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How to Restate a Thesis

Last Updated: December 10, 2023 Fact Checked

wikiHow is a “wiki,” similar to Wikipedia, which means that many of our articles are co-written by multiple authors. To create this article, 43 people, some anonymous, worked to edit and improve it over time. This article has been fact-checked, ensuring the accuracy of any cited facts and confirming the authority of its sources. This article has been viewed 375,588 times. Learn more...

A thesis statement serves as your paper’s (or speech’s) guiding idea, alerting readers to the main points of your paper and the direction it will take. A thesis restatement, which comes in the paper’s conclusion, is the thesis’s kindred spirit, though not its identical twin. It differs from the thesis in both word choice and sentence structure. Restating your thesis at the end of the paper allows you to remind your readers of what you have proven in your body paragraphs and helps to bring your paper to a successful close.

Working out the Restatement Basics

Step 1 Decide on a place for the restatement.

  • Sketching out a rough conclusion (the main points you want to get across) will give you an idea of the best place for the restated thesis before you actually try your hand at writing the restatement.
  • Depending on the nature of your paper or of your conclusion, you may want to open your conclusion with a question or some other kind of rhetorical device, rather than a restatement of the thesis. While writing often follows prescribed formulas (such as the 5-paragraph essay), there is no one-size-fits-all approach for writing a concluding paragraph, and you may need to try out several positions for your thesis restatement to find out what works best.

Step 2 Capitalize on the work you’ve done.

  • You can use the restated thesis to provide a greater level of sophistication or emotional impact to the original argument. For example, if your initial argument was that buying pets as holiday gifts is dangerous, you might restate your thesis this way: "Remember: buying that puppy as a Christmas present might seem like a good idea at the time, but it could end in the tragedy of another homeless dog by Easter."
  • You can also restate your thesis to incorporate the relationship you've built with your reader. For example, if your essay was about developing business partnerships, you could begin your restatement by saying something like, "As a businessperson...." Not only will this make your restatement different from the original, but it will also help draw connections with important elements from the essay/speech.

Step 3 Answer the

  • For example, if you have written an essay about alcohol use on college campuses, you could revisit the "So what?" question in your conclusion by providing a statement about what that means for students and for college officials. It could look something like this: "Because alcohol abuse depends on more than just the legal drinking age, it is crucial that students be educated about how alcohol abuse occurs, and also that college officials broaden their perspective to include a greater variety of aspects."

Step 4 Avoid clichés.

  • You may be able to use something like “In conclusion” at the end of a speech, however. Signaling or signposting words—like “in conclusion” or “next”—are very important in speeches because listeners only have one chance to follow along with what you’re saying, and these words help them to keep their place.

Step 5 Don’t apologize.

  • Avoid saying things like, “It seems like” or “It is possible that” in the restatement. One exception would be if this conditional language is part of your original thesis statement and your paper is devoted to discussing a topic that is only a possibility, not something you are stating is definitely the case. Otherwise, maintain a level of confidence.
  • While maintaining confidence is crucial to the success of your paper, it’s important to acknowledge when opposition exists and not to use absolute statements which may alienate readers. Confidence in your position and in the fact that you’ve proven your point is one thing; blind certainty in your opinion is another!

Making the Restatement Distinct from the Thesis

Step 1 Use different words.

  • You can use your word processor’s thesaurus function for this, an online thesaurus, or a good old-fashioned paper thesaurus. If you use a thesaurus, however, check your chosen word in the dictionary to ensure that you know its precise meaning. Thesauruses group words very loosely by general meaning, and there is often a significant difference in connotation between them.
  • It’s not necessary to change every single word, such as prepositions (“in,” “on,” “above,” “over”) and articles (“a,” “an,” and “the”). Spend your time focusing on words/phrases that receive the most emphasis, like those that are central to the points you’re making.

Step 2 Change the structure.

  • Try varying your sentences by starting with different parts of speech. For example, if you began the original thesis with a prepositional phrase, start the restatement with the subject of the sentence. For instance, if the thesis starts out “Around the turn of the nineteenth century in England, women frequently…”, you might start your restatement out with something like “Women in early nineteenth-century….”
  • Another way to vary the structure is to present your points in a different order. Many thesis statements include three ideas, presented in the order in which they will be discussed in the body paragraphs. When restating, you can list the points in an alternate order.

Step 3 Split the points up.

Community Q&A

Community Answer

  • When restating your thesis, if you find that the statement doesn’t fit your paper anymore, you’ll want to go back to the body of your paper and try to find where things went off track. You may find that you need to revise the original thesis to reflect what you actually wrote in the paper, or that parts of the body of the paper need to be revised to better suit the thesis. Thanks Helpful 1 Not Helpful 0
  • While restating your thesis is essential to the conclusion of your paper or speech, it’s not enough. You will need to emphasize main points and, depending on the assignment/goal of the paper, you may also need to call your audience to action, discuss the implications of what you have talked about in the paper, or make predictions for the future. Thanks Helpful 1 Not Helpful 0
  • Think of the restatement as a new, more powerful version of your thesis—you’ve written the paper and learned a lot over that process, and now you have all of this knowledge to draw on. Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 1

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  • ↑ https://edtechbooks.org/academic_b_writing_p/conclusion_paragraph
  • ↑ https://wts.indiana.edu/writing-guides/writing-conclusions.html
  • ↑ https://writingcenter.unc.edu/tips-and-tools/cliches/
  • ↑ https://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/conclusion
  • ↑ https://lsa.umich.edu/sweetland/undergraduates/writing-guides/how-do-i-write-an-intro--conclusion----body-paragraph.html

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How to Restate a Thesis Statement: Examples & Tips

What is the most important part of any essay or research paper? Of course, it’s the thesis statement —a sentence that expresses the paper’s main idea and guides the readers through your arguments.

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But where do you place the thesis? You’ve probably answered, “in the introduction.” However, that’s not all of it—you also need to restate the thesis statement in the conclusion. Moreover, it should be paraphrased using a more diverse vocabulary.

The picture shows the definition of a restated thesis.

If you’re unsure about how to restate a thesis, this article by Custom-Writing.org will be helpful for you. Here, you will find:

  • various rephrasing strategies,
  • a step-by-step guide,
  • the most actionable thesis restatement tips.
  • ✍️ Thesis Restatement Definition
  • ✅ Step-By-Step Guide
  • 💡 Rephrasing Strategies
  • 📋 Example Sentences
  • 🖼️ How to Reframe
  • ✨ Bonus Tips

🔍 References

✍️ what is a restated thesis.

A restated thesis is a reworded and restructured version of the original statement. It is presented in a conclusion or any other part of the essay requiring a recap of the paper’s main idea. It shouldn’t repeat the thesis statement word for word: instead, it’s better to focus on its content.

Why Restating Your Thesis Is Necessary

For a solid, effective academic work, a restated thesis in a conclusion is a must. Here’s why:

  • A restated thesis helps reintroduce your central argument, thus enhancing its perceived significance.
  • A correctly restated main claim makes the transition to the implications smoother.
  • A paraphrased thesis restatement signals the readers about the wrap-up of your paper.

✅ How to Restate a Thesis Step by Step

Now, let’s dwell on the restatement process in more detail. We recommend you follow the steps we described below. It will help you make your paraphrased thesis effective without undermining your persuasive arguments.

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💡 How to Rephrase a Thesis: Different Strategies

You can approach the restatement of thesis in several ways. Here are the best strategies that will make your argument effective and easily understood.

The picture enumerates the 5 best thesis restatement strategies.

How to Restate a Claim by Substituting Synonyms

English is a language rich in synonyms, so you’ll hardly experience any trouble finding suitable substitutes for the words you’ve used in the original thesis. You can also try out an online reword generator or thesis statement maker to get different versions of your central claim.

For instance, imagine that this is your thesis:

People of color have achieved pronounced success in the fight for their civil rights and equality in the USA over the last century,

You may experiment with synonyms as freely as you want. Here are some variants:

  • The 20-century civil rights movement gave many rights and freedoms to the minorities in the United States.
  • The situation with racial equality improved significantly over the past 100 years, giving racial minorities a strong voice in American society.

Restating Your Thesis by Altering the Sentence Structure

The syntax is also a rich source of inspiration for thesis changes. If the original statement is compound, divide it into several shorter sentences. If you’ve used several simple sentences in the first version, consider combining them into one longer statement.

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Here is an example of altering the thesis’ structure without changing the main points:

In the original version, we started by focusing on diabetes. In the reworded thesis, we presented the numbers as the first piece of data. This way, we’re directing the reader’s attention to the gravity of the problem.

How to Restate Your Thesis by Changing the Tense

In most cases, the original thesis statement uses future or present tense. It helps to inform the readers about what they are about to read. For instance, it can start with an introductory phrase:

I will argue that homework should be canceled to give students more free time and ease the burden of high school studies.

In this example, the thesis statement is written in the present tense. It links to the general statistics of time students spend on their homework. You can transform this statement into a past-tense sentence in the conclusion, showing that your argument has been proven.

The presented evidence showed that students benefited from homework cancellation and had more quality time for their hobbies and relaxation.

Restating a Thesis by Shortening or Lengthening It

The length of your thesis statement also matters. You may present it in a shorter way at the beginning of your paper, focusing only on the gist of your research question. Later on, once the arguments are laid out and explained in detail, you can present a more extended version of the initially formulated problem.

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In this restates thesis example, we have extended the original idea, explaining what “assigned seating” and “school bullying” mean. This way, the reworded version could embrace the evidence discussed in the argumentative essay’s body.

Restating a Thesis by Linking It to the Research Problem

The strategy we’re about to describe is suitable for use in research paper writing. You will need to tie the thesis statement to the problem you’ve outlined in the introduction, linking it to the issue you’re examining.

For instance, in an essay on child obesity in the USA, you can restate the thesis as follows:

Although preventive healthcare has witnessed much advancement in the past decade, evidence proves that child obesity is still on the rise, with alarming annual increase rates.

📋 How to Restate a Thesis: Example Sentences

Now, let’s examine how to rephrase a sentence in practice. Have a look at these examples:

Example # 1

Here, we expanded the thesis statement by making it longer and adding some details.

Here, we have changed the sentence structure by switching the first and second parts. The first example focuses on the legalization of marijuana, while the second version starts by mentioning the rising rates of teenage weed consumption.

In this example, we’ve changed the thesis statement’s tense from future to past, showing how an intention transformed into a completed task.

🖼️ How to Reframe a Reworded Thesis?

Once you’ve approached the conclusion paragraph of your work, it’s time to think about reframing your main claim. It’s important not to duplicate the introductory thesis because its role in the final section is different. Here are some workable reframing suggestions:

  • Reword the original thesis and put it at the beginning of your conclusion. It will bring the focus back to your initial research purpose.
  • Enumerate the central claims you’ve focused on. They can be compiled from topic sentences used in the body paragraphs.
  • After restating the thesis, you can dwell on the broader significance of the problem you’ve examined. Make a logically related call to action based on the cited evidence. You can also mention your study’s limitations and clarify what additional research is needed.

✨ Bonus Thesis Statement Tips

Now, it’s time to give you a bonus for careful reading: our tried-and-tested tips for good thesis rewriting. Check them out:

As you can see, rephrasing a thesis statement requires effort. Using extensive vocabulary and syntax will help you restructure the content and retain its meaning. And, of course, make sure to follow our tips!

Further reading:

  • Best Thesis Statement Examples with Expert Comments
  • How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper: Examples & Tips
  • How to Write a 5-Paragraph Essay: Outline, Examples, & Writing Steps
  • What Are the 5 Different Types of Essays? A Complete Guide

❓ How to Restate Thesis in Conclusion FAQs

Restatement of your thesis involves restructuring and changing the vocabulary originally used in the introduction. However, the altered thesis should preserve your work’s meaning and central message.

You will typically need a reworded thesis in a conclusion paragraph. This part of your essay or research paper should wrap up everything you’ve said and summarize your claims in different words.

When composing your essay conclusion paragraph, it is vital to reword your thesis statement initially presented in the introduction. This strategy will help you make the conclusion sound non-redundant while preserving the original main idea.

When restating the claim, you do the same work as when you reword the thesis. You need to change the wording and syntax while preserving the overall meaning of the original claim.

A good example is as follows: “children should wear uniforms at school.” The reworded thesis would contain the same meaning rephrased in your own words: “Uniforms are recommended for all students.”

  • Writing the Conclusion: Indiana University Bloomington
  • Writing Introductory and Concluding Paragraphs: University of Minnesota
  • How to Restate a Thesis Statement: Classroom: Synonym
  • Writing a Paper: Conclusions: Walden University
  • Conclusions: Purdue University
  • Ending the Essay: Conclusions: Harvard University
  • Thesis Statements: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
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How to Restate A Thesis: Your Detailed Guide

how to restate a thesis

A thesis acts as your research paper’s main pillar, guiding the readers to the key points on the paper and the direction that you took. A thesis statement comes at the introduction, but you will need to restate it in the conclusion. Notably, a lot of students find this challenging and keep asking, “How do you rephrase a thesis statement?” and “Are you supposed to reword your thesis in the conclusion paragraph?”

To help you restate thesis of your paper appropriately, we have highlighted the key steps that you should follow. Make sure to also check the examples and practice the different ways to restate a thesis until you can hack it like a pro.

What Does Restate Thesis Mean?

Before we can look at the steps involved in restating a thesis, it is important to start by asking the questions, “What does restating means?” and “How long does a thesis restate have to be?”

Restating means that you are highlighting something that you had already brought out, in this case, the “thesis of your paper.” Therefore, you are simply reminding the readers about the points that you were trying to put across in the entire paper, but without sounding repetitive. When it comes to length, there is no specific rule on it, but you should try to make it approximately the same length as the original thesis.

When you restate thesis and conclude the paper well, your work will look complete, professional and earn you a better grade.

Restate Thesis Statement: Decide Where to Position It

In most cases, college students restate the thesis at the start of their conclusion. You might also want to place it on a different section of the conclusion, other than the beginning of the conclusion. When teaching students how to restate a thesis in a conclusion, we recommend them to use the method that will make their work look unique.

For example, instead of restating the thesis as the first sentence, consider starting the conclusion with a rhetoric question followed by your restated thesis statement. Here is an example below. “Will we ever appreciate the importance of saving our rainforests? Rainforests act as the largest carbon sinks on the globe, as well as home to thousands of species, and everyone can play a role in their protection.”

Note that since there is no specific formula on how to restate a thesis statement , it is advisable to start by crafting a draft conclusion and then decide where to position it. Actually, you might consider several positions until you get the perfect spot.

How to Rephrase a Thesis: Make It to have a Deeper Impact

By the time a reader gets to the conclusion of your work, it implies that he/she has already read the entire paper and has a clear idea about your stand on the topic. Therefore, you should take advantage of this and rephrase the thesis statement to deliver a deeper level of emotional effect.

One way of driving this deeper emotional impact is addressing the reader directly, and here is an example. If you were working on a paper with a topic, such as cybersecurity for startups, a good way to start restating the thesis might be:

  • “As a startup enterprise owner …”
  • “To strengthen your information security as a small business owner …”

Ways to Restate a Thesis: Answer the Question, “So What?”

The stated thesis at the start of your introduction might not provide the answer to the question, “so what?” However, the restated thesis , in your conclusion, should comprehensively answer the question. The answer seeks to inform the reader about the significance of the arguments in the paper to avoid leaving him/her hanging.

For example, if your paper was talking about teenage alcohol and substance abuse, make sure to answer the question “So what?” by showing what it does to teenagers. This can be something such as this; “ Additional awareness of the dangers of substance abuse, such as alcohol, should be emphasized because teenagers are more prone and likely to give in because of peer pressure rather than the implications of substance abuse.”

Avoid Making Apologies when Rewording a Thesis

When working on the conclusion of your paper, it is prudent to be confident that you provided ample proof in the body. Therefore, as you restate the thesis, you should not make apologetic statements because they undermine your argument. Such statements, which you should avoid, include:

“It appears that …. “ “It is possible that …” “It is my opinion that …”

The only time when using such statements when restating your thesis might be okay is when the topic of discussion was simply a possibility.

Restate Thesis Statement by Varying the Tense

When writing an paper, the thesis statement at the introduction might have been done in the future tense, informing the reader what to anticipate in the rest of the paper.

For example, a paper looking at coal production might have a thesis such as this, “ I will examine the effects of using coal in Azerbaijan ….” When restating the thesis, you can change the tense, and put it in the past, so that it looks something like this, “ I evaluated the how harmful the use of coal is to the environment in Azerbaijan …”

Seek Writing Help to Restate Thesis of Your Paper

When you work on any piece of assignment, how you wrap it up, especially in the conclusion, is very important to avoid leaving your reader in suspense. In this post, we have demonstrated how to restate a thesis statement, but you should consider reading a carefully done restate thesis and practice more to hone your skills. However, if you are still finding the task a challenge, even after reading a restate thesis example, consider seeking writing help from an expert.

We have a pool of qualified writers who are ready to help you with your academic assignments, and all you have to do is ask us for help to “restate my thesis.” They know how to start a paper, write the body professionally, and restate the thesis like pros. Furthermore, our services are cheap, and you can count on our writers for quality work and top grades.

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easy ways to restate thesis

Restating a thesis is often considered a complex job. The good news is that you need to come up with smart hacks to structure your thesis in a better manner.

Not only a well-structured thesis statement can help you convey your message effectively, but it also promotes better comprehensiveness. With proper formatting, positioning, and structure of a thesis, a reader is likely to grasp the idea within the first 4 seconds of reading the thesis.

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With that said, let's understand what it takes to restate a thesis that remains accurate and relevant till the end.

3-Step Dissertation Process!

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Step 1    analyze the original thesis statement.

Proper Analysis is the key to identifying the loopholes in any thesis statement. If your original thesis statement looks incomplete or dull, repeat the initial research required for writing.

Below is a quick checklist to analyze your final thesis statement for better readability

  • Identify the key ideas
  • Repeat your arguments
  • Present your claims
  • Keep your focus in one place
  • Always keep the central argument in focus

Step 2: Revise your Thesis Statement

Starting from the first thesis statement, it's a summary of your subject used to support the argument of the entire thesis.

It is the first thing a reader reads at the start of a thesis, also often considered the main idea of the essay.

How to Write A Thesis Statement? Expert Tips and Examples

The easiest way to restate a thesis is by replacing complex words with simpler nouns. Doing this work helps avoid repetition, captures the main idea of the thesis, and keeps things fresh.

To restate your thesis statement, pick one strong idea you would like to talk about in the entire thesis.

Step 3: Summarise the Main Points

Once you're done restating your thesis statement, the next step is to summarise all the other important points you're going to cover in the thesis.

Exploring the ideas will help you better convey your message in fewer words.

To summarise the main points, pick the central argument and brainstorm other related ideas that you can think of from the reader's perspective.

Summarize Well: How to Write a Good Executive Summary?

Step 4: Use Active Voice

Writing a thesis in Active voice makes it 10x more impactful than using passive voice. With a quick manual check, you can easily highlight sentences that can be changed into passive voice. Extract those abstracts and use a passive-to-active converter.

Step 5: Be Specific

Specificity is the key to a good thesis; nothing else can beat that. To be specific with your research, state strong points with references. Don't try to be vague or use fancy words that have a negative impact on the thesis.

Step 6: Build Connections

A thesis is a set of connected ideas collected to reinforce the central argument. Restating a thesis is another name for creating connections with main points.

Try to use more transitions that connect one paragraph to the other without killing the main crux of the idea.

However, make sure of the consistency so that it keeps the reader from the main idea.

Step 7: Give it a Final Thought

Adding a personal touch to your thesis statement can be the ultimate deal sealer.

After every paragraph, go through your thesis and make any changes required.

This step helps you add or subtract anything for a better restatement of your thesis.

At this point, you can also add CTAs, revise the final thoughts, shorten your concluding remarks, and add a small reflection paragraph at the end to summarise everything.

Step 8: Check for consistency

Consistency is a must-have for any thesis that has to be published online. Once you're done with your thesis, check for consistency if any paragraph of your thesis needs to be more consistent.

Some of the easy ways to make a thesis consistent are:

  • Clearly state the focus of your essay.
  • Use a parallel structure in your easy
  • Try to add more verbs and only talk about the main point of your thesis.
  • Use consistent terminology in the thesis that makes it easy for readers to understand.
  • Take care of the formal tone of the essay. Avoid changing tone in between and stick to the same tone & voice for the entire thesis.
  • Use traditions to feed the curiosity of your reader. Always look for ways to add logic and avoid complex terms that may confuse the reader.

Step 9: Write for the Audience

The main objective of a thesis is to inform the reader of the latest facts and updates about a topic or subject.

Take a moment to think of the language they would like to read. Keep the tone informative and friendly for better comprehension of the idea.

Make every sentence clear and complete so the reader doesn't have to research from external sources.

Step 10: Use Emoticons

Using the right emotions at the right place is key to attracting the reader in the first 10 seconds.

Whether you want to connect with the audience or reinforce the arguments for better understanding, using emotions is the key.

Ending with a Verdict

Though a research thesis doesn't allow an individual's opinion or interests, giving a neutral verdict, dissent sounds like a bad idea.

Some common examples of a verdict include.

  • an ending statement that summarizes the whole idea of the thesis
  • A Call to action or CTA that guides the readers on what to do next
  • An unbiased recommendation discussed mutually in the thesis
  • A reflection statement that describes the broader implications of the topic

Step 11: Edit, Format, and Publish

Like any content, your research thesis also needs to be revised during the final editing.

It's the time when you should edit the essay to ensure it's clear, complete, and error-free.

The good idea is to spare an hour to review any possible errors that may create an inconsistency with your content.

Once done editing, consider formatting the thesis in a way that looks read well. Avoid stuffing all the information in a single paragraph but try to break your idea into multiple sections.

Checklist for Restating a Thesis

  • Be specific about the introduction and build arguments.
  • Answer why, what, and how this research thesis is going to be helpful
  • Choose a topic sentence that represents your thesis in less than 15 words
  • Conclude the thesis to summarise the whole idea
  • Offer new arguments and back them with factual information
  • Try to convey more information in fewer words
  • Draw a vision for the thesis before writing
  • Focus on the goal and only give justification for that
  • Don't hesitate to find and include new ideas in every paragraph
  • Check the flow of the paragraph and delete any unnecessary information.

Acknowledgement for Thesis & Dissertation: A Guide on How to Write Acknowledgement for Dissertation

Questions to Ask Yourself Before Restating a Thesis

Unlike blogs or articles, a thesis is not just stuffing information into paragraphs, but it's more than that.

Before writing a thesis, make sure to ask yourself a few questions. Such ae

  • Did I fulfil the goal of the thesis
  • Have I solved the challenges for the reader
  • Is it thesis specific for the target audience
  • Does my thesis answer the what, why, and how to question
  • Does my thesis have an impact on words

How to Know if Your Thesis is Strong

A strong thesis allows a better understanding of the idea discussed

While there are many ways to know if your thesis is strong, the easiest thing to do is review it yourself and ask a few questions.

  • Have I constructed the thesis the right way?
  • Have I created a connection between the A and B factor
  • Have I made my thesis specific enough
  • Does my thesis clarify all the objections?
  • Does my thesis support the thesis or topic statement
  • Is my thesis relevant to the reader's concern?
  • Does my thesis propose a useful solution?

How to Improve Your Thesis?

Improving an existing thesis is not a hard nut to crack. All you need to do is run a few manual checks to ensure everything is in place.

Here are a few things you can do to improve your thesis

  • Back with Strong Evidence

Having strong evidence is the only way to make your thesis effective.

Add evidence that makes sure your thesis is provable by evidence.

  • Keep it Short and Precise

No one likes to read stacks of long paragraphs with overstuffed information. Try to keep your thesis strong, clear, and to the point.

Delete excess information that is of no use to the thesis.

  • Focus on one Solution

A good thesis should not propose more than one solution to the reader. The simplest idea is not to give other distractions to the reader.

Stick to one idea and create more content that justifies the requirements.

Restating a thesis is not the hardest thing to o. With a small share of effort, you can easily manage to restate a thesis that doesn't seem repeated, arguable, or reinforced.

Your thesis should work around one idea or central argument only.

The process needs careful Analysis, attention to detail, and an in-depth understanding of the audience.

Start by restating your thesis statement and try to retain the original essence of your thesis without any repetition or forceful reinforcement.

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How to Rephrase a Thesis Statement for the Conclusion

A thesis statement is the most critical part of any essay, research paper, term paper, or academic paper.

Most professors, instructors, or teachers will look forward to reading an engaging thesis statement. Another thing they will also focus on is how you restate the thesis in the conclusion of an essay or research paper.

For every thesis in the introduction, there must be a restated thesis statement at the beginning of the conclusion.

If you are not conversant with how to restate a thesis, you came to the right place because we will look at the steps, tips, and strategies to use so that you keep the spirits of your readers high even as they exit reading your piece of written text.

Restating a Thesis

A thesis restatement comes at the beginning of the conclusion paragraph . Note that when restating the thesis, you are simply rewording, restructuring, reorganizing, and representing the original thesis statement in the introduction within your conclusion.

There are many reasons why many professors and guides for writing various types of papers will insist on having a restated thesis as part of the first section of the conclusion paragraph.

Restating the thesis helps the readers to close the loop of reading your text by seeing how you have proven the thesis in your body paragraphs.

It also helps to bring closure to the readers without leaving them in suspense. You are also reintroducing the central argument, enhancing the perceived significance your readers developed as they started reading.

A restated thesis also makes an excellent transition to other parts of the conclusion, such as a call to action, recommendations, or implications.

Steps for Restating a Thesis in a Conclusion

Understanding the thesis restatement process will go a long way in ensuring you achieve the benefits we have discussed above. You want to paraphrase your thesis so that even though they deliver the same message; they have a different organization, structure, and flow, making your writing persuasive and compelling.

1. Read the original thesis statement

After writing your introduction and body paragraphs, it is expected that you will have refined the preliminary thesis statement into a final thesis statement. Now, when you need to restate the thesis, for the purposes of concluding, begin by reading the final thesis statement of your essay or research paper, whatever writing you are undertaking. Reading the original thesis helps you to identify its focus and have a good picture of how to restate it in the conclusion.

2. Decide where you want to place it

Although many people might think that a restated thesis must appear at the beginning of the conclusion, that is not always the case. Therefore, you have to decide where you will place the restatement. At this stage, having an outline of the conclusion paragraph would be ideal, and it will help you figure out where to restate the thesis without making mistakes. All the same, having the restated thesis at the beginning of the introduction saves you time. Writing a conclusion is not cast in stone; you can take whatever approach you like as long as you achieve the intended purpose.

