2.25M academic papers made by 50 universities in India was used to calculate publications' ratings, which then were adjusted for release dates and added to final scores.

We don't distinguish between undergraduate and graduate programs nor do we adjust for current majors offered. You can find information about granted degrees on a university page but always double-check with the university website.

1. Indian Institute of Technology Delhi

For Environmental Economics

Indian Institute of Technology Delhi logo

2. Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee logo

3. Indian Institute of Science

Indian Institute of Science logo

4. VIT University

VIT University logo

5. Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur

Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur logo

6. Indian Institute of Technology Bombay

Indian Institute of Technology Bombay logo

7. Birla Institute of Technology and Science

Birla Institute of Technology and Science logo

8. Anna University

Anna University logo

9. Jadavpur University

Jadavpur University logo

10. Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur

Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur logo

11. National Islamic University

National Islamic University logo

12. Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology

Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology logo

13. Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research

Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research logo

14. University of Delhi

University of Delhi logo

15. National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur

National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur logo

16. Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Indian Institute of Technology Madras logo

17. University of Petroleum and Energy Studies

University of Petroleum and Energy Studies logo

18. Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur

Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur logo

19. National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli

National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli logo

20. National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra

National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra logo

21. Indian School of Mines

Indian School of Mines logo

22. Amrita University

Amrita University logo

23. National Institute of Technology, Silchar

National Institute of Technology, Silchar logo

24. Delhi Technological University

Delhi Technological University logo

25. Aligarh Muslim University

Aligarh Muslim University logo

26. Amity University

Amity University logo

27. National Institute of Technology, Durgapur

National Institute of Technology, Durgapur logo

28. Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati

Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati logo

29. TERI School of Advanced Studies

TERI School of Advanced Studies logo

30. Symbiosis International University

Symbiosis International University logo

31. Jawaharlal Nehru University

Jawaharlal Nehru University logo

32. KIIT University

KIIT University logo

33. Siksha O Anusandhan University

Siksha O Anusandhan University logo

34. Manipal Academy of Higher Education

Manipal Academy of Higher Education logo

35. Indian Institute of Technology Indore

Indian Institute of Technology Indore logo

36. Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology

Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology logo

37. Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat

Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat logo

38. Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology

Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology logo

39. Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University

Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University logo

40. National Institute of Technology, Calicut

National Institute of Technology, Calicut logo

41. Lovely Professional University

Lovely Professional University logo

42. Birla Institute of Technology

Birla Institute of Technology logo

43. Kalasalingam University

Kalasalingam University logo

44. Graphic Era University

Graphic Era University logo

45. SRM Institute of Science and Technology

SRM Institute of Science and Technology logo

46. National Institute of Technology, Warangal

National Institute of Technology, Warangal logo

47. Chandigarh University

Chandigarh University logo

48. Punjab Technical University

Punjab Technical University logo

49. Galgotias University

Galgotias University logo

50. Saveetha University

Saveetha University logo

The best cities to study Environmental Economics in India based on the number of universities and their ranks are Delhi , Roorkee , Bangalore , and Vellore .

Economics subfields in India

Grad Coach

Research Topics & Ideas: Environment

100+ Environmental Science Research Topics & Ideas

Research topics and ideas within the environmental sciences

Finding and choosing a strong research topic is the critical first step when it comes to crafting a high-quality dissertation, thesis or research project. Here, we’ll explore a variety research ideas and topic thought-starters related to various environmental science disciplines, including ecology, oceanography, hydrology, geology, soil science, environmental chemistry, environmental economics, and environmental ethics.

NB – This is just the start…

The topic ideation and evaluation process has multiple steps . In this post, we’ll kickstart the process by sharing some research topic ideas within the environmental sciences. This is the starting point though. To develop a well-defined research topic, you’ll need to identify a clear and convincing research gap , along with a well-justified plan of action to fill that gap.

If you’re new to the oftentimes perplexing world of research, or if this is your first time undertaking a formal academic research project, be sure to check out our free dissertation mini-course. Also be sure to also sign up for our free webinar that explores how to develop a high-quality research topic from scratch.

