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  • How to conclude an essay | Interactive example

How to Conclude an Essay | Interactive Example

Published on January 24, 2019 by Shona McCombes . Revised on July 23, 2023.

The conclusion is the final paragraph of your essay . A strong conclusion aims to:

  • Tie together the essay’s main points
  • Show why your argument matters
  • Leave the reader with a strong impression

Your conclusion should give a sense of closure and completion to your argument, but also show what new questions or possibilities it has opened up.

This conclusion is taken from our annotated essay example , which discusses the history of the Braille system. Hover over each part to see why it’s effective.

Braille paved the way for dramatic cultural changes in the way blind people were treated and the opportunities available to them. Louis Braille’s innovation was to reimagine existing reading systems from a blind perspective, and the success of this invention required sighted teachers to adapt to their students’ reality instead of the other way around. In this sense, Braille helped drive broader social changes in the status of blindness. New accessibility tools provide practical advantages to those who need them, but they can also change the perspectives and attitudes of those who do not.

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Table of contents

Step 1: return to your thesis, step 2: review your main points, step 3: show why it matters, what shouldn’t go in the conclusion, more examples of essay conclusions, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about writing an essay conclusion.

To begin your conclusion, signal that the essay is coming to an end by returning to your overall argument.

Don’t just repeat your thesis statement —instead, try to rephrase your argument in a way that shows how it has been developed since the introduction.

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Next, remind the reader of the main points that you used to support your argument.

Avoid simply summarizing each paragraph or repeating each point in order; try to bring your points together in a way that makes the connections between them clear. The conclusion is your final chance to show how all the paragraphs of your essay add up to a coherent whole.

To wrap up your conclusion, zoom out to a broader view of the topic and consider the implications of your argument. For example:

  • Does it contribute a new understanding of your topic?
  • Does it raise new questions for future study?
  • Does it lead to practical suggestions or predictions?
  • Can it be applied to different contexts?
  • Can it be connected to a broader debate or theme?

Whatever your essay is about, the conclusion should aim to emphasize the significance of your argument, whether that’s within your academic subject or in the wider world.

Try to end with a strong, decisive sentence, leaving the reader with a lingering sense of interest in your topic.

The easiest way to improve your conclusion is to eliminate these common mistakes.

Don’t include new evidence

Any evidence or analysis that is essential to supporting your thesis statement should appear in the main body of the essay.

The conclusion might include minor pieces of new information—for example, a sentence or two discussing broader implications, or a quotation that nicely summarizes your central point. But it shouldn’t introduce any major new sources or ideas that need further explanation to understand.

Don’t use “concluding phrases”

Avoid using obvious stock phrases to tell the reader what you’re doing:

  • “In conclusion…”
  • “To sum up…”

These phrases aren’t forbidden, but they can make your writing sound weak. By returning to your main argument, it will quickly become clear that you are concluding the essay—you shouldn’t have to spell it out.

Don’t undermine your argument

Avoid using apologetic phrases that sound uncertain or confused:

  • “This is just one approach among many.”
  • “There are good arguments on both sides of this issue.”
  • “There is no clear answer to this problem.”

Even if your essay has explored different points of view, your own position should be clear. There may be many possible approaches to the topic, but you want to leave the reader convinced that yours is the best one!

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  • Argumentative
  • Literary analysis

This conclusion is taken from an argumentative essay about the internet’s impact on education. It acknowledges the opposing arguments while taking a clear, decisive position.

The internet has had a major positive impact on the world of education; occasional pitfalls aside, its value is evident in numerous applications. The future of teaching lies in the possibilities the internet opens up for communication, research, and interactivity. As the popularity of distance learning shows, students value the flexibility and accessibility offered by digital education, and educators should fully embrace these advantages. The internet’s dangers, real and imaginary, have been documented exhaustively by skeptics, but the internet is here to stay; it is time to focus seriously on its potential for good.

This conclusion is taken from a short expository essay that explains the invention of the printing press and its effects on European society. It focuses on giving a clear, concise overview of what was covered in the essay.

The invention of the printing press was important not only in terms of its immediate cultural and economic effects, but also in terms of its major impact on politics and religion across Europe. In the century following the invention of the printing press, the relatively stationary intellectual atmosphere of the Middle Ages gave way to the social upheavals of the Reformation and the Renaissance. A single technological innovation had contributed to the total reshaping of the continent.

This conclusion is taken from a literary analysis essay about Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein . It summarizes what the essay’s analysis achieved and emphasizes its originality.

By tracing the depiction of Frankenstein through the novel’s three volumes, I have demonstrated how the narrative structure shifts our perception of the character. While the Frankenstein of the first volume is depicted as having innocent intentions, the second and third volumes—first in the creature’s accusatory voice, and then in his own voice—increasingly undermine him, causing him to appear alternately ridiculous and vindictive. Far from the one-dimensional villain he is often taken to be, the character of Frankenstein is compelling because of the dynamic narrative frame in which he is placed. In this frame, Frankenstein’s narrative self-presentation responds to the images of him we see from others’ perspectives. This conclusion sheds new light on the novel, foregrounding Shelley’s unique layering of narrative perspectives and its importance for the depiction of character.

If you want to know more about AI tools , college essays , or fallacies make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

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Your essay’s conclusion should contain:

  • A rephrased version of your overall thesis
  • A brief review of the key points you made in the main body
  • An indication of why your argument matters

The conclusion may also reflect on the broader implications of your argument, showing how your ideas could applied to other contexts or debates.

For a stronger conclusion paragraph, avoid including:

  • Important evidence or analysis that wasn’t mentioned in the main body
  • Generic concluding phrases (e.g. “In conclusion…”)
  • Weak statements that undermine your argument (e.g. “There are good points on both sides of this issue.”)

Your conclusion should leave the reader with a strong, decisive impression of your work.

The conclusion paragraph of an essay is usually shorter than the introduction . As a rule, it shouldn’t take up more than 10–15% of the text.

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McCombes, S. (2023, July 23). How to Conclude an Essay | Interactive Example. Scribbr. Retrieved February 15, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/academic-essay/conclusion/

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Home » Structure » Sentence » 3 Jenis Concluding Sentence (Kalimat Kesimpulan) – Contoh Lengkap

3 Jenis Concluding Sentence (Kalimat Kesimpulan) – Contoh Lengkap

  • Post author By silword
  • Post date August 14, 2017

Mempelajari struktur kalimat dalam bahasa Inggris sebenarnya bukan merupakan hal yang sulit sebab materinya cukup sama dengan kalimat-kalimat dalam Bahasa Indonesia meskipun tidak semuanya. Asalkan kamu mengerti dasar-dasarnya dengan baik dan benar maka pembelajaran selanjutnya tidak akan terlalu susah. Kalau di pelajaran-pelajaran sebelumnya, kamu sudah mempelajari tata bahasa (grammar), maka dalam pelajaran kali ini, kamu akan mempelajari mengenai kalimat kesimpulan (concluding sentence).

  • Grammar Bahasa Inggris
  • Parts Of Speech

Sebuah paragraf biasanya mengandung 3 komponen yaitu topic sentence, body sentence dan concluding sentence.

Topic sentence adalah kalimat utama yang biasanya memberikan batasan mengenai topik yang akan dibahas dalam sebuah cerita ataupun paragraf dan bisa ditemukan di awal paragraf. Fungsi penulisan topic Sentences  di awal kalimat guna membuat pembaca mengerti mengenai hal yang akan diceritakan, selain itu untuk memastikan agar penulis sendiri tidak melenceng dari topik yang ingin diceritakan.

Body sentence adalah isi dari paragraf tersebut. Di dalam body sentence, kamu bisa menemukan penjelasan lebih lanjut dari topik cerita yang akan dibahas.

Contoh topic sentence dalam sebuah paragraf 

Raden Ajeng Kartini is an Indonesian women hero who has fought women’s right to attend school.   She lives in an era where women are not allowed to go to school so she herself can not continue to high school after graduating from elementary school. But her desire to fight for the right to go to school is very strong. After marrying Raden Adipati Joyodiningrat, she decided to set up a special school for women with support from her husband . As the result, all women can go to school until now.

( Raden Ajeng Kartini adalah seorang pahlawan wanita Indonesia yang memperjuangkan hak perempuan untuk bersekolah. Ia hidup di zaman di mana perempuan tidak diperbolehkan untuk bersekolah sehingga ia tidak bisa melanjutkan ke sekolah tinggi setelah lulus dari sekolah dasar. Namun keinginannya untuk memperjuangkan hak bersekolah bagi perempuan sangat kuat. Setelah menikah dengan Raden Adipati Joyodiningrat, ia memutuskan untuk mendirikan sebuah sekolah khusus untuk wanita dengan dukungan dari sang suami. Berkatnya, semua wanita bisa bersekolah hingga sekarang.)

Dalam paragraf ini, kalimat yang dipertebal merupakan topic sentence. Sedangkan kalimat-kalimat yang miring merupakan body sentence dari paragraf ini.

Di pelajaran kali ini, kita tidak akan membahas terlalu jauh mengenai topic sentence dan body sentence karena kita akan lebih fokus pada concluding sentence (kalimat kesimpulan).