3. Look at the perspective of the original thesis

To restate the thesis better, consider the original thesis's point of view or perspective. You want to maintain the same person you wrote the thesis and the subject, even if it means rewriting the entire thesis.

4. Focus on the main points in the body paragraph

If you feel lost in how to restate the thesis, outline the main points and keywords you presented in the body paragraphs. An excellent way to quickly do this is by reading each topic sentence of the body paragraphs. Remember, your restatement should have the information you have discussed and portray the links you have established in your paper.

5. Express the significance of your argument

You have to justify your paper's central argument to validate the restated thesis. You should let your readers know why they should care about the topic you are writing about. Expand the thesis, so you have the original contribution without altering the intended meaning.

6. Paraphrase the thesis

Having identified everything that sets you up for successful thesis restatement, ensure that you paraphrase the thesis so that you have a restated thesis that meets all the criteria set in the rubric. Let's look at some ways to make the restated thesis stand out.

How to Rephrase or Paraphrase a thesis Effectively

Restating a thesis is about achieving different wording and flow but maintaining the meaning of the original thesis. This can be achieved in many ways. In a nutshell, you can restate the thesis using synonyms, changing the sentence structure and tenses, shortening or lengthening the thesis, and writing the message by linking it to research. Let's have a detailed look at each of these strategies.

Link your thesis to research

If you are writing a research paper or an essay, you must tie the thesis to the research problem stated in your introduction.

Change the Sentence Structure

You can take advantage of the fact that you can play around with the arrangement of words (syntax) as an inspiration to alter your original thesis statement when restarting it. You can restructure the original thesis into smaller or shorter sentences and then combine them again without altering the meaning you presented earlier in the introduction paragraph. You can rearrange the clauses in a sentence but maintain the same meaning.

Shortening or extrapolating the original thesis

A thesis statement is clear and concise. If your initial thesis statement was shorter, consider having a longer restated thesis at the end of your paper. This is always the case with most restatements. It helps spread out the main arguments or points in the body paragraph so that the readers are reminded about what they just read and how your promise in the thesis statement has been achieved. Summarizing the thesis statement when restating it should be done when focusing on the main idea.

Substitute synonyms

To effectively rephrase, paraphrase, or reword a thesis, you can use synonyms of the words used in your original thesis statement. Take advantage of dictionaries and word thesaurus but ensure that you maintain the same meaning without being ambiguous. Thanks to the richness of English in synonyms that mean the same thing, you will not have a lot of challenges restating a thesis using synonyms.

Change the tense

There is power in the way you can use tenses when restating a thesis statement. In most instances, the thesis statement is written in either present or future tense. You can take advantage of this and write a thesis statement in the past tense, emphasizing the main points you discussed in the body paragraphs.

Tips for Thesis Restatement (what works and what doesn't)

We are in the business of writing custom papers for diverse groups of clients, from students to professionals and scholars. Therefore, we keep trying, researching, and reading more about how to perfect the papers we write. Out of the many essays, theses, proposals, research papers, term papers, and dissertations we have written, we can confidently give the tips below as surefire ways to restate the thesis in the conclusion.

  • Never apologize when restating a thesis. After all, you have fielded the best proof through evidence and examples supporting your claims in the essay. An apology at this point only weakens your conclusion paragraph, leaving your readers confused even more.
  • When writing the thesis statement in the conclusion, acknowledge the counterarguments and counterclaims. Instead of sticking to your main point of view, show maturity by giving credit to either side of an argument.
  • Don't use clich?s when restating the thesis. It is the same thing as using filler words within your body paragraphs; it dilutes the sweetness of your writing.
  • Use conclusion sentence starters to introduce your restatement. You should try as much to avoid the common conclusion starters such as "to sum up, in conclusion, ?etc."
  • You should reword the original thesis and put it effectively within the beginning of your conclusion, even though you can put it anywhere. It is the easiest approach and makes it easy to locate the restated thesis and allows readers to refocus on the research purpose or purpose of the essay.
  • You should be concise while making meaning at the same time.
  • You should be objective, focused, and neutral in your stance . Instead of using judgmental language, stay neutral when rewriting the thesis for your introduction.
  • You can compile the topic sentences in the body paragraphs and enumerate the central claims when restating the thesis.
  • After restating the thesis, you should expound on the significance of your topic . You should logically explain why your readers should care based on the findings. You should call the readers top action and discuss implications and limitations.
  • Don't contradict yourself when writing the thesis a second time, as this leaves your readers confused. You should also avoid introducing new information.
  • Ensure that your restated thesis has a good choice of words and sound flow and does not counter the meaning of the original thesis . Remember, the thesis and restated thesis are sisters only that have different appearances but stand for the same thing.
  • You should view the restated thesis statement as a powerful version of the original thesis that cements your central idea in the readers' minds.
  • Avoid using incorrect tenses and modifiers when restating the thesis. When you use the wrong tenses, you confuse the readers, as when you incorrectly modify the subject.
  • Be confident as you restate the thesis to have a strong conclusion paragraph.

Examples of Original and Restates Thesis Statements

Below are examples of restating a thesis statement to help you figure out how to do it when writing your conclusion paragraph.

What are the components of a strong thesis?

A strong thesis statement should answer the question of "how?" and "why?" about the topic and should do so with specificity. It takes a stance, justifies discussion, and is specific. Therefore, it should have a specific noun, action verb, and assertive predicate. For instance,

Example: The tax policies (specific noun) of the current administration threaten to reduce (action verb) the tax burden on the middle class by sacrificing education and healthcare programs for anyone ( assertive predicate ). These should also feature when you restate the thesis, even if you rephrase, change the structure or tenses, or shorten the original thesis.

What does rephrasing or restating the thesis statement mean?

It means reading the original thesis and expressing it differently but maintaining the original meaning. The restated thesis is placed in the conclusion paragraph, preferably in the begging immediately after the conclusion starter.

Where does the restated thesis go?

When restating the thesis, placing it at the beginning of your conclusion paragraph immediately after the conclusion paragraph starter helps you to avoid losing your readers. It is the most convenient location, although you can place it anywhere within the conclusion. Placing it at the beginning helps you to have a narrow to the broad conclusion that gives better closure to the readers.

How does one restate the thesis?

To restate the thesis statement, read the original thesis statement, then rephrase it by changing the tenses and structure, using synonyms and different vocabulary, shortening or lengthening it, and paraphrasing it but maintaining the original meaning. Avoid using a thesis generator when restating your thesis because it will not give you the correct feel if you did it alone.

easy ways to restate thesis

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  • How to Write a Thesis Statement | 4 Steps & Examples

How to Write a Thesis Statement | 4 Steps & Examples

Published on January 11, 2019 by Shona McCombes . Revised on August 15, 2023 by Eoghan Ryan.

A thesis statement is a sentence that sums up the central point of your paper or essay . It usually comes near the end of your introduction .

Your thesis will look a bit different depending on the type of essay you’re writing. But the thesis statement should always clearly state the main idea you want to get across. Everything else in your essay should relate back to this idea.

You can write your thesis statement by following four simple steps:

  • Start with a question
  • Write your initial answer
  • Develop your answer
  • Refine your thesis statement

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Table of contents

What is a thesis statement, placement of the thesis statement, step 1: start with a question, step 2: write your initial answer, step 3: develop your answer, step 4: refine your thesis statement, types of thesis statements, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about thesis statements.

A thesis statement summarizes the central points of your essay. It is a signpost telling the reader what the essay will argue and why.

The best thesis statements are:

  • Concise: A good thesis statement is short and sweet—don’t use more words than necessary. State your point clearly and directly in one or two sentences.
  • Contentious: Your thesis shouldn’t be a simple statement of fact that everyone already knows. A good thesis statement is a claim that requires further evidence or analysis to back it up.
  • Coherent: Everything mentioned in your thesis statement must be supported and explained in the rest of your paper.

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The thesis statement generally appears at the end of your essay introduction or research paper introduction .

The spread of the internet has had a world-changing effect, not least on the world of education. The use of the internet in academic contexts and among young people more generally is hotly debated. For many who did not grow up with this technology, its effects seem alarming and potentially harmful. This concern, while understandable, is misguided. The negatives of internet use are outweighed by its many benefits for education: the internet facilitates easier access to information, exposure to different perspectives, and a flexible learning environment for both students and teachers.

You should come up with an initial thesis, sometimes called a working thesis , early in the writing process . As soon as you’ve decided on your essay topic , you need to work out what you want to say about it—a clear thesis will give your essay direction and structure.

You might already have a question in your assignment, but if not, try to come up with your own. What would you like to find out or decide about your topic?

For example, you might ask:

After some initial research, you can formulate a tentative answer to this question. At this stage it can be simple, and it should guide the research process and writing process .

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Now you need to consider why this is your answer and how you will convince your reader to agree with you. As you read more about your topic and begin writing, your answer should get more detailed.

In your essay about the internet and education, the thesis states your position and sketches out the key arguments you’ll use to support it.

The negatives of internet use are outweighed by its many benefits for education because it facilitates easier access to information.

In your essay about braille, the thesis statement summarizes the key historical development that you’ll explain.

The invention of braille in the 19th century transformed the lives of blind people, allowing them to participate more actively in public life.

A strong thesis statement should tell the reader:

  • Why you hold this position
  • What they’ll learn from your essay
  • The key points of your argument or narrative

The final thesis statement doesn’t just state your position, but summarizes your overall argument or the entire topic you’re going to explain. To strengthen a weak thesis statement, it can help to consider the broader context of your topic.

These examples are more specific and show that you’ll explore your topic in depth.

Your thesis statement should match the goals of your essay, which vary depending on the type of essay you’re writing:

  • In an argumentative essay , your thesis statement should take a strong position. Your aim in the essay is to convince your reader of this thesis based on evidence and logical reasoning.
  • In an expository essay , you’ll aim to explain the facts of a topic or process. Your thesis statement doesn’t have to include a strong opinion in this case, but it should clearly state the central point you want to make, and mention the key elements you’ll explain.

If you want to know more about AI tools , college essays , or fallacies make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

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A thesis statement is a sentence that sums up the central point of your paper or essay . Everything else you write should relate to this key idea.

The thesis statement is essential in any academic essay or research paper for two main reasons:

  • It gives your writing direction and focus.
  • It gives the reader a concise summary of your main point.

Without a clear thesis statement, an essay can end up rambling and unfocused, leaving your reader unsure of exactly what you want to say.

Follow these four steps to come up with a thesis statement :

  • Ask a question about your topic .
  • Write your initial answer.
  • Develop your answer by including reasons.
  • Refine your answer, adding more detail and nuance.

The thesis statement should be placed at the end of your essay introduction .

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Restating the Thesis – A Detailed Guide with Tips and Examples

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Knowing how to restate your thesis is a daunting task. No matter if you are writing a dissertation, or a thesis, knowing how to restate the thesis, in conclusion, isn’t easy. Many students craft the introduction or the main body paragraphs easily, only to struggle with the conclusion. But the trick lies in simplicity. When you restate the thesis statement, you are summarising everything you wrote till now in simple words so that it remains with the readers even after completing it. Seems like too many things to remember? Don’t worry! We will tell you how to restate a thesis statement in a conclusion and the strategies you should know.

What Does Thesis Restatement Mean and Why is it Important?

Restating the thesis means expressing your ideas differently once again, in a more transparent or convincing way. While restating a thesis, students reframe their hypothesis succinctly using synonyms. A restated thesis is nothing but a summarised form of the paper’s conclusion. However, it doesn’t mean repeating the same idea. Ideally, the writers mention the thesis statement in the introduction while writing research papers . But restating the thesis helps the readers recap the thesis statement again in a brief yet concise manner. Thesis papers are long pieces of literary work. So, when they complete reading it, they usually forget about the thesis idea. Moreover, they become mentally exhausted. So, restating the thesis, in conclusion, helps them to jog their memory once again and to draw their attention. Not to mention, restating the thesis makes the paper look more refined.

Simple Steps to Restate a Thesis Accurately

  • Read the original thesis multiple times thoroughly
  • Identify the point of view in which it is written. Remember to write in the same style while rewriting.
  • Consider all the keywords to understand the key points. Include all these in the restated thesis. You can also apply synonyms or words that are closely associated. The idea is to rephrase the sentence while keeping the central idea intact.
  • You should expand your thesis by contributing new ideas of your own. However, be careful not to alter the original meaning of the thesis.
  • Alter the words of the thesis using a suitable strategy.

If you are wondering how I restate my thesis in conclusion, here area few strategies you can follow –

  • Ask the “So What” Question

Good thesis statements must explain why your argument is significant. It should highlight why the readers should invest time in reading the paper. So, if you are unsure how to restate your thesis in the conclusion, you should look for a solution with a “So What” question.

A restated thesis example is, if you are writing an essay on substance use in educational institutions, you can cover the answer to the “So What” question with a summary paragraph. Include a statement stating what that act implies. You can also expand the statement by restating that using the substance is bad irrespective of age. So, even if the students are of legitimate age, they should be educated about the ill effects of substance use and how using them in educational institutions can lead to problems on a social scale.

  • Never Apologise

You already have added your arguments within the body of the paper. So, if you apologize now, that will only weaken your standpoint. So, while restating the thesis, never use phrases like, “It seems like” or “It is possible that”. These kinds of statements assert that you are not confident in your arguments. Thus it dilutes the impact of the thesis statement.

You can only use such an approach if there is scope to discuss the possibility as a part of the thesis statement. Else, it would be unwise to do that. Your confidence must seep from the thesis restatement. Also, ensure that you acknowledge the counter-arguments with logic and not absolute statements.

  • Don’t use Clichés

Using clichéd phrases like “As this paper explains” or “in conclusion” while restating the thesis is not a great idea. Your readers already know what the paper was all about once they reach the conclusive statements. So, repeating the same thing again will make the thesis redundant. The readers will also feel that you lack creativity.

So, add fresh and unique perspectives to your thesis and rephrase the statement in a way that looks transparent and appealing.

How to Reword a Thesis

You have a brief idea of how to restate your thesis, but you cannot change every word while doing so. The idea is to make the restated conclusion look captivating. So, you should know how to reword a thesis. You can follow these simple steps –

  • Change the Structure

While writing a restated thesis statement, the first thing to remember is to make it different from the primary thesis statement. So, you can resort to altering the word structures, choice of words, clauses, and parts of speech. If there is a subject in the original thesis statement, start the restated statement with a prepositional phase.

  • Use synonyms

When you rewrite the thesis word by word, the main aspect you should be careful of is that you cannot change the meaning or repeat what you have already said. So, look for synonyms or different words that imply the same meaning. Referring to thesaurus is a good option to improve your vocabulary in such situations.

  • Split the Points

You can also alter the sentence structure while restating the thesis. If the original thesis statement has longer sentences, split it into two or three lines. Splitting long sentences helps them become meaningful and concise, and the readers find it easier to comprehend.

  • Alter the Tenses

Another good strategy to restate the thesis statement is by changing the tenses. Do not feel shy to juggle between the past and present tenses. For example, if you have used the past tense in the original thesis statement, you can restate it in the present tense, and vice versa.

  • Check the Length of the Statement

There are a few rules for writing a thesis paper. Introductory paragraphs cannot be more than 5-7% of the entire paper. Similarly, the conclusion should also be short and must now exceed 5-7% of the word count. So, check the total word count of the paper, and decide the number of words you can assign for the restated thesis statement.

If you have a clear idea of the word difference between the body and conclusion, it will be easier for you to restate the thesis. However, if you are not confident about it, forget the word count and focus on creating a quality restatement.

Example of How to Restate Thesis

The English language is full of synonyms. So you won’t find trouble finding an alternate word while restating. However, you must also consider checking the meanings don’t get altered while restating thesis statements in the conclusion. Here are a few restated thesis examples to check out –

Example: The original thesis statement being –

“Coloured people staying in the US have achieved huge success in their fight for equality and civil rights in the last century.”

You can restate it by saying –

“The racial equality situation has improved by leaps and bounds in the last 100 years. This gives the racial minorities residing in the US a stronger voice.”

“The civil rights movement that started in the 20 th  century gave a voice to the US minorities regarding equality and freedom.”

Let us understand it with another example –

The original thesis statement is –

“Diabetes is a problem growing rapidly in the USA, affecting more than a hundred million people.”

The restated thesis can be,

“With more than a hundred million people already affected by diabetes, one cannot deny that it is the most pressing public health concern in the US.”

Most Frequently Asked Questions By Students

Q1. can i restate my thesis statement.

Ans. Yes, you can restate your thesis statement if needed. Restating the thesis is nothing but conveying the same idea in a different way. Many students restate their thesis statements while writing the conclusion part of their thesis papers.

Q2. How do you rephrase a thesis statement?

Ans. There are many ways to restate the thesis statement. You can try either one of these options –

  • Changing the word structure
  • Splitting the points
  • Using synonyms
  • Changing the tenses
  • Altering the length of the statement

Q3. How do you start a restated sentence?

Ans. Restating a sentence means using different sentence structures. So, the best way to restate a sentence is by avoiding the phrasing used in the original sentence. In fact, don’t look at the original phrase at all. Think of an original idea to present your thoughts in a completely different way.

Q4. What is an example of restating a thesis?

Ans. An example of restating the thesis statement is as follows –Original statement – “Assigned seating in the canteens can help to solve the bullying problems in the school.”

Restated statement – “Bullying practices in the schools regarding seating arrangements can only be solved if every student is assigned to a specific seat in the canteen.”

Q5. What Is a Restated Thesis?

Ans. The restated thesis is just an altered version of the original thesis statement. This is used to recap the readers about your study in a short and concise way.

Q6. How to Restate a Thesis Step by Step

Ans. The five steps of restating a thesis statement are as follows –

  • Choosing a topic
  • Setting objective
  • Encapsulating the main points
  • Checking for spelling and grammar
  • Revising the thesis

Q4. How to Restate Your Thesis by Changing the Tense

Ans. Follow these steps to restate the thesis by changing the tense –

  • Make the readers understand why your argument is valid
  • Avoid clichés
  • Restate the argument using different word structures
  • Alter the tense
  • Restate it confidently

Q5. How to Reframe a Reworded Thesis?

Ans. You can reframe a reworded thesis by following these steps –

  • Reword the original statement and mention it at the beginning of the conclusion
  • Mention the claims you have focused on
  • Dwell on the broader significance of the problems after restating the thesis.

Mark

Hi, I am Mark, a Literature writer by profession. Fueled by a lifelong passion for Literature, story, and creative expression, I went on to get a PhD in creative writing. Over all these years, my passion has helped me manage a publication of my write ups in prominent websites and e-magazines. I have also been working part-time as a writing expert for myassignmenthelp.com for 5+ years now. It’s fun to guide students on academic write ups and bag those top grades like a pro. Apart from my professional life, I am a big-time foodie and travel enthusiast in my personal life. So, when I am not working, I am probably travelling places to try regional delicacies and sharing my experiences with people through my blog. 

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Learn How to Restate a Thesis Effectively

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Writing a conclusion is always a tough task. You would have easily crafted the introduction and the body of a thesis, but when it comes to summarizing, you need to restate the core of the thesis in simple words. It sounds hectic and difficult, isn’t it? Don’t worry! To help you in restating a thesis effectively, here in this guide, we have shared the important restating tips to be followed when writing.

What is Meant by Restating a Thesis?

In general, restating is the art of stating an idea once again or differently in a more convincing or transparent way.

Restating a thesis definition means reframing the hypothesis of a thesis paper using different words succinctly. The restated words or phrases of a thesis statement should be included in the conclusion part when summarizing.

Restating is not just about repeating an already discussed idea. Generally, in academic research papers, the thesis statement will be mentioned in the introductory paragraphs. In order to help the readers understand or recap the original thesis statement of a long paper, it is advisable to restate it along with a summary in the conclusion.

Where Should You Restate a Thesis?

As stated above, the thesis restatement should be done at the conclusion of the paper. Before you restate, you should analyze and find where the reframed statement should be included in the conclusion paragraph.

Usually, the majority of people place it in the first sentence of the conclusion paragraph, but that is not mandatory. You can restate a thesis at the start, middle, or end of the conclusion section.

When you restate a thesis, remember that your goal is to recall the central idea of the paper to your reader in a creative way following high standards. So, rephrase the statement accordingly and place it at any part of the summarizing paragraph.

Why is it Important to Restate a Thesis?

By the time you come to write the conclusion part of your paper after completing the introduction and the body, both you and your readers would have exhausted. So, in order to draw attention and explain what is discussed in the body paragraph, it is important to restate a thesis. The restatement gives a polished look to the original thesis statement .

Restate a Thesis

Know How to Restate a Thesis Effectively

Do you know how to restate a thesis? If you want to restate a thesis statement effectively, then make sure to follow the steps described below. Executing it will aid you to make your paraphrased thesis effective without undermining your convincing arguments.

Step 1: Carefully read the original thesis statement multiple times.

Step 2: Identify in which person’s point of view it is written [1 st , 2 nd , or 3 rd ]. Preserve that point of view in the rewrite.

Step 3: Take a hint of all the keywords and important points to be included in the reworded thesis. Apply synonyms or any other closely associated words to make the sentence appear different without modifying the core idea.

Step 4: Without altering the original meaning, expand the thesis with your own contribution.

Step 5: Rephrase or reword the thesis using any of the strategies mentioned below.

How to Rephrase a Thesis?

Paraphrasing is a strenuous task. But you can effectively restate a thesis statement by following the below-mentioned tactics.

Ask the “So what” Question

A good thesis statement should explain why your argument on the topic is significant and why your reader should consider your topic to be important. So, when you restate a statement, seek a solution to the “So what?” question.

For example, if you have written an essay on liquor use in school, then you should cover the answer to the “So what?” question in your summary paragraph by including a statement on what it implies for the school officials. Also, along with these lines, you can also restate that since liquor consumption depends on more than the legitimate drinking age, it is important that understudies should be taught about the occurrence of liquor misuse along with the viewpoints of the experts in the school.

Never Apologize

You have already added your defense points in the body paragraphs. So, apologizing at this point will weaken your conclusion. When you restate your thesis, avoid using things like, “It is possible that” or “It seems like” in the statement. You can use this conditional language only if your topic has scope to discuss the possibility or if it is a part of your thesis statement. Otherwise, never use it. Always maintain a level of confidence when you restate a thesis. Also, it is important to acknowledge the opponents, if there are any, without using absolute statements.

Don’t Use Clichés

When you restate your thesis, never use phrases such as “As this paper explains”, “In conclusion” or any similar phrases. Your readers will already know that they are in the conclusion paragraph of the paper, and so needlessly using such blunt phrases will spoil the worth of your summary, and your readers may also feel that you lack creativity.

Add a fresh perspective to your conclusion and rephrase the statement in an appealing and transparent way using creative and original phrases.

How to Reword a Thesis?

Your conclusion will get a captivating look if you rewrite your thesis statement word by word. So, how to reword a thesis? Here are a few important tips for rewording a thesis.

Alter the Structure

In order to write a statement dissimilar from the original, change the language and the structure, change the clauses, and use different parts of speech.

If you have written an original thesis statement with a subject, then, when you restate, start the paragraph with a prepositional phrase.

Use synonyms

When you re-write a thesis word by word, alter the words in the original statement with their synonyms or any different words of the same meaning. You can refer to a thesaurus when you reword.

Split the Points

If your original thesis statement has long sentences, then split that into two or three short, meaningful sentences. Splitting the points would help the readers to understand the point of discussion easily.

Change the Tenses

One of the good rewording strategies is playing between the present and past tense. If you have used the present tense in your original statement, then, when restarting it, you can use the past tense.

What Should Be the Length of a Thesis Restatement?

Generally, the conclusion paragraph will occupy only 5 to 7% of the paper. Hence, at first, consider the total word count of the entire piece and then pick the number of words you have decided to use for writing the introduction and body paragraph of your paper.

If you have an idea of the word count difference between the body and introduction sections, then you can easily decide on the number of words you can use for restating a thesis. The number of words should not stop you from thinking of a quality thesis restatement in the summary paragraph.

Read more: Thesis Outline- Fantastic Tips for the Students

The Bottom Line

We hope you are now clear about how to write a thesis restatement. In case, you still have confusion on how to restate a thesis, contact us immediately. We have numerous thesis helpers online to offer you high-quality thesis writing help at an affordable price. Especially, according to your requirements, our well-qualified assignment help experts will compose your thesis restatement smartly in advance of your deadline.

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How to Restate a Thesis: Masterful Techniques and Writing Tips for Efficiency

Masterful Techniques and Writing Tips for Efficiency

A thesis statement acts as the guiding idea for a paper or speech, and it alerts readers to the significant points and the position the paper takes. A restatement of a thesis comes at the end of an essay, and it acts as the thesis’ kindred spirit.

A thesis restatement differs from the central thesis by sentence structure and word choice. Restating the thesis helps remind the readers of what has been proven in the body. It allows one to bring the paper to a close. But are you the “ do my thesis for me ” kind of student? Don’t worry. You can still explore some of the critical tips and steps in restating your thesis as follows:

Steps in restating a thesis

Steps in restating a thesis

Restating a thesis may follow a sequence or steps, as this article outlines.

1. Deciding on the restatement position

Most writers and speakers prefer restating their theses at the beginning of their conclusion. However, one may put their thesis statement at other positions rather than the beginning of the concluding statement.

Open one’s paper with a question or different rhetoric rather than restating one’s thesis statement. As much as writing needs to follow some prescribed formulas, for example, the 5-paragraph essay , it is only sometimes valid that one has to follow some specific, described approach for the concluding paragraph.

One may need to try different positions to restate their thesis and determine what works best for them.

2. Capitalize on work done

Masterful Techniques and Writing Tips

While it is not guaranteed that when the reader reads the original thesis statement, they have also read the body of the essay or speech, they may have skipped the essay’s body and gone through the concluding statement.

A good restatement of the thesis may help enable them to understand what was discussed in the body; for example, one may have written about the dangers of buying pets as holiday gifts; it is possible to restate the thesis statement as,

“Remember, getting a kitten for a holiday gift may sound like a good idea, but it may end up as another case of a homeless cat before Easter!” One may as well opt to restate their thesis to incorporate the relationship built with the reader ; for instance, in an essay talking about the development of business partnerships, one may rephrase their thesis beginning, “As a business person,” This will ensure the restatement is different from the original thesis and help in drawing crucial elements from the essay as well.

3. Answer the “So what?” and avoid clichés

A perfect thesis will consider the “So what?” question such that it will try to justify the argument. It decides whether or not the reader will be interested in one’s essay. This issue, when revisited in one’s concluding statement, will help give the conclusion its deserved weight. While writing the restatement thesis as a conclusion’s starting sentence, avoid using phrases such as “In conclusion” or “As shown in this paper.”