Overview: Environmental Topics

  • Ecology /ecological science
  • Atmospheric science
  • Oceanography
  • Soil science
  • Environmental chemistry
  • Environmental economics
  • Environmental ethics
  • Examples  of dissertations and theses

Topics & Ideas: Ecological Science

  • The impact of land-use change on species diversity and ecosystem functioning in agricultural landscapes
  • The role of disturbances such as fire and drought in shaping arid ecosystems
  • The impact of climate change on the distribution of migratory marine species
  • Investigating the role of mutualistic plant-insect relationships in maintaining ecosystem stability
  • The effects of invasive plant species on ecosystem structure and function
  • The impact of habitat fragmentation caused by road construction on species diversity and population dynamics in the tropics
  • The role of ecosystem services in urban areas and their economic value to a developing nation
  • The effectiveness of different grassland restoration techniques in degraded ecosystems
  • The impact of land-use change through agriculture and urbanisation on soil microbial communities in a temperate environment
  • The role of microbial diversity in ecosystem health and nutrient cycling in an African savannah

Topics & Ideas: Atmospheric Science

  • The impact of climate change on atmospheric circulation patterns above tropical rainforests
  • The role of atmospheric aerosols in cloud formation and precipitation above cities with high pollution levels
  • The impact of agricultural land-use change on global atmospheric composition
  • Investigating the role of atmospheric convection in severe weather events in the tropics
  • The impact of urbanisation on regional and global atmospheric ozone levels
  • The impact of sea surface temperature on atmospheric circulation and tropical cyclones
  • The impact of solar flares on the Earth’s atmospheric composition
  • The impact of climate change on atmospheric turbulence and air transportation safety
  • The impact of stratospheric ozone depletion on atmospheric circulation and climate change
  • The role of atmospheric rivers in global water supply and sea-ice formation

Research topic evaluator

Topics & Ideas: Oceanography

  • The impact of ocean acidification on kelp forests and biogeochemical cycles
  • The role of ocean currents in distributing heat and regulating desert rain
  • The impact of carbon monoxide pollution on ocean chemistry and biogeochemical cycles
  • Investigating the role of ocean mixing in regulating coastal climates
  • The impact of sea level rise on the resource availability of low-income coastal communities
  • The impact of ocean warming on the distribution and migration patterns of marine mammals
  • The impact of ocean deoxygenation on biogeochemical cycles in the arctic
  • The role of ocean-atmosphere interactions in regulating rainfall in arid regions
  • The impact of ocean eddies on global ocean circulation and plankton distribution
  • The role of ocean-ice interactions in regulating the Earth’s climate and sea level

Research topic idea mega list

Tops & Ideas: Hydrology

  • The impact of agricultural land-use change on water resources and hydrologic cycles in temperate regions
  • The impact of agricultural groundwater availability on irrigation practices in the global south
  • The impact of rising sea-surface temperatures on global precipitation patterns and water availability
  • Investigating the role of wetlands in regulating water resources for riparian forests
  • The impact of tropical ranches on river and stream ecosystems and water quality
  • The impact of urbanisation on regional and local hydrologic cycles and water resources for agriculture
  • The role of snow cover and mountain hydrology in regulating regional agricultural water resources
  • The impact of drought on food security in arid and semi-arid regions
  • The role of groundwater recharge in sustaining water resources in arid and semi-arid environments
  • The impact of sea level rise on coastal hydrology and the quality of water resources

Research Topic Kickstarter - Need Help Finding A Research Topic?

Topics & Ideas: Geology

  • The impact of tectonic activity on the East African rift valley
  • The role of mineral deposits in shaping ancient human societies
  • The impact of sea-level rise on coastal geomorphology and shoreline evolution
  • Investigating the role of erosion in shaping the landscape and impacting desertification
  • The impact of mining on soil stability and landslide potential
  • The impact of volcanic activity on incoming solar radiation and climate
  • The role of geothermal energy in decarbonising the energy mix of megacities
  • The impact of Earth’s magnetic field on geological processes and solar wind
  • The impact of plate tectonics on the evolution of mammals
  • The role of the distribution of mineral resources in shaping human societies and economies, with emphasis on sustainability