Pengertian kalimat kesimpulan (concluding sentence)

Kalimat kesimpulan (concluding sentence) adalah serangkaian kata-kata/ kalimat yang berfungsi untuk menyimpulkan suatu paragraf ataupun suatu cerita. Dengan adanya kehadiran dari kalimat kesimpulan, maka pembaca akan lebih mudah untuk mengetahui inti/ rekapan dari sebuah paragraf ataupun cerita. Biasanya kalimat kesimpulan bisa kamu temukan di akhir paragraf.

You may also read:

  • Simple Sentence
  • Sentence and Clause
  • Contoh Conditional Sentences

Jenis Concluding Sentence

Kalimat kesimpulan juga memiliki beberapa jenis yang cukup berbeda satu sama lain:

  • Kalimat kesimpulan yang merumuskan inti dari seluruh paragraf

Contoh Concluding Sentence dalam Bahasa Inggris:

In school, Rani’s friends always badmouth about her, but she never feels small in front of them. When her friends mock her, she will scold them. Rani is a brave girl .

(Di sekolah, Rani sering menjadi ejeken teman-temannya, namun ia tidak pernah merasa kecil di hadapan teman-teman yang suka mem-bullynya. Di saat teman-temannya mengejek, ia akan memarahi mereka. Rani adalah seorang gadis yang pemberani. )

2.  Kalimat kesimpulan yang menyatakan harapan ke depannya

The case of corruption in Indonesia is increasing as if this will never be completed. There are many corruption cases involving well-known officials and lately the case of e-ktp corruption started to surface. Many people feel angry with the existing corruption cases. Hopefully in the future, the government can immediately tackle this case to create a more prosperous Indonesian citizens

(Kasus korupsi di Indonesia semakin meningkat seakan-akan hal ini tidak akan pernah selesai. Banyak kasus-kasus korupsi yang melibatkan pejabat-pejabat ternama dan akhir-akhir ini muncul kasus korupsi e-ktp. Banyak masyarakat yang merasa geram dengan kasus korupsi yang ada .  Diharapkan ke depannya, pemerintah dapat segera menanggulangi kasus ini agar bisa lebih memakmurkan warga Indonesia. )

3.  Kalimat kesimpulan yang menekankan kembali ide utama dengan kata-kata berbeda namun memiliki artian yang sama

There are 3 reasons why you need to eat apple. First, because it contains a lot of vitamins, such as vitamin A, vitamin B, as well as vitamin C. Besides that, it also contains mineral which is good for our body. As the result, you need to eat one apple per day to stay healthy.

(Ada 3 alasan mengapa anda harus makan apel. Pertama, karena apel mengandung banyak vitamin, meliputi vitamin A, vitamin B, dan juga vitamin C. Selain itu, ia juga mengandung mineral yang bagus untuk tubuh. Oleh karena itu, kamu perlu makan satu buah apel setiap hari agar sehat. )

Beberapa frasa kata yang bisa kamu temukan dan biasanya mengawali kalimat kesimpulan antara lain:

1. All in All

All ini all memiliki artian kata: pada umumnya.

Contoh kalimat penutup dengan frasa ‘all in all’

All in all , everyone knows that we should stop when the traffic light shows red, while we can only go on when the traffic light show green.

( Pada umumnya , semua orang mengetahui  bahwa kita harus berhenti di saat lampu lalu lintas berwarna merah, sedangkan kita hanya boleh jalan saat lampu lalu lintas berwarna hijau.)

  • Imperative Sentence
  • Contoh Kalimat Aktif Bahasa Inggris

2. In Other Words

In Other Words memiliki artian kata: Dengan kata lain

Contoh kalimat penutup dengan frasa In Other Words

In other words , the Indonesian government is obliged to fix the bad things happened in order to gain confidence from the citizen.

( Dengan kata lain , pemerintah Indonesia wajib  membenahi hal-hal buruk yang terjadi demi mendapatkan kepercayaan dari para warga)

  • Contoh Kalimat Conjunction dalam Bahasa Inggris
  • Contoh Kalimat Present Perfect Continuous Tense
  • Contoh Kalimat Future Tense

3. In Any Event

In Any Event memiliki artian kata: Bagaimanapun juga.

Contoh kalimat penutup dengan frasa In Any Event 

In any event , Raden Ajeng Kartini is a female hero who fought for the right to go to school for women in her era.

( Bagaimanapun juga , Raden Ajeng Kartini adalah seorang pahlawan wanita yang memperjuangkan hak bersekolah bagi wanita-wanita pada zamannya)

  • Phrases and Clauses

4. In Brief

In Brief memiliki artian kata: Singkat cerita

Contoh kalimat penutup dengan frasa In Brief

In Brief , Lucy did not dare to reveal the things that happened so they did not know the true story.

( Singkat cerita , Lucy tidak berani untuk mengungkapkan hal yang terjadi sehingga mereka tidak mengetahui cerita yang sebenarnya.)

  • Contoh Kalimat Past Perfect Continuous Tense
  • Contoh Kalimat Present Continuous Tense

5. Therefore

Therefore memiliki artian kata: Oleh karena itu

Contoh kalimat penutup dengan frasa Therefore

Therefore , as a good student, we must be diligent and do the homework given by our teacher in order to graduate with satisfactory results.

( Oleh karena itu , sebagai seorang siswa yang baik, kita harus rajin dan selalu mengerjakan PR yang diberikan guru agar bisa lulus dengan hasil yang memuaskan.)

  • Contoh Kalimat Pasif dalam Bahasa Inggris
  • Contoh Kalimat Present Tense

6. To Sum Up

To Sum Up memiliki artian kata: untuk meringkasnya

Contoh kalimat penutup dengan frasa To Sum Up

To sum up , we must exercise diligently, because by doing activities that make us sweat, then we can be healthier and less likely to get sick.

(Sebagai ringkasannya , kita harus rajin berolahraga sebab dengan melakukan kegiatan yang membuat kita berkeringat, maka kita bisa lebih sehat dan jarang terserang penyakit.)

  • Interjection
  • Dependent Clause
  • Indirect Object

7. In Conclusion

In Conclusion memiliki artian kata: kesimpulannya.

Contoh kalimat penutup dengan frasa In Conclusion

In conclusion , Rendy does not like Rika because she likes to badmouth about him and blame him for something that he does not do although he is her bestfriend.

( Kesimpulannya , Rendy tidak menyukai Rika karena dia suka badmouth tentang dia dan menyalahkannya atas sesuatu yang tidak dia lakukan meskipun dirinya adalah teman baiknya.)

  • Contoh Kalimat Kata Sifat dalam Bahasa Inggris

Thus memiliki artian kata: Dengan demikian

Contoh concluding sentence dengan frasa Thus 

Thus , you need to love your parents as much as their love for you for they work hard to grow you up and take care of you until now.

( Dengan demikian , Anda perlu mencintai orang tua Anda sebesar cinta mereka kepada Anda karena mereka bekerja keras untuk membesarkan dan menjagamu sampai sekarang.)

  • Contoh Kalimat Personal Pronoun
  • Contoh Kalimat Verb

Namun, kamu tidak boleh berpatokan dengan prinsip bahwa setiap kata kesimpulan harus dimulai dengan salah satu dari kata-kata ini, sebab tidak semua kalimat kesimpulan menerapkan hal ini.

  • Narrative Text dalam Bahasa Inggris
  • Jenis Teks dalam Bahasa Inggris
  • Zero Conditional

Contoh Kalimat Kesimpulan (Concluding Sentence dalam Bahasa Inggris)

Apple is one of the many fruits that contain lots of essential vitamins for our body. Vitamins contained in it include: vitamin A which is good for the eyes, vitamin C which is good for teeth and gums as well as vitamin B. Besides that, apple also contains mineral that is good for the body.  Therefore, we need to eat at least one apple a day for the needs of vitamins and minerals in the body are always fulfilled.

(Buah apel merupakan salah satu dari berbagai buah-buahan yang banyak mengandung vitamin penting untuk tubuh kita. Vitamin-vitamin yang terkandung di dalamnya antara lain: vitamin A yang baik untuk mata, vitamin C yang bagus untuk gigi dan gusi serta vitamin B. Selain itu, apel juga mengandung mineral yang baik untuk tubuh.  Oleh karena itu, kita perlu untuk makan setidaknya satu buah apel sehari agar kebutuhan vitamin dan mineral dalam tubuh selalu terpenuhi.)

Paragraf ini membahas topik mengenai banyaknya kandungan vitamin yang terdapat dalam buah apel. Setelah diselingi dengan beberapa penjelasan mengenai vitamin apa saja yang terkandung dalam buah apel, maka di akhir paragraf yang merupakan kesimpulan diterangkan bahwasannya kita perlu memakan buah apel untuk memenuhi kandungan vitamin dalam tubuh.

Selesai sudah pembahasan mengenai kalimat kesimpulan atau concluding sentence dalam Bahasa Inggris di pelajaran kali ini. Tidak susah, bukan? Penulis berharap kalian bisa lebih memahami pengertian dan penentuan kalimat kesimpulan dalam suatu paragraf ataupun cerita. Sampai ketemu di pelajaran berikutnya.

Baca juga materi Bahasa Inggris lainnya:

  • Past Future Continous Tense
  • Conjunction Sentences
  • Will vs Shall
  • List Of Adverbs
  • Tags concluding sentences , grammar , sentences
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5 Examples of Concluding Words for Essays

5 Examples of Concluding Words for Essays

4-minute read

  • 19th September 2022

If you’re a student writing an essay or research paper, it’s important to make sure your points flow together well. You’ll want to use connecting words (known formally as transition signals) to do this. Transition signals like thus , also , and furthermore link different ideas, and when you get to the end of your work, you need to use these to mark your conclusion. Read on to learn more about transition signals and how to use them to conclude your essays.