These phrases have been overused in writing essays and signal to the reader that one needs more originality and creativity. Such statements may be used in speeches as they are crucial to guiding listeners in understanding the flow of the speech. These may sound different from when used in essays, as the listener has only one chance of following along with the speech, and such words help them keep their place.

Techniques and Writing Tips for Efficiency

Mastering the art of restating a thesis involves careful consideration of position, leveraging the work done, and addressing the “So what?” question. Writers and speakers can experiment with different positions for the thesis restatement, whether at the beginning or elsewhere in the conclusion.

Capitalizing on the work done in the body of the paper ensures that readers, even if they skipped sections, grasp the essential points.

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How to Restate a Thesis Statement-With Examples

A thesis statement is a sentence that states the main idea of your paper. In many cases, it is not enough to simply state the topic-you must also present an argument for why you believe this topic should be explored in greater depth. You may need to restate your thesis statement at various points throughout your paper so that readers can easily follow what you are writing about and how you are supporting your argument.

Restating a thesis statement is a process that can take several forms. You may have to use different words from your original thesis statement to make it fit better with your subject matter, or you may need to expand on its meaning to include new evidence and support for your argument. You must also be careful not to contradict or argue against yourself while restating your thesis statement.

How to Restate a Thesis Statement

The steps below will help you restate your thesis statement with ease.

STEP 1: Determine the focus of your thesis statement.

The first step is to determine the exact focus of your thesis statement. For example, if you are writing a paper about how certain political practices in the United States have influenced its development as a nation, you might write something like this:

“The political ideology that has shaped the United States’ development as a nation is conservatism.”

STEP 2: Reword the thesis statement.

This part of the process is largely subjective, and you will need to consider your writing style carefully to determine whether or not you feel that your thesis statement is clear enough for your readers. You may choose to use synonyms for certain words, or you may need to rearrange the order of the words in your sentence.

Say, for instance, that you are writing a paper about how certain religious attitudes have shaped society and culture in the United States. You could restate your thesis like this:

“Its political ideologies like conservatism that have largely shaped the development of the United States.”

STEP 3: Expand on keywords in your thesis statement.

Often, certain words within a thesis statement carry significant weight with regards to supporting your argument. You can strengthen your thesis statement by restating these words in a more precise way; you could also add new evidence or support for your claim as you refine your thesis’s focus.

STEP 4: Discuss how you will develop your argument in your paper.

Finally, it is helpful to include a brief statement that indicates the direction you will be taking with regards to developing and supporting your argument. This can act as a “roadmap” for your readers-a sentence or two that tells them what they should expect to find in the rest of the paper.

“In this paper, I will explore how conservatism has influenced various aspects of American history and politics.”

What to Keep in Mind while Restating the Thesis Statement?

easy ways to restate thesis

It is always a good idea to take careful and thorough notes whenever you write a paper because it will help you save time when you are restating your thesis statement. The following guidelines will also help you avoid common errors in this process.

Stay neutral and objective.

One of the most common mistakes writers make in restating a thesis statement is to slip into judgmental language. You should always stay as neutral as possible when describing your subject matter; avoid words like “obviously” or “clearly.” This could make your paper sound obvious or unclear to your readers.

Be concise.

A good thesis statement should not be too long, and it should not include unnecessary words. Try to reword the idea in the fewest possible number of sentences. You can continuously develop and support this claim more fully as you go along with the rest of your paper. Avoid jargon.

If you use words that are not familiar to your readers or have a specialized meaning within your field, it will make your paper very difficult to understand. You should try to stick with ordinary and simple language whenever possible.

Write from your own perspective.

There is nothing wrong with a personal opinion as long as you are clear that this is your subjective perception and not an objective fact. Keep your readers in mind; they will need to understand where you are coming from to follow your argument’s development.

Stay focused on central ideas.

You should avoid straying from your central idea and focus as much as possible. Your thesis statement should include an action verb (e.g., shaped, influenced) followed by the subject with which it is associated (e.g., development of the U.S.) and a modifier (such as “largely” or “primarily”) if necessary to make your argument more specific.

Make your thesis statement stand out.

You should try to make your thesis statement easy for readers to locate. Using an odd or unusual sentence structure might make it easier for readers to spot.

For example, instead of writing “The conservative movement in the United States has influenced various aspects of American history and politics,”

you could write:

“Because of its influence on the course of U.S. history, the conservative movement is a crucial element in understanding the development of the United States.”

What to Avoid when Restating a Thesis Statement

easy ways to restate thesis

Do not switch words or phrases.

Switching words around can lead to confusion for your readers. Most thesis statements have a clear subject and verb, which should remain unchanged, or else you will end up confusing your readers and making your argument unclear.

Do not introduce new information.

The initial argument should be maintained while restating the thesis statement. Remember that a thesis statement is not the same as an introduction ; it will need to be supported by evidence rather than introducing new material.

Do not contradict yourself.

If you wrote one sentence about the pros of conservatism and then immediately wrote another sentence negating your previous point, you readers would be left confused on your stand. If you have multiple sources that contradict themselves, it would be best to omit them from your paper.

Avoid using vague language or words with various meanings.

If you use a word with more than one meaning in your thesis statement, you should use a different word when restating this idea, so there is no room for misinterpretation.

Do not link to outside resources.

Links to outside resources should not be included in your thesis statement, and these sources should only be used when you are trying to develop or prove a point outside the scope of your subject matter.

Do not use passive voice when restating a thesis statement.

Passive voice often makes writing unclear and weak. You should avoid it when possible and always use an active voice whenever you restate a thesis statement.

Avoid using incorrect modifiers in a restatement of your thesis statement.

If you incorrectly modify the subject or action when restarting your idea, it could lead to confusion for your readers and weaken the strength of your argument. If you make this error, you should correct the statement immediately or rewrite it to make the meaning clearer.

When and Where to Restate Your Thesis Statement

There are various instances when the need for thesis restatement in the body paragraphs rises. So, when do you exactly decide this is the perfect time and place for you to restate the thesis statement?

1. When you are trying to develop your argument, use a restatement of your thesis statement to back up the evidence you have presented to reinforce your idea or prove its existence.

2. When you want to change direction- if you decide it is necessary, you can use a restatement of your thesis statement to change the direction of your argument, make an additional point, or add extra clarification.

3. When you want to summarize – for a restatement of a thesis statement to be effective when summarizing, it is best to be concise and clear. This version should give readers a small glimpse into what you are trying to argue.

4. When you want to make a transition -restating your thesis statement can help smooth the transition between paragraphs or ideas. This will also clarify a complex concept or idea that your readers are trying to understand.

5. To create cohesion- restating your thesis statement can help guide your paper and give it unity, especially if you are trying to create a paper with several different points.

Examples of Restating Your Thesis Statement

easy ways to restate thesis

“Initially, the Gilded Age was a time of optimism and positive change where citizens felt that their future was secure due to the industriousness of America’s working class.”

Restated statement- “Many Americans during the 1800s felt that their future was secure due to the industriousness of America’s working class.”

“The idea that immigrants are directly responsible for unemployment is not supported by statistical evidence. Rather, this belief stems from a general fear of foreigners.”

Restated statement- “Although there is no direct evidence that immigrants are responsible for unemployment, this idea stems from a fear of foreigners.”

“Overpopulation is defined as the state in which there exists an excess number of people that live in an area with limited resources. This issue can lead to various economic problems such as poverty and lower life expectancy.”

Restated statement- “Overpopulation is defined as an excess number of people living in an area with limited resources. Because of this, overpopulated areas tend to have lower life expectancies and higher poverty rates.”

“The need to instill a sense of national pride within the population has led governments throughout history to set aside public funds for memorials and monuments.”

Restated statement- “Because governments throughout history have wanted to instill a sense of national pride in their citizens, they have set aside public funds for memorials and monuments.”

“The U.S. government has some inherent limitations which provide for the upholding of civil liberties and human rights by protecting citizens from federal overreach.”

Restated statement- “The U.S. government is limited to protect citizens from federal overreach.”

“People tend to think of the past as a simpler time. However, this view is too simplistic considering all of the changes and advancements that have occurred over time.”

Restated statement- “Although people may view the past as a simpler time, it would be more accurate to say that many advancements and changes have occurred over time.”

“The factor that acts as only a possibility is luck. This is only a possibility because the outcome of only one aspect can lead to good results while another aspect might end in bad results.”

Restated statement- “Luck is the only factor that acts as a possibility because there is no way to predict what will happen due to multiple different possibilities.”

“Although academic writing is often thought of as unnecessarily complex, there are several benefits to this form of writing.”

Restated statement- “Despite the belief that academic writing is overly complex, it has several benefits.”

easy ways to restate thesis

A restated thesis statement can be used to reinforce your main point, change direction in your argument, summarize, create cohesion or simply answer the so what question in a research paper. The restatement must be concise and clear so that it does not distract from the overall idea being presented.

easy ways to restate thesis

I ‘m a freelance content and SEO writer with a passion for finding the perfect combination of words to capture attention and express a message . I create catchy, SEO-friendly content for websites, blogs, articles, and social media. My experience spans many industries, including health and wellness, technology, education, business, and lifestyle. My clients appreciate my ability to craft compelling stories that engage their target audience, but also help to improve their website’s search engine rankings. I’m also an avid learner and stay up to date on the latest SEO trends. I enjoy exploring new places and reading up on the latest marketing and SEO strategies in my free time.

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Reference management. Clean and simple.

How to write an excellent thesis conclusion [with examples]

Tips for writing thesis conclusion

Restate the thesis

Review or reiterate key points of your work, explain why your work is relevant, a take-away for the reader, more resources on writing thesis conclusions, frequently asked questions about writing an excellent thesis conclusion, related articles.

At this point in your writing, you have most likely finished your introduction and the body of your thesis, dissertation, or research paper . While this is a reason to celebrate, you should not underestimate the importance of your conclusion. The conclusion is the last thing that your reader will see, so it should be memorable.

A good conclusion will review the key points of the thesis and explain to the reader why the information is relevant, applicable, or related to the world as a whole. Make sure to dedicate enough of your writing time to the conclusion and do not put it off until the very last minute.

This article provides an effective technique for writing a conclusion adapted from Erika Eby’s The College Student's Guide to Writing a Good Research Paper: 101 Easy Tips & Tricks to Make Your Work Stand Out .

While the thesis introduction starts out with broad statements about the topic, and then narrows it down to the thesis statement , a thesis conclusion does the same in the opposite order.

  • Restate the thesis.
  • Review or reiterate key points of your work.
  • Explain why your work is relevant.
  • Include a core take-away message for the reader.

Tip: Don’t just copy and paste your thesis into your conclusion. Restate it in different words.

The best way to start a conclusion is simply by restating the thesis statement. That does not mean just copying and pasting it from the introduction, but putting it into different words.

You will need to change the structure and wording of it to avoid sounding repetitive. Also, be firm in your conclusion just as you were in the introduction. Try to avoid sounding apologetic by using phrases like "This paper has tried to show..."

The conclusion should address all the same parts as the thesis while making it clear that the reader has reached the end. You are telling the reader that your research is finished and what your findings are.

I have argued throughout this work that the point of critical mass for biopolitical immunity occurred during the Romantic period because of that era's unique combination of post-revolutionary politics and innovations in smallpox prevention. In particular, I demonstrated that the French Revolution and the discovery of vaccination in the 1790s triggered a reconsideration of the relationship between bodies and the state.

Tip: Try to reiterate points from your introduction in your thesis conclusion.

The next step is to review the main points of the thesis as a whole. Look back at the body of of your project and make a note of the key ideas. You can reword these ideas the same way you reworded your thesis statement and then incorporate that into the conclusion.

You can also repeat striking quotations or statistics, but do not use more than two. As the conclusion represents your own closing thoughts on the topic , it should mainly consist of your own words.

In addition, conclusions can contain recommendations to the reader or relevant questions that further the thesis. You should ask yourself:

  • What you would ideally like to see your readers do in reaction to your paper?
  • Do you want them to take a certain action or investigate further?
  • Is there a bigger issue that your paper wants to draw attention to?

Also, try to reference your introduction in your conclusion. You have already taken a first step by restating your thesis. Now, check whether there are other key words, phrases or ideas that are mentioned in your introduction that fit into your conclusion. Connecting the introduction to the conclusion in this way will help readers feel satisfied.

I explored how Mary Wollstonecraft, in both her fiction and political writings, envisions an ideal medico-political state, and how other writers like William Wordsworth and Mary Shelley increasingly imagined the body politic literally, as an incorporated political collective made up of bodies whose immunity to political and medical ills was essential to a healthy state.

Tip: Make sure to explain why your thesis is relevant to your field of research.

Although you can encourage readers to question their opinions and reflect on your topic, do not leave loose ends. You should provide a sense of resolution and make sure your conclusion wraps up your argument. Make sure you explain why your thesis is relevant to your field of research and how your research intervenes within, or substantially revises, existing scholarly debates.

This project challenged conventional ideas about the relationship among Romanticism, medicine, and politics by reading the unfolding of Romantic literature and biopolitical immunity as mutual, co-productive processes. In doing so, this thesis revises the ways in which biopolitics has been theorized by insisting on the inherent connections between Romantic literature and the forms of biopower that characterize early modernity.

Tip: If you began your thesis with an anecdote or historical example, you may want to return to that in your conclusion.

End your conclusion with something memorable, such as:

  • a call to action
  • a recommendation
  • a gesture towards future research
  • a brief explanation of how the problem or idea you covered remains relevant

Ultimately, you want readers to feel more informed, or ready to act, as they read your conclusion.

Yet, the Romantic period is only the beginning of modern thought on immunity and biopolitics. Victorian writers, doctors, and politicians upheld the Romantic idea that a "healthy state" was a literal condition that could be achieved by combining politics and medicine, but augmented that idea through legislation and widespread public health measures. While many nineteenth-century efforts to improve citizens' health were successful, the fight against disease ultimately changed course in the twentieth century as global immunological threats such as SARS occupied public consciousness. Indeed, as subsequent public health events make apparent, biopolitical immunity persists as a viable concept for thinking about the relationship between medicine and politics in modernity.

Need more advice? Read our 5 additional tips on how to write a good thesis conclusion.

The conclusion is the last thing that your reader will see, so it should be memorable. To write a great thesis conclusion you should:

The basic content of a conclusion is to review the main points from the paper. This part represents your own closing thoughts on the topic. It should mainly consist of the outcome of the research in your own words.

The length of the conclusion will depend on the length of the whole thesis. Usually, a conclusion should be around 5-7% of the overall word count.

End your conclusion with something memorable, such as a question, warning, or call to action. Depending on the topic, you can also end with a recommendation.

In Open Access: Theses and Dissertations you can find thousands of completed works. Take a look at any of the theses or dissertations for real-life examples of conclusions that were already approved.

easy ways to restate thesis

The Writing Center of Princeton

How to Write a Thesis Statement in Four Easy Steps

Everyone knows that a good thesis statement is clear, specific, and focused. It draws the reader’s attention to your topic and announces your perspective on the topic.

But while teachers often tell you what to put in your thesis statement, they don’t always tell you how to write a thesis statement. The four steps below will show you how to write thesis statements quickly and effectively.

easy ways to restate thesis

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Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts

Tips and Examples for Writing Thesis Statements

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This resource provides tips for creating a thesis statement and examples of different types of thesis statements.

Tips for Writing Your Thesis Statement

1. Determine what kind of paper you are writing:

  • An analytical paper breaks down an issue or an idea into its component parts, evaluates the issue or idea, and presents this breakdown and evaluation to the audience.
  • An expository (explanatory) paper explains something to the audience.
  • An argumentative paper makes a claim about a topic and justifies this claim with specific evidence. The claim could be an opinion, a policy proposal, an evaluation, a cause-and-effect statement, or an interpretation. The goal of the argumentative paper is to convince the audience that the claim is true based on the evidence provided.

If you are writing a text that does not fall under these three categories (e.g., a narrative), a thesis statement somewhere in the first paragraph could still be helpful to your reader.

2. Your thesis statement should be specific—it should cover only what you will discuss in your paper and should be supported with specific evidence.

3. The thesis statement usually appears at the end of the first paragraph of a paper.

4. Your topic may change as you write, so you may need to revise your thesis statement to reflect exactly what you have discussed in the paper.

Thesis Statement Examples

Example of an analytical thesis statement:

The paper that follows should:

  • Explain the analysis of the college admission process
  • Explain the challenge facing admissions counselors

Example of an expository (explanatory) thesis statement:

  • Explain how students spend their time studying, attending class, and socializing with peers

Example of an argumentative thesis statement:

  • Present an argument and give evidence to support the claim that students should pursue community projects before entering college

How to Restate a Thesis in Conclusion: Examples & Thesis Restatement Tips (2024)

What is the most important part of any essay or research paper? Of course, it’s the thesis statement —a sentence that expresses the paper’s main idea and guides the readers through your arguments.

But where do you place the thesis? You’ve probably answered, “in the introduction.” However, that’s not all of it—you also need to restate the thesis statement in the conclusion. Moreover, it should be paraphrased using a more diverse vocabulary.

How to Restate a Thesis in Conclusion: Examples & Thesis Restatement Tips (1)

If you’re unsure about how to restate a thesis, this article by Custom-Writing.org will be helpful for you. Here, you will find:

various rephrasing strategies,

a step-by-step guide,

the most actionable thesis restatement tips.

✍️ Thesis Restatement Definition

✅ Step-By-Step Guide

💡 Rephrasing Strategies

📋 Example Sentences

🖼️ How to Reframe

✨ Bonus Tips

🔍 References

✍️ what is a restated thesis.

A restated thesis is a reworded and restructured version of the original statement. It is presented in a conclusion or any other part of the essay requiring a recap of the paper’s main idea. It shouldn’t repeat the thesis statement word for word: instead, it’s better to focus on its content.

Why Restating Your Thesis Is Necessary

For a solid, effective academic work, a restated thesis in a conclusion is a must. Here’s why:

A restated thesis helps reintroduce your central argument, thus enhancing its perceived significance.

A correctly restated main claim makes the transition to the implications smoother.

A paraphrased thesis restatement signals the readers about the wrap-up of your paper.

✅ How to Restate a Thesis Step by Step

Now, let’s dwell on the restatement process in more detail. We recommend you follow the steps we described below. It will help you make your paraphrased thesis effective without undermining your persuasive arguments.

💡 How to Rephrase a Thesis: Different Strategies

You can approach the restatement of thesis in several ways. Here are the best strategies that will make your argument effective and easily understood.

How to Restate a Thesis in Conclusion: Examples & Thesis Restatement Tips (2)

How to Restate a Claim by Substituting Synonyms

English is a language rich in synonyms, so you’ll hardly experience any trouble finding suitable substitutes for the words you’ve used in the original thesis. You can also try out an online reword generator or thesis statement maker to get different versions of your central claim.

For instance, imagine that this is your thesis:

People of color have achieved pronounced success in the fight for their civil rights and equality in the USA over the last century,

You may experiment with synonyms as freely as you want. Here are some variants:

The 20-century civil rights movement gave many rights and freedoms to the minorities in the United States.

The situation with racial equality improved significantly over the past 100 years, giving racial minorities a strong voice in American society.

Restating Your Thesis by Altering the Sentence Structure

The syntax is also a rich source of inspiration for thesis changes. If the original statement is compound, divide it into several shorter sentences. If you’ve used several simple sentences in the first version, consider combining them into one longer statement.

Here is an example of altering the thesis’ structure without changing the main points:

In the original version, we started by focusing on diabetes. In the reworded thesis, we presented the numbers as the first piece of data. This way, we’re directing the reader’s attention to the gravity of the problem.

How to Restate Your Thesis by Changing the Tense

In most cases, the original thesis statement uses future or present tense. It helps to inform the readers about what they are about to read. For instance, it can start with an introductory phrase:

I will argue that homework should be canceled to give students more free time and ease the burden of high school studies.

In this example, the thesis statement is written in the present tense. It links to the general statistics of time students spend on their homework. You can transform this statement into a past-tense sentence in the conclusion, showing that your argument has been proven.

The presented evidence showed that students benefited from homework cancellation and had more quality time for their hobbies and relaxation.

Restating a Thesis by Shortening or Lengthening It

The length of your thesis statement also matters. You may present it in a shorter way at the beginning of your paper, focusing only on the gist of your research question. Later on, once the arguments are laid out and explained in detail, you can present a more extended version of the initially formulated problem.

In this restates thesis example, we have extended the original idea, explaining what “assigned seating” and “school bullying” mean. This way, the reworded version could embrace the evidence discussed in the argumentative essay’s body.

Restating a Thesis by Linking It to the Research Problem

The strategy we’re about to describe is suitable for use in research paper writing. You will need to tie the thesis statement to the problem you’ve outlined in the introduction, linking it to the issue you’re examining.

For instance, in an essay on child obesity in the USA, you can restate the thesis as follows:

Although preventive healthcare has witnessed much advancement in the past decade, evidence proves that child obesity is still on the rise, with alarming annual increase rates.

📋 How to Restate a Thesis: Example Sentences

Now, let’s examine how to rephrase a sentence in practice. Have a look at these examples:

Example # 1

Here, we expanded the thesis statement by making it longer and adding some details.

Here, we have changed the sentence structure by switching the first and second parts. The first example focuses on the legalization of marijuana, while the second version starts by mentioning the rising rates of teenage weed consumption.

In this example, we’ve changed the thesis statement’s tense from future to past, showing how an intention transformed into a completed task.

🖼️ How to Reframe a Reworded Thesis?

Once you’ve approached the conclusion paragraph of your work, it’s time to think about reframing your main claim. It’s important not to duplicate the introductory thesis because its role in the final section is different. Here are some workable reframing suggestions:

Reword the original thesis and put it at the beginning of your conclusion. It will bring the focus back to your initial research purpose.

Enumerate the central claims you’ve focused on. They can be compiled from topic sentences used in the body paragraphs.

After restating the thesis, you can dwell on the broader significance of the problem you’ve examined. Make a logically related call to action based on the cited evidence. You can also mention your study’s limitations and clarify what additional research is needed.

✨ Bonus Thesis Statement Tips

Now, it’s time to give you a bonus for careful reading: our tried-and-tested tips for good thesis rewriting. Check them out:

As you can see, rephrasing a thesis statement requires effort. Using extensive vocabulary and syntax will help you restructure the content and retain its meaning. And, of course, make sure to follow our tips!

Further reading:

Best Thesis Statement Examples with Expert Comments

What Are the 5 Different Types of Essays? A Complete Guide

❓ How to Restate Thesis in Conclusion FAQs

What does restate thesis mean?

Restatement of your thesis involves restructuring and changing the vocabulary originally used in the introduction. However, the altered thesis should preserve your work’s meaning and central message.

Where does a thesis restated statement go?

You will typically need a reworded thesis in a conclusion paragraph. This part of your essay or research paper should wrap up everything you’ve said and summarize your claims in different words.

Do you restate your thesis in the conclusion?

When composing your essay conclusion paragraph, it is vital to reword your thesis statement initially presented in the introduction. This strategy will help you make the conclusion sound non-redundant while preserving the original main idea.

What is a restate claim?

When restating the claim, you do the same work as when you reword the thesis. You need to change the wording and syntax while preserving the overall meaning of the original claim.

What is an example of restating a thesis?

A good example is as follows: “children should wear uniforms at school.” The reworded thesis would contain the same meaning rephrased in your own words: “Uniforms are recommended for all students.”

Writing the Conclusion: Indiana University Bloomington

Writing Introductory and Concluding Paragraphs: University of Minnesota

How to Restate a Thesis Statement: Classroom: Synonym

Writing a Paper: Conclusions: Walden University

Conclusions: Purdue University

Ending the Essay: Conclusions: Harvard University

Thesis Statements: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

How to Restate a Thesis in Conclusion: Examples & Thesis Restatement Tips (2024)

How do you restate a thesis statement examples? ›

For example, if your initial argument was that buying pets as holiday gifts is dangerous, you might restate your thesis this way: "Remember: buying that puppy as a Christmas present might seem like a good idea at the time, but it could end in the tragedy of another homeless dog by Easter."

It is worth reiterating/restating/retelling/re-examining , . . . I will conclude by reiterating/restating/retelling/re-examining, . . My main premise/theses/findings are, . . . My final analysis/argument/opinion, . . .

The first sentence of your conclusion paragraph should restate your thesis.

Restate the thesis The best way to start a conclusion is simply by restating the thesis statement . That does not mean just copying and pasting it from the introduction, but putting it into different words. You will need to change the structure and wording of it to avoid sounding repetitive.

to say something again or in a different way: He restated his belief that the sanctions need more time to work.

Restating your thesis is just a short first part of your conclusion . Make sure that you are not simply repeating yourself; your restated thesis should use new and interesting language. After you have restated your thesis, you should not just summarize the key points of your argument.

It should not include any information that was not discussed in the paragraph. Concluding sentences can start out with phrases such as ' In conclusion,' 'Thus,' and 'For this reason.

  • Clearly state the answer to your main research question.
  • Summarize and reflect on your research process.
  • Make recommendations for future work on your thesis or dissertation topic.
  • Show what new knowledge you have contributed to your field.
  • Wrap up your thesis or dissertation.
  • In this essay, I will …
  • [Subject] is interesting/relevant/my favorite because …
  • Through my research, I learned that …

Which sentence is most clearly a restatement of the thesis in an essay? ›

A simple way to revisit your main point is to restate your thesis statement at the beginning of your conclusion. Typically, the thesis restatement is the first sentence of the conclusion .

Concluding Sentence What do you want your reader to know or understand and introduce that idea in one sentence. Summarize the big idea of the paragraph without repeating the exact same words . Include the subject and your argument or claim in one complete sentence. Give the reader something to think about.

In order to restate your thesis, remember that the meaning of your thesis should not change, but the words need to. One way you can do this is by reversing the order of the clauses in your thesis . The clauses are also paraphrased, rather than simply copying them and moving them.

6: AVOID the phrases “in summary” and “in conclusion.” Your reader can see that he or she has reached the end of your paper because it is the last paragraph of the last page. Thus, beginning your conclusion with a phrase like “in conclusion” is a bit redundant.

Reiterate without being repetitious. Readers appreciate some consistency and won't usually find a reasonable amount of repetition boring or monotonous. But avoid repeating the same subjects/topics using exactly the same words each time, and don't repeat your thesis word-for-word in your conclusion.

There is too much restatement of material that can be found elsewhere or at least could be consigned to appendices.

Restating an idea is just saying it in different words . A restatement uses different sentence structure. When you want to restate an idea, don't start with the original phrasing and try to change it. In fact, don't look at the original phrasing at all.