Topics & Ideas: Soil Science

  • The impact of dam building on soil quality and fertility
  • The role of soil organic matter in regulating nutrient cycles in agricultural land
  • The impact of climate change on soil erosion and soil organic carbon storage in peatlands
  • Investigating the role of above-below-ground interactions in nutrient cycling and soil health
  • The impact of deforestation on soil degradation and soil fertility
  • The role of soil texture and structure in regulating water and nutrient availability in boreal forests
  • The impact of sustainable land management practices on soil health and soil organic matter
  • The impact of wetland modification on soil structure and function
  • The role of soil-atmosphere exchange and carbon sequestration in regulating regional and global climate
  • The impact of salinization on soil health and crop productivity in coastal communities

Topics & Ideas: Environmental Chemistry

  • The impact of cobalt mining on water quality and the fate of contaminants in the environment
  • The role of atmospheric chemistry in shaping air quality and climate change
  • The impact of soil chemistry on nutrient availability and plant growth in wheat monoculture
  • Investigating the fate and transport of heavy metal contaminants in the environment
  • The impact of climate change on biochemical cycling in tropical rainforests
  • The impact of various types of land-use change on biochemical cycling
  • The role of soil microbes in mediating contaminant degradation in the environment
  • The impact of chemical and oil spills on freshwater and soil chemistry
  • The role of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in shaping water and soil chemistry
  • The impact of over-irrigation on the cycling and fate of persistent organic pollutants in the environment

Topics & Ideas: Environmental Economics

  • The impact of climate change on the economies of developing nations
  • The role of market-based mechanisms in promoting sustainable use of forest resources
  • The impact of environmental regulations on economic growth and competitiveness
  • Investigating the economic benefits and costs of ecosystem services for African countries
  • The impact of renewable energy policies on regional and global energy markets
  • The role of water markets in promoting sustainable water use in southern Africa
  • The impact of land-use change in rural areas on regional and global economies
  • The impact of environmental disasters on local and national economies
  • The role of green technologies and innovation in shaping the zero-carbon transition and the knock-on effects for local economies
  • The impact of environmental and natural resource policies on income distribution and poverty of rural communities

Topics & Ideas: Environmental Ethics

  • The ethical foundations of environmentalism and the environmental movement regarding renewable energy
  • The role of values and ethics in shaping environmental policy and decision-making in the mining industry
  • The impact of cultural and religious beliefs on environmental attitudes and behaviours in first world countries
  • Investigating the ethics of biodiversity conservation and the protection of endangered species in palm oil plantations
  • The ethical implications of sea-level rise for future generations and vulnerable coastal populations
  • The role of ethical considerations in shaping sustainable use of natural forest resources
  • The impact of environmental justice on marginalized communities and environmental policies in Asia
  • The ethical implications of environmental risks and decision-making under uncertainty
  • The role of ethics in shaping the transition to a low-carbon, sustainable future for the construction industry
  • The impact of environmental values on consumer behaviour and the marketplace: a case study of the ‘bring your own shopping bag’ policy

Examples: Real Dissertation & Thesis Topics

While the ideas we’ve presented above are a decent starting point for finding a research topic, they are fairly generic and non-specific. So, it helps to look at actual dissertations and theses to see how this all comes together.

Below, we’ve included a selection of research projects from various environmental science-related degree programs to help refine your thinking. These are actual dissertations and theses, written as part of Master’s and PhD-level programs, so they can provide some useful insight as to what a research topic looks like in practice.