Transition Signals

Transition signals link sentences together cohesively, enabling easy reading and comprehension. They are usually placed at the beginning of a sentence and separated from the remaining words with a comma. There are several types of transition signals, including those to:

●  show the order of a sequence of events (e.g., first, then, next)

●  introduce an example (e.g., specifically, for instance)

●  indicate a contrasting idea (e.g., but, however, although)

●  present an additional idea (e.g., also, in addition, plus)

●  indicate time (e.g., beforehand, meanwhile, later)

●  compare (e.g., likewise, similarly)

●  show cause and effect (e.g., thus, as a result)

●  mark the conclusion – which we’ll focus on in this guide.

When you reach the end of an essay, you should start the concluding paragraph with a transition signal that acts as a bridge to the summary of your key points. Check out some concluding transition signals below and learn how you can use them in your writing.

To Conclude…

This is a particularly versatile closing statement that can be used for almost any kind of essay, including both formal and informal academic writing. It signals to the reader that you will briefly restate the main idea. As an alternative, you can begin the summary with “to close” or “in conclusion.” In an argumentative piece, you can use this phrase to indicate a call to action or opinion:

To conclude, Abraham Lincoln was the best president because he abolished slavery.

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As Has Been Demonstrated…

To describe how the evidence presented in your essay supports your argument or main idea, begin the concluding paragraph with “as has been demonstrated.” This phrase is best used for research papers or articles with heavy empirical or statistical evidence.

As has been demonstrated by the study presented above, human activities are negatively altering the climate system.

The Above Points Illustrate…

As another transitional phrase for formal or academic work, “the above points illustrate” indicates that you are reiterating your argument and that the conclusion will include an assessment of the evidence you’ve presented.

The above points illustrate that children prefer chocolate over broccoli.

In a Nutshell…

A simple and informal metaphor to begin a conclusion, “in a nutshell” prepares the reader for a summary of your paper. It can work in narratives and speeches but should be avoided in formal situations.

In a nutshell, the Beatles had an impact on musicians for generations to come.

Overall, It Can Be Said…

To recap an idea at the end of a critical or descriptive essay, you can use this phrase at the beginning of the concluding paragraph. “Overall” means “taking everything into account,” and it sums up your essay in a formal way. You can use “overall” on its own as a transition signal, or you can use it as part of a phrase.

Overall, it can be said that art has had a positive impact on humanity.

Proofreading and Editing

Transition signals are crucial to crafting a well-written and cohesive essay. For your next writing assignment, make sure you include plenty of transition signals, and check out this post for more tips on how to improve your writing. And before you turn in your paper, don’t forget to have someone proofread your work. Our expert editors will make sure your essay includes all the transition signals necessary for your writing to flow seamlessly. Send in a free 500-word sample today!

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  • Questions about Expos?
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  • Conclusions

One of the most common questions we receive at the Writing Center is “what am I supposed to do in my conclusion?” This is a difficult question to answer because there’s no one right answer to what belongs in a conclusion. How you conclude your paper will depend on where you started—and where you traveled. It will also depend on the conventions and expectations of the discipline in which you are writing. For example, while the conclusion to a STEM paper could focus on questions for further study, the conclusion of a literature paper could include a quotation from your central text that can now be understood differently in light of what has been discussed in the paper. You should consult your instructor about expectations for conclusions in a particular discipline.

With that in mind, here are some general guidelines you might find helpful to use as you think about your conclusion.  

Begin with the “what”  

In a short paper—even a research paper—you don’t need to provide an exhaustive summary as part of your conclusion. But you do need to make some kind of transition between your final body paragraph and your concluding paragraph. This may come in the form of a few sentences of summary. Or it may come in the form of a sentence that brings your readers back to your thesis or main idea and reminds your readers where you began and how far you have traveled.

So, for example, in a paper about the relationship between ADHD and rejection sensitivity, Vanessa Roser begins by introducing readers to the fact that researchers have studied the relationship between the two conditions and then provides her explanation of that relationship. Here’s her thesis: “While socialization may indeed be an important factor in RS, I argue that individuals with ADHD may also possess a neurological predisposition to RS that is exacerbated by the differing executive and emotional regulation characteristic of ADHD.”

In her final paragraph, Roser reminds us of where she started by echoing her thesis: “This literature demonstrates that, as with many other conditions, ADHD and RS share a delicately intertwined pattern of neurological similarities that is rooted in the innate biology of an individual’s mind, a connection that cannot be explained in full by the behavioral mediation hypothesis.”  

Highlight the “so what”  

At the beginning of your paper, you explain to your readers what’s at stake—why they should care about the argument you’re making. In your conclusion, you can bring readers back to those stakes by reminding them why your argument is important in the first place. You can also draft a few sentences that put those stakes into a new or broader context.

In the conclusion to her paper about ADHD and RS, Roser echoes the stakes she established in her introduction—that research into connections between ADHD and RS has led to contradictory results, raising questions about the “behavioral mediation hypothesis.”

She writes, “as with many other conditions, ADHD and RS share a delicately intertwined pattern of neurological similarities that is rooted in the innate biology of an individual’s mind, a connection that cannot be explained in full by the behavioral mediation hypothesis.”  

Leave your readers with the “now what”  

After the “what” and the “so what,” you should leave your reader with some final thoughts. If you have written a strong introduction, your readers will know why you have been arguing what you have been arguing—and why they should care. And if you’ve made a good case for your thesis, then your readers should be in a position to see things in a new way, understand new questions, or be ready for something that they weren’t ready for before they read your paper.

In her conclusion, Roser offers two “now what” statements. First, she explains that it is important to recognize that the flawed behavioral mediation hypothesis “seems to place a degree of fault on the individual. It implies that individuals with ADHD must have elicited such frequent or intense rejection by virtue of their inadequate social skills, erasing the possibility that they may simply possess a natural sensitivity to emotion.” She then highlights the broader implications for treatment of people with ADHD, noting that recognizing the actual connection between rejection sensitivity and ADHD “has profound implications for understanding how individuals with ADHD might best be treated in educational settings, by counselors, family, peers, or even society as a whole.”

To find your own “now what” for your essay’s conclusion, try asking yourself these questions:

  • What can my readers now understand, see in a new light, or grapple with that they would not have understood in the same way before reading my paper? Are we a step closer to understanding a larger phenomenon or to understanding why what was at stake is so important?  
  • What questions can I now raise that would not have made sense at the beginning of my paper? Questions for further research? Other ways that this topic could be approached?  
  • Are there other applications for my research? Could my questions be asked about different data in a different context? Could I use my methods to answer a different question?  
  • What action should be taken in light of this argument? What action do I predict will be taken or could lead to a solution?  
  • What larger context might my argument be a part of?  

What to avoid in your conclusion  

  • a complete restatement of all that you have said in your paper.  
  • a substantial counterargument that you do not have space to refute; you should introduce counterarguments before your conclusion.  
  • an apology for what you have not said. If you need to explain the scope of your paper, you should do this sooner—but don’t apologize for what you have not discussed in your paper.  
  • fake transitions like “in conclusion” that are followed by sentences that aren’t actually conclusions. (“In conclusion, I have now demonstrated that my thesis is correct.”)
  • Tips for Reading an Assignment Prompt
  • Asking Analytical Questions
  • Introductions
  • What Do Introductions Across the Disciplines Have in Common?
  • Anatomy of a Body Paragraph
  • Transitions
  • Tips for Organizing Your Essay
  • Counterargument
  • Strategies for Essay Writing: Downloadable PDFs
  • Brief Guides to Writing in the Disciplines

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  • 15 Great Essay Conclusion Examples
  • 18 Outstanding Essay Conclusion Examples

18 Outstanding Essay Conclusion Examples

What Is a Conclusion of an Essay: Outline and Purpose

How to write a conclusion paragraph.

  • 18 Good Conclusion Paragraph Examples
  • Argumentative

Narrative Essay

Effective strategies to conclude an essay, bottom line.

One of the crucial parts of a writing piece is an essay conclusion. it is the last paragraph that creates the final impression from a paper. It is not enough just to summarize what was written in the body part. A writer must make the reader want to continue exploring the problem, share the author’s position, or finally get a clear understanding of an issue . It all depends on the essay type. Our  essay writer  team has come up with essay conclusion examples and useful tips to help students master the art of concluding an essay logically and effectively. Check them out!

Conclusion is the last paragraph of any academic writing, no matter whether it is a school five paragraph essay or college research paper. It is a compulsory structural part of an essay that gives a sense of closure. The purpose of writing a conclusion is to restate the main idea, summarize the key points discussed in the body of the paper showing how they support or prove your thesis, and draw a general conclusion .

What to write in a conclusion paragraph? A typical conclusion outline has three structural components:

  • Restated thesis statement.
  • Summary of the key points.
  • General conclusion or ideas for broader implications of an issue.