When you write a paraphrase, you restate other's ideas in your own words. That is, you write the meaning of the author's ideas .

  • Summarize your thesis statement and topic sentences.
  • Avoid repeating your thesis statement and listing your topic sentences.
  • Avoid using the same key word or phrase more than a couple of times.

A restated thesis is a reworded and restructured version of the original statement . It is presented in a conclusion or any other part of the essay requiring a recap of the paper's main idea. It shouldn't repeat the thesis statement word for word: instead, it's better to focus on its content.

What does a thesis restatement do? ›

The thesis restatement, which is usually (but not always) placed at the very start of the concluding paragraph, is the final aspect, aiming to concisely and specifically bring the reader back to the overall purpose and focus of your essay .

  • Topic sentence. This is where you repeat your thesis statement. ...
  • Supporting sentences. Paraphrase the major points and arguments that you made throughout the paper. ...
  • Closing sentence. This is where you connect back to a point, image or anecdote that was made in the introductory paragraph.
  • I lost my arm on my last trip home. ...
  • A screaming comes across the sky. ...
  • It began the usual way, in the bathroom of the Lassimo Hotel. ...
  • Miss Brooke had that kind of beauty which seems to be thrown into relief by poor dress. ...
  • We slept in what once had been the gymnasium. ...
  • It was love at first sight.

A strong thesis statement expresses one main idea . Readers need to be able to see that your paper has one main point. If your thesis statement expresses more than one idea, then you might confuse your readers about the subject of your paper.

  • Ask a question about your topic.
  • Write your initial answer.
  • Develop your answer by including reasons.
  • Refine your answer, adding more detail and nuance.

A strong thesis statement is specific. A thesis statement should show exactly what your paper will be about, and will help you keep your paper to a manageable topic . For example, if you're writing a seven-to-ten page paper on hunger, you might say: World hunger has many causes and effects.

  • Decide a suitable place for your restatement. ...
  • Take advantage of what you've accomplished and make a more profound impact. ...
  • Make your reader understand why your argument is significant. ...
  • Avoid clichés. ...
  • State it confidently. ...
  • Use different wordings and structure. ...
  • Change the tense.
  • Conclude by linking the last paragraph to the first, perhaps by reiterating a word or phrase you used at the beginning.
  • Conclude with a sentence composed mainly of one-syllable words.

Tip. So, an example three-point thesis statement (if you were making an argument about school uniforms) would be: School uniforms should be required because they make school safer, promote school spirit and save parents money.

The conclusion is the last paragraph of the essay. This paragraph brings the essay to a close, reminds the reader of the basic ideas from the essay, and restates the thesis statement. The conclusion should not contain new ideas, as it is the summation of the content of the essay.

Is a thesis statement 2 sentences long? ›

A thesis statement must ALWAYS be a complete sentence. In some cases, the thesis may stretch to two sentences, but it should be identified in a concise statement, not generally discussed within a paragraph . Thesis statements may vary depending on the type of paper.

  • Restate your topic and why it is important,
  • Restate your thesis/claim,
  • Address opposing viewpoints and explain why readers should align with your position,
  • Call for action or overview future research possibilities.

A strong thesis statement is specific. For example, if you're writing a seven-to-ten page paper on hunger, you might say: World hunger has many causes and effects.

After a brief introduction of your topic, you state your point of view on the topic directly and often in one sentence. This sentence is the thesis statement, and it serves as a summary of the argument you'll make in the rest of your paper.

Do you restate your thesis in the conclusion? When composing your essay conclusion paragraph, it is vital to reword your thesis statement initially presented in the introduction. This strategy will help you make the conclusion sound non-redundant while preserving the original main idea .

  • take on a subject upon which reasonable people could disagree.
  • deal with a subject that can be adequately treated given the nature of the assignment.
  • express one main idea.
  • assert your conclusions about a subject.

Parts of a Thesis Statement The thesis statement has 3 main parts: the limited subject, the precise opinion, and the blueprint of reasons .

A restatement uses different sentence structure. When you want to restate an idea, don't start with the original phrasing and try to change it . In fact, don't look at the original phrasing at all. Instead, think of the idea in your head and try to come up with a different way of putting it from scratch.

Conclusions should always begin with a topic sentence . Restating the thesis from your introductory paragraph in the first sentence of your conclusion is an effective way to remind the reader of the main argument.

Can your thesis be 2 sentences? ›

A thesis statement is not always one sentence; the length of the thesis depends on the depth of the essay . Some essays may require more than a single sentence. However, the statement should be as clear and concise as possible in the final draft of the essay.

The thesis statement should clearly state the author's claim and therefore guide the development of the entire paper . Thesis statements should strongly assert the topic in a way that helps to unify the paper.

Restate the big idea of the topic sentence using different words or a different order . Think about your message. What do you want your reader to know or understand and introduce that idea in one sentence. Summarize the big idea of the paragraph without repeating the exact same words.

Essentially, you are stating what you will be writing about. You can see your thesis statement as an answer to a question. While it also contains the question, it should really give an answer to the question with new information and not just restate or reiterate it . Your thesis statement is part of your introduction.

easy ways to restate thesis

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The Study Blog :

How to restate a thesis: simplified guide.

By Evans Apr 28 2021

Writing is a conglomeration of many artistic and lingual prowess. All these aspects have to be put into perspective and mastered for one to be regarded as a proficient writer. One of the lingual prowess that needs to be learned is the art of coming up with thesis statements within the introduction and formulating conclusions, and restating the thesis. A catchy, well-organized, and crafted introduction becomes the audience's pull into what you want to communicate or pass.

Read Also: 15+ Examples of Thesis Statement to Guide you in Your Next Essay

Consequently, conclusions become that parting short that entices the readers to check out what you have for them in the next issue. With this in mind, it ideally shows you how critical the introduction and conclusion are in your writings. In today's topic, we get to gain mastery of the art of restating the thesis statements.  At paper per hour , you will learn not only how to restate your thesis but you will also get any help you need with your thesis statements.

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The Do's and Don'ts when Restating Thesis

For one to gain proficiency in restating the thesis statement, there are several practices that the writer has to pick up, and there are other writing practices that they have to drop. Every writer aims to have an A-game paper. Every student likewise is aiming for a top-notch essay . This reality will remain a utopia unless the above practices are considered and put in place. 

Avoid cliché's 

Within the writing world, some terms have been severally repeated. Many writers make the mistake of repeating the exact words or phrases. One of the most repeated words is the phrase "in conclusion." Avoid this starter phrase at all costs. Many proficient readers develop a negative attitude the moment they meet this phrase. They become closed up to the whole paper irrespective of how lively the content has been created. Use new terms like final thoughts, drawing to a close, all points considered. These are some of the starter statements that can be used to liven the thesis statement: all things considered, final thought, clearly, in my opinion, and summary. 

Take a strong stance

One of the mishits in restating the thesis statement is apologizing for your stance on a given topic. Conclusions are better when the perspective is known, just like the paper's stance is known from the beginning. It is prudent and paramount that you do not compromise your stance. Do not be apologetic for the stance. Take a strong position and let it be known.

Address the question 'so what'

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easy ways to restate thesis

Techniques to use when restarting the thesis statement  

Use different words from the thesis statement.

The number one technique is to use different words from the ones you used in the thesis statement. This clears away monotony. Consequently, it also enforces authenticity. While doing this, you can use a thesaurus to get the synonyms of the words that have been used in the thesis. However, it would help if you were cautious not to alter the meaning of the thesis.

Use different sentence structures

A sentence is made up of different parts of speech to form one statement that has a meaning. One of the most prevailing and commonly used sentence structures is the subject + verb+ object. Another technique that you will find very instrumental in restating the thesis is the use of a different sentence structure. You can interchange the parts of speech, although you have to ensure that the meaning is not lost. Similarly, it would be best if you were on the lookout not to change an active voice into a passive voice.

Use different clauses and overall sentence level

Apart from changing the sentence structure and also using different words from the thesis, another good technique that will be handy if you are to be proficient in restating thesis statements is changing sentence clauses and the sentence level. If the thesis statement is a simple sentence, in conclusion, you can opt to restate the thesis as a complex sentence. This technique ideally speaks a lot about the writer. You can also use a problematic sentence clause which is evidence of mastery. In this technique, you are liberty to change the parts of speech, the sentence order. The techniques take your write-ups into another whole level of grammar that any reader would want to read again and again as they wait for the next issue 

Many writers often put up a one-sentence conclusion, which again becomes a mishit for their work. It is advisable to ensure that your conclusion is at least three to five sentences. You would also think of stating a summarized version of the main points in the conclusion. It is also of advantage that the critical issues, in conclusion, do not follow each other. Spread them out within the paragraph using multiple sentences. 

How to put up a conclusion with a restated thesis 

This how-to plan and put up a firm conclusion with a restated conclusion that will always make your reader yearn for the next issue that you are to release. Start with a conclusion starter. Examples of conclusion starters have been discussed above. You can have a good look at them, and then you can follow it up with the restated thesis statement. From this statement, you can summarize some of the main points, and finally, declare your stand. 

Final Thought on How to Restate your thesis

Restating is a tool of utter importance in writing. However, it is not a one-day ordeal, but it comes with continuous practise to get proficient in the art. The above points are a guide to take you to the peak of thesis restatement. It will earn you a place on the writers' bench and a high mark when writing academic-level papers. Learn and practices to master this tremendous and very crucial skill. Do you still feel a little less confident when it comes to restating your thesis or stating it in the first place? Don’t beat yourself about it. Let paper per hour essay writers help you with it.

  

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essay on covid 19 pandemic in india

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Everything You Need to Know About the COVID-19 Pandemic

essay on covid 19 pandemic in india

Many countries around the world have successfully managed and slowed outbreaks of the coronavirus and the illness it causes, COVID-19. However, this virus is still impacting countries and communities in an unpredictable way as infections continue spreading. It’s still essential to take action to protect yourself, and heeding the most up-to-date warnings from trustworthy groups like the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) can help you do so.

In addition to regularly checking for updates from those organizations, follow these recommendations to continue protecting yourself during the COVID-19 pandemic.

General Recommendations for Protecting Yourself and Others

As Symptomfind notes , taking a few key steps and following some simple guidelines can help you limit your exposure to the COVID-19 virus. It’s important to remember that recommendations can change frequently, and new information can emerge quickly. Check with the CDC and WHO periodically to receive updates to guidelines and find out the latest details.

essay on covid 19 pandemic in india

  • Remain alert and proactive about your health. While older people and people with preexisting medical conditions (such as asthma, diabetes, and heart disease) are more vulnerable, anyone can be impacted by the virus. The best way to keep yourself from getting sick is to avoid exposure in whatever way you can.
  • Wash your hands regularly with soap and water for 20 seconds every time. If you don’t have immediate access to soap and water, clean your hands using a coin-sized amount of hand sanitizer that’s at least 60% alcohol.
  • Sneeze and cough into your elbow to avoid spreading germs into your hands. Immediately wash your hands after coughing or sneezing. If you cough or sneeze into a tissue, throw it away immediately.
  • If you notice respiratory problems or are experiencing a fever, seek medical attention immediately.
  • Follow all current state and local directives regarding the pandemic, such as wearing a mask in public and practicing social distancing. You may face legal consequences — and expose yourself to the virus — if you neglect to do so.

If you’re fully vaccinated — meaning you’ve received both doses of either the two-dose Pfizer or Moderna vaccine or you’ve received the single-dose Janssen vaccine — and it’s been at least two weeks since you received your final dose, the CDC has provided updated recommendations you can follow as a fully vaccinated person. Some, but not all, of these guidelines include the following:

  • You may resume activities you engaged in before the pandemic began so long as you follow current health and safety guidelines.
  • The CDC strongly urges vaccinated individuals to continue wearing masks indoors “to maximize protection from the Delta variant and prevent possibly spreading it to others”. Doubly so for anyone who lives in or is visiting an area with high transmission rates.
  • You DON’T need to get tested for self-quarantine after traveling if you are fully vaccinated.

To review the full list of updated guidelines for people who are fully vaccinated, visit the CDC website .

Additionally, the WHO has provided updated recommendations to follow if you live in a community where COVID-19 is continuing to spread. In addition to practicing physical distancing, avoiding crowded areas, washing your hands frequently, and keeping rooms at your home and workplace ventilated well, the organization advises the continued use of masks to prevent the spread of the virus. To ensure that your mask protects you and others effectively, follow these guidelines from the WHO:

  • Choose a mask that covers your nose, mouth and chin completely; there shouldn’t be gaps between the mask and your face.
  • Avoid using masks with valves.
  • Wash your hands before putting your mask on and after taking it off.
  • Wash your hands any time you touch your mask while you’re wearing it.
  • Dispose of single-use masks in the garbage immediately after removing them.
  •  Wash your mask every day if it’s made of fabric.
  • Don’t use masks that look damaged or fit loosely. 

What to Do If You’re Sick or Think You Might Be

If you currently have COVID-19 or are experiencing symptoms, the CDC suggests following these steps to take care of yourself and limit the spread of the virus to others in your household and your community:

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  • Stay at home unless you need to receive medical care. This means not leaving your house.
  • Stay out of public areas as much as possible when you do need to leave. Don’t use public transportation such as buses and subways. Also, avoid taxis and ride-share vehicles.
  • If possible, sequester yourself in a specific room in your home away from other people and pets and use a separate bathroom.
  • Whenever you’re around other people in your home or in public, wear a cloth face covering. 
  • Monitor your symptoms and contact your doctor immediately if they worsen.
  • Seek emergency medical attention if you experience emergency warning signs of COVID-19. These include trouble breathing, a blue tint to your lips or face, lasting pain or pressure in your chest, and trouble waking up or staying awake. 
  • When seeking medical care, whether from your primary care provider or emergency services, notify them ahead of time that you have COVID-19 or believe you might have it. This helps them better prepare for your visit and protect their staff members.
  • Disinfect high-touch surfaces in your personal room and bathroom daily. These include phones, keyboards, remote controls, counters, tabletops, doorknobs, bathroom fixtures and bedside tables.
  • Someone in your home who isn’t sick should disinfect high-touch surfaces in common areas of your home daily.
  • Continue to cover your coughs and sneezes and wash your hands frequently or use alcohol-based hand sanitizer to clean your hands.

Learn More About COVID-19

These articles and resources can help you learn more about a variety of topics related to the COVID-19 pandemic.

essay on covid 19 pandemic in india

COVID-19 Safety Tips and News Coverage

  • COVID-19 Terms: The Difference Between Social Distancing, Physical Distancing & More
  • Time for a Digital Detox? Here’s How to Regulate Your News Intake While Still Staying Informed
  • What Can We Do to Protect Our Mental Health During the COVID-19 Pandemic?
  • Need to Navigate Public Spaces During the Pandemic? Here Are Some Safety Tips
  • Everything You Need to Know About COVID-19 Mask Care
  • What Is Contact Tracing And How Does It Work?
  • What Is Pandemic Fatigue, and How Can You Fight It?

Global Changes and Effects of the Pandemic

  • How Have Local Farmers’ Markets Adapted to COVID-19?
  • Life After COVID-19: Reflecting on How the Pandemic Changed Schools & Education in Lasting Ways
  • How Did Life Change After the Spanish Flu (and How Might Ours Change Post-Covid-19?)
  • Life After COVID-19: How Did the Pandemic Change Our Approach to Air Travel?
  • How Has COVID-19 Changed Film Fests and Award Shows?
  • How the COVID-19 Pandemic Has Changed Workplaces in Lasting Ways
  • Life After COVID-19: Did Public Transit Change as a Result of the Pandemic?
  • How Will the COVID-19 Pandemic Impact Our Approach to Art Museums?
  • I Went to Europe This Summer so That You Don’t Have to — and Trust Me, You Don’t Want to Go
  • What Can We Learn From Vaccine Passports Around the World? 
  • Is an Airbnb Rental the Perfect COVID-19-Safe Getaway?
  • Is TSA PreCheck Worth the Investment in a Post-Covid World?
  • The Surprising Impact of COVID-19 Shutdowns on the Environment

Quarantine Entertainment Resources

  • Virtual Vacation: Dive Into Our Marine National Monuments
  • Virtual Vacation: Experience the Excitement, Flavors and Culture of Madrid
  • Virtual Vacation: From Street Cats to K-Pop in Seoul, South Korea
  • Virtual Vacation: Wander Through the Peaceful Village of Iseltwald in Switzerland
  • Virtual Vacation: How to Spend the Perfect Day in Rio de Janeiro at Home
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Perspective article, the rise and impact of covid-19 in india.

essay on covid 19 pandemic in india

  • 1 School of Biosciences and Technology, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, India
  • 2 VIT-BS, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, India

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, which originated in the city of Wuhan, China, has quickly spread to various countries, with many cases having been reported worldwide. As of May 8th, 2020, in India, 56,342 positive cases have been reported. India, with a population of more than 1.34 billion—the second largest population in the world—will have difficulty in controlling the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 among its population. Multiple strategies would be highly necessary to handle the current outbreak; these include computational modeling, statistical tools, and quantitative analyses to control the spread as well as the rapid development of a new treatment. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of India has raised awareness about the recent outbreak and has taken necessary actions to control the spread of COVID-19. The central and state governments are taking several measures and formulating several wartime protocols to achieve this goal. Moreover, the Indian government implemented a 55-days lockdown throughout the country that started on March 25th, 2020, to reduce the transmission of the virus. This outbreak is inextricably linked to the economy of the nation, as it has dramatically impeded industrial sectors because people worldwide are currently cautious about engaging in business in the affected regions.

Current Scenario in India

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease (COVID-19), was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan city, China, and later spread to many provinces in China. As of May 8th, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) had documented 3,759,967 positive COVID-19 cases, and the death toll attributed to COVID-19 had reached 259,474 worldwide ( 1 ). So far, more than 212 countries and territories have confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection. On January 30th, 2020, the WHO declared COVID-19 a Public Health Emergency of International Concern ( 2 ). The first SARS-CoV-2 positive case in India was reported in the state of Kerala on January 30th, 2020. Subsequently, the number of cases drastically rose. According to the press release by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) on May 8th, 2020, a total of 14,37,788 suspected samples had been sent to the National Institute of Virology (NIV), Pune, and a related testing laboratory ( 3 ). Among them, 56,342 cases tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 ( 4 ). A state-wise distribution of positive cases until May 8th, 2020, is listed in Table 1 , and the cases have been depicted on an Indian map ( Figure 1 ). Nearly 197,192 Indians have recently been repatriated from affected regions, and more than 1,393,301 passengers have been screened for SARS-CoV-2 at Indian airports ( 5 ), with 111 positive cases observed among foreign nationals ( 4 , 5 ). As of May 8th, 2020, Maharashtra, Delhi, and Gujarat states were reported to be hotspots for COVID-19 with 17,974, 5,980, and 7,012 confirmed cases, respectively. To date, 16,540 patients have recovered, and 1,886 deaths have been reported in India ( 5 ). To impose social distancing, the “Janata curfew” (14-h lockdown) was ordered on March 22nd, 2020. A further lockdown was initiated for 21 days, starting on March 25th, 2020, and the same was extended until May 3rd, 2020, but, owing to an increasing number of positive cases, the lockdown has been extended for the third time until May 17th, 2020 ( 6 ). Currently, out of 32 states and eight union territories in India, 26 states and six union territories have reported COVID-19 cases. Additionally, the health ministry has identified 130 districts as hotspot zones or red zones, 284 as orange zones (with few SARS-CoV-2 infections), and 319 as green zones (no SARS-CoV-2 infection) as of May 4th, 2020. These hotspot districts have been identified to report more than 80% of the cases across the nation. Nineteen districts in Uttar Pradesh are identified as hotspot districts, and this was followed by 14 and 12 districts in Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu, respectively ( 7 ). The complete lockdown was implemented in these containment zones to stop/limit community transmission ( 5 ). As of May 8th, 2020, 310 government laboratories and 111 private laboratories across the country were involved in SARS-CoV-2 testing. As per ICMR report, 14,37,788 samples were tested till date, which is 1.04 per thousand people ( 3 ).

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Table 1 . Current status of reported positive coronavirus disease cases in India (State-wise).

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Figure 1 . State-wise distribution of positive coronavirus disease cases displayed on an Indian geographical map.

COVID-19 and Previous Coronavirus Outbreaks

The recent outbreak of COVID-19 in several countries is similar to the previous outbreaks of SARS and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) that emerged in 2003 and 2012 in China and Saudi Arabia, respectively ( 8 – 10 ). Coronavirus is responsible for both SARS and COVID-19 diseases; they affect the respiratory tract and cause major disease outbreaks worldwide. SARS is caused by SARS-CoV, whereas SARS-CoV-2 causes COVID-19. So far, there is no particular treatment available to treat SARS or COVID-19. In the current search for a COVID-19 cure, there is some evidence that point to SARS-CoV-2 being similar to human coronavirus HKU1 and 229E strains ( 11 , 12 ) even though they are new coronavirus family members. These reports suggest that humans do not have immunity to this virus, allowing its easy and rapid spread among human populations through contact with an infected person. SARS-CoV-2 is more transmissible than SARS-CoV. The two possible reasons could be (i) the viral load (quantity of virus) tends to be relatively higher in COVID-19-positive patients, especially in the nose and throat immediately after they develop symptoms, and (ii) the binding affinity of SARS-CoV-2 to host cell receptors is higher than that of SARS-CoV ( 13 , 14 ). The other comparisons between SARS and COVID-19 are tabulated in Table 2 , and references for the same are provided here ( 1 , 15 , 16 ).

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Table 2 . Differences between coronavirus disease and severe acute respiratory syndrome.

Impact of COVID-19 in India and the Global Economy

As per the official government guidelines, India is making preparations against the COVID-19 outbreak, and avoiding specific crisis actions or not understating its importance will have extremely severe implications. All the neighboring countries of India have reported positive COVID-19 cases. To protect against the deadly virus, the Indian government have taken necessary and strict measures, including establishing health check posts between the national borders to test whether people entering the country have the virus ( 17 ). Different countries have introduced rescue efforts and surveillance measures for citizens wishing to return from China. The lesson learned from the SARS outbreak was first that the lack of clarity and information about SARS weakened China's global standing and hampered its economic growth ( 10 , 18 – 20 ). The outbreak of SARS in China was catastrophic and has led to changes in health care and medical systems ( 18 , 20 ). Compared with China, the ability of India to counter a pandemic seems to be much lower. A recent study reported that affected family members had not visit the Wuhan market in China, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 may spread without manifesting symptoms ( 21 ). Researchers believe that this phenomenon is normal for many viruses. India, with a population of more than 1.34 billion—the second largest population in the world—will have difficulty treating severe COVID-19 cases because the country has only 49,000 ventilators, which is a minimal amount. If the number of COVID-19 cases increases in the nation, it would be a catastrophe for India ( 22 ). It would be difficult to identify sources of infection and those who come in contact with them. This would necessitate multiple strategies to handle the outbreak, including computational modeling as well as statistical and quantitative analyses, to rapidly develop new vaccines and drug treatments. With such a vast population, India's medical system is grossly inadequate. A study has shown that, owing to inadequate medical care systems, nearly 1 million people die every year in India ( 23 ). India is also engaged in trading with its nearby countries, such as Bangladesh, Bhutan, Pakistan, Myanmar, China, and Nepal. During the financial year 2017–18 (FY2017–18), Indian regional trade amounted to nearly $12 billion, accounting for only 1.56% of its total global trade value of $769 billion. The outbreak of such viruses and their transmission would significantly affect the Indian economy. The outbreak in China could profoundly affect the Indian economy, especially in the sectors of electronics, pharmaceuticals, and logistics operations, as trade ports with China are currently closed. This was further supported by the statement by Suyash Choudhary, Head—Fixed Income, IDFC AMC, stating that GDP might decrease owing to COVID-19 ( 24 ).

Economists assume that the impact of COVID-19 on the economy will be high and negative when compared with the SARS impact during 2003. For instance, it has been estimated that the number of tourists arriving in China was much higher than that of tourists who traveled during the season when SARS emerged in 2003. This shows that COVID-19 has an effect on the tourism industry. It has been estimated that, for SARS, there was a 57 and 45% decline in yearly rail passenger and road passenger traffic, respectively ( 25 ). Moreover, when compared with the world economy 15 years ago, world economies are currently much more inter-related. It has been estimated that COVID-19 will hurt emerging market currencies and also impact oil prices ( 26 – 28 ). From the retail industry's perspective, consumer savings seem to be high. This might have an adverse effect on consumption rates, as all supply chains are likely to be affected, which in turn would have its impact on supply when compared with the demand of various necessary product items ( 29 ). This clearly proves that, based on the estimated losses due to the effect of SARS on tourism (retail sales lost around USD 12–18 billion and USD 30–100 billion was lost at a global macroeconomic level), we cannot estimate the impact of COVID-19 at this point. This will be possible only when the spread of COVID-19 is fully controlled. Until that time, any estimates will be rather ambiguous and imprecise ( 19 ). The OECD Interim economic assessment has provided briefing reports highlighting the role of China in the global supply chain and commodity markets. Japan, South Korea, and Australia are the countries that are most susceptible to adverse effects, as they have close ties with China. It has been estimated that there has been a 20% decline in car sales, which was 10% of the monthly decline in China during January 2020. This shows that even industrial production has been affected by COVID-19. So far, several factors have thus been identified as having a major economic impact: labor mobility, lack of working hours, interruptions in the global supply chain, less consumption, and tourism, and less demand in the commodity market at a global level ( 30 ), which in turn need to be adequately analyzed by industry type. Corporate leaders need to prioritize the supply chain and product line economy trends via demand from the consumer end. Amidst several debates on sustainable economy before the COVID-19 impact, it has now been estimated that India's GDP by the International Monetary Fund has been cut down to 1.9% from 5.8% for the FY21. The financial crisis that has emerged owing to the worldwide lockdown reflects its adverse effect on several industries and the global supply chain, which has resulted in the GDP dropping to 4.2% for FY20, which was previously estimated at 4.8%. Nevertheless, it has been roughly estimated that India and China will be experiencing considerable positive growth among other major economies ( 31 ).