  • The physiology of microorganisms in enhanced biological phosphorous removal (Saunders, 2014)
  • The influence of the coastal front on heavy rainfall events along the east coast (Henson, 2019)
  • Forage production and diversification for climate-smart tropical and temperate silvopastures (Dibala, 2019)
  • Advancing spectral induced polarization for near surface geophysical characterization (Wang, 2021)
  • Assessment of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter and Thamnocephalus platyurus as Tools to Monitor Cyanobacterial Bloom Development and Toxicity (Hipsher, 2019)
  • Evaluating the Removal of Microcystin Variants with Powdered Activated Carbon (Juang, 2020)
  • The effect of hydrological restoration on nutrient concentrations, macroinvertebrate communities, and amphibian populations in Lake Erie coastal wetlands (Berg, 2019)
  • Utilizing hydrologic soil grouping to estimate corn nitrogen rate recommendations (Bean, 2019)
  • Fungal Function in House Dust and Dust from the International Space Station (Bope, 2021)
  • Assessing Vulnerability and the Potential for Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) in Sudan’s Blue Nile Basin (Mohamed, 2022)
  • A Microbial Water Quality Analysis of the Recreational Zones in the Los Angeles River of Elysian Valley, CA (Nguyen, 2019)
  • Dry Season Water Quality Study on Three Recreational Sites in the San Gabriel Mountains (Vallejo, 2019)
  • Wastewater Treatment Plan for Unix Packaging Adjustment of the Potential Hydrogen (PH) Evaluation of Enzymatic Activity After the Addition of Cycle Disgestase Enzyme (Miessi, 2020)
  • Laying the Genetic Foundation for the Conservation of Longhorn Fairy Shrimp (Kyle, 2021).

Looking at these titles, you can probably pick up that the research topics here are quite specific and narrowly-focused , compared to the generic ones presented earlier. To create a top-notch research topic, you will need to be precise and target a specific context with specific variables of interest . In other words, you’ll need to identify a clear, well-justified research gap.

Need more help?

If you’re still feeling a bit unsure about how to find a research topic for your environmental science dissertation or research project, be sure to check out our private coaching services below, as well as our Research Topic Kickstarter .

Need a helping hand?

environmental economics research topics india

You Might Also Like:

Business/management/MBA research topics

research topics on climate change and environment

Masango Dieudonne

I wish to learn things in a more advanced but simple way and with the hopes that I am in the right place.

Olusegunbukola Olubukola janet

Thank so much for the research topics. It really helped

saheed

the guides were really helpful

Nandir Elaine shelbut

Research topics on environmental geology

Submit a Comment Cancel reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.

  • Print Friendly

Cart

  • SUGGESTED TOPICS
  • The Magazine
  • Newsletters
  • Managing Yourself
  • Managing Teams
  • Work-life Balance
  • The Big Idea
  • Data & Visuals
  • Reading Lists
  • Case Selections
  • HBR Learning
  • Topic Feeds
  • Account Settings
  • Email Preferences

The Long-Term Costs of Wind Turbines

  • Sam Aflaki,
  • Atalay Atasu,
  • Luk N. Van Wassenhove

environmental economics research topics india

To avoid environmental degradation, wind farm operators need to factor realistic maintenance and decommissioning costs into their projections.

Wind energy is experiencing a boom, but in a pattern eerily reminiscent of the nineteenth century Pennsylvania oil boom, wind farms are building ever larger turbines to farm wind energy further and further from shore. This trend carries risks, especially as turbines come with largely hidden costs. Increasing evidence suggests that although larger turbines can capture more energy, at a certain point the costs of maintaining and decommissioning large turbines located far offshore will outweigh the benefits of that energy capture. If wind farm operators are to avoid creating an environmental and economic disaster in the longer term, they need to begin factoring realistic maintenance and decommissioning costs into their projections.

In 1859, the town of Titusville in Pennsylvania vaulted into the limelight when Edwin Drake struck oil, thereby marking the inception of America’s oil industry. With an initial depth of 69.5 feet (roughly equivalent to the blade size of a 0.5 MW wind turbine), Drake’s well set the stage for an unprecedented era of economic prosperity.

  • SA Sam Aflaki is a professor of operations management at HEC Paris and holds the CMA CGM chair on sustainability and supply chain analytics.
  • AA Atalay Atasu is a professor of technology and operations management and the Bianca and James Pitt Chair in Environmental Sustainability at INSEAD.
  • LW Luk N. Van Wassenhove is the Henry Ford Chaired Professor of Manufacturing, Emeritus, at INSEAD and leads its Humanitarian Research Group and its Sustainable Operations Initiative.

Partner Center

Professional essay writing service

Top 100 Environmental Research Paper Topics for Your Inspiration

Why taking care of our environment is essential.