Don’t know how to start essay conclusions? No worries! We have prepared useful tips to help you write a good conclusion for your essay. Follow these simple steps:

  • Restate the thesis statement . Start your essay conclusion with reminding readers of the main idea of your paper. However, do not just copy-paste the sentence from the introduction paragraph . You should present the same claim but using different words.
  • Summarize the main points . Proceed with analysis and summary the key ideas you have discussed in the body paragraphs. Show how these arguments support and prove your thesis statement.
  • Sum up the whole essay . After analyzing the major ideas of the paper, draw up a general essay conclusion. If you do not know how to do it, try answering the So-what?-question. In case you write a conclusion for a research paper, you may be asked to identify the knowledge gap. Also, you may specify broader implications of the issue in the larger context for future research.

18 Good Conclusion Paragraph Examples 

We have prepared essay conclusions for different types of papers. Check them out for better understanding of how to write a conclusion.


The purpose of argumentative paper is to take a stand on an issue. Check these argumentative essay conclusion examples to make your essay convincing.

The purpose of this essay type is to persuade the readers. Look through persuasive essay conclusion examples to understand how to write a conclusion that will help you win over the audience.

Critical thinking is required in this essay type. You should be able to analyze the whole piece of writing to create a strong final paragraph. Have a look at these analysis essay conclusion examples to get a general idea.

Wondering how to write a literary analysis ? Check out our guide.

These essays are easy to write. The purpose of the narrative essay conclusion is to sum up everything described and discussed in the essay.


Expository essays aim to describe or explain ideas, notions, phenomena, etc. to the reader. Such papers require research to support the ideas and be able to provide evidence. Check out a conclusion sample of an expository essay.

Are you assigned to write an exposition? Check our blog post to find out what is an expository essay and how to write it successfully.

Look at the English essay conclusion example below. It may refer to any type of paper.

There exist several most common approaches that allow to conclude an essay logically and reasonably. Here they are.

  • So what? This is the most common strategy. It presupposes summing up the paper by giving an answer to a short question So-what?
  • Giving a larger context. This strategy mainly applies to the research papers. The main idea is to mention the areas of the issue that need further investigation.
  • Rhetorical question . It is a provocative and intriguing question that does not need an answer. It gives readers food for thought. However, such conclusions might be not very effective in academic papers.

Also, we would like to remind you that there are some details that should not be included in the conclusion paragraph. Avoid:

  • Retelling what was written in the paper
  • Presenting new ideas
  • Introducing facts or arguments that contradict the info discussed in the essay
  • Adding in-text citations
  • Copy-pasting sentences from the intro or body paragraphs
  • Using phrases like in conclusion, in summary, to sum up, etc.

Essay conclusion is an essential part of a paper. If you miss it or make it weak, your essay will be incomplete. Thus, try your best to conclude an essay with a strong and balanced final paragraph. It should resonate with the essay introduction and body paragraphs, summarize the whole paper, and be written using parallel sentence structures. Have a close look at conclusion sentence examples to ensure you are able to conclude an essay appropriately. If you have some questions or need help with your essay conclusion, you may ask for writing assistance. Experienced writers will help you write a logical and reasonable essay conclusion.

1. What are the components of a conclusion?

Essay conclusion usually has three main parts. They are: restated thesis statement, summary of the key points, and general conclusion. Make sure you include these parts in the final part to conclude an essay appropriately. Mind that just repeating the thesis and ideas will not work. Show your ability to analyze.

2. How to begin a conclusion?

In the last paragraph synthesize and summarize your paper. A reasonable conclusion starts with reminding readers the main idea of an essay. Make sure to paraphrase your thesis statement. Otherwise, it might seem you don’t really understand the point. Also, avoid starting the paragraph with such words as in conclusion, in summary, to conclude, to sum up, etc. It looks primitive and unprofessional.

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A topic sentence is an important part of your essay. Its basic function is to help you organize each paragraph by summing up its information in a brief manner to make it easier for readers to grab your point. Use topic sentence examples to write good topic sentences. Without them, your academic pape...

The essay introduction serves as a quick test of your text: if the first paragraph is well-written, the rest of the text may be superb. If you fail with making a good introduction, there’s no matter how exceptional your body and conclusion are because nobody will ever read it. Every essay writer onl...

contoh concluding paragraph

How to Write a Conclusion for an Essay

contoh concluding paragraph

By the time you get to the final paragraph of your paper, you have already done so much work on your essay, so all you want to do is to wrap it up as quickly as possible. You’ve already made a stunning introduction, proven your argument, and structured the whole piece as supposed – who cares about making a good conclusion paragraph?

The only thing you need to remember is that the conclusion of an essay is not just the last paragraph of an academic paper where you restate your thesis and key arguments. A concluding paragraph is also your opportunity to have a final impact on your audience. 

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How to write a conclusion paragraph that leaves a lasting impression – In this guide, the team at EssayPro is going to walk you through the process of writing a perfect conclusion step by step. Additionally, we will share valuable tips and tricks to help students of all ages impress their readers at the last moment.

Instead of Intro: What Is a Conclusion?

Before we can move on, let’s take a moment here to define the conclusion itself. According to the standard conclusion definition, it is pretty much the last part of something, its result, or end. However, this term is rather broad and superficial.

When it comes to writing academic papers, a concluding statement refers to an opinion, judgment, suggestion, or position arrived at by logical reasoning (through the arguments provided in the body of the text). Therefore, if you are wondering “what is a good closing sentence like?” – keep on reading.

What Does a Good Conclusion Mean?

Writing a good conclusion for a paper isn’t easy. However, we are going to walk you through this process step by step. Although there are generally no strict rules on how to formulate one, there are some basic principles that everyone should keep in mind. In this section, we will share some core ideas for writing a good conclusion, and, later in the article, we will also provide you with more practical advice and examples.


Here are the core goals a good conclusion should complete:

  • “Wrap up” the entire paper;
  • Demonstrate to readers that the author accomplished what he/she set out to do;
  • Show how you the author has proved their thesis statement;
  • Give a sense of completeness and closure on the topic;
  • Leave something extra for your reader to think about;
  • Leave a powerful final impact on a reader.

Another key thing to remember is that you should not introduce any new ideas or arguments to your paper's conclusion. It should only sum up what you have already written, revisit your thesis statement, and end with a powerful final impression.

When considering how to write a conclusion that works, here are the key points to keep in mind:

  • A concluding sentence should only revisit the thesis statement, not restate it;
  • It should summarize the main ideas from the body of the paper;
  • It should demonstrate the significance and relevance of your work;
  • An essay’s conclusion should include a call for action and leave space for further study or development of the topic (if necessary).

How Long Should a Conclusion Be? 

Although there are no strict universal rules regarding the length of an essay’s final clause, both teachers and experienced writers recommend keeping it clear, concise, and straight to the point. There is an unspoken rule that the introduction and conclusion of an academic paper should both be about 10% of the overall paper’s volume. For example, if you were assigned a 1500 word essay, both the introductory and final clauses should be approximately 150 words long (300 together).

Why You Need to Know How to End an Essay:

A conclusion is what drives a paper to its logical end. It also drives the main points of your piece one last time. It is your last opportunity to impact and impress your audience. And, most importantly, it is your chance to demonstrate to readers why your work matters. Simply put, the final paragraph of your essay should answer the last important question a reader will have – “So what?”

If you do a concluding paragraph right, it can give your readers a sense of logical completeness. On the other hand, if you do not make it powerful enough, it can leave them hanging, and diminish the effect of the entire piece.

Strategies to Crafting a Proper Conclusion

Although there are no strict rules for what style to use to write your conclusion, there are several strategies that have been proven to be effective. In the list below, you can find some of the most effective strategies with some good conclusion paragraph examples to help you grasp the idea.

One effective way to emphasize the significance of your essay and give the audience some thought to ponder about is by taking a look into the future. The “When and If” technique is quite powerful when it comes to supporting your points in the essay’s conclusion.

Prediction essay conclusion example: “Taking care of a pet is quite hard, which is the reason why most parents refuse their children’s requests to get a pet. However, the refusal should be the last choice of parents. If we want to inculcate a deep sense of responsibility and organization in our kids, and, at the same time, sprout compassion in them, we must let our children take care of pets.”

Another effective strategy is to link your conclusion to your introductory paragraph. This will create a full-circle narration for your readers, create a better understanding of your topic, and emphasize your key point.

Echo conclusion paragraph example: Introduction: “I believe that all children should grow up with a pet. I still remember the exact day my parents brought my first puppy to our house. This was one of the happiest moments in my life and, at the same time, one of the most life-changing ones. Growing up with a pet taught me a lot, and most importantly, it taught me to be responsible.” Conclusion:. “I remember when I picked up my first puppy and how happy I was at that time. Growing up with a pet, I learned what it means to take care of someone, make sure that he always has water and food, teach him, and constantly keep an eye on my little companion. Having a child grow up with a pet teaches them responsibility and helps them acquire a variety of other life skills like leadership, love, compassion, and empathy. This is why I believe that every kid should grow up with a pet!”

Finally, one more trick that will help you create a flawless conclusion is to amplify your main idea or to present it in another perspective of a larger context. This technique will help your readers to look at the problem discussed from a different angle.

Step-up argumentative essay conclusion example: “Despite the obvious advantages of owning a pet in childhood, I feel that we cannot generalize whether all children should have a pet. Whereas some kids may benefit from such experiences, namely, by becoming more compassionate, organized, and responsible, it really depends on the situation, motivation, and enthusiasm of a particular child for owning a pet.”