Preparations and Preventive Measures in India

An easy way to decrease SARS-CoV-2 infection rates is to avoid virus exposure. People from India should avoid traveling to countries highly affected with the virus, practice proper hygiene, and avoid consuming food that is not home cooked. Necessary preventive measures, such as wearing a mask, regular hand washing, and avoiding direct contact with infected persons, should also be practiced. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW), India, has raised awareness about the recent outbreak and taken necessary action to control COVID-19. Besides, the MOHFW has created a 24 h/7 days-a-week disease alert helpline (+91-11-23978046 and 1800-180-1104) and policy guidelines on surveillance, clinical management, infection prevention and control, sample collection, transportation, and discharging suspected or confirmed cases ( 3 , 5 ). Those who traveled from China, or other countries, and exhibited symptoms, including fever, difficulty in breathing, sore throat, cough, and breathlessness, were asked to visit the nearest hospital for a health check-up. Officials from seven different airports, including Chennai, Cochin, New Delhi, Kolkata, Hyderabad, and Bengaluru, have been ordered to screen and monitor Indian travelers from China and other affected countries. In addition, a travel advisory was released to request the cessation of travel to affected countries, and anyone with a travel history that has included China since January 15th, 2020, would be quarantined. A centralized control room has been set up by the Delhi government at the Directorate General of Health Services, and 11 other districts have done the same. India has implemented COVID-19 travel advisory for intra- and inter-passenger aircraft restrictions. More information on additional travel advisory can be accessed with the provided link ( https://www.mohfw.gov.in/pdf/Traveladvisory.pdf ).

India is known for its traditional medicines in the form of AYUSH (Ayurvedic, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy). The polyherbal powder NilavembuKudineer showed promising effects against dengue and chikungunya fevers in the past ( 32 ). With the outbreak of COVID-19, the ministry of AYUSH has released a press note “Advisory for Coronavirus,” mentioning useful medications to improve the immunity of the individuals ( 33 ). Currently, according to the ICMR guidelines, doctors prescribe a combination of Lopinavir and Ritonavir for severe COVID-19 cases and hydroxychloroquine for prophylaxis of SARS-CoV-2 infection ( 34 , 35 ). In collaboration with the WHO, ICMR will conduct a therapeutic trial for COVID-19 in India ( 3 ). The ICMR recommends using the US-FDA-approved closed real-time RT-PCR systems, such as GeneXpert and Roche COBAS-6800/8800, which are used to diagnose chronic myeloid leukemia and melanoma, respectively ( 36 ). In addition, the TruenatTM beta CoV test on the TruelabTM workstation validated by the ICMR is recommended as a screening test. All positive results obtained on this platform need to be confirmed by confirmatory assays for SARS-CoV-2. All negative results do not require further testing. Antibody-based rapid tests were validated at NIV, Pune, and found to be satisfactory; the rapid test kits are as follows: (i) SARS-CoV-2 Antibody test (Lateral flow method): Guangzhou Wondfo Biotech, Mylan Laboratories Limited (CE-IVD); (ii) COVID-19 IgM&IgG Rapid Test: BioMedomics (CE-IVD); (iii) COVID-19 IgM/IgG Antibody Rapid Test: Zhuhai Livzon Diagnostics (CEIVD); (iv) New coronavirus (COVID-19) IgG/IgM Rapid Test: Voxtur Bio Ltd, India; (v) COVID-19 IgM/IgG antibody detection card test: VANGUARD Diagnostics, India; (vi) MakesureCOVID-19 Rapid test: HLL Lifecare Limited, India; and (vii) YHLO SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG detection kit (additional equipment required): CPC, Diagnostics. As a step further, on the technological aspect, the Union Health Ministry has launched a mobile application called “AarogyaSetu” that works both on android and iOS mobile phones. This application constructs a user database for establishing an awareness network that can alert people and governments about possible COVID-19 victims ( 37 ).

Future Perspectives

Infections caused by these viruses are an enormous global health threat. They are a major cause of death and have adverse socio-economic effects that are continually exacerbated. Therefore, potential treatment initiatives and approaches need to be developed. First, India is taking necessary preventive measures to reduce viral transmission. Second, ICMR and the Ministry of AYUSH provided guidelines to use conventional preventive and treatment strategies to increase immunity against COVID-19 ( 3 , 38 ). These guidelines could help reduce the severity of the viral infection in elderly patients and increase life expectancy ( 39 ). The recent report from the director of ICMR mentioned that India would undergo randomized controlled trials using convalescent plasma of completely recovered COVID-19 patients. Convalescent plasma therapy is highly recommended, as it has provided moderate success with SARS and MERS ( 40 ); this has been rolled out in 20 health centers and will be increased this month (May 2020) ( 3 ). India has expertise in specialized medical/pharmaceutical industries with production facilities, and the government has established fast-tracking research to develop rapid diagnostic test kits and vaccines at low cost ( 41 ). In addition, the Serum Institute of India started developing a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 infection ( 42 ). Until we obtain an appropriate vaccine, it is highly recommended that we screen the red zoned areas to stop further transmission of the virus. Medical college doctors in Kerala, India, implemented the low-cost WISK (Walk-in Sample Kiosk) to collect samples without direct exposure or contact ( 43 , 44 ). After Kerala, The Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO) developed walk-in kiosks to collect COVID-19 samples and named these as COVID-19 Sample Collection Kiosk (COVSACK) ( 45 ). After the swab collection, the testing of SARS-CoV-2 can be achieved with the existing diagnostic facility in India. This facility can be used for massive screening or at least in the red zoned areas without the need for personal protective equipment kits ( 43 , 45 ). India has attempted to broaden its research facilities and shift toward testing the mass population, as recommended by medical experts in India and worldwide ( 46 ).

Data Availability Statement

Publicly available datasets were analyzed in this study. This data can be found here: https://www.mohfw.gov.in/ and https://www.icmr.gov.in/ .

Author Contributions

SK, DK, and CD were involved in the design of the study and the acquisition, analysis, interpretation of the data, and drafting the manuscript. BC was involved in the interpretation of the data. CD supervised the entire study. The manuscript was reviewed and approved by all the authors.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Acknowledgments

We acknowledge The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW) and Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) for publicly providing the details of COVID-19. The authors would like to use this opportunity to thank the management of VIT for providing the necessary facilities and encouragement to carry out this work.

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Keywords: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, India, economy, safety measures

Citation: Kumar SU, Kumar DT, Christopher BP and Doss CGP (2020) The Rise and Impact of COVID-19 in India. Front. Med. 7:250. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2020.00250

Received: 19 March 2020; Accepted: 11 May 2020; Published: 22 May 2020.

Reviewed by:

Copyright © 2020 Kumar, Kumar, Christopher and Doss. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) . The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

*Correspondence: C. George Priya Doss, georgepriyadoss@vit.ac.in

This article is part of the Research Topic

Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): Pathophysiology, Epidemiology, Clinical Management and Public Health Response

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Impact of Covid-19 on Indian economy

Alex Upadhyay

The impact of coronavirus pandemic on India has been largely disruptive in terms of economic activity as well as a loss of human lives. Almost all the sectors have been adversely affected as domestic demand and exports sharply plummeted with some notable exceptions where high growth was observed. An attempt is made to analyze the impact and possible solutions for some key sectors.

Food & Agriculture

Since agriculture is the backbone of the country and a part of the government announced essential category, the impact is likely to be low on both primary agricultural production and usage of agro-inputs. Several state governments have already allowed free movement of fruits, vegetables, milk etc. Online food grocery platforms are heavily impacted due to unclear restrictions on movements and stoppage of logistics vehicles. RBI and Finance Minister announced measures will help the industry and the employees in the short term. Insulating the rural food production areas in the coming weeks will hold a great answer to the macro impact of COVID-19 on Indian food sector as well as larger economy.

Aviation & Tourism

The contribution of the Aviation Sector and Tourism to our GDP stands at about 2.4% and 9.2% respectively. The Tourism sector served approximately 43 million people in FY 18-19. Aviation and Tourism were the first industries that were hit significantly by the pandemic. The common consensus seems to be that COVID will hit these industries harder than 9/11 and the Financial Crisis of 2008. These two industries have been dealing with severe cash flow issues since the start of the pandemic and are staring at a potential 38 million lay-offs, which translates to 70 per cent of the total workforce. The impact is going to fall on both, White and Blue collar jobs. According to IATO estimates, these industries may incur losses of about 85 billion Rupees due to travel restrictions. The Pandemic has also brought about a wave of innovation in the fields of contactless boarding and travel technologies.

There has been a significant amount of changes in the telecom sector of India even before the Covid-19 due to brief price wars between the service providers. Most essential services and sectors have continued to run during the pandemic thanks to the implementation of the ‘work from home’ due to restrictions. With over 1 billion connections as of 2019, the telecom sector contributes about 6.5 per cent of GDP and employs almost 4 million people. Increased broadband usage had a direct impact and resulted in pressure on the network. Demand has been increased by about 10%. However, the Telco’s are bracing for a sharp drop in adding new subscribers. As a policy recommendation, the government can aid the sector by relaxing the regulatory compliances and provide moratorium for spectrum dues, which can be used for network expansions by the companies.

Pharmaceuticals

The pharmaceutical industry has been on the rise since the start of the Covid-19 pandemic, especially in India, the largest producer of generic drugs globally. With a market size of $55 billion during the beginning of 2020, it has been surging in India, exporting Hydroxychloroquine to the world, esp. to the US, UK, Canada, and the Middle-East.

There has been a recent rise in the prices of raw materials imported from China due to the pandemic. Generic drugs are the most impacted due to heavy reliance on imports, disrupted supply-chain, and labour unavailability in the industry, caused by social distancing. Simultaneously, the pharmaceutical industry is struggling because of the government-imposed bans on the export of critical drugs, equipment, and PPE kits to ensure sufficient quantities for the country. The increasing demand for these drugs, coupled with hindered accessibility is making things harder. Easing the financial stress on the pharmaceutical companies, tax-relaxations, and addressing the labour force shortage could be the differentiating factors in such a desperate time.

Oil and Gas

The Indian Oil & Gas industry is quite significant in the global context – it is the third-largest energy consumer only behind USA and Chine and contributes to 5.2% of the global oil demand. The complete lockdown across the country slowed down the demand of transport fuels (accounting for 2/3rd demand in oil & gas sector) as auto & industrial manufacturing declined and goods & passenger movement (both bulk & personal) fell. Though the crude prices dipped in this period, the government increased the excise and special excise duty to make up for the revenue loss, additionally, road cess was raised too. As a policy recommendation, the government may think of passing on the benefits of decreased crude prices to end consumers at retail outlets to stimulate demand.

Beyond Covid: The new normal

In view of the scale of disruption caused by the pandemic, it is evident that the current downturn is fundamentally different from recessions. The sudden shrinkage in demand & increased unemployment is going to alter the business landscape. Adopting new principles like ‘shift towards localization, cash conservation, supply chain resilience and innovation’ will help businesses in treading a new path in this uncertain environment.

essay on covid 19 pandemic in india

the impact of covid-19 on the indian economy was huge. the experienced highest recession post independence.for more details analyse follow ..

this is highly needed to know

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essay on covid 19 pandemic in india

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Dossier: Faces of the Pandemic

The Covid-19 Crisis in India A Nascent Humanitarian Tragedy

The lockdown in reaction to the Covid-19 pandemic will have terrible consequences on an informal economy that relies first and foremost on movements and will deepen the socioeconomic inequalities that divide the country. The risk of people dying from hunger is extremely high and the death toll worsened by poor health infrastructures.

In December, while Wuhan province was witnessing the beginning of the actual Covid-19 pandemic, India was facing massive and violent uprisings. Hundreds of thousands of Indians protested all over the country against the discriminatory anti-Muslim citizenship law that had just been passed by its parliament—the Citizenship Amendment Act ( CAA )—and as a backlash violent attacks occurred on universities and Muslim working-class neighbourhoods by armed vigilantes. All this while the authorities were negating the presence of community transmission of the virus despite the first cases appearing way back in January to finally declare a 21-day lockdown on the midnight of 24 March, with only a 4 hour notice. This announcement, as in France, has triggered migration from the cities to the countryside, but of a completely different nature: in India, the internal migrant workers , day labourers and the poor—deprived of resources—have decided to return to their native villages. This tragic and deadly exodus of migrants fleeing cities is the most visible stigmata of the profound health, economic and social crisis that this threefold essay offers to analyse.

Accessing Healthcare under the Lockdown

This pandemic has brutally exposed the vulnerabilities of some of the best health systems. For the Indian health system, one of the most burdened and least funded in the world, this could be a critical moment; as government facilities are already overstretched in a highly fractured, underfunded and geographically uneven health system (Das 2015; Drèze & Sen 2013; Hodges & Rao 2016). This invites us to examine the way the current crisis risks to enhance long lasting health inequalities and how dysfunctional health infrastructures may collapse under the strain of the coming dramatic spike in Covid-19 cases in India.

Testing is crucial to gauge the extent of Covid-19 transmission in any country. India currently has one of the lowest ratios of testing in the world, which may have masked coronavirus cases. As of March 23 rd , the total number of individuals tested for Covid-19 across the country was 17,493. The same week, South Korea was carrying out more than 5,500 tests per million people, Italy 2,500 per million, the United Kingdom close to 1,500 and France around 900. Even if the epidemic outbreak was ahead in these countries, India lags at just 10 tests per million . Until the national lockdown, the testing strategy of the government was relying on the assumption that no community transmission was happening in India, and that there were only foreign imported cases. Basing the testing strategy on this and testing only people coming from infected areas abroad may have unintended consequences on the spreading of the epidemic. Indeed, with the lockdown, a large amount of workers migrated internally from existing hotspots like Mumbai and Delhi towards their home states like Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Failure to acknowledge presence of Covid-19 infections in the community and failure to test all symptomatics in Mumbai or Delhi itself may have exposed these states to the diffusion of the virus and a potential explosion of cases, in places where health infrastructures are poorer.

At the beginning of its national lockdown, India simply did not have enough testing kits and even if the government has given licenses to private companies to sell them in India, the constraint on testing lies in the number of laboratories. On 23 rd of March, India had 118 accredited labs for a population of 1.3 billion with huge geographical inequalities; Arunachal Pradesh (1,5 million) and Nagaland (3,3 million) had no testing centres, Bihar had only one accredited lab for a population of 110 million compared to 8 facilities in Rajasthan for a population of 80 million. Even if states were supplied with an infinite number of testing kits, government labs would not be able to utilise them, as their testing capacity is around 90 samples per day. That’s why the government had allowed private players to conduct Covid-19 tests, which means that even those who are not hospitalised can get tested but at their own cost. The price cap of 4500 INR (around 55 euros) per test by the government, is too high for most Indians. With stigma associated with the virus and the actual lockdown some accredited private labs have already declared that the task was just impossible. Considering the high price of private testing and all the logistical problems associated with the lockdown, most Indians are likely to depend only on the public system to get tested. In an already stretched and underfunded public healthcare system, money spent on the coronavirus tests leaves less for other public health problems as India spends only 3.7 percent of its total budget on health. A budget that is far too limited to respond to the massive need of intensive care that has been necessary in countries already impacted by Covid-19.

If India has a lower proportion of elderly than other countries, its government healthcare facilities are limited and disproportionately burdened with patients having comorbidities—such as undernutrition, tuberculosis, diabetes, chronic respiratory and cardiovascular diseases  [ 1 ] —that could aggravate the Covid-19 death toll for India. Among all infected people, the death rate is hovering at around one to three per cent , but among the critically ill, it climbs as high as 62 per cent . Most deaths are due to hypoxia, an insufficient supply of oxygen to the body’s tissues, or multi-organ collapse. Around five per cent of the infected patients in India will require intensive care and half of those admitted in the intensive care unit will require mechanical ventilation; up to 1 million ventilators at the peak of the Covid-19 epidemic may be needed. As per Ministry of Health estimates, as of March 24 th there were 8432 ventilators in public hospitals, a number that could reach 50 000 if we factor in private hospitals. Compared to this, USA , which is currently overwhelmed with a Covid-19 outbreak, has 160 000 ventilators for a population that is one third of India. So far, India imports almost 75% of ventilators, its domestic production capacity stands at 5000 ventilators per month and also depends—for a few critical components—on international suppliers, who are all overstretched right now. Even the meagre numbers quoted above hide extreme disparities in access. Intensive care facilities, specially mechanical ventilation are concentrated in big urban areas and richer provinces; Mumbai alone has 1000 ventilators and Kerala 5000, which means there are a significantly lesser number of ventilators available in some of the poorest and most rural provinces of the country.

Same disparities will apply for intensive care beds, as hospital beds per 1000 population for 12 poorer states in India (70% of India’s population) are lower than the national average which stands at 0,7 bed per 1000 (compared to 11,5 in South Korea, 6,5 in France and 3,5 in Italy).  [ 2 ] Even by most conservative estimates, 75% of Indian provinces will run out of beds for coronavirus patients by June.  [ 3 ] Knowing that the average cost of private hospitalization in 2017 was Rs. 31845 ( 384 euros), that India’s monthly per capita income stands at Rs. 11254 ( 135 euros) and that a majority of Indians do not have any health insurance:  [ 4 ] how many of the ailing patients will be able to afford private care, once the modest public facilities will be overwhelmed?

Given the severe challenges faced by the public health system and the dominance of unaffordable private health care in many Indian States, the response to the Covid-19 crisis must prioritize the strengthening of an affordable and accessible health care system for all, whether rich or poor, Hindu or Muslim, from Bihar or Kerala. But this pandemic also revealed the extreme and appalling vulnerability of most Indians to a catastrophe that goes far beyond healthcare. In addition, and far beyond the risk of infection, the measure taken to contain contagions—the lockdown—will also have disastrous consequences for a large part of the population.

Making a Living under the Lockdown

What does “lockdown” mean in a context where people, not just the poorest, depend on mobility and sociability to make a living? Using culturalist clichés, many media have highlighted the “cultural” difficulty of accepting the principle of social distancing. Long before being a “cultural” issue, and if this argument is valid, in economies where informal employment is the rule rather than the exception, and where social protection remains the privilege of a minority, social connection and movement are simply necessary for survival and protection.

India is characterized by the extent of informal employment. According to ILO statistics, 92% of jobs are informal in the sense that they exclude any form of protection, contract and guarantee of continuity ( ILO 2016). India is also characterized by the crucial role of internal migration and circulation (Breman 2007; Picherit 2018). Largely underestimated by official statistics, these displacements give rise to various estimates of up to 100 million workers (Deshingkar and Akter 2009). While these workers’ movements have always existed, they have undoubtedly increased to meet the needs of a capitalist economy always in search of cheap and disciplined labour. Internal migration includes long-distance, inter-state migration, with massive flows from the poorest states in north-eastern India to the most employment-intensive states located in the west and south. Internal migration also includes short term forms of commuting from villages to nearby towns. With the massive decline in agriculture in recent decades,  [ 5 ] and even as India resists the rural exodus, many villagers survive by moving daily to nearby urban centres. Some of these migrants settle in cities, swelling the miserable mass of slums, but most remain attached to their home villages. The Indian labour force, and men in particular, is thus caught in a continuous flow, moving with the seasons and years according to opportunities, networks, and above all the needs of the capitalist system, while regularly returning home. The latter remains the pivot of family and village roots and identity.

Movement is not just about finding jobs. These generate incomes that are both low and unpredictable. At the same time, households face incompressible and ever-increasing expenses: eating;  [ 6 ] maintaining housing, often precarious and therefore requiring constant renovation and improvement; sending children to school;  [ 7 ] charges for electricity, sometimes water and gas; social and religious rituals;  [ 8 ] durable consumer goods that are now required, including for work (mobile phones, two-wheeled motor vehicles). To these regular and incompressible expenses are added unforeseen expenses: health shocks, sudden loss of a job, legal fees, theft, seizure of land following a conflict or an unpaid debt and so forth.

To cope with this mismatch between income flows and expenditures, individuals, both men and women, mobilize complex portfolios of financial practices in which debt is central. Savings are not completely absent, but among the poorest and for a large part of the rural population, they rarely take the form of monetary savings. Jewels, grains, livestock, as well as “social investments” (reciprocal gifts or loans) are much more common. Any surplus liquidity is often reinjected into the social network.

Debt is thus a central component of daily survival. Yet debt implies movement and sociability, either on the part of a family member who has to move to meet a lender, or on the part of a financial provider, since some provide doorstep services. Financial diary methods, aimed at tracing all of a household’s financial flows over a given period, confirm the intensity of movements related to financial transactions. This is even more true for women, since they are often the ones in charge of managing family budgets. A survey of this type conducted in 2017-2018 in the states of Pondicherry and Tamil Nadu shows that the number of transactions (borrowing, repaying, lending, getting repaid, giving, receiving) can reach peaks of 30 transactions per week for women, 20 for men (Reboul et al., 2019).

Given the crucial importance of movement and sociability, we can therefore imagine that the lockdown will have absolutely devastating consequences, and it already has. The invisibility of migrant workers, a vital link in India’s economy, has become glaringly apparent. They have simply been ignored by the lockdown measures. Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s announcement of “stay home” provoked a massive influx of workers desperate to return home, even though transport infrastructure had already been drastically reduced. Testimonies collected over the first weeks of the lockdown in Tamil Nadu attest to widespread panic. The populations are used to shocks—the Tsunami in 2004, the demonetization in 2016  [ 9 ] —but the announcement of the lockdown seems much more frightening to them.

Tamil migrants have returned. Not only do they have no job prospects, but some are already heavily in debt. In some sectors, such as brick molding or sugar cane cutting, recruitment and control of the workforce is based on a wage advance. This advance is usually repaid over the course of the season, depending on the productivity of the workers. Since the season had barely started (January), most of these migrants find themselves with a debt of 70,000 to 100,000 INR (6 to 8 months’ salary for two workers). It remains to be seen whether employers and labour recruiters will agree to wipe out some of this debt. As for local workers, the sources of debt, a condition for their daily survival, have dried up. While usually the slightest surplus is lent or given away, what is observed at present is a complete withdrawal. From landowners to housewives, all testimonies converge: given the prevailing uncertainty, everyone tends to keep their stocks, whether it is cash or grain. Some farmers have offered wage payments in kind to their labour (mostly female), who in turn find it difficult to convert into cash.

Conversely, lenders demand their due and refuse to lend. The Reserve Bank of India has announced a moratorium regarding the suspension of loan repayments. But this does not concern small financial companies , even though they are the ones that target the poor. Those companies keep on sending messages and oral instructions to borrowers in order to enforce repayments. Nationalized banks and some finance companies allow the suspension, but borrowers have to fill the specific online forms that are not accessible for many of them, especially when borrowers are poor rural women. This moratorium applies even less to informal lenders. In such a context, how do people manage? For now, they are “adjusting”, as we were told. They are drawing on the few savings available. While monetary savings are limited, many families, often through women, have a few hundred or even a few thousand rupees secretly hidden and intended to cope in case of a hard blow. They save on food. But this coping strategy is not sustainable.

Dying of Hunger under the Lockdown

Upon the lockdown announcement, middle class Indians were seen rushing to shops and markets to buy food provisions. This was particularly triggered by the lack of official preparation to reassure people that they would still be able to access food shops under the lockdown.  [ 10 ] But others simply did not have advance funds to save food and the phrase “I won’t die of corona. Before that, I will surely die of hunger” crudely summarizes many poor’s precarious condition. For any economic shock, the lack of savings and the high share of food in total spending are two ingredients of a nascent humanitarian tragedy. Looking at food security reveals how vulnerable Indian households are. The average share of food in household total spending amounts to 43 percent in urban India and rises to 53 percent in rural India.  [ 11 ] As a point of comparison, French households spent about 20 percent of their total expenditures in food and beverages in 2014.  [ 12 ] Besides according to Engel’s law, the poorer a household, the larger the share of total expenditures spent on food. Indian 5 percent poorest households in rural areas dedicate about 61 percent of their total spending to food, while in urban areas, this share was only 28 percent for the 5 percent richest. Any economic shock is very likely to impact access to food, particularly among the poor.

In the present context, economic consequences on food are expected from two mechanisms. The first and most dangerous one is for all households losing their source of income. With little savings, those households who belong to the poorest segments of society are the first affected by the situation, among which the daily-wage earners, and more especially urban migrants, who are often left without any resource or even shelter. A second expected effect will affect all segments of society: the chain of food supply may not sustain itself. Some shopkeepers fear to open their shops, and street hawkers are not allowed to sell their stock . Mobility has been severely hampered and hence food procurement is disrupted.  [ 13 ] On the production side, the lack of mobility of agricultural labourers endangers the harvest.  [ 14 ] Therefore difficulties in the supply of provisions may create food shortages and already increase food prices, against which the government now intervenes to set up price caps on necessary items .

First reports of hunger crises cannot let anyone indifferent: in Bihar, an 8-year-old kid died of hunger just six days after the lockdown started. More cases are unfortunately awaited given India’s nutritional situation, characterized by chronic malnutrition (lack of food balance) and to some extent by acute malnutrition (a visible form of undernutrition). According to the latest 2019 estimates, India ranked 102 out of 117 countries on the Global Hunger Index, the lowest among South Asian countries (despite higher GDP per capita).  [ 15 ] The 2019 edition of the State of the World’s Children from UNICEF points the enduring problem of hunger in India: about half of all deaths among children under 5 are attributable to undernutrition. Child underweight, measured as ‘weight-for-age’, which entails aspects of both chronic and acute malnutrition, was at a 36 per cent high in 2015-2016 (the World Health Organization considers that a level of underweight higher than 30 percent reflects a “very high prevalence”).  [ 16 ] These figures conceal important regional and socioeconomic disparities (Swaminathan et al., 2019). Underweight is noticeably higher in North Central and especially Eastern states of India (see map): in Jharkhand (48 percent), Bihar (44 percent), but nothing compared to Kerala (16 percent). Clearly, some regions face a heightened burden in the present lockdown.

essay on covid 19 pandemic in india

To fight against hunger and malnutrition, India has a long history of in-kind social programs, which have been put under the umbrella of the National Food Security Act (also known as the Right to Food Act) in 2013. Given the current emergency, the Central Minister of Finance Nirmala Sitharaman announced measures reinforcing these existing social programs and other schemes a few hours after the lockdown declaration. The package, called the Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Yojana (the Prime Minister’s Poor Welfare Scheme), covers about 21 billion euros. These measures have been critically welcomed by economists. Among them, Jayati Ghosh deemed this scheme “embarrassing” given the small amount put on the table and “inadequate”. The Indian Society of Labour Economics , comprising leading economists, wrote a letter to the Prime Minister and state Chief Ministers and stated that the assistance needed amounted to 434 billion euro, more than 20 times the amount in the planned scheme.