Ever since humans first appeared, our planet has provided us with all basic needs like food, air, water, and energy. However, our environment can sometimes harm us too, with natural disasters like droughts, earthquakes, landslides, and floods. In such cases, we give our best to try and figure out the leading causes for their occurrence. 

The more we learn about why something happens in nature, the better we can understand how to enhance or prevent it. As human beings, we all have some basic knowledge of the environment we live in. However, it’s essential to broaden those understandings daily and learn more about ecology and the environment. It’s the only way for us to stop the hazardous side-effects of our industrial growth from damaging the planet we live on.

environmental research paper topics

Environmental Research for Better Living

We can also help prevent the extinction of endangered or endemic species, which are an essential part of our ecosystem and could cause a disbalance in their local environment if they were to disappear. Environmental research is not just a technique for survival – it’s much more.

It is now a separate field of study led by environmental sciences to positively impact the world around us. This type of research is extensive, and there are numerous environmental research paper topics college students can choose from and explore.

Some overlap with other disciplines, and based on your preferences – be it law research paper , health, biology, chemistry, science, debate, or other – you can choose yours and explore it in great detail. Writing about the environment in research papers is yet another step to a better environment.

Not only do these environmental research paper topics dig deeper into particular burning issues, their causes, and effects, but they also provide possible solutions that could help deal with them once and for all.

What Makes an Environmental Research Topic Good

Environmental research paper topics cover numerous issues which usually overlap with chemistry, biology, oceanography, civil engineering, water resources engineering, zoology, and the gas and oil industry. Simply put, there’s a great variety of topics you can choose from.

What makes one topic better than the other, though?

  • First of all, it’s always better to choose a topic from an area of research you’re particularly interested in. For example, if you are more of a biologist, you should opt for topics covering plants, e.g., deforestation and afforestation.
  • Secondly, that would always be an advantage if you’re able to reflect on a topic from a bystander perspective. 
  • And last but not least, a powerful topic should offer solutions to a particular modern-day problem in our environment. That way, your topic will have a clear purpose.

List of the top 100 environment research paper topics

The following list of 100 environment research topics will help you find inspiration, so you’ll be able to design your topic faster and start writing your paper without further delays. 

The topics have been divided into groups for you to narrow down your search easier.

Environmental Health Topics

  • Endemic wildlife – their unique importance for nature as a whole
  • National parks and their significance for our health 
  • The global impact of tectonic movements on the world’s ecosystems
  • Lung cancer and radon – analysis and potential solutions
  • Acid rain and the harmful effects on aquatic life
  • Killing wildlife with acid rain – what can we do to prevent it?
  • How vital was prehistoric wildlife for the ecosystems we have today?
  • Air pollution and its destructive impact on health
  • Can recycling help improve the health of people worldwide?
  • What can we do to minimize the depletion of the ozone layer?
  • The depletion of the ozone layer and its harmful impacts on health?
  • GMOs, herbicides, and pesticides in food and their impact on health

Environmental Debates Topics

  • Can life on Earth co-exist with radiation? Artificial vs. natural radioactivity
  • How essential is oil for the ecosystem? Oil pollution and the oil industry
  • Is there anything we can do to reverse the ozone layer depletion?
  • Will using red lights make a significant difference in our environment?
  • When we say green energy, what do we mean? Is it green?
  • Can we redeem our planet with the use of green energy?
  • How far should humans go into meddling with extinction? Is it a natural cause?

Environmental Justice Topics

  • Does the government have the most significant impact on the recycling effort of the country?
  • Do we use the total capacity of science to impact climate change?
  • Nuclear power – the importance for the environment and its role in foreign policies
  • Freight transport is a major cause of greenhouse gases emission – how can we reduce it?
  • The hospitality industry and the environmental management

Environmental Science Topics

  • Industrial plants and their connection to water resources – are they a great cause for human diseases?
  • Switching to hydrogen from fossil fuels – why is it beneficial for the world?
  • How can we stop the destruction of coral reefs?
  • The contamination of our soil – to what extent are wastes and pesticides responsible for it?
  • The acidification of the ocean – how big a problem is it?
  • The melting of permafrost and its impact on climate change
  • Global warming – busting all myths about it
  • The increased concentration of CO2 in our atmosphere – downsides
  • Small water resources and their importance for the environment
  • Acid rains and industrialization – what’s the link?