What is a clincher in an essay? – The final part of an essay’s conclusion is often referred to as a clincher sentence. According to the clincher definition, it is a final sentence that reinforces the main idea or leaves the audience with an intriguing thought to ponder upon. In a nutshell, the clincher is very similar to the hook you would use in an introductory paragraph. Its core mission is to seize the audience’s attention until the end of the paper. At the same time, this statement is what creates a sense of completeness and helps the author leave a lasting impression on the reader.

Now, since you now know what a clincher is, you are probably wondering how to use one in your own paper. First of all, keep in mind that a good clincher should be intriguing, memorable, smooth, and straightforward.

Generally, there are several different tricks you can use for your clincher statement; it can be:

  • A short, but memorable and attention-grabbing conclusion;
  • A relevant and memorable quote (only if it brings actual value);
  • A call to action;
  • A rhetorical question;
  • An illustrative story or provocative example;
  • A warning against a possibility or suggestion about the consequences of a discussed problem;
  • A joke (however, be careful with this as it may not always be deemed appropriate).

Regardless of the technique you choose, make sure that your clincher is memorable and aligns with your introduction and thesis.

Clincher examples: - While New York may not be the only place with the breathtaking views, it is definitely among my personal to 3… and that’s what definitely makes it worth visiting. - “Thence we came forth to rebehold the stars”, Divine Comedy - Don’t you think all these advantages sound like almost life-saving benefits of owning a pet? “So we beat on, boats against the current, borne back ceaselessly into the past.”, The Great Gatsby


Conclusion Writing Don'ts 

Now, when you know what tricks and techniques you should use to create a perfect conclusion, let’s look at some of the things you should not do with our online paper writing service :

  • Starting with some cliché concluding sentence starters. Many students find common phrases like “In conclusion,” “Therefore,” “In summary,” or similar statements to be pretty good conclusion starters. However, though such conclusion sentence starters may work in certain cases – for example, in speeches – they are overused, so it is recommended not to use them in writing to introduce your conclusion.
  • Putting the first mention of your thesis statement in the conclusion – it has to be presented in your introduction first.
  • Providing new arguments, subtopics, or ideas in the conclusion paragraph.
  • Including a slightly changed or unchanged thesis statement.
  • Providing arguments and evidence that belong in the body of the work.
  • Writing too long, hard to read, or confusing sentences.

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Conclusion Paragraph Outline

The total number of sentences in your final paragraph may vary depending on the number of points you discussed in your essay, as well as on the overall word count of your paper. However, the overall conclusion paragraph outline will remain the same and consists of the following elements:

conclusion ouline

  • A conclusion starter:

The first part of your paragraph should drive readers back to your thesis statement. Thus, if you were wondering how to start a conclusion, the best way to do it is by rephrasing your thesis statement.

  • Summary of the body paragraphs:

Right after revisiting your thesis, you should include several sentences that wrap up the key highlights and points from your body paragraphs. This part of your conclusion can consist of 2-3 sentences—depending on the number of arguments you’ve made. If necessary, you can also explain to the readers how your main points fit together.

  • A concluding sentence:

Finally, you should end your paragraph with a last, powerful sentence that leaves a lasting impression, gives a sense of logical completeness, and connects readers back to the introduction of the paper.

These three key elements make up a perfect essay conclusion. Now, to give you an even better idea of how to create a perfect conclusion, let us give you a sample conclusion paragraph outline with examples from an argumentative essay on the topic of “Every Child Should Own a Pet:

  • Sentence 1: Starter
  • ~ Thesis: "Though taking care of a pet may be a bit challenging for small children. Parents should not restrict their kids from having a pet as it helps them grow into more responsible and compassionate people."
  • ~ Restated thesis for a conclusion: "I can say that taking care of a pet is good for every child."
  • Sentences 2-4: Summary
  • ~ "Studies have shown that pet owners generally have fewer health problems."
  • ~ "Owning a pet teaches a child to be more responsible."
  • ~ "Spending time with a pet reduces stress, feelings of loneliness, and anxiety."
  • Sentence 5: A concluding sentence
  • ~ "Pets can really change a child life for the better, so don't hesitate to endorse your kid's desire to own a pet."

This is a clear example of how you can shape your conclusion paragraph.

How to Conclude Various Types of Essays

Depending on the type of academic essay you are working on, your concluding paragraph's style, tone, and length may vary. In this part of our guide, we will tell you how to end different types of essays and other works.

How to End an Argumentative Essay

Persuasive or argumentative essays always have the single goal of convincing readers of something (an idea, stance, or viewpoint) by appealing to arguments, facts, logic, and even emotions. The conclusion for such an essay has to be persuasive as well. A good trick you can use is to illustrate a real-life scenario that proves your stance or encourages readers to take action. More about persuasive essay outline you can read in our article.

Here are a few more tips for making a perfect conclusion for an argumentative essay:

  • Carefully read the whole essay before you begin;
  • Re-emphasize your ideas;
  • Discuss possible implications;
  • Don’t be afraid to appeal to the reader’s emotions.

How to End a Compare and Contrast Essay

The purpose of a compare and contrast essay is to emphasize the differences or similarities between two or more objects, people, phenomena, etc. Therefore, a logical conclusion should highlight how the reviewed objects are different or similar. Basically, in such a paper, your conclusion should recall all of the key common and distinctive features discussed in the body of your essay and also give readers some food for thought after they finish reading it.

How to Conclude a Descriptive Essay

The key idea of a descriptive essay is to showcase your creativity and writing skills by painting a vivid picture with the help of words. This is one of the most creative types of essays as it requires you to show a story, not tell it. This kind of essay implies using a lot of vivid details. Respectively, the conclusion of such a paper should also use descriptive imagery and, at the same time, sum up the main ideas. A good strategy for ending a descriptive essay would be to begin with a short explanation of why you wrote the essay. Then, you should reflect on how your topic affects you. In the middle of the conclusion, you should cover the most critical moments of the story to smoothly lead the reader into a logical closing statement. The “clincher”, in this case, should be a thought-provoking final sentence that leaves a good and lasting impression on the audience. Do not lead the reader into the essay and then leave them with dwindling memories of it.

How to Conclude an Essay About Yourself

If you find yourself writing an essay about yourself, you need to tell a personal story. As a rule, such essays talk about the author’s experiences, which is why a conclusion should create a feeling of narrative closure. A good strategy is to end your story with a logical finale and the lessons you have learned, while, at the same time, linking it to the introductory paragraph and recalling key moments from the story.

How to End an Informative Essay

Unlike other types of papers, informative or expository essays load readers with a lot of information and facts. In this case, “Synthesize, don’t summarize” is the best technique you can use to end your paper. Simply put, instead of recalling all of the major facts, you should approach your conclusion from the “So what?” position by highlighting the significance of the information provided.

How to Conclude a Narrative Essay

In a nutshell, a narrative essay is based on simple storytelling. The purpose of this paper is to share a particular story in detail. Therefore, the conclusion for such a paper should wrap up the story and avoid finishing on an abrupt cliffhanger. It is vital to include the key takeaways and the lessons learned from the story.

How to Write a Conclusion for a Lab Report

Unlike an essay, a lab report is based on an experiment. This type of paper describes the flow of a particular experiment conducted by a student and its conclusion should reflect on the outcomes of this experiment.

In thinking of how to write a conclusion for a lab, here are the key things you should do to get it right:

  • Restate the goals of your experiment
  • Describe the methods you used
  • Include the results of the experiment and analyze the final data
  • End your conclusion with a clear statement on whether or not the experiment was successful (Did you reach the expected results?)

How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

Writing a paper is probably the hardest task of all, even for experienced dissertation writer . Unlike an essay or even a lab report, a research paper is a much longer piece of work that requires a deeper investigation of the problem. Therefore, a conclusion for such a paper should be even more sophisticated and powerful. If you're feeling difficulty writing an essay, you can buy essay on our service.

How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

However, given that a research paper is the second most popular kind of academic paper (after an essay), it is important to know how to conclude a research paper. Even if you have not yet been assigned to do this task, be sure that you will face it soon. So, here are the steps you should follow to create a great conclusion for a research paper:

  • Restate the Topic

Start your final paragraph with a quick reminder of what the topic of the piece is about. Keep it one sentence long.

  • Revisit the Thesis

Next, you should remind your readers what your thesis statement was. However, do not just copy and paste it from the introductory clause: paraphrase your thesis so that you deliver the same idea but with different words. Keep your paraphrased thesis narrow, specific, and topic-oriented.

  • Summarise Your Key Ideas

Just like the case of a regular essay’s conclusion, a research paper’s final paragraph should also include a short summary of all of the key points stated in the body sections. We recommend reading the entire body part a few times to define all of your main arguments and ideas.

  • Showcase the Significance of Your Work

In the research paper conclusion, it is vital to highlight the significance of your research problem and state how your solution could be helpful.

  • Make Suggestions for Future Studies

Finally, at the end of your conclusion, you should define how your findings will contribute to the development of its particular field of science. Outline the perspectives of further research and, if necessary, explain what is yet to be discovered on the topic.

Then, end your conclusion with a powerful concluding sentence – it can be a rhetorical question, call to action, or another hook that will help you have a strong impact on the audience.

  • Answer the Right Questions

To create a top-notch research paper conclusion, be sure to answer the following questions:

  • What is the goal of a research paper?
  • What are the possible solutions to the research question(s)?
  • How can your results be implemented in real life? (Is your research paper helpful to the community?)
  • Why is this study important and relevant?