In the announced package, cash support will be set up using existing direct transfer schemes, in particular the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act ( MNREGA ), a cash program that provides 100 days of guaranteed paid work for rural dwellers to fight against underemployment. But the announced increase in MNREGA wages is pointed to as just adjusting for an already planned one.  [ 17 ] This program could benefit internal migrant workers left without economic resources, but only under the condition that they manage to get back home, where they are administratively registered. As for in-kind measures, the government wants to expand the Public Distribution System ( PDS ), by supporting the main food calorie intakes in India: cereals (more than 50 percent of the total calorie intakes) and pulses (about 12 percent, an important source of protein in a country consuming little animal products ).  [ 18 ] But the promises may not be enough to cover the needs. Officials have also pointed out that this stock will be difficult to deliver since private millers are facing a shortage of labour.  [ 19 ] Finally, the Mid Day Meal Scheme ( MDMS ), which provides a free meal to every kid enrolled in schools, is currently stopped despite its critical role in child nutrition (Khera, 2013).

More importantly, the main issues around these measures are existing corruption and exclusion errors, although the PDS is theoretically wide-covering. The ability to target everyone in need is critical in the present situation (the use of a biometric authentication system based, the controversial Aadhaar-Based Biometric Authentication does not seem to solve these problems, Drèze et al., 2017). The economist Jean Drèze has hence advocated for providing food supply in “emergency facilities” to any person without asking for an Aadhar number or ration card.

Facing the emerging crisis, private initiatives from NGOs, organising food points in urban areas, or Sikh temples hosting and feeding the homeless (Parulkar and Naik, 2020), have flourished. Not only has the voluntary sector considerably dried up over the last two decades, but without huge public support, local initiatives will not be sufficient. In Tamil Nadu, those who are still in place have so far mostly been focusing on awareness measures and precautions to be taken to limit the propagation of the virus, raising more suspicion than trust since people’s primary concern is their livelihood. As Jean Drèze warns the government: “Poor people are used to taking a lot of things lying down—when people are hungry and feeble, they are not necessarily well placed to revolt. But food riots could happen, who knows”.

In such a historical moment, one would expect to place national unity above all and to relegate stigmatization as well as religious/ethnic/caste/class-based polarization to the backstage. But nothing is less certain. As migrants go home, they face attacks and are ostracized by fear of infection. And it was not long before hatred discourses surfaced in this crisis with Muslim, north-eastern, tribal or Dalit Indians, all being accused of spreading the virus.  [ 20 ] It is yet to observe whether and how the government will take the opportunity of this crisis to further divide or re-unite its people. The immediate concern is for the poor and the minorities, who as we have seen, will be the first to suffer from this crisis. For them, the consequences of the lockdown will be dramatic. They will die at home, in silence, maybe from a much deadlier thing than the virus itself: the profound socioeconomic inequalities that divide Indian society.

Given the large diversity of situations on the Indian subcontinent, regional public responses seem more adequate to circumvent the economic and humanitarian tragedy. Several states have been at the forefront implementing ambitious emergency solutions for the most needy, including Kerala, Delhi, Odisha or West Bengal, even though their action is partly withheld by cash transfers from the Central government. The informal sector, though badly hit by the lockdown, has also proved incredibly resilient in past crises and this provides hope in these unprecedented circumstances. In the longer run, investing in the agriculture sector would help regenerate the economy, by ensuring food security and reducing the urban-rural gap, blatantly revealed by the recent mass exodus.

by Marine Al Dahdah & Mathieu Ferry & Isabelle Guérin & Govindan Venkatasubramanian , 13 April 2020

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Further reading.

• Jan Breman, Labour Bondage in West India: From Past to Present , New-Delhi, Oxford University Press, 2007. • Veena Das, Affliction: Health, Disease, Poverty , Fordham University Press, 2015. • Priya Deshingkar and Shaheen Akter. “Migration and Human Development in India’, United Nations Development Programme.” Human Development Reports, Research Paper 13, 2009. • Jean Drèze, Nazar Khalid, Reetika Khera, Anmol Somanchi, “Pain without gain? Aadhar and food security in Jharkhand”, Economic and Political Weekly , vol. 52, n°50, 2017. • Jean Drèze and Amartya Kumar Sen, An Uncertain Glory: India and Its Contradictions , Princeton, Princeton Univ. Press, 2013. • Sarah Hodges, and Mohan Rao (eds), Public Health and Private Wealth: Stem Cells, Surrogates, and Other Strategic Bodies , Oxford University Press, 2016. • “India Labour Market Update.” Geneva, ILO , 2016 • Reetika Khera, “Mid-Day Meals: Looking Ahead”, Economic and Political Weekly , vol. 48, n° 32, 2013. • Ashwin Parulkar, Mukta Naik, “A Crisis of Hunger: a ground report on the repercussions of COVID -19 related lockdown on Delhi’s vulnerable populations” , Centre for Policy Research Report, March 27, 2020. • David Picherit. “Labour Migration Brokerage and Dalit Politics in Andhra Pradesh: A Dalit Fabric of Labour Circulation.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies , 1-17, 2018 • Elena Reboul, Isabelle Guérin, Antony Raj, and G. Venkatasubramanian. 2019. “Managing Economic Volatility. A Gender Perspective.” Working Papers CEB 19-015, ULB . • Akshay Swaminathan, Rockli Kim, Yun Xu, Jeffrey C Blossom, William Joe, R Venkataramanan, Alok Kumar, S V Subramanian, “Burden of Child Malnutrition in India” , Economic and Political Weekly , vol. 54, n°12, 2019.

To quote this article :

Marine Al Dahdah & Mathieu Ferry & Isabelle Guérin & Govindan Venkatasubramanian, « The Covid-19 Crisis in India. A Nascent Humanitarian Tragedy », Books and Ideas , 13 April 2020. ISSN : 2105-3030. URL : https://booksandideas.net/The-Covid-19-Crisis-in-India

If you want to discuss this essay further, you can send a proposal to the editorial team ( redaction at laviedesidees.fr ). We will get back to you as soon as possible.

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The Politics of Antibiotics

[ 1 ]  In 2018, India accounts for a quarter of the global tuberculosis burden with 2,15 millions of active cases, and an estimated total of 450.000 TB related deaths, diabetes, chronic respiratory and cardiovascular diseases were estimated to account for 3%, 11% and 27% of all deaths. Sources : WHO -India Noncommunicable Diseases ( NCD ) Country Profiles , 2018 and India TB Report 2019 consulted on 04/04/2020. On the malnutrition burden see the detailed analysis provided in the section of this article called Dying of hunger under the lockdown.

[ 2 ]  See data from the World Bank on Hospital beds (per 1,000 people)

[ 3 ]  See estimates in Covid-19: When will states run out of beds?

[ 4 ]  Approximately 90% of the poorest and 67% of the richest urban Indians do not have health insurance according to NSSO 75 th round

[ 5 ]  According to NSSO data, in 2011-12 the agricultural sector accounts for 62.7 per cent of India’s employment, against 77.6% in 1993-94 ( ILO , 2016: 2).

[ 6 ]  Self-consumption, long a pillar of food security for rural families, has declined sharply over the last decades; see the next section.

[ 7 ]  Schooling rates have risen sharply in recent decades, including for girls, the low castes and Adivasis , and this is to be welcomed, but it entails significant expenses, even when school is free, as a large share remains the responsibility of families (transport, school materials).

[ 8 ]  Often presented as “unsustainable” or “superfluous” expenses, these expenses turn out to be real investments that make it possible to maintain the social networks that people sorely need to protect themselves.

[ 9 ]  On 8 November 2016, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced the impending, almost immediate demonetization of all 500- and 1,000-rupee banknotes and the introduction of a new series of 500 and 2,000-rupee banknotes. See the article from Guérin, Isabelle, Youna Lanos, Sébastien Michiels, Christophe Jalil Nordman, and Govindan Venkatasubramanian. “Insights on Demonetisation from Rural Tamil Nadu.” Economic & Political Weekly 52 (52): 45, 2017.

[ 10 ]  See Coronavirus: What does it say when PM Modi has to tweet ‘don’t panic!’ after his own speech?

[ 11 ]  The ‘Consumer Expenditure Survey’ data from the National Sample Survey Office ( NSSO ) provides the most comprehensive household expenditure data to look at and date back from 2011-2012. Unfortunately, more recent data from the NSSO are not available. Even though a newer household consumption survey was conducted in 2017-2018, the data were never released, despite explicit demands from the research community . The Central government took the pretext of survey instrument biases to never release the complete raw data of the most comprehensive survey to study household consumption in India. But in fact press reports leaked that the total household spendings between the last two surveys fell for the first time in four decades. The impact of the 2016 demonetisation may have affected Indian households’ expenditures on the long run, a point that the government is reluctant to acknowledge. More recent surveys from other institutions do not have the same methodological robustness, geographical coverage, or access to detailed results. These figures are derived from Tables 6C-R and 6C-U p. 106-107 from the report Level and Pattern of Consumer Expenditure 2011-2012 .

[ 12 ]  This figure is based on INSEE estimates from the survey Budget de Famille, 2014 .

[ 13 ]  See COVID -19 Border Lockdown: How Precariously Placed are Our Food Supply Chains?

[ 14 ]  See P. Sainath’s analysis on the present situation for rural areas, What we should do about COVID -19

[ 15 ]  Estimates are directly on the Global Hunger Index website , based on a composite indicator associating statistics related to undernourishment, child anthropometric indicators (stunting and wasting) and child mortality.

[ 16 ]  See Nutrition Landscape Information System ( NLIS ). Interpretation Guide , p.1-2.

[ 17 ]  See India: Open the Godowns now!

[ 18 ]  P. i-ii, Nutritional Intake in India, 2011-12. NSS 68 th round .

[ 19 ]  See Sitharaman’s Promise of Pulses Through PDS Unlikely to See Fruition Anytime Soon . Also read an analysis comparing measure of social distancing and the practice of untouchability: The History of caste has lessons on the dangers of social distancing .

[ 20 ]  See for instance the controversy around a caricature published in The Hindu , identifying Islamic terrorists with the virus, now taken down, or a Muslim gathering identified as a virus hotspot as analyzed in: It was already dangerous to be Muslim in India. Then came the Coronavirus . See also the account of Muslims beaten up and abused in rural Punjab . A testimony on the rise of stigmatization against North-Eastern people in New Delhi can be read here .

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Home > Books > Fighting the COVID-19 Pandemic

COVID-19 in India: Problems, Challenges and Strategies (Psychological Aspects)

Reviewed: 24 August 2021 Published: 11 October 2021

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.100111

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Fighting the COVID-19 Pandemic

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The pandemic COVID-19 is a global challenge which has infected and killed people worldwide. Some people do not show any symptom while some have fever, cough, sore throat, general weakness and fatigue and muscular pain and in most severe cases, severe pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis and septic shock all leading to death. It has adversely affected the economy and social integrity of countries. There is rising concern about the mental health challenges of the general population (children, adults, or elderly), along with health workers and family of infected people. This study aims to determine effect of COVID-19 on mental health of people in India. It also focuses on the stigma and discriminating factors in our society and ways to cope with such conditions. A structured survey was conducted with 250 participants of different age groups. Our analysis focuses on the factors affecting mental health of any person, changes in behavior and daily routine due to stress, anxiety or fear of transmission of virus in their family and friends, some are worried for their lifestyle and career. There is a need to understand that pandemic is affecting everyone, either physically or mentally. There must be increase in the study of the aspects of mental health during the pandemic and methods to cope with issues like discrimination for better mental health during pandemic period.

  • adaptive coping

Author Information

Sarika jain *.

  • Department of Mathematics, Amity School of Applied Sciences, Amity University Haryana, Gurugram, India

Manish Yadav

*Address all correspondence to: [email protected]

1. Introduction

Along with great increase in mortality and morbidity due to this pandemic in India, COVID-19 has caused mental health issues among general population, children, adults, elderly, migrant workers, healthcare workers and their families. As per a study performed to assess the youth mental health after COVID-19 in China, it is observed that mental health problems are majorly found in youth group. This study indicates that low education level, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and negative coping styles were the influence factors of youth mental health [ 1 ].

A recent study indicates that structured websites and toll free helpline numbers may be launched for alleviating psychological distress among the general public regarding this ongoing pandemic. Social media is to be used in good sense so that people can get education regarding transmission dynamics and symptoms of disease. To protect social media from devaluations, strict government laws and legislation regarding fake news, social media rumors, disinformation and misinformation are to be implemented [ 2 ].

It is important to understand different reasons of mental health issues, ways in which they are affecting our society and resilience of people and the ways they try to cope up with such situations. Therefore, the current study will aim to show impact of COVID-19 on mental health of people in India.

Human beings are social species which require most satisfying environment with social relationship and physical well beings. The pandemic has affected lifestyle, education, career, development and economy in few months as there has been sudden increase in number of patients. Isolation, contact restrictions and economic shutdown impose a complete change to the psycho-social environment. These measures have the potential to threaten the mental health of children, adolescent and elders significantly.

2. Mental health issues during COVID-19

During COVID-19 pandemic, people were bound to stay at home and maintain social distancing. This sudden change in their lifestyle along with fear of COVID-19 created discomfort in their life. Long term anxiousness and fear leads to negative psychological effects including post-traumatic stress symptoms, confusion and anger. Personality disorders and Alzheimer’s disease, irritability, restlessness, difficulty in concentration, fatigue, dizziness are also some psychological disorders.

As pandemic was spreading rapidly, complete lockdown had been implemented at most of the places and due to non-availability of transport system people were not able to move around. People from various age groups are reporting loneliness as they were away from their family members. A study revealed that depression, anxiety, and stress play an important role in enhancing the fear of COVID-19.

The general population can experience the fear and anxiety of dying, helplessness, blame the people who are already affected and precipitate the mental breakdown. Let us briefly discuss the impact of COVID-19 on different age groups.

2.1 Children

Unaware of everything happening young children are enjoying the company of their family members with no efforts of going school. As children were not permitted to play outside home they feel irritated sometimes sitting at home. They are also curious to know the reason of drastic change in lifestyle as they cannot judge the actual reasons. Some youngsters are happy to stay home, especially those who are family focused. According to a study done over children and adolescents in the age groups of 9 years to 18 years during COVID-19 outbreak in India. Children and adolescents who were under quarantine had faced more psychological problems than those who were not quarantined. Fear ( p < 0.0001), nervousness ( p < 0.0001) and annoyance ( p < 0.001) were most significantly seen in the quarantined group. Anxiety related insomnia, isolation, boredom (not statistically significant) and sadness was also more common in the quarantine group [ 3 ].

Teenagers caring most about their privacy, peers and independence are under depression living with their family while younger kids are happy to get much attention. The notion of social distancing becomes difficult for youngsters who think of themselves not getting ill and takes it as restriction. So primarily being unhappy they start being cutoff from other family members, which results their aggressive behaviors. Having healthy conversation can make them understand and they can be given their personal space at home, even can be allowed to play video games and stay connected to their friends through internet.

Children are also worried about their future. Some self motivated kids have set their goals to achieve something during this period. They are busy with video of their interest and some tutorial, but have become physically less active and have much screen time, irregular sleep pattern and less favorable diets resulting in weight gain and loss of cardio-respiratory fitness.

During the pandemic, this age group are afraid of losing their jobs as few companies were not able to survive and few were still operating offline. This age group decided not to go to office and choose work from home as they were concerned about the spread of virus. In this case, the fear of losing jobs increases. Some are getting depressed and feeling alone as maintaining distance. According to Italian study, during the second week of mandatory lockdown, Italian adults paid much attention to information about COVID-19, they perceived it as very severe, and they were particularly worried about infecting their relatives [ 4 ]. Loneliness is recognized as a contributing and maintaining factor in the development of Alcohol abuse. Alcohol does affect the user’s ability to perceive, integrate and process information. This distortion in the user’s thinking does not cause violence but may increase the risk that the user will misinterpret his partner or other’s behavior [ 5 ]. Consumption of alcohol make a person emotionally weak and might give rise to domestic violence. Which affects the whole family and cause loss of concentration of each family member and make emotionally weak. Some poor labor just focused to reach their home, lost their life due to psychiatric disorders.

Women have started taking measure to protect their family from virus, each item bought to home is sanitized and then used. This increases burden on women due to which they feel tensed, depressed and facing psychiatric disorders like mood extremes. The disruption of social and protective networks, loss of income and decreased access to services, all can exacerbate the risk of violence for women [ 6 ]. Women are ones who are more affected by nosophobia of COVID-19 as allergy or climate change may also result some illness. They are more worried about family members.

2.3 Elder and special population

Person with pre-existing mental illness have been inevitably affected by the pandemic. In patients, especially aged and those who require long term hospitalization in closed wards are under great risk [ 7 ]. Elderly people were at a higher risk of spreading and catching virus so other family members started keeping themselves away from them. Neither elders are having proper conversations with family nor getting absolute care. Even they are not taken to hospital for any other disease as they can come in the contact of some corona infected person. Watching news related to COVID-19 whole day is depressing them as it seems to be the end of human life ( Figure 1 ).

essay on covid 19 pandemic in india

Impact on mental health of different age groups due to COVID-19 (green is least, and red is most affected).

To clearly understand the pandemic impact on different age group a survey on 250 people has been done by preparing a questionnaire. Each questionnaire was divided into four sections. The questionnaire included scaled questions that have already been used worldwide in the previous studies and we are using same type of questionnaire for India [ 8 ]. In the first section, questions were framed to gather data on the personal profile of the respondents. The second section consisted of questions on personal awareness and attitude. The third and fourth sections of the questionnaire comprised attitude towards family and country. Questions asked the respondents to inform their choices (i) (not at all), (ii) (many times), (iii) (mostly), (iv) (every time) about various factors that affect their awareness, attitude, behavior and methods they follow to keep themselves fit.

3.1 Participants

We used a snowball sampling approach to distribute questionnaire online. The questionnaire was shared on different platforms, when a participant completed it, they forwarded it to their group of friends to expand the size. Out of total 250 respondents, 138 are males that is 55.2% and 112 are females that is 44.8%. Based on the distribution of age, majority of respondents belonged to the age group of 25–44 (50.8%). Whereas 34.8% of the respondents belonged to the age group of 18–24 years and 9.6% were in the age group of 45–above years and 4.8% of the respondents were of the age group of 1–17 years of age ( Table 1 ).

Descriptive profile of the respondents.

Occupation of the respondents has been assessed using 7 categories including medical/security/defense (4.4%), full time employed (31.6%), part time employed (2.8%), unemployed (2.8%), homemaker (0.8%) and majority of respondents lie in category student (41.6%) and others (16%).

The work from home permission of the respondents indicates that most of the respondents as (47.2%) lies in yes and (28.8%) lies in the category of no and there were 8% respondents who were partially allowed to work from home while 16% falls in category of not applicable.

3.2 Awareness

People awareness plays an instrumental role in determining their behavior. This section describes the effectiveness of the awareness for people in the pandemic. The people awareness has been measured with indicators (0 to 4) which include the level of awareness as (0) do not know anything, (1) know very less things, (2) know few things, (3) know many things, (4) know everything ( Table 2 ).

Awareness about COVID-19 in respondents.

The above table describes the study respondents awareness about COVID-19 divided in age groups which are 1–17, 18–24, 25–44 and 44–above. In category Age group (4–17) maximum results come in favor of 2, 3, 4, In age group (18–24) and (25–44) maximum results come in favor of 3 while in age group (44–above) maximum respondents lie in category of 4. This implies that most of the people were aware about the pandemic situation ( Figure 2 ).

essay on covid 19 pandemic in india

Percentage of different age group people worrying about their health and safety during pandemic.

3.3 Attitude

In age group of 18–24 and 25–44 approximately 35% people were worried more about their health while 10.5% are worried every time with ∼33% of 18–24 and ∼28% of 25–44 do not worry at all ( Figure 3 ).

essay on covid 19 pandemic in india

Percentage of different age group people worrying about effect on nation and world during pandemic.

In age group of 18–24 there are ∼32% people worrying about nation or world everytime and in 25–44 age group there ∼21% people worrying about nation or world everytime. While ∼34% of 18–24 years and 37% of 25–44 years worrying most of the time. While only 8% and 11% of 18–24 and 25–44 resp. do not worry at all ( Figure 4 ).

essay on covid 19 pandemic in india

Percentage of different age group people change in their behavior life speaking slowly or moving around usually during pandemic.

3.4 Behavior

According to Survey, ∼28% of teenagers, ∼9% of 18–24 age group people, ∼8% of 25–44 age group people and 10% of 44+ have been every time noticed moving or speaking slowly. Approx 14% and 28% of children are mostly and many times seen moving slowly while ∼28% are not at all effected. In case of 18–24 age group 16% and 24% have been noticed mostly and many times moving slowly than usual ( Figure 5 ).

essay on covid 19 pandemic in india

Percentage of different age group people taking care of mental health by caring others, eating well, accepting situation, taking about their feelings etc. during pandemic.

Most people have accepted the situation to look after of their mental health, 86% of 13–17 years, ∼38% of people of 18–24 years, ∼45% of people of 25–44 years and 40% of people of 45+ age group have engaged themselves in doing meditation or yoga. People of 18–24 years opted to eat well (∼52%), care others (∼45%) and talk to someone they have not talked for long (∼42%) for their better mental health. In 25–44 age group, opted to keep themselves active (∼53%), eat well (52%), to do things they are good at and care others are (∼35%). While in 44+ people tried to be active (35%), contact people they have not contacted so long (50%), care others (45%) and drink sensibly (20%).

Similarly, this questionnaire gives us more details about people’s anxiousness, tiredness and concentration problem being faced. Survey shows that most of the people have only one hour of news watching time a day, some are irritated and facing arguments resulting into fights. Few families are also facing Domestic violence during period of pandemic and lockdown.

4. Resilience and adaptive coping

Resilience helps to protect one from mental illness by using the available resources. Resilience is a protective factor against development of mental disorder and a risk factor for a number of clinical conditions, e.g. suicide [ 9 ]. On one side, the nation as a whole focuses on controlling the pandemic by adapting different strategies like isolation and quarantined period, other side some organizations are paying attention towards mental health during COVID-19. Lack of social interactions and staying home for longer time effects mental wellness. One should not be over exposed to media coverage, should maintain happy relationship, get in touch of friends and relatives through social media to whom you have not been contacting since too long. Reaching out to children and others is good for everyone as feeling close to others reduces anxiety and boost the immune system. For coping with mental health issues people should follow a particular routine such as regular exercise, proper sleep, follow a strict routine which helps us to be active, efficient, reduce the need of will power, reduces procrastination, builds momentum and a person’s self-confident by reducing stress, staying calm also helps you to overcome stress and other diseases such as hypertension diseases, one should practice breathing exercises which maintains the proper blood flow in the body with calmness in mind ( Figures 6 and 7 ).

essay on covid 19 pandemic in india

People can adopt following various lifestyles to resilient/cope with mental health challenges.

essay on covid 19 pandemic in india

Points for good mental health during COVID-19 pandemic.

5. Adjustment problems

India’s coronavirus forced many citizens to return their countryside homes with family. After few days of pandemic, daily wagers were in a great trouble because of non-availability of work so their survival become very difficult. The COVID-19 lockdown has the most daunting impact on such people whereby most of them must fight for survival on a daily basis. Many agencies are trying to support daily wage workers, but the entire cycle of revenue has been greatly troubled in few weeks.

During this time of uncertainty, employers may experience changes in productivity. When productivity drops, it has direct impact on jobs. One cannot get new job during this period and siting home in this situation makes it more difficult and effect can be seen on faces of family members too. Millions of lives have been heavily affected by several psychological changes such as increased levels of loneliness as being locked in home, no interaction with neighbors and relatives result in overthinking, loneliness and depression.

Aged people are particularly susceptible to the risk of infection from COVID-19, especially those with chronic health conditions such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. Older persons are not just struggling with great health risks but are also less capable of keeping themselves in isolation. Although social distancing is necessary to reduce the spread of diseases, but some families are understanding that elders also require proper care and interaction. Mostly getting locked in a room alone irritates them, and inability to use technology and differentiate between real and fake news also makes them worried and unable to adjust with family. Pandemic and lockdown increased the burden of household work for all families. Children are off school, no service provider (dhobi, cook, driver, gardener, etc.) and regardless to whether they hold job or not. Women are taking care of cleanliness and disinfecting everything and everyone coming in house other than daily works.

6. COVID-19 related stigma among people

Social stigma in the context of health is the negative factor between a person or group of people sharing certain characteristics or symptoms of specific disease. During this outbreak, individuals are branded, treated badly, discriminated, and suffer status loss due to merging with infected people. Such treatment impacts adversely to those with symptoms as well as their caregivers, family, friends and communities. People who do not have the disease but share other characteristics with this group may also suffer from stigma [ 10 ].

It is a disease that is new and for which there are still many unknowns;

We are usually afraid of the unidentified; and

It is easy to associate that fear with ‘others’ there is confusion and anxiety among the public.

Unfortunately, these factors are also fueling harmful stereotypes.

Effects that stigma can cause: Drive people to hide illness to void discrimination, prevent people from seeking health care immediately and discourage them from adopting healthy behaviors. To understand the ways in which this can incite violence and push public in harm, one needs to look at a case of Himachal Pradesh, where Mohammad Dilshad, a 37 year old resident of Una district, hung himself after being continuously taunted and harassed by community despite he tested corona negative ( Figure 8 ) [ 11 ].

essay on covid 19 pandemic in india

There are some do’s and dont’s on language when talking.

In the COVID-19 emergency, medical workers and security services were at high risk of infection. They were facing overwork, frustration, discrimination, isolation, patients with negative emotions, a lack of contact with their families and exhaustion. This situation causes mental health problems such as stress, anxiety, depressive symptoms insomnia, denial, anger and fear. These mental health problems not only affect attention, understanding and decision-making capacity of medical workers, which could hinder the fight against COVID-19 but they could also have a lasting effect on their overall well being. Stigmatized groups may often be deprived of the resources they need to take care of themselves and their families. Stigma can present major barriers against healthcare seeking, social marginalization, distrust in health authorities and distortion of public perception of risk, resulting in massive panic among citizen.

Groups experiencing stigma related to COVID-19 are mostly the health workers and emergency respondents, people returning from travel, people with the disease, their family and friends and people released from quarantine. The stigmatized people may be excluded or shunned in social situations, denied some kind of opportunity, may be denied access to adequate housing and health caregiver and they might be targets of verbal, emotional and physical abuse.

7. Stigma and discrimination with corona positive people

The threat of getting infected can change our responses to ordinary interactions, leading us to behave in unexpected ways. Publishing the personal data of people infected with COVID-19 or data of those who are suspicious of having the virus, jeopardizes their safety and well being. This way people themselves are exposed to public lynching, and declared dangerous to public health, the blame for the infection is sought on them and they are marked as irresponsible, reckless, and dangerous citizen. The WHO has also issued specific psycho-social considerations for abating the growing stigma of COVID-19 [ 12 ].

People who tested positive often become fearful of seeking help or even discussing symptoms. They put themselves and society into risk and increase the rate of transmission. We are all fed by fear, internalized racism and misinformation. And this will increase with increase of no. of cases, rising mortality rate and limited testing facilities.