Environmental Controversial Topics

  • The impact of toxic waste on our environment
  • The causes and effects of global warming – what can we expect in the next decade?
  • Can people make use of the greenhouse effect?
  • The depletion of the ozone layer, the current situation, and prospects
  • If all ice glaciers in the world melt from global warming – what can we expect?
  • How important is recycling? Is it a safety strategy or a business?

Environmental Persuasive Speech Topics

  • What strategic actions can we implement to save our environment?
  • Conservation – an analysis
  • How can Donald Trump help save our planet?
  • To what extent should humans be concerned about endangered species, and how can they help stop their extinction?
  • Deforestation – causes, dangers, and effects on our modern world
  • The destruction of wildlife in the Amazon forest – impacts
  • Afforestation – is it possible? Can it help save a dying planet?

Environmental Biology Topics

  • Asthma attacks and the environmental influence on them
  • The effects of genetic diseases on humans
  • Roots of plants – a comparative study
  • Photosynthesis is different in some plants – a comparative study
  • Crustaceans and their importance for the environment
  • Why do we call Earth a living organism?
  • Invasive species and their impact on the environment
  • Soil composition – is it the same everywhere, and why not?
  • Viruses in nature – an analysis of how they work
  • The different types of trees in your local area
  • If honey bees become extinct, what would the effects on nature be? 

Environmental Chemistry Topics

  • The scientific standpoint for climate change 
  • Scientific examination and critic reviews on climate change
  • The spread of harmful and dangerous microorganisms and farm chemicals
  • How does farming affect the environment? Are there dangers to it?
  • The contamination of groundwater – causes and risks
  • The destruction of the forest ecosystem and its coping mechanisms
  • Bush burning – the hazardous effects on the environment
  • GMOs, pesticides, and herbicides – how do they impact our lives
  • Spraying vegetables with chemicals – pros and cons
  • The oil pollution and the dangers for wildlife 

Environmental Economic Topics

  • Air pollution and urban migration – is there a link?
  • Modernization and noise pollution
  • If we harness solar energy, will we make a good impact on the environment?
  • The Gulfstream and its importance in the world’s economy
  • The impact of the technological advancements on the environment
  • Technology and the environment – benefits & downsides
  • Ecology in the world today and prospects for the next decade

Environmental Argument Topics

  • The impact of the environmental issues on the world as a whole 
  • Our planet Earth and its desertification – causes & effects
  • Can we make a significant change in the environment with sustainable consumption?
  • The implementation of sustainable consumption and prospects
  • PET bottles – what’s unsafe about them? Can they kill you?
  • The parameters for the quality of the sol and the impact of drought on it
  • Cattle grazing and GMOs – their effect on the production of greenhouse gas

Environmental History Topics

  • EPA – the hazardous waste
  • Exxon Valdez and Santa Barbara oil spills
  • The Love Canal Case and the Eastman Kodak Case
  • The 1978 Three Mile Island
  • A comparative analysis of the most prominent earthquakes throughout history
  • A comparative analysis of the most prominent floods throughout history
  • A comparative study of the most prominent landslides throughout history
  • Norman Borlaug and the Rockefeller Foundation in the Green Revolution
  • The SARE/LISA and the USDA programs on sustainable agriculture
  • The emergence of agricultural biotechnology

Environmental Law Topics 

  • Human vs. animal rights
  • Would implementing tax payments for carbon emissions help minimize them?
  • Making vegetarianism mandatory – pros and cons
  • If governments ban GMOs, what can we expect?
  • The future of agriculture and organic farming
  • Exports of animals – should governments ban them?
  • Zoos – should governments ban them?
  • Selling fur – should the government of each country ban it?
  • Should we make the selling of plastic bags illegal?
  • The impacts of tourism on our environment

We hope that these classified lists of environment project topics will help you find your most suitable pick. Whichever option you choose from, be it from the group of environmental science research topics or a research connected to environmental justice, you should always present both the supporting and opposing views.

Note that you have to set an academic goal before you start writing an essay. Therefore, make sure that the topic you choose can accomplish it. If you need help with research paper choice, writing, or else, you can always consult our experts. 