Additionally, here are a few more handy tips to follow:

  • Provide clear examples from real life to help readers better understand the further implementation of the stated solutions;
  • Keep your conclusion fresh, original, and creative.

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So, What Is a Good Closing Sentence? See The Difference

One of the best ways to learn how to write a good conclusion is to look at several professional essay conclusion examples. In this section of our guide, we are going to look at two different final paragraphs shaped on the basis of the same template, but even so, they are very different – where one is weak and the other is strong. Below, we are going to compare them to help you understand the difference between a good and a bad conclusion.

Here is the template we used: College degrees are in decline. The price of receiving an education does not correlate with the quality of the education received. As a result, graduated students face underemployment, and the worth of college degrees appears to be in serious doubt. However, the potential social and economic benefits of educated students balance out the equation.

Strong Conclusion ‍

People either see college as an opportunity or an inconvenience; therefore, a degree can only hold as much value as its owner’s skillset. The underemployment of graduate students puts the worth of college degrees in serious doubt. Yet, with the multitude of benefits that educated students bring to society and the economy, the equation remains in balance. Perhaps the ordinary person should consider college as a wise financial investment, but only if they stay determined to study and do the hard work.

Why is this example good? There are several key points that prove its effectiveness:

  • There is a bold opening statement that encompasses the two contrasting types of students we can see today.
  • There are two sentences that recall the thesis statement and cover the key arguments from the body of the essay.
  • Finally, the last sentence sums up the key message of the essay and leaves readers with something to think about.

Weak Conclusion

In conclusion, with the poor preparation of students in college and the subsequent underemployment after graduation from college, the worth associated with the college degree appears to be in serious doubt. However, these issues alone may not reasonably conclude beyond a doubt that investing in a college degree is a rewarding venture. When the full benefits that come with education are carefully put into consideration and evaluated, college education for children in any country still has good advantages, and society should continue to advocate for a college education. The ordinary person should consider this a wise financial decision that holds rewards in the end. Apart from the monetary gains associated with a college education, society will greatly benefit from students when they finish college. Their minds are going to be expanded, and their reasoning and decision making will be enhanced.

What makes this example bad? Here are a few points to consider:

  • Unlike the first example, this paragraph is long and not specific enough. The author provides plenty of generalized phrases that are not backed up by actual arguments.
  • This piece is hard to read and understand and sentences have a confusing structure. Also, there are lots of repetitions and too many uses of the word “college”.
  • There is no summary of the key benefits.
  • The last two sentences that highlight the value of education contradict with the initial statement.
  • Finally, the last sentence doesn’t offer a strong conclusion and gives no thought to ponder upon.
  • In the body of your essay, you have hopefully already provided your reader(s) with plenty of information. Therefore, it is not wise to present new arguments or ideas in your conclusion.
  • To end your final paragraph right, find a clear and straightforward message that will have the most powerful impact on your audience.
  • Don’t use more than one quote in the final clause of your paper – the information from external sources (including quotes) belongs in the body of a paper.
  • Be authoritative when writing a conclusion. You should sound confident and convincing to leave a good impression. Sentences like “I’m not an expert, but…” will most likely make you seem less knowledgeable and/or credible.

Good Conclusion Examples

Now that we've learned what a conclusion is and how to write one let's take a look at some essay conclusion examples to strengthen our knowledge.

The ending ironically reveals that all was for nothing. (A short explanation of the thematic effect of the book’s end) Tom says that Miss Watson freed Jim in her final will.Jim told Huck that the dead man on the Island was pap. The entire adventure seemingly evaporated into nothingness. (How this effect was manifested into the minds of thereaders).
All in all, international schools hold the key to building a full future that students can achieve. (Thesis statement simplified) They help students develop their own character by learning from their mistakes, without having to face a dreadful penalty for failure. (Thesis statement elaborated)Although some say that kids emerged “spoiled” with this mentality, the results prove the contrary. (Possible counter-arguments are noted)
In conclusion, public workers should be allowed to strike since it will give them a chance to air their grievances. (Thesis statement) Public workers should be allowed to strike when their rights, safety, and regulations are compromised. The workers will get motivated when they strike, and their demands are met.
In summary, studies reveal some similarities in the nutrient contents between the organic and non-organic food substances. (Starts with similarities) However, others have revealed many considerable differences in the amounts of antioxidants as well as other minerals present in organic and non-organic foods. Generally, organic foods have higher levels of antioxidants than non-organic foods and therefore are more important in the prevention of chronic illnesses.
As time went by, my obsession grew into something bigger than art; (‘As time went by’ signals maturation) it grew into a dream of developing myself for the world. (Showing student’s interest of developing himself for the community) It is a dream of not only seeing the world from a different perspective but also changing the perspective of people who see my work. (Showing student’s determination to create moving pieces of art)
In conclusion, it is evident that technology is an integral part of our lives and without it, we become “lost” since we have increasingly become dependent on its use. (Thesis with main point)

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9.4 Writing Introductory and Concluding Paragraphs

Learning objectives.

  • Recognize the importance of strong introductory and concluding paragraphs.
  • Learn to engage the reader immediately with the introductory paragraph.
  • Practice concluding your essays in a more memorable way.

Picture your introduction as a storefront window: You have a certain amount of space to attract your customers (readers) to your goods (subject) and bring them inside your store (discussion). Once you have enticed them with something intriguing, you then point them in a specific direction and try to make the sale (convince them to accept your thesis).

Your introduction is an invitation to your readers to consider what you have to say and then to follow your train of thought as you expand upon your thesis statement.

An introduction serves the following purposes:

  • Establishes your voice and tone, or your attitude, toward the subject
  • Introduces the general topic of the essay
  • States the thesis that will be supported in the body paragraphs

First impressions are crucial and can leave lasting effects in your reader’s mind, which is why the introduction is so important to your essay. If your introductory paragraph is dull or disjointed, your reader probably will not have much interest in continuing with the essay.

Attracting Interest in Your Introductory Paragraph

Your introduction should begin with an engaging statement devised to provoke your readers’ interest. In the next few sentences, introduce them to your topic by stating general facts or ideas about the subject. As you move deeper into your introduction, you gradually narrow the focus, moving closer to your thesis. Moving smoothly and logically from your introductory remarks to your thesis statement can be achieved using a funnel technique , as illustrated in the diagram in Figure 9.1 “Funnel Technique” .

Figure 9.1 Funnel Technique


On a separate sheet of paper, jot down a few general remarks that you can make about the topic for which you formed a thesis in Section 9.1 “Developing a Strong, Clear Thesis Statement” .

Immediately capturing your readers’ interest increases the chances of having them read what you are about to discuss. You can garner curiosity for your essay in a number of ways. Try to get your readers personally involved by doing any of the following:

  • Appealing to their emotions
  • Using logic
  • Beginning with a provocative question or opinion
  • Opening with a startling statistic or surprising fact
  • Raising a question or series of questions
  • Presenting an explanation or rationalization for your essay
  • Opening with a relevant quotation or incident
  • Opening with a striking image
  • Including a personal anecdote

Remember that your diction, or word choice, while always important, is most crucial in your introductory paragraph. Boring diction could extinguish any desire a person might have to read through your discussion. Choose words that create images or express action. For more information on diction, see Chapter 4 “Working with Words: Which Word Is Right?” .

In Chapter 8 “The Writing Process: How Do I Begin?” , you followed Mariah as she moved through the writing process. In this chapter, Mariah writes her introduction and conclusion for the same essay. Mariah incorporates some of the introductory elements into her introductory paragraph, which she previously outlined in Chapter 8 “The Writing Process: How Do I Begin?” . Her thesis statement is underlined.

If you have trouble coming up with a provocative statement for your opening, it is a good idea to use a relevant, attention-grabbing quote about your topic. Use a search engine to find statements made by historical or significant figures about your subject.

Writing at Work

In your job field, you may be required to write a speech for an event, such as an awards banquet or a dedication ceremony. The introduction of a speech is similar to an essay because you have a limited amount of space to attract your audience’s attention. Using the same techniques, such as a provocative quote or an interesting statistic, is an effective way to engage your listeners. Using the funnel approach also introduces your audience to your topic and then presents your main idea in a logical manner.

Reread each sentence in Mariah’s introductory paragraph. Indicate which techniques she used and comment on how each sentence is designed to attract her readers’ interest.

Writing a Conclusion

It is not unusual to want to rush when you approach your conclusion, and even experienced writers may fade. But what good writers remember is that it is vital to put just as much attention into the conclusion as in the rest of the essay. After all, a hasty ending can undermine an otherwise strong essay.

A conclusion that does not correspond to the rest of your essay, has loose ends, or is unorganized can unsettle your readers and raise doubts about the entire essay. However, if you have worked hard to write the introduction and body, your conclusion can often be the most logical part to compose.

The Anatomy of a Strong Conclusion

Keep in mind that the ideas in your conclusion must conform to the rest of your essay. In order to tie these components together, restate your thesis at the beginning of your conclusion. This helps you assemble, in an orderly fashion, all the information you have explained in the body. Repeating your thesis reminds your readers of the major arguments you have been trying to prove and also indicates that your essay is drawing to a close. A strong conclusion also reviews your main points and emphasizes the importance of the topic.

The construction of the conclusion is similar to the introduction, in which you make general introductory statements and then present your thesis. The difference is that in the conclusion you first paraphrase , or state in different words, your thesis and then follow up with general concluding remarks. These sentences should progressively broaden the focus of your thesis and maneuver your readers out of the essay.