Food is thrown through a passage in a quarantine center.

Society does not allow their family members to enter their society.

They are not allowed to go in public even after treatment and recovery.

They are teased as they got infection by their own mistake.

Family members of COVID-19 positive patients who have been tested COVID-19 negative will also face trouble in society and will be considered as guilty which in result will affect them mentally.

A treated patient will also feel insecure in the society as everyone will look at him as a risk for society.

Family members even after getting symptoms similar to COVID-19 will neglect the test in fear of social discrimination.

Affected family might be having trouble in fulfilling their needs.

After all this bullying and ignored by society they may take a step towards suicide.

8. Mental disorder and COVID-19

Mental disorders are the conditions that affect your thinking, feeling, mood and behavior. They may be occasional or long lasting. They can affect our ability to relate to others and function each day.

having few friends and feeling lonely.

having a serious medical condition.

life experience as person having symptoms like COVID-19 is started to be discriminated.

use of alcohol and recreational drugs.

Eating disorders: these are serious mental health disorders. They involve severe problem with your thought about food and your eating behavior, you may eat less or more than you need. They affect ability of our body to get proper nutrition. Causes of eating in this case are psychological and social factors. In long term it can result in some problems like: Muscle weakness, low blood pressure, brain damage, multi-organ failure, feeling tired all time and infertility [ 13 ].

Depression: depression is serious medical illness. it’s more than just a feeling of being sad. Symptoms may include: loss of interest in favorite things, overeating, feeling hopeless, irritated, digestive problems and thoughts of death or suicide. Depression is a disorder of brain which can be caused at any stage of life but it begins often in teens and adults. It can be treated by being socially active or going to psychiatrist [ 14 ].

Obsessive compulsive disorders: it is a disorder in which we have thoughts of something again and again, but one cannot control them. Obsession are repeated thoughts such as fear of infection in case of COVID-19, fear of losing and misplacing something as one might have fear of losing their parents of family member during this pandemic. Compulsions are the behaviors that you feel like you need to do repeatedly to try to reduce or stop your obsession thoughts. Some compulsions include: excessive cleaning hands and items, ordering and arranging things in a particular way [ 15 ].

9. India vs. global situation

This pandemic not only impacted India, but its impact can be seen worldwide. In terms of mental health, the situation globally was also similar. Children, adults, and aged people were facing same type of problems. The pandemic impact can be seen both on developed and developing countries. Initially mortality rate was very high in both developed and developing countries. But due to high population and less resources, India faced more challenges during this situation. The medical facilities were also not as good in India as they are in other developed countries.

10. Conclusion

COVID-19 causes strong mental health issues, as number of deaths, death of family members and friends and lockdown are factors affecting the thought of a person. During the pandemic people facing the problem with inadequate supplies, inadequate information, financial loss, stigma and infection fear. According to our survey children are having lesser knowledge about pandemic while they are curious to know but are not able to understand scientific complexities. Children are little bit irritated locked at home but mostly happy with their families and do not have any anxiety or fear of death. While teenagers are not much happy and worried for their family and friends’ health. They were eagerly waiting to meet their friends as being unsocial makes them lonely, irritated and anxious which motivates them to fight with other family members. Adults are most mentally affected, as they have load on their shoulder and see whole life been affected due to corona virus. This group has people mostly worried about its effect on studies/jobs/financial condition. They are not very easily irritated and annoyed but hard to sit still. Most people in this age group are accepting situation, eating well and keeping themselves active. Aged are mostly facing loneliness, anxious and irritated due to being separated from other family members. They watch news channels for atleast one hour a day and afraid that something awful might happen. The number of person infected and died were increasing every day. Even isolation, lockdown and physical distancing are prolonged. Opportunities are decreasing and as a result financial problem are increasing. This leads to increase of mental health issues exponentially. There is stigma related to COVID-19 among people which might be initiating factor of mental health issues. To avoid stigma one can believe that not all who are having symptoms like cough and sneeze have COVID-19, despite precautions if anybody catches COVID-19 its not their fault, one should face fear and anxiety with facts not discrimination, stay positive and remember COVID-19 will heal but stigma and mental trauma left behind will not. In India there is lack of clear and effective communication and a knowledge-based stigma reduction strategy that can translate into public education, community engagement and trust in the health care system. Firstly, we should have knowledge that virus will not be going away any time soon. Any long term strategy must be introduced, broad based and transparent with key public figures who can help the state to communicate on this daily. Secondly, we must move from language of fear and paranoia to one of empathy. We can stop using terms such as “infected” “carrier” and switch to “affected” and “acquired.” This reminds people that patients and those at risk are people like us. A public awareness campaign around breaking stereotypes that harm social cohesion and empathy is the need of the hour. We have already seen sections of mainstream media demolishing certain communities and ethnicity. This is not just unethical, but also has an impact on disease control and people lives. There is need to understand the side of mental health during the pandemic, increase the number of researches and find the actions to cope with issues for their effective management.

A.1 Questionnaire

Dear Sir/Madam,

I request you to please take a few minutes of your precious time to complete the questionnaire of study on “COVID-19 IN INDIA: PROBLEMS, CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES, PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS”. Hence, your participation in the survey will be highly appreciated. I ensure the anonymity of all the participants and complete confidentiality of responses collected. The responses will only be used for my research and not for any other commercial purposes. The study aims at surveying the Mental health of people during COVID-19 pandemic.

Please put a tick mark against the most appropriate choice.

18–24

25–44

45 or above

Medical staff/security/police

Full time employed (except above)

Part time employed (except above)

Partially (need to go at least once a week)

Not applicable

Section B: Inferential Analysis

People Behavior:

Not even once in last month

Once in a week

More than once in a day

Yes but can wait to meet

Cannot wait anymore

Missing badly

one hour a day

More than one hour a day

most of the time

Accepting situations

Doing meditation or yoga

Eating well

Drink sensibly

Caring others

Doing Something I am good at

Keeping active

Being in touch with family and friends

Talked about my feelings with friends

Contacted person you have not been talking earlier

Any comment or suggestions: …………………………………………………………

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  • 7. Kluge, H. H. (2020). Older people are at highest risk from COVID-19, but all must act to prevent community spread. Copenhagen. World Health Organization: Regional Office for Europe. https://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/health-emergencies/coronavirus-covid-19/statements/statement-older-people-are-at-highest-risk-from-covid-19,-but-all-must-act-to-prevent-community-spread
  • 8. Chukwu, E. (2020). https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSfed7oMpx4yx5u8cKfpeT7p942-50L3YO4TJwbBFeKFME79qg/viewform
  • 9. Shrivastava, A., and Desousa, A. (2016). Resilience: A psychobiological construct for psychiatric disorders. Indian Journal of Psychiatry. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4776579/
  • 10. WHO UNICEF (2020). Social Stigma Associated With COVID-19. https://www.who.int/publications/m/item/a-guide-to-preventing-and-addressing-social-stigma-associated-with-covid-19?gclid=CjwKCAjw88v3BRBFEiwApwLevVKu723YGq9eyhGgBaFNtGtEFo2NCVlJw42cujFBmBuAnEOeyO4naBoCAFUQAvD_BwE
  • 11. Himachal Pradesh Man Accused of Spreading Virus Kills Self (2020). The Tribune India. https://www.tribuneindia.com/news/himachal/himachal-pradesh-man-accused-of-spreading-virus-kills-self-66217
  • 12. Mental Health and Psychosocial Considerations During the COVID-19 Outbreak (2020). World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/mental-health-considerations.pdf
  • 13. Brennan, P. F. (2020). Eating Disorder. National Institute of Health, US National Library of Medicine. https://medlineplus.gov/eatingdisorders.html
  • 14. Brennan, P. F. (2020). Depression. National Institute of Health, US National Library of Medicine. https://medlineplus.gov/depression.html
  • 15. Brennan, P. F. (2020). Compulsive Disorder. National Institute of Health, US National Library of Medicine. https://medlineplus.gov/obsessivecompulsivedisorder.html

© 2021 The Author(s). Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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essay on covid 19 pandemic in india

Impact of COVID19 on Indian Economy

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COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) was first identified in Wuhan city of China in December 2019. Till now approximately 9.76M people are affected by it and the count is ever-increasing now. There have been more than 4 lakh deaths worldwide due to this pandemic.

Spread of COVID-19 in India

Cases in India have also shot up sharply and have crossed 5.09 lakh as on June 27th, 2020. Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) expects the Corona infected people to reach its peak in November now, as various preventive measures like Lock Down, Social Distancing, Frequent washing of hands, wearing masks and PPE Kits have delayed the spread of Corona virus in India. This has given more time to the country, to make proper medical and preventive arrangements to fight the pandemic. 

Effect of COVID-19 on the businesses

According to the survey, COVID-19 is having a 'deep impact' on Indian businesses. The coming month's jobs are at high risk because firms are looking for some reduction in manpower. Further, it is added that already COVID-19 crisis has caused an unprecedented collapse in economic activities over the last few weeks.

COVID-19 and the Indian Economy

On March 27, 2020, The Reserve Bank of India joined the big fight with a host of measures aimed at minimizing the damage from Covid-19. Reserve Bank of India (RBI) Governor Shaktikanta Das has announced a series of measures including policy rate cuts to bolster economy in the wake of covid-19 menace. Sharing that large part of major global economies are likely to be heading toward recession, the RBI governor stated that economic recovery in 2020 would be slow.

COVID-19 is not just affecting the health of the people, but also economies of many countries including India. So, the topic – ‘Impact of COVID-19 on Indian economy is widely discussed.

Impact of Covid-19 on Indian Economy

A notified disaster.

Government of India as well as State governments are treating and monitoring the situation closely to control the coronavirus pandemic. The Ministry of Home Affairs has decided to treat Covid-19 as a "notified disaster". This will enable the states to spend a larger chunk of funds from the State Disaster Response Fund (SDRF) to fight the pandemic.

GDP of India

The revised Gross Domestic Product (GDP) estimates for India downwards by 0.2 percentage points for the fiscal year 2020 to 4.8 per cent and by 0.5 per cent for the fiscal year 2021 to 6 per cent. Further, it is stated that the extent of the actual impact will depend upon the severity and duration of the outbreak.

Loss of Jobs

With an increasing number of coronavirus cases, the government has locked down transport services, closed all public and private offices, factories and restricted mobilization. Based on recent studies, some economists have said that there is a job loss of 40 million people (MRD report) in the country, mostly in the unorganized sectors. In this scenario, they are predicting that India would go into recession affecting the unorganized sector and semi-skilled jobholders losing their employment.

Sectorial Impact of Covid-19 in India

Hospitality industry.

The National Restaurant Association of India (NRAI), which represents 5,00,000-plus restaurants across the country, has advised its members to shut down dine-in operations. This will impact operations of thousands of dine-in restaurants, pubs, bars and cafes. By extension, food delivery platforms such as Swiggy and Zomato that are by itself functioning -- have also taken a big hit.

Labor sector

The labor sector is worst impacted as they are not provided jobs due to lockdown, most of the labor sectors are associated with the construction companies and daily wage earners. Travel restrictions and quarantines affecting hundreds of millions of people having left Indian factories short of labor and parts, just-in-time supply chains and triggering sales warnings across technology, automotive, consumer goods, pharmaceutical and other industries.

Food and Agriculture

The food and agriculture sector contributes the highest in GDP i.e. 16.5% and 43% to the employment sector. The major portion of the food processing sector deals with dairy (29%), edible oil (32%), and cereals (10%). The supply of the food and Agri products will be affected in the coming seasons due to low sowing of the upcoming seasonal crops which will affect the operations as said by the Ministry of Agriculture.

The online business in today's economy plays a major role in the economy with a market share of 950 billion dollars. It contributes 10% to the Indian GDP. At mist the social distancing, due to threat of covid-19 the tendency of the consumers to overstock on essential product and commodities viz rice, flour and lentils. This gave rise in the sales of the FMCG companies due to distorted supply chain. The e-commerce sector saw a dip in growth with pressure on the supply chain deliveries and the expectations of the consumers on the companies to come up with newer distribution channels focusing on direct to customer routes.

Tourism Industry

Movement of people is restricted due to the fears over the spread of COVID-19, and hence tourism industry is facing huge losses. Tourists spend money in the countries they visit, so the loss of this money is affecting the economies of many countries. Air travel demand is declined, and hence the aviation industry is negatively affected.

Positive Outcomes of Covid-19 in India

Atma nirbhar india.

On 12 May the Prime Minister, in an address to the nation, said that the coronavirus crisis should be seen as an opportunity, laying emphasis on domestic products and "economic self-reliance", through an Atma Nirbhar Bharat Abhiyan. The following day the Finance Minister started laying out the details of the Prime Minister's vision which would continue into the next few days. Foreign direct investment is welcome, also technology is welcome to help India being a bigger and more important part of the global economy.

China plus one

China has become the leading manufacturer of goods in the world, but economic changes in the country are causing a shift in thought. For instance, wages for Chinese workers have tripled over the course of the past decade. This is causing manufacturers to move some outsourcing to countries where worker wages are still low. As a result, China’s economy has been slowing. This is the China plus one strategy. Many companies are adding new operations to Asia’s developing countries to supplement current production. Growth in digital connectivity, infrastructure development coupled with rising household income, and an increase in India’s consumers spending makes India the best choice to be the "Plus one".

Increased importance of technology

Above points stated mostly the negative impact of the lockdown, but we would miss out something if we do not acknowledge the growth of digital infused technological gain. With the advent of the lockdown most of the sector shifted their functioning online, the MNC are utilizing their work from home option to carry on an uninterrupted working. This present crisis has highlighted the importance of investing in technologies like cloud data and cyber security, self-service capabilities, and e-governance.

Opportunities for India

Economists are of the opinion that the disruption caused by the virus in China could pave way for more foreign investments in emerging economies like India, Bangladesh, and Vietnam as the world looks to reduce dependency on China, the largest manufacturing hub in the world. Experts feel that India has a good chance of becoming an attractive manufacturing hub given the present situation, provided the government changes some of its trade policies to bring down commodity prices.

Efforts taken by the govt

The Government of India is aiming to attract companies that wish to move out of China or are looking for an alternative to China. The PM's office is conveying to the government, central as well as the state machinery to prepare pro-investment strategies. A total of at least 461,589 hectares has been earmarked for the purpose, as reported by Economic Times.

The finance ministry notified changes in FDI rules, making the govt approval mandatory for the foreign investments from countries that share border with India to prevent opportunistic takeover of the domestic firms amid the COVID-19 pandemic under the Foreign Exchange Management Law.  As per the amendment to   the FDI policy, any entity or beneficial owner of an investment into India or a citizen, based in a country which shares land border with India can invest only under the Government route.

Important Factors

It is important to understand the factors that determine the shape of recovery. These include the overall duration of the pandemic, the effect on jobs and household incomes and the extent of fiscal stimulus provided by the government.

Economic recovery

Experts suggest a V-shaped recovery plan for India. In the second week of May, companies started preparations for restarting operations. Some companies have opened offices with the maximum permitted strength of 33% while others took a more cautious approach of as low as five per cent. The beginning of June saw companies further re-open and making plans to reopen. The five Indian states, Kerala, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Haryana and Karnataka, are contributing 27% to India's GDP as India emerges from a total lockdown. By mid-June, unemployment levels were back to pre-lockdown levels.

A new way of life

Analysis of Google search trends show that consumers are shifting consumption patterns as they adapt to a “new way of life." The analysis showed there was pent-up demand for salon services, air conditioners, air travel, bikes, vacuum cleaners and washing machines. Searches associated with panic-buying when the lockdown was first announced -- such as pharmacy and grocery stores and liquid soaps have eased.

Adopting renewable alternatives

India should take this opportunity to increase support for renewable energy, particularly rooftop solar, through appropriate policies and business models. Decentralized solar power can help spread critical services in remote regions if the upfront capital constraints can be addressed. Similarly, scaling up the electrification and adoption of public transport will be critically important to reduce traffic congestion and air pollution. This should involve closer coordination with the electricity sector and a greater focus on vehicle charging infrastructure.

Regulating enabling technologies

Finally, it is useful to consider that the future may see greater employment in the e-commerce sectors, as well as in new technologies that can help support future response and resilience mechanisms. While supporting the development of such sectors, it is important to put the right regulations in place to ensure data privacy and consumer protection.

Thus, we shouldn’t let this chance slip and make maximum benefits out of this for developing a sustainable environment as well as a very good economical foundation for 2021. As of now the economic damage caused by COVID-19 is manageable, but with time the damage will increase. Hope the vaccine is developed soon to prevent further loss of lives and also the collapse of economies.

If you want to have a brief idea about how to present these points in front of a group, do watch the video-  

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  • v.11; Jan-Dec 2020

COVID-19 Pandemic in India: Present Scenario and a Steep Climb Ahead

1 Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India

Urmila Yadav

Amid the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, India has witnessed a massive surge of cases in the past 3 weeks. As of April 30, 33 610 confirmed cases and 1075 deaths have been reported from 32 states/union territories in India. Apart from the nationwide lockdown, India has increased its testing rate and has markedly strengthened the health care sector to combat COVID-19. With India’s population of more than 1.3 billion people at a significant population density compared with the rest of the world, the lack of universal access to clean water and overall poor socioeconomic status, all have posed a major challenge to India’s fight against COVID-19. Failure to contain the pandemic in India could have disastrous consequences with widespread cases and thousands of deaths that could easily overwhelm the health care infrastructure. Unabated spread of the pandemic could make India the next COVID-19 hotspot; hence the World Health Organization has recently stated that the “future of the pandemic will depend on how India handles it.” Here, we have summarized the present scenario of the pandemic in India and the myriad challenges being faced by the country in its fight against COVID-19.

Introduction

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has already affected over 6.9 million people, claiming more than 400 000 lives in over 200 nations all over the world. As on June 9, 2020, most of the cases were reported from the United States of America, Brazil, and Russia. While some nations (like China and South Korea) have successfully been able to flatten the pandemic curve, other nations are finding it difficult to achieve the same. In the absence of any definite therapy against COVID-19, the resilience of the health care infrastructure and health professionals is being put to test.

The novel coronavirus disease has also infiltrated into India; hitherto over 250 000 cases have been reported from the country. With a population of more than 1.3 billion people, India could become the new epicenter of COVID-19. Due to the remarkable population density, poor socioeconomic conditions and health care resources, the World Health Organization (WHO) recently stated that the “future of the pandemic will depend on how India handles it.” 1 Here, we have presented a summary of the present scenario of COVID-19 in India, the country’s response and major challenges that lie in the road ahead.

Present Scenario of COVID-19 in India

The first case of COVID-19 in India was reported on January 30, 2020; the index patient was a student who had returned from Wuhan. Thereafter, only 2 more cases were reported in February. Subsequently, more cases came to the forefront in the month of March and there has been a surge in the number of cases since the latter half of April 2020 ( Figure 1 ). As of June 9, 2020, according to the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW), a total of 266 598 confirmed COVID-19 cases have been reported from 32 states/union territories. 2 Most of the cases have been reported from the states of Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Delhi, and Gujarat. Hitherto, the MoHFW have reported 7471 deaths due to COVID-19, translating into a case-fatality rate of 2.8%. 2

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Line diagram showing trajectory of confirmed novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) cases in India.

An estimate released by the MoHFW on April 6, 2020 had revealed that out of the total number of confirmed cases, 76% were male. People younger than 40 years and older than 60 years accounted for 47% and 19% of cases, respectively. On the contrary, 63% of all the deaths had occurred in those aged 60 years and older. The case-fatality rates in 3 age groups, namely, <40 years, 40 to 60 years, and >60 years were 0.40%, 2.36%, and 8.89%, respectively. Moreover, 86% of the deaths were seen in people with underlying comorbidities, notably, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, kidney disease and/or cardiovascular disease. Although the overall mortality rates vary from one nation to another, being as low as 0.7% in Germany to as high as 10.8% in Italy, 3 the fact that mortality due to COVID-19 increases with advancing age and presence of comorbidities is consistent across all countries. Another update by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) mentioned that 80% of the cases in India are either asymptomatic or mild. 4 This is very similar to what has been reported from the largest Chinese series. 5

India’s Response to COVID-19

India has promptly responded to the novel threat. International borders have been shut and nationwide lockdown has been imposed since March 25. As per the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker, India’s response has been rated as one of the most stringent in the world, exceeding the United States, Germany, France, Italy, and the United Kingdom. 6 In the absence of containment and timely lockdown, India would have had 820 000 cases by April 15. 7 On the contrary, the reported number of COVID-19 cases in India as of April 15 was 11 438 ( Figure 1 ), thereby preventing more than 800 000 cases. The ICMR had earlier predicted that strict social distancing would reduce the total number of cases by 62% and the peak number of cases by 89%. 8 Similarly, Chatterjee et al, 9 using a stochastic mathematical model had predicted that uninterrupted spread of COVID-19 would have led to 3 million cases by May 25; in reality there had been 138 845 cases as on May 25. The COVID-19 testing rates in India have markedly increased from 0.02/1000 people in late March to 3.28/1000 people as of June 7. 10 As of June 9, 2020, 4 916 116 samples have been tested for COVID-19. 11 In addition to the conventional real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the ICMR has advocated the use of other screening tests like TrueNat and Cartridge-Based Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (CBNAAT) using Cepheid Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2. 12 , 13 Till date, 17 RT-PCR kits have been validated and approved for use in India by the ICMR. 14 Rapid antibody test kits are also being used for surveillance purpose. Testing has been scaled up through 553 government and 231 private laboratories all over the country. 15 The strategy for COVID-19 testing has been expanded so as to include all those with symptomatic influenza-like illness. 16 The increased number of tests could have partly contributed to the recent upsurge in the number of cases. In addition, the Government has established over 600 COVID-19 dedicated facilities all over India; as a backup, the Indian Railways have converted 375 coaches into isolation wards. All efforts are being made to increase awareness about COVID-19 and its prevention via print, broadcast, and social media.

Challenges That Lie in the Road Ahead

The biggest challenge in India’s fight against COVID-19 is the population, with a population density that is almost 3 times that of China. The scenario is potentially worse in urban slums where the population density may exceed more than 250 000/km 2 , making social distancing impossible. As many as 140 million people in India are migrant daily-wage laborers; with imposition of nationwide lockdown, they are being forced to flock back to their villages without being able to abide by government advisories of social distancing. 17 Unfortunately, another major hurdle in India’s struggle against COVID-19 has been the attitude and action of some of the citizens; there have been occasional reports of civilians hiding travel history in an attempt to escape quarantine and people participating in otherwise forbidden massive religious gatherings. 17 , 18 Although the health care infrastructure has been urgently strengthened and nearly 2000 dedicated COVID-19 facilities have been amassed all over the country over a short period of time, 19 the dearth of doctors cannot be made up overnight. India has just 0.8 doctors per 1000 population as against Italy’s 4.1, China’s 1.8, Spain’s 4.1, Iran’s 1.1 and the United States’ 2.6. 20 In addition, the eastern states of West Bengal and Odisha have recently been hit by a super cyclone named Amphan that have wreaked havoc in the 2 states. People stranded homeless by the natural calamity have been rescued and placed in cyclone shelters where social distancing is practically not possible. 21

Silver Lining in the Dark Clouds

Certain factors, although hypothetical, do favor a limited spread of COVID-19 pandemic in India, notably, the ambient tropical temperatures, malarial endemicity, universal BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) vaccination, and the age-old Indian tradition of greeting by namaste as opposed to handshake. Of late, COVID-19 kits are being produced in the country itself by more than one manufacturer, thereby, reducing the cost of testing. Testing rates, though much lower than the developed nations, are at par with the neighboring developing countries, like Thailand, Indonesia, Myanmar, Philippines, and Pakistan. 10 In addition, the proportion of people ≥70 years of age is only 3.3% in India, 22 as against 11.9% in China and 37.6% in Italy, 23 thereby, one could expect overall mortality rate to be low in India. Last, India is the largest producer (and supplier) of hydroxychloroquine in the world, 24 the drug that has been found to have some benefit in COVID-19. 25 Although some recent observational studies have found no benefit of hydroxychloroquine, 26 , 27 proper randomized controlled trials are lacking. However, a recent study conducted among health care workers in India has shown that prophylactic consumption of 4 or more maintenance doses of hydroxychloroquine was associated with a significant decline in the odds of getting infected along with a favorable side effect profile. 28

Conclusions

India is presently witnessing a rapid surge in the number of COVID-19 cases. Although the nationwide lockdown has been able to decelerate the spread, the country’s ever-increasing population, remarkably high population density and poor socioeconomic conditions are major barriers in India’s battle against COVID-19. However, the overall low case-fatality rate is reassuring. The Government of India and the health care providers have been relentless in their efforts. The citizens must also help support the fight against the pandemic by adhering to government advisories of containment and social distancing.

Declaration of Conflicting Interests: The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

Funding: The author(s) received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

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India and the Pandemic

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In the past year, the novel coronavirus Covid-19 has affected every single part of the world. Over 1.5 million people have died; the global economy has contracted the deepest since the Second World War; and the gains over the decades in poverty eradication may have been erased. Amidst this, how did India fare in coping with Covid-19 in 2020? 

India and the Pandemic  looks back at the historical, social, cultural, economic and political aspects of the Covid-19 outbreak in the country. The 24 essays in this volume, written by astute political and social commentators, offer rich insights into the impact of the pandemic, and the response of state and society. The essays tell us what we should have done early on, and what we should have done differently in dealing with this health and humanitarian disaster. They place the current pandemic within the broader history of infectious diseases. They provide valuable lessons for the future, telling us how we should think of organising human society differently if we are to prevent future pandemics. 

Written in 2020, these incisive essays offer a real-time window into the spread of the novel coronavirus disease in India. They make for a thought-provoking read for anyone interested in what happened during the first year of the pandemic.

The volume has an extensive and new Introduction written for the volume 

Section I — Early Stages of Covid-19 in India

Section II — Dealing with Pandemics in India’s History

Section III — Covid-19: The Initial Impact

Section IV — The Law, the Judiciary and Covid-19

Section V — The Lockdown and After

Section VI — Impact on the Economy

Section VII — Impact on Society

Section VIII — The Future

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essay on covid 19 pandemic in india

As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, finding the time to get kitchen supplies and taking care of your mental health can be more than challenging, but, amid everything, it’s essential that you do so.

Many countries around the world have successfully managed and slowed outbreaks of the coronavirus and the illness it causes, COVID-19. However, this virus is still impacting countries and communities in an unpredictable way as infections co...

As we continue to navigate the COVID-19 pandemic, we continue to face an ever changing landscape of information — and a ton of misinformation. However, if we want to fully understand our role in keeping ourselves and our communities safe, i...