If you think that would be too strenuous, buying research paper is another option many people resort to.

Order your paper now!

Related Posts

  • 100+ Best Science Topics for Research Papers
  • Cultural Research Paper Topics
  • Entrepreneurship Research Paper Topics
  • 100+ Best Religion Research Paper Topics in 2023
  • 110 Unique Tranding Fashion Research Paper Topics and Ideas

environmental economics research topics india

IMAGES

  1. Environmental Economics in India by V.S. Ganesamurthy, Hardcover

    environmental economics research topics india

  2. Routemybook

    environmental economics research topics india

  3. Download Economics

    environmental economics research topics india

  4. Routemybook

    environmental economics research topics india

  5. Environment Economics And Its Applications: Buy Environment Economics

    environmental economics research topics india

  6. The Routledge Handbook of Environmental Economics in Asia : Shunsuke

    environmental economics research topics india

VIDEO

  1. Environmental Economics: meaning and scope/पर्यावरणीय अर्थशास्त्र: अर्थ और क्षेत्र

  2. Environmental Economics, Politics, and Worldviews

  3. Introduction to Environmental Economics Week 5 NPTEL

  4. Environmental Economics in Developing Countries: Issues and Challenges edited by Achiransu Acharyya

  5. Introduction to Environmental Economics

  6. Introduction to Environmental Economics

COMMENTS

  1. Environmental sustainability, trade and economic growth in India

    Purpose. Based on the hypothesis of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC), the purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between environmental pollutants (as measured by CO 2 emissions) and GDP for India, over the period 1980-2012. The presence of an inverted "U" shape relationship is examined while controlling for factors such as the degree of trade openness, foreign ...

  2. Environmental Economics Research Paper Topics

    This comprehensive guide to environmental economics research paper topics is designed to assist students and researchers in selecting a subject for their study. Environmental economics, a field at the intersection of economics and environmental science, offers a wide array of topics that explore the economic aspects of environmental issues.

  3. Twenty Key Challenges in Environmental and Resource Economics

    Economic and ecological systems are closely interlinked at a global and a regional level, offering a broad variety of important research topics in environmental and resource economics. The successful identification of key challenges for current and future research supports development of novel theories, empirical applications, and appropriate policy designs. It allows establishing a future ...

  4. Environmental economics

    Alexandra Sadler. Nicola Ranger. Brian O'Callaghan. Research Open Access 01 Feb 2024 Nature Sustainability. P: 1-12. All Research & Reviews. Comments & Opinion 26 Jun 2023 Nature Climate Change ...

  5. Plastic bans in India

    1. Introduction. The global and transboundary challenge of plastic pollution poses major threats to the environment, human health, and sustainable development (Lau et al., 2020, Kumar et al., 2021, UNEP, 2021a).The impacts from plastic pollution span the entire life cycle of plastics (Lavers et al., 2022), whilst its repercussions on livelihoods, human well-being, and ecosystems are ...

  6. India

    Since 2017, EfD-India has been hosted at the Centre for research on the Economics of Climate, Food, Energy and Environment (CECFEE), a centre of excellence located in Indian Statistical Institute (ISI), Delhi. In 2021, EfD India became the host center for the multi-country EfD Collaborative Program - Emissions Pricing for Development (EPfD).

  7. India's Economic Growth and Environmental Sustainability: What are the

    The impact of population density, energy consumption, economic growth and trade openness on CO2 emissions in India Natural Hazards, Vol.79, No.2 18 July 2015 View

  8. (PDF) India's Economic Growth and Environmental ...

    Abstract and Figures. One of the key environmental problems facing India is that of particle pollution from the combustion of fossil fuels. This has serious health consequences and with the rapid ...

  9. India's economic growth and environmental sustainability : what are the

    One of the key environmental problems facing India is that of particle pollution from the combustion of fossil fuels. ... research and publications, and topics in poverty and development. WORK WITH US ... We face big challenges to help the world's poorest people and ensure that everyone sees benefits from economic growth. Data and research ...