Many writers like to end their essays with a final emphatic statement. This strong closing statement will cause your readers to continue thinking about the implications of your essay; it will make your conclusion, and thus your essay, more memorable. Another powerful technique is to challenge your readers to make a change in either their thoughts or their actions. Challenging your readers to see the subject through new eyes is a powerful way to ease yourself and your readers out of the essay.

When closing your essay, do not expressly state that you are drawing to a close. Relying on statements such as in conclusion , it is clear that , as you can see , or in summation is unnecessary and can be considered trite.

It is wise to avoid doing any of the following in your conclusion:

  • Introducing new material
  • Contradicting your thesis
  • Changing your thesis
  • Using apologies or disclaimers

Introducing new material in your conclusion has an unsettling effect on your reader. When you raise new points, you make your reader want more information, which you could not possibly provide in the limited space of your final paragraph.

Contradicting or changing your thesis statement causes your readers to think that you do not actually have a conviction about your topic. After all, you have spent several paragraphs adhering to a singular point of view. When you change sides or open up your point of view in the conclusion, your reader becomes less inclined to believe your original argument.

By apologizing for your opinion or stating that you know it is tough to digest, you are in fact admitting that even you know what you have discussed is irrelevant or unconvincing. You do not want your readers to feel this way. Effective writers stand by their thesis statement and do not stray from it.

On a separate sheet of a paper, restate your thesis from Note 9.52 “Exercise 2” of this section and then make some general concluding remarks. Next, compose a final emphatic statement. Finally, incorporate what you have written into a strong conclusion paragraph for your essay.


Please share with a classmate and compare your answers

Mariah incorporates some of these pointers into her conclusion. She has paraphrased her thesis statement in the first sentence.

Make sure your essay is balanced by not having an excessively long or short introduction or conclusion. Check that they match each other in length as closely as possible, and try to mirror the formula you used in each. Parallelism strengthens the message of your essay.

On the job you will sometimes give oral presentations based on research you have conducted. A concluding statement to an oral report contains the same elements as a written conclusion. You should wrap up your presentation by restating the purpose of the presentation, reviewing its main points, and emphasizing the importance of the material you presented. A strong conclusion will leave a lasting impression on your audience.

Key Takeaways

  • A strong opening captures your readers’ interest and introduces them to your topic before you present your thesis statement.
  • An introduction should restate your thesis, review your main points, and emphasize the importance of the topic.
  • The funnel technique to writing the introduction begins with generalities and gradually narrows your focus until you present your thesis.
  • A good introduction engages people’s emotions or logic, questions or explains the subject, or provides a striking image or quotation.
  • Carefully chosen diction in both the introduction and conclusion prevents any confusing or boring ideas.
  • A conclusion that does not connect to the rest of the essay can diminish the effect of your paper.
  • The conclusion should remain true to your thesis statement. It is best to avoid changing your tone or your main idea and avoid introducing any new material.
  • Closing with a final emphatic statement provides closure for your readers and makes your essay more memorable.

Writing for Success Copyright © 2015 by University of Minnesota is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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Undergraduate writing: conclusion paragraph sample, conclusion paragraph sample.

In conclusion, we present ourselves through both face-to-face and online communication. Becoming a skilled communicator has a positive impact on our personal and social interactions. Ethical and effective communication becomes even more vital when our messages are conveyed around the globe electronically. By analyzing face-to-face and online communication skills, I identified my strengths and weaknesses and developed some ideas on how to improve my communication skills to become a more knowledgeable and skilled communicator. I plan to be an effective and ethical communicator by further educating myself in this area and practicing verbal, nonverbal, and active listening skills that I learned in the communication course.

The Writing Center’s Response: The function of a conclusion is to offer a sense of closure or completion for the ideas presented earlier in the paper. In this sample, the writer signals the end with the phrase “In conclusion” and goes on to summarize the main points of the reflection paper. The success of this paragraph lies in its final sentence, though. In this sentence, the writer looks beyond the circumstances of the paper and into the future. This can be an effective strategy for a conclusion because it widens the view, guiding the reader from the page out into the world.

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Academic English UK

 Academic Conclusion

A conclusion is often separated into three key parts: A thesis, a summary of main ideas and a future focus (recommendation, prediction, solution).

Conclusion video

A short 6-minute video on how to write an academic conclusion. A basic 3-part conclusion structure and example paragraph.

The basic structure of a conclusion

conclusion structure

An example: a model conclusion

This image highlights the three parts of a conclusion: the thesis, the summary and a future prediction.

Conclusion example

Example phrases

These phrases will help you to construct your paragraph clearly.


In conclusion,, to conclude,, recommendation  / suggestion:, the evidence suggests that …, therefore, it is recommended that … /, governments should…., the findings of this study suggest that …, prediction:  , one prediction is that…, if this continues, it could lead to…, an implication of this is the possibility that …, there is, therefore, a definite need for ……, there are a number of important changes which need to be made…, another important practical implication is that …, m ore conclusion phrases : click here, conclusion lesson, terms & conditions of use, conclusions – the basics.

This is  a great lesson to introduce and practice writing conclusions. It begins with identifying key  components of a  conclusion, then offers valuable writing practice of summarising key points, restating a thesis and creating ideas for a future focus. It finishes with using an essay outline to write a whole conclusion. ( Example )   Time: 180mins     Level *** ** [ B1/B2/C1] TEACHER MEMBERSHIP  / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

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Introductions: how to write an academic introduction, this lesson / worksheet presents the key sections to an academic introduction. it then focuses on highlighting those key sections in three model introductions with particular attention to the thesis (question / topics / stance) and finally finishes with writing an introduction using a range of titles.  example   level: ** *** [b1/b2/c1]   teacher membership  / institutional membership.

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Thesis Statements: How to write a thesis statement

This lesson / worksheet presents the key sections to an academic introduction. It focuses on different writing structures using words like however, although, despite and then includes a writing task. Students write three thesis statements using the introduction models.  Example   Level: ** *** [B1/B2/C1]   / TEACHER MEMBERSHIP  / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

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Basic Paragraph analysis:  corporate social responsibility (CSR)

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Topic Sentences – the basics

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Topic Sentences – academic

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🏠 / Paragraph / Concluding Sentences (Paragraph): Pengertian dan Contoh

Concluding Sentences (Paragraph): Pengertian dan Contoh

Pengertian concluding sentence.

  • mengikhtisarkan poin-poin yang telah dikembangkan oleh supporting sentence
  • mengemukakan kembali kata atau frasa (atau sinonimnya) dari topic sentence
  • memberikan final observation tentang controlling idea
  • membuat prediksi berdasarkan detail suatu paragraph

Tidak semua academic paragraph mengandung concluding sentence , khususnya jika paragraph sangat pendek. Namun jika paragraph sangat panjang, menggunakan concluding sentence mungkin merupakan ide yang baik.

Concluding sentence sering dimulai dengan transition word untuk memberi isyarat kepada pembaca bahwa kalimat tersebut merupakan akhir dari paragraph . Transition word tersebut antara lain:

  • in other words
  • in any event

Contoh Concluding Sentence

Kalimat terakhir yang di cetak tebal merupakan concluding sentence .

Untuk para siswa, international program merupakan faktor penting dari pendidikan. Itu membuat siswa merasakan perbedaan budaya, dan sudut pandang yang mereka tidak akan temukan setiap hari. Program-program semacam ini dapat memberikan akses untuk kesempatan penelitian yang tidak didapatkan di negara asal mereka, dan memperkenankan mereka memperluas pengetahuan di bidang tertentu dengan bertemu dengan para ahli dari negara-negara yang berbeda.

Perdagangan global dapat pula menurunkan konflik internasional dan perang. Ini mungkin tidak terasa masuk akal awalnya, namun pikirkan tentang hal itu sejenak. Perdagangan global menciptakan hubungan jangka panjang yang saling menguntungkan atau simbiosis. Jika kamu memulai perang dengan seseorang yang memberikanmu barang-barang yang dibutuhkan, seperti gandum atau minyak, kamu mungkin telah menembak dirimu sendiri di kaki. Dengan kata lain, perdagangan global memupuk kerjasama daripada konflik.

Ada tiga tipe yang berbeda dari luka bakar: tingkat satu, dua, dan tiga. Luka bakar tingkat satu atau dangkal dianggap ringan dibanding tipe luka bakar yang lain. Mereka melibatkan lapisan paling atas dari kulit (epidermis). Luka bakar tingkat dua atau ketebalan parsial mengenai lapisan kulit teratas dan sebagian lapisan kulit yang lebih rendah (dermis). Luka bakar tingkat tiga atau ketebalan penuh adalah luka bakar yang terburuk. Luka bakar tersebut menghancurkan lapisan pertama dan kedua kulit dan merusak jaringan-jaringan yang lebih dalam. Tiga tipe luka bakar ini menembus permukaan kulit pada kedalaman yang berbeda.