The COVID-19 pandemic in India is a part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, which originated in the city of Wuhan, China, has quickly spread to various countries, with many

The impact of coronavirus pandemic on India has been largely disruptive in terms of economic activity as well as a loss of human lives.

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The pandemic COVID-19 is a global challenge which has infected and killed people worldwide. Some people do not show any symptom while some

Speedy and agile efforts to address the COVID-19 pandemic by India's ... This essay explores what's working in India at the moment and asks what

Government of India as well as State governments are treating and monitoring the situation closely to control the coronavirus pandemic. The

Since then, the virus has spread to nearly every country, leading the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare this as a pandemic. According to WHO, common

Amid the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, India has witnessed a massive surge of cases in the past 3 weeks. As of April 30, 33 610 confirmed cases and 1075 deaths

In the past year, the novel coronavirus Covid-19 has affected every single part of the world. Over 1.5 million people have died; the global

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Easy Steps on How to Restate a Thesis Statement for Your Essay

Easy Steps on How to Restate a Thesis Statement for Your Essay

When writing an essay, one of the key components is the thesis statement. This statement serves as the main argument that you will be discussing throughout your paper. However, it is important to restate the thesis statement in a clear and concise manner to achieve a stronger impact on the reader.

Restating a thesis statement doesn’t mean simply copying and pasting the original statement. Rather, it means expressing the main idea of your essay in a different way. By doing so, you can make your essay more cohesive and coherent, and steer away from clichés and repetitive phrases.

So, how do you restate a thesis statement effectively? Here are some easy steps that students can follow:

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1. understand the goal.

Before jumping into the restatement process, it is important to understand the goal of rephrasing the thesis statement. The goal is not to change the thesis statement, but rather to express it in a way that is clearer, stronger, and more impactful.

2. Look closely at the thesis statement

Read your original thesis statement carefully and analyze its main points. Identify the key components and ideas that it represents. This will help you in restating the thesis statement effectively.

3. Vary the structure and wording

When restating the thesis statement, try to vary the sentence structure and wording. This will make your restatement more interesting and engaging for the reader. You can use synonyms, change the tense, or rephrase the statement in a different way.

4. Link it to the body paragraphs

Your restated thesis statement should link back to the body paragraphs of your essay. It should serve as a strong reminder of the main argument and support your analysis and examples. This ensures that your restatement is closely connected to the overall message of your essay.

5. Avoid clichés and generic statements

When restating your thesis, avoid using clichés or generic statements. Be as specific and precise as possible. Use examples or evidence from your essay to reinforce your restatement and make it more persuasive.

By following these easy steps, students can effectively restate their thesis statements and achieve a strong impact on their readers. Remember, the goal is to express the main idea of your essay in a clear and concise manner, without simply repeating what has already been said. Use these steps as a guide to make your restatement powerful and convincing.

Step 1: Understand the Purpose of Restating a Thesis Statement

Restating a thesis statement can serve various purposes depending on the type of essay and the specific goals you are trying to achieve. Here are a few common reasons why you might need to restate your thesis statement:

1. To clarify the main idea:

Restating the thesis statement can help to clarify the main idea or argument of your essay. It allows you to explain your viewpoint in a different way, providing a fresh perspective for readers.

2. To summarize the main points:

Restating the thesis statement helps to summarize the main points or arguments made throughout your essay. It allows you to condense the information into a single statement, making it easier for readers to remember the key take-away from your essay.

3. To emphasize the main idea:

Restating the thesis statement helps to emphasize the main idea or argument of your essay. By restating it at the end of your essay, you remind readers of the main point and leave them with a strong final impression.

4. To provide a new perspective:

Restating the thesis statement can also be used to provide a new perspective or insight into the topic. By changing the wording or structure of your thesis statement, you can introduce a fresh perspective or highlight a different aspect of the topic.

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To make your restatement clearer and more effective, consider the following:

1. Keep it concise:

When restating your thesis statement, keep it concise and to the point. Shorten the statement and focus on the main idea without going into excessive detail.

2. Change the wording:

Try to rephrase or substitute certain words in your restatement to give it a fresh perspective. This can help to engage readers and reinforce the main idea of your essay.

3. Consider the tense:

Depending on the context and the changes you have made in your restatement, you may need to adjust the tense of your thesis statement. For example, if your original thesis statement states a fact that still holds true, you can keep it in the present tense. However, if your essay discusses a past event or a work of literature, you may need to use the past tense in your restatement.

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4. Provide a sample:

Here is a sample restatement to illustrate how it can be done:

Remember, the goal of restating a thesis statement is to provide clarity and reinforce the main point of your essay. Take the time to read through your essay and consider what you want to express in your restatement. By using these guidelines, you can craft a powerful restatement that resonates with your readers.

Recognize the Importance of Clarity and Coherence

Clarity means that your restatement is easy to understand and leaves no room for confusion or misinterpretation. One way to achieve clarity is to use simpler language and sentence structure. Instead of using complex vocabulary or sentence constructions, opt for a more straightforward approach. This will ensure that your readers can easily grasp the meaning of your restated thesis statement.

Coherence, on the other hand, refers to the logical connection between the components of your thesis statement. It is important to preserve the same main ideas and key points in your restatement. This means avoiding any major changes or introducing new perspectives that are not present in your original thesis.

In order to maintain coherence, look back at the main components of your thesis statement. Identify what makes it unique and relevant to your essay topic. Ask yourself: what is the main focus of your thesis statement? What are the main points it addresses? By answering these questions , you can ensure that your restatement captures the essence of your thesis statement.

Remember that clarity and coherence can be achieved not only by how you write your restatement but also by how you structure it in your essay. Consider the placement of your restated thesis statement. Usually, it is most effective to include it in your concluding paragraph, as it helps summarize the main points and wrap up your essay. This will signal to your readers that you have successfully conveyed your main argument throughout the essay.

In short, restating your thesis statement involves rephrasing it in a way that maintains clarity and coherence. By focusing on the main components of your original thesis statement and introducing them again in your restatement, you can ensure that your readers understand the message you’re trying to express. Keep in mind that the goal is not to simply rewrite your thesis statement word for word; instead, it is to express the same ideas in a slightly different way, while still preserving the main focus and argument of your essay.

Step 2: Analyze Your Thesis Statement

Start by reading your thesis statement carefully and underline the key words and phrases. Pay attention to the main ideas and arguments presented in the statement. Understanding what your thesis statement states will help you determine how it should be restated.

When analyzing your thesis statement, ask yourself the following questions:

  • What is the main point of my thesis statement?
  • What does the statement mean for my essay topic?
  • What are the key words or phrases that I can use in my restatement?
  • Are there any specific examples or evidence mentioned in the thesis statement?
  • What is the overall goal or message of my essay?

By answering these questions, you will be able to have a clear understanding of what your thesis statement is trying to convey and how it can be best restated. This analysis will guide you in rephrasing and introducing the restated thesis statement in a way that flows well with the rest of your essay.

Remember, the restatement should not be a copy-paste of the original thesis statement. Instead, it should be a reworded version that captures the essence of the thesis statement and informs the reader about the direction your essay will take.

For example, if your thesis statement is “Drug abuse is a serious problem in society and it needs to be addressed urgently”, a possible restatement could be “The urgent need to address drug abuse as a significant issue in society”.

Having analyzed your thesis statement, you can now move on to the next step and learn how to effectively restate it in your essay.

Break down the main ideas

In doing so, you can start by looking at the main points that were discussed in the body paragraphs. These points should be closely analyzed and rephrased in order to create a strong and restated thesis statement.

Analytical papers:

For analytical papers, the goal is to explain and analyze a specific topic or concept. When restating the thesis statement, you should focus on rephrasing the main points and providing a brief summary of the analysis that was done. This helps to reinforce the argumentative nature of the thesis statement.

Literary papers:

For literary papers, the thesis statement often acts as a guide for the analysis of a piece of literature. When restating the thesis, it is important to look closely at the references and examples that were used to support the thesis statement in the body paragraphs. By rephrasing and reintroducing these references, the restated thesis statement becomes more closely linked to the analysis that was done.

Moreover, students should remember to look for synonyms or rephrased versions of the main ideas. This helps to avoid repetition and keeps the restated thesis statement fresh and interesting to the reader.

By breaking down the main ideas and rephrasing them in a concise and clear manner, the restated thesis statement can be an excellent way to reiterate the main points of the essay and provide a strong concluding statement.

Step 3: Identify the Key Points in Your Essay

Start by going through your essay and highlighting or underlining the key points. These are the main ideas or arguments that support your thesis statement. Pay close attention to the topic sentences in each paragraph, as they often state the main point of that particular paragraph.

Once you have identified the key points, jot them down on a separate piece of paper. This will serve as your guide when you restate your thesis statement.

When restating your thesis statement, you need to state the main idea of your essay in a different way. This can be done by rephrasing it or using synonyms. However, it is important to remember that the restatement should still be grammatically correct and convey the same meaning as the original statement.

When restating your thesis statement, it is essential to steer clear of simply repeating the original statement. Instead, take-away the key points and explain them in a slightly different way. This helps reinforce the main argument of your essay and shows your ability to synthesize information.

Remember that the purpose of restating your thesis statement is to provide further clarity and reinforce the significance of your argument. The restated thesis statement should link back to the original statement and tie together the main ideas discussed throughout the essay.

Here are a few tips to keep in mind when restating your thesis statement:

  • Use different words and sentence structures to rephrase your thesis statement.
  • Ensure that your restatement accurately represents your viewpoint and the main argument of your essay.
  • Check the grammar and make any necessary corrections to ensure that your restatement is grammatically correct.

Now that you know how to identify the key points in your essay, you can proceed to the next step:

Step 4: Rewrite your Thesis Statement

Determine the supporting evidence.

When determining the supporting evidence, it is important to closely analyze the main points of your thesis statement. Look at the main ideas or arguments presented in your introductory paragraph and consider how they can be restated in the body of your essay. Moreover, consider any additional points, examples, or references that can be used to further support your thesis.

In rephrasing and rewriting your thesis statement, it is crucial to stay true to the main idea and perspective. While you may need to alter the wording or structure to achieve a perfect restatement, be careful not to change the overall meaning or significance of your thesis. Your goal should be to achieve a clear and accurate restatement that doesn’t confuse or mislead your readers.

Students often have questions about how to properly restate their thesis statements. Here are some frequently asked questions and tips to help guide you through the process:

Q: Should I use synonyms when restating my thesis statement?

A: While using synonyms can help to vary your language and avoid repetition, it is important to use them appropriately. Ensure that the synonyms you choose have a similar meaning and accurately convey the main idea of your thesis statement.

Q: Can I change the order of my main points when restating my thesis statement?

A: Yes, you can reorganize the order of your main points, as long as it doesn’t alter the overall meaning or flow of your thesis statement. Just be sure to stay true to the main ideas and logical progression of your argument.

Q: Do I need to include all of the supporting evidence in my thesis restatement?

A: No, you don’t need to list every piece of supporting evidence in your restatement. Instead, focus on the key points that best summarize and reinforce your thesis statement. This will help to avoid repetition and keep your restatement concise and clear.

By following these steps and understanding the importance of restating your thesis statement, you can effectively communicate your main ideas and arguments in your essay. Remember to review and revise your restatement to ensure it is grammatically correct and closely related to the original thesis statement. By doing so, you will inform and engage your readers, making your essay more impactful and persuasive.

Step 4: Focus on the Main Points in the Body Paragraph

One way to do this is by reordering the main points within your body paragraphs. This can be done to emphasize the most significant points or to create a logical flow of ideas. By rearranging your paragraphs, you can make sure that the reader fully grasps the importance and relevance of each argument.

Another tool you can use to restate your main points is a rephraser or a rewriting tool. These resources can help you find synonyms or alternative ways to express the same ideas. By using different words or phrases, you can add variety to your restated thesis and avoid repetitive or monotonous language.

In an expository essay, where you’re presenting factual information, you can summarize the key points and findings of the literature you’ve reviewed. This can be done by stating the main ideas or arguments from each source, providing a brief overview of the research, and highlighting their significance in relation to your thesis statement.

In an argumentative essay, you may want to focus on the strongest points that support your thesis. By restating and emphasizing these key arguments, you can persuade the reader to consider your perspective. Moreover, you can also address counterarguments and explain why they do not weaken your thesis.

By summarizing and restating the main points from your body paragraphs, you ensure that your thesis statement is fully supported and reinforced. This step helps to create a cohesive and well-structured essay, where everything is connected and flows smoothly.

To summarize, step 4 involves focusing on the main points in your body paragraphs. By rephrasing and rearranging your ideas, you can provide a fresh perspective and strengthen your argument. Ultimately, this step helps to make your restated thesis more comprehensive and persuasive.

What is a thesis statement?

A thesis statement is a concise summary of the main point or argument of an essay. It is usually one or two sentences long and appears at the end of the introductory paragraph.

Why is it important to restate a thesis statement in the essay?

Restating a thesis statement is important because it helps to reinforce the main idea of the essay and remind readers of the purpose of the paper. It also helps to bring the essay to a satisfying conclusion and make a lasting impression on the reader.

What are some easy steps to restate a thesis statement?

Restating a thesis statement can be done in a few easy steps. First, you need to remind the reader of the main argument or point that you made in your essay. Then, you can rephrase the thesis statement using different words or sentence structures. Finally, you should summarize the main supporting points of your essay to reinforce the thesis statement.

How do you know if you have restated the thesis statement effectively?

You can know if you have restated the thesis statement effectively if the new statement captures the essence of the original thesis but presents it in a slightly different way. The restated thesis should still convey the main argument or point of the essay, but with a fresh perspective.

Why is relevancy of the work important?

The relevancy of the work is important because it helps to establish the significance of the research or essay. By explaining why the work is relevant, you are showing the reader that it has real-world implications or addresses an important issue. This can help to engage the reader and make them more receptive to your ideas.

What is the purpose of restating a thesis statement?

The purpose of restating a thesis statement is to remind the reader of the main argument or point of your essay. It helps to reinforce the main message and ensure that it is clear and memorable.

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Thesis Rephraser: Rewrite a Thesis Statement

Welcome to our thesis rephraser. Follow the steps below to get a rewritten thesis statement in no time:

  • Input a thesis statement into the textbox;
  • Choose the share of words you want replaced;
  • Click the "Rephrase" button;
  • Get your reworded thesis.
  • ️🤷 Why Using the Tool?
  • ️🎓 What Is a Thesis?
  • Argumentative
  • Literary Analysis
  • ️✍️ How to Rewrite a Thesis?
  • ️🔗 References

🤷 Thesis Rephraser: Why Using It?

  • To rephrase a conclusion or any other section of a paper (yes, it is SO universal);
  • To improve a thesis statement that does not wholly meet the requirements;
  • To reformulate a thesis statement so that you can include it in your conclusion;
  • To reword a thesis statement to see if it makes sense.

🎓 What Is a Thesis Statement?

A thesis statement is usually a sentence (or two as a maximum) at the beginning of your paper.

The picture contains a definition of a phrase in academic writing.

Most often, you should place it at the close of the introduction , presenting your argument to the reader.

Warning: Don’t mix the thesis statement and the subject of your paper. For example, the subject can be “the late works of Siegmund Freud,” but the thesis explains what you plan to do with this literature. I.e., “This essay argues that the late works of Siegmund Freud focus on mysticism.”

How to Identify a Thesis Statement?

A thesis statement is placed at the end of the introductory paragraph and answers the question of the paper’s topic. As a rule, it consists of only one sentence, which describes the essence of your writing.

What Is the Main Goal of a Thesis Statement?

The main goal is to give the reader a clear idea of the author’s position and how it will be defended. The best way to know what the paper is about is to read this sentence.

How Long Does a Thesis Statement Have to Be?

A thesis statement is usually formulated in a single sentence. Still, two shorter will also do if the sentence you have written is too complex or wordy.

📝 Thesis Statement Types (with Examples)

Below you'll find formulas and examples for 4 thesis statements: argumentative, analytical, expository, and literary analysis.

Argumentative Thesis Statement

An argumentative thesis statement presents the topic of a paper, the author’s opinion on the issue, and the reasons for such an opinion.

Argumentative thesis = Topic + Opinion + Reasons

E.g., Pembroke Welsh Corgis (topic) make perfect pets (opinion) because they are smart, active, and loyal (reasons) .

Analytical Thesis Statement

An analytical thesis statement presents the analyzed subject of your paper, reminds the reader of the general topic, and indicates what was found at the end of the analysis.

Analytical thesis = Subject of Analysis + Topic + Findings

E.g., The behavioral analysis (subject of analysis) of Pembroke Welsh Corgis (topic) demonstrates that they require more human attention than other breeds (findings) .

Expository Thesis Statement

An expository thesis statement specifies the overall topic and enumerates the principal aspects raised in the paper.

Expository thesis = Topic + Aspects

E.g., The criteria of corgi’s physical health (topic) comprise the state of their skin, fur, nose, eyes, teeth, and gums (aspects) .

Literary Analysis Thesis Statement

A literary analysis thesis statement focuses on the literary devices your paper will analyze and the results the author achieved through them.

Literary analysis = Literary Device + Effect

E.g., Arthur Conan Doyle uses the imagery of the moor (literary device) to produce an uncanny and grim impression on the reader (effect) .

✍️ How to Rewrite a Thesis?

Did your professor cross out your draft thesis statement and leave a negative comment in the right margin? Or have you already wracked your brain improvising a new version of the same thesis statement to put it into your conclusion?

Whichever the case, we will analyze why this introductory sentence is not good enough. Then you will get a how-to instruction for its correction.

Rewriting an Argumentative Thesis

Your thesis statement should be solid and convincing . It should also be based on facts and logical reasoning.

Compare the following versions of the same thesis. As you may guess, the second has been improved. The worst drawback of an argumentative thesis statement is when you fail to provide the reasons for your opinion.

Rewriting an Analytical Thesis

An analytical thesis statement should indicate the specific aspect you plan to focus on, what kind of analysis you have done, and its results .

If any of the elements is missing, it is a weak thesis.

The example in the left column provides no information on how you achieved the given conclusion. The variant in the right column is much better.

Rewriting an Expository Thesis

An expository thesis statement does not convince the reader. Instead, it presents the narrow topic and its features. Do your best to make it informative and concise.

The thesis statement sample in the left column states a fact, but there is no information on what the paper’s main body will dwell upon. Consider the improvement in the right column:

Rewriting a Literary Analysis Thesis

A literary analysis thesis statement links the individual techniques of the author with the effect they have produced in the book. If no such link is established, you’ve failed the task.

The statement in the left column does not mention the literary device. Let us correct it.

Thank you for reading this article! If you are not completely satisfied with the result of paraphrasing, try one of our highly specialized tools for various types of content:

  • Essay rephraser
  • Paragraph rewriter
  • Sentence rewriter
  • Phrase rewriter
  • Paper rewriter
  • Thesis rephraser
  • Text reworder
  • Poem paraphraser
  • Essay reworder

❓ Thesis Rephraser FAQ

How does a thesis rephraser work.

A thesis rephraser allows you to produce an absolutely new thesis statement in a blink of an eye. Copy the last sentence of your introduction into the paraphrasing tool, select the volume of changed words, and press the button to get the result.

How to Rephrase a Thesis Statement?

The only correct way is to analyze its structure first. Then reword each constituent part separately and combine them in a new grammatically correct sentence. Don’t forget to check the result with anti-plagiarism software. If it shows that the sentence is not unique, change some words for their synonyms.

How to Rephrase a Question into a Thesis Statement?

Any thesis statement answers the research question or the question raised in the paper’s topic. That’s why you should not literally rephrase it. Instead, give a straightforward answer, which all your argumentation and evidence will support. But if the question is long, you can change its structure from interrogative to affirmative and replace several words with synonyms.

Where Do You Rephrase Your Thesis Statement in an Essay?

There are several places in an essay where you could include a reference to your thesis statement. These are the topic and concluding sentences of each paragraph. But the full paraphrased version of the thesis statement is necessary only in your conclusion.

🔗 References

  • Thesis Statements - UNC Writing Center
  • How to Write a Thesis Statement
  • Developing a Thesis Statement
  • Thesis Statement Examples
  • How to Restate a Thesis: 9 Steps (with Pictures) - wikiHow
  • Using Thesis Statements - University of Toronto Writing Advice
  • Thesis and Purpose Statements

easy ways to restate thesis

  • Admission/Application Essay
  • Annotated Bibliography
  • Argumentative Essay
  • Book Report Review
  • Dissertation

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easy ways to restate thesis

COMMENTS

  1. How to Restate a Thesis: 9 Steps (with Pictures)

    In restating your thesis, draw on the information you've discussed or relationships you've established throughout the paper. You can use the restated thesis to provide a greater level of sophistication or emotional impact to the original argument.

  2. How to Restate a Thesis Statement: Examples & Tips

    various rephrasing strategies, a step-by-step guide, the most actionable thesis restatement tips. Contents ️ Thesis Restatement Definition Step-By-Step Guide 💡 Rephrasing Strategies 📋 Example Sentences 🖼️ How to Reframe Bonus Tips FAQs 🔍 References ️ What Is a Restated Thesis?

  3. How to Restate a Thesis

    Ways to Restate a Thesis: Answer the Question, "So What?" The stated thesis at the start of your introduction might not provide the answer to the question, "so what?" However, the restated thesis, in your conclusion, should comprehensively answer the question.

  4. How to Restate Your Thesis: A Beginner's Guide & Examples

    The easiest way to restate a thesis is by replacing complex words with simpler nouns. Doing this work helps avoid repetition, captures the main idea of the thesis, and keeps things fresh. To restate your thesis statement, pick one strong idea you would like to talk about in the entire thesis. Step 3: Summarise the Main Points

  5. Restating a Thesis: Steps, Strategies, and Useful Tips

    To restate the thesis better, consider the original thesis's point of view or perspective. You want to maintain the same person you wrote the thesis and the subject, even if it means rewriting the entire thesis. 4. Focus on the main points in the body paragraph

  6. How to Write a Thesis Statement

    Step 1: Start with a question Step 2: Write your initial answer Step 3: Develop your answer Step 4: Refine your thesis statement Types of thesis statements Other interesting articles Frequently asked questions about thesis statements What is a thesis statement? A thesis statement summarizes the central points of your essay.

  7. Restating the Thesis

    Q1. Can I restate my thesis statement? Q3. How do you start a restated sentence? Q4. What is an example of restating a thesis? Q5. What Is a Restated Thesis? Q6. How to Restate a Thesis Step by Step Q4. How to Restate Your Thesis by Changing the Tense Q5. How to Reframe a Reworded Thesis? Knowing how to restate your thesis is a daunting task.

  8. Learn How to Restate a Thesis Effectively

    You can restate a thesis at the start, middle, or end of the conclusion section. When you restate a thesis, remember that your goal is to recall the central idea of the paper to your reader in a creative way following high standards. So, rephrase the statement accordingly and place it at any part of the summarizing paragraph.

  9. How to Restate a Thesis: Masterful Techniques and Writing Tips for

    1. Deciding on the restatement position Most writers and speakers prefer restating their theses at the beginning of their conclusion. However, one may put their thesis statement at other positions rather than the beginning of the concluding statement.

  10. How To Restate A Thesis Statement

    How To Restate A Thesis Statement 2020-02-07 For your reader not to get bored, you need to rebuild and modify your thesis all the time and illustrate it with various examples. It also increases the chances that every reader will understand your point you were trying to deliver.

  11. How to Restate a Thesis Statement-With Examples

    STEP 1: Determine the focus of your thesis statement. The first step is to determine the exact focus of your thesis statement. For example, if you are writing a paper about how certain political practices in the United States have influenced its development as a nation, you might write something like this:

  12. How to write an excellent thesis conclusion [with examples]

    This article provides an effective technique for writing a conclusion adapted from Erika Eby's The College Student's Guide to Writing a Good Research Paper: 101 Easy Tips & Tricks to Make Your Work Stand Out.. While the thesis introduction starts out with broad statements about the topic, and then narrows it down to the thesis statement, a thesis conclusion does the same in the opposite order.

  13. How to Write a Thesis Statement in Four Easy Steps

    1. Restate the idea in the prompt or ask yourself the question the prompt asks. Example: Should physical education be mandatory? 2. Adopt a position/state your opinion. Example: Physical education should be mandatory. 3. List three reasons you will use to argue your point.

  14. Creating a Thesis Statement, Thesis Statement Tips

    Tips for Writing Your Thesis Statement. 1. Determine what kind of paper you are writing: An analytical paper breaks down an issue or an idea into its component parts, evaluates the issue or idea, and presents this breakdown and evaluation to the audience.; An expository (explanatory) paper explains something to the audience.; An argumentative paper makes a claim about a topic and justifies ...

  15. How to Restate a Thesis in Conclusion: Examples & Thesis Restatement

    Step #1. Reread the original thesis statement carefully. Step #2. Determine in which person it is written (1 st, 2 nd, or 3 rd) and preserve that point of view in the rewrite. Step #3. Outline all keywords and main points that should be present in the reworded thesis.

  16. Here's An Easy Way to Write a Thesis Statement

    5. Add Emphasis. Steps 1-4 will help you build a solid thesis, but if you want to bump it up to the next level, you can do two more steps: tell how your view contrasts with other people, and use intensifying transitions like "in reality" or "in fact." Example Format: Thesis Question.

  17. How to Restate a Thesis: Simplified Guide

    If the thesis statement is a simple sentence, in conclusion, you can opt to restate the thesis as a complex sentence. This technique ideally speaks a lot about the writer. You can also use a problematic sentence clause which is evidence of mastery. In this technique, you are liberty to change the parts of speech, the sentence order.

  18. easy ways to restate thesis

    Creating a thesis statement can be a daunting task. It's one of the most important sentences in your paper, and it needs to be done right. But don't worry — with these five easy steps, you'll be able to create an effective thesis statement ..... Statistical treatment in a thesis is a way of removing researcher bias by interpreting the data statistically rather than subjectively.

  19. Easy Steps on How to Restate a Thesis Statement for Your Essay

    Learn how to effectively restate a thesis statement in your essay. Follow these easy steps and use examples to write an excellent thesis conclusion. ... Easy Steps on How to Restate a Thesis Statement for Your Essay. When writing an essay, one of the key components is the thesis statement. This statement serves as the main argument that you ...

  20. Thesis Rephraser: Rewrite Your Thesis Statement Online

    Welcome to our thesis rephraser. Follow the steps below to get a rewritten thesis statement in no time: Input a thesis statement into the textbox; Choose the share of words you want replaced; Click the "Rephrase" button; Get your reworded thesis.

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