  10. Handbook of environmental economics in India

    Climate Change: Negotiations and Adaptation Policy (Kavi Kumar)-- PART VI Interdisciplinary Issues-- 12. Reflections on Interdisciplinary Research (S. Lele)-- Some Useful Websites. (source: Nielsen Book Data) Publisher's summary Environmental economics as a discipline is relatively new in India, though concern for the environment is not.

  11. Thesis topics at the Environmental Economics and Natural Resources Group

    The objective of this thesis research therefore is to 1) create an overview of current economic estimates about AF through literature search, to 2) develop a methodology to estimate the economic impact of AF on human and national benefits and 3) to estimate these benefits. Suggested courses. AEP-32306. Keywords.

  12. Research in Environmental Economics

    EPA's National Center for Environmental Economics (NCEE) publishes a working paper series on research in environmental economics. Paper topics include environmental management, resources and conservation, agriculture, global issues, institutional issues, and other topics. These papers are either authored by NCEE economists or produced with ...

  13. Regional disparities in social, environmental, and economic indicators

    There is a plethora of evidence examining state-wise disparities in India and across nations, using different indicators and dimensions. However, insufficient efforts have been made to address the level of development and disparities in socioeconomic and environmental aspects, which refers to the basic amenities needed for the development of an individual's living conditions in any society or ...

  14. PDF Challenges of Sustainable Development in Indian Economy a Study

    The SDG India Index is a broad metric that governments, corporations, civil society, and the general public can all understand and apply. It was made to give an overall evaluation of all Indian states and union territories, and to assist leaders and changemakers in evaluating their performance on social, economic, and environmental aspects.

  15. Reflections on Interdisciplinarity in Environmental Economics in India

    Lele (2009) reflected on interdisciplinarity in environmental economics in India. He recognized that "environmental economics is not considered synonymous with ecological economics in the West ...

  16. Hot topics in agricultural and environmental economics

    Abstract and Figures. Land use is at the core of today's complex sustainability challenges. Agricultural and environmental economics share a focus land and resource use but evolved in their own ...

  17. Home

    Overview. The primary concern of Environmental & Resource Economics is the application of economic theory and methods to environmental issues and problems that require detailed analysis in order to improve management strategies. The contemporary environmental debate is in a constant state of flux, with new or relatively unexplored topics ...

  18. Frontiers in Environmental Economics

    International Day of Indigenous People and their role in combating Climate Change. Nelson Chanza. Eromose Ebhuoma. 2,028 views. 2 articles. A progressive, human-centric journal which publishes pioneering research to support the UN SDGs and better facilitate the transition to a sustainable interaction between the economy, society and na...

  19. Environmental economics

    New Zealand is letting economics rule its environmental policies. Stephen Knight-Lenihan, University of Auckland, Waipapa Taumata Rau. New Zealand's economically driven approach to ecological ...

  20. Environment of India

    As one of the 17 megadiverse countries in the world, India hosts a rich variety of ecosystems and geographic landscapes, such as hot and cold deserts, highlands, tropical and temperate forests ...

  21. Current Environmental Economic Topics

    BenMAP-CE is an open-source computer program that calculates the number and economic value of air pollution-related deaths and illnesses. EPA conducts economic analysis when developing standards for drinking water contaminants. Cost-benefit analysis is an important source of information to evaluate the impacts of alternative policy choices.

  22. India's best Environmental Economics universities [Rankings]

    Below is a list of best universities in India ranked based on their research performance in Environmental Economics. A graph of 25.3M citations received by 2.25M academic papers made by 50 universities in India was used to calculate publications' ratings, which then were adjusted for release dates and added to final scores.

  23. 100+ Environmental Science Research Topics

    100+ Environmental Science Research Topics & Ideas. Finding and choosing a strong research topic is the critical first step when it comes to crafting a high-quality dissertation, ... Topics & Ideas: Environmental Economics. The impact of climate change on the economies of developing nations;

  24. The Long-Term Costs of Wind Turbines

    With an initial depth of 69.5 feet (roughly equivalent to the blade size of a 0.5 MW wind turbine), Drake's well set the stage for an unprecedented era of economic prosperity.

  25. Professional Essay Writing Service from Top Providers

    We would like to show you a description here but the site won't allow us.