Lihat juga:

  • Topic Sentence (Paragraph): Pengertian dan Contoh
  • Narrative Paragraph: Pengertian dan Contoh
  • Supporting Sentence (Paragraph): Pengertian dan Contoh
  • Eliminating Unnecessary To Be Verbs (Metode dan Contoh)
  • Pengertian dan Cara Menghindari Primer Style Bahasa Inggris


  • Basic Paragraph Structure. http://lrs.ed.uiuc.edu/students/fwalters/para.html. Accessed on April 6, 2017.
  • Concluding Sentence. https://www.ntid.rit.edu/sea/processes/paragraph/process/concluding . Accessed on April 6, 2017.
  • Concluding Sentences. http://writesite.elearn.usyd.edu.au/m3/m3u2/m3u2s5/m3u2s5_1.htm. Accessed on April 7, 2017.
  • Guide to Introductions, Conclusions, Topic Sentences, and Concluding Sentences. http://www.cu-portland.edu/sites/default/files/pdf/Guide%20to%20Introductions%20Conclusions%20Topic%20Sentences%20and%20Concluding%20Sentences.pdf . Accessed on April 7, 2017.
  • Burns. http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/healthlibrary/conditions/dermatology/burns_85,P01146/ . Accessed on April 12, 2017.

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Concluding Sentence In A Paragraph: Definition, Examples, & Sample Questions

Concluding Sentence In A Paragraph: Definition, Examples, & Sample Questions

Concluding Sentence In A Paragraph – There are three main parts in a paragraph: topic sentence, supporting details / supporting sentences, and concluding sentence. This time, Writer River will provide a brief explanation of the concluding sentence definition and a few examples.

But before you learn about the explanation of concluding sentence in a paragraph, you must know the definition of paragraph:

A paragraph is a short text consisting of at least one sentence and beginning on a new line. It usually deals with a single idea, description, topic, etc

Okay, now you know what paragraph is, so let’s dig into the concluding sentence.

Table of Contents

Definition of Concluding Sentence

A paragraph that can stand alone usually has the final part called concluding sentence. A concluding sentence serves to close a paragraph so that the reader knows that they have finished reading the paragraph and understands the subject matter in the paragraph.

Sometimes, a concluding sentence reminds the reader of the main point by recounting the topic sentence with different words but having the same intent, for example:

  • In short, all people can have fun at a beach.
  • To conclude, you can order three delicious Japanese curry.

Concluding sentences can contain a summary of the main points in the content section, for example:

  • To summarize, you need to be friendly, self-confident, and strong to become a flight attendant.
  • In short, employers look for dependable and responsible team players.

If you write a paragraph, never start an idea / new thing in a concluding sentence. All you need to do is repeat the ideas that have been discussed in the paragraph contents and do not add new points. Examples of incorrect concluding sentences:

  • Also, flight attendants love to travel.
  • In conclusion, I hope to become a flight attendant some day.

Conclusion Phrases For Essays

Use the transition signal to tell the reader that the concluding sentence is the last sentence in the paragraph you wrote. Below are some examples of conclusion phrases for essays. Note that there is always a comma (,) after the conclusion signals.

Examples of Conclusion Phrases For Your Essay

Sample Questions

Read the following paragraphs. Then choose the best concluding sentence for it.

Paragraph 1

There are two reasons I love big cities. First of all, big cities are alive 24/7. Going shopping, seeing a movie, exercising at a gym, getting something to eat, or going roller skating at any time of the day or night are things you can do in big cities. Secondly, I like the anonymity in big cities. You can be completely invisible in big cities. No one watches your daily comings and goings. Your neighbors will not bother you as long as you don’t bother them. You can stay home all day or stay out all night, and no one cares.

a. In conclusion, I love big cities because you can be independent. b. In brief, big cities attract me because there are so many things to do. c. In short, I like big cities because of their energy and anonymity.

Paragraph 2

There are two reasons I hate big cities. Firstly, there is full of noise 24/7 in big cities. You can hear horns honking, traffic roaring, music blaring, and people talking at all hours of the day and night. It is never quite in a big city. Secondly, I hate the anonymity in big cities. No one knows or cares about you. Neighbors who lived next door to each other for many years don’t even know each others’ names. In a big city, you can feel very lonely.

a. In conclusion, big cities are noisy, lonely places to live. b. In brief, I prefer to live in a small town, where it is quiter and people are friendlier. c. Big cities also have a lot of crime.

Paragraph 3

The island nation of Singapore, the smallest nation in Asia, is one of the best cities in the world to live in and to visit. Firstly, Singapore is a safe country. It has a very low crime rate. At night, people can walk the streets without fear. Also, Singapore is very clean. The nation has very strong antilittering laws, so there is almost no litter anywhere. Thirdly, people in Singaporea come from many different racial, ethnic, and religious backgrounds, but they live together in peace. Finally Singapore’s economy is one of the healthiest in Asia, so its people enjoy a very high standard of living.

a. Singapore is also has many beautiful tourist spots. b. To conclude, Singapore is a very safe, clean, and healthy city. c. To summarize, many people come to Singapore because this city is wonderful.

1. c. In short, I like big cities because of their energy and anonymity. 2. a. In conclusion, big cities are noisy, lonely places to live. 3. b. To conclude, Singapore is a safe, clean, and healthy city.

That was a brief explanation of concluding sentence in a paragraph, including the definition, examples, and sample questions. We hope this is helpful and thanks for reading!

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How to Conclude a Paragraph

Last Updated: December 13, 2023 Fact Checked

This article was co-authored by Diane Stubbs and by wikiHow staff writer, Danielle Blinka, MA, MPA . Diane Stubbs is a Secondary English Teacher with over 22 years of experience teaching all high school grade levels and AP courses. She specializes in secondary education, classroom management, and educational technology. Diane earned a Bachelor of Arts in English from the University of Delaware and a Master of Education from Wesley College. There are 11 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been fact-checked, ensuring the accuracy of any cited facts and confirming the authority of its sources. This article has been viewed 106,927 times.

If you want a body paragraph to be effective, you need to conclude it properly — a closing sentence is as imperative as a conclusion is to an essay or a research paper. Closing or concluding sentences act like a concluding paragraph in an essay and review the points you made in the paragraph. To effectively conclude a paragraph, restate your topic sentence and include what you taught the reader. Tailor the sentence to the type of essay you’re writing, whether it’s a persuasive or compare and contrast essay.

Reviewing Your Paragraph

Step 1 Reread what you’ve written.

  • Focus on what you lay out in the topic sentence.
  • Note your evidence and details.

Step 2 Focus on the main idea.

  • If your topic sentence reads, “Cats may be small, but they’re mighty predators,” then your main idea is that cats are big hunters.
  • Your concluding statement should show how your paragraph supported the idea that cats are big predators. For example, a closing statement might read, “Based on these statistics, cats are predators who hunt frequently and decrease the area bird population.”

Step 3 Summarize your ideas.

  • For example, the closing statement above, “Based on these statistics, cats are predators who hunt frequently and decrease the area bird population,” reminds the reader that the paragraph just provided statistics about how often cats hunt and how they impact the local bird population. These details support the main idea, and the writer has mentioned both.

Drafting a Closing Statement

Step 1 Begin the sentence with a signal word, if desired.

  • Consequently
  • As a result

Step 2 Restate the topic sentence.

  • An example topic sentence might read: “Cats are natural predators because they enjoy hunting and will even hunt for sport.”
  • Your concluding statement for this paragraph might read: “As a result of their continued hunts even after they’re domesticated and provided cat food, cats are proven to be natural predators.”

Step 3 Reassert your point in a persuasive essay.

  • As an example, “The data shows that cats hunt even when they have steady meals, which proves that they are natural hunters.”

Step 4 Focus on the similarities and differences in a compare and contrast essay.

  • For example, “As the data shows, feral cats hunt 140% more than domestic cats.”

Step 5 Show how the facts are related in a cause and effect essay.

  • For example, “Consequently, homes that own cats have fewer birds living in their yards.”

Step 6 Sum up your facts in an informative essay.

  • For example, “In the end, cats hunt out of instinct.”

Step 7 Connect your paragraph details to the topic sentence.

  • For example, “To conclude, feral cats are more dangerous to birds than house cats because they have more hunting opportunities and kill more birds each year on average.” This sentence supports the main idea that feral cats hunt more than house cats and shows how the two details provided in the sentence link back to the topic sentence.

Step 8 Set up the next paragraph.

  • For example, your closing statement could read, “In summation, statistics show that cats who wear bell collars are less of a threat to birds because they kill fewer birds even if they have the same number of hunting opportunities.” This signals to the reader that the writer has finished with one main idea and is moving onto another in a new paragraph.

Avoiding Common Errors

Step 1 Avoid using the words “I” or “my” in your closing statement.

  • You also want to avoid the word “you.” For example, don’t say, “As you can see” in your concluding sentence.
  • There are some exceptions, such as if you’re writing an introductory paragraph or an opinion essay.

Step 2 Stay away from minor details.

  • Reread your concluding statement, then compare it to your paragraph. Do you reference one detail but not another? If it does, rewrite the sentence to address the main points, not the subpoints.

Step 3 Write a statement that serves a purpose.

  • A poor closing statement might read: “As you can see, the evidence suggests that cats like to hunt."
  • A better closing statement could read: “Based on the data, cats look for opportunities to hunt for sport, proving they are natural predators."

Expert Q&A

Diane Stubbs

  • In some cases, the concluding statements in introductions and conclusions may have a slightly different format. Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0
  • Remember that your goal is to show the reader your ideas. Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0
  • Focus on your main idea. Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0

contoh concluding paragraph

  • Try to avoid sounding redundant. Thanks Helpful 2 Not Helpful 0
  • Don’t just restate your topic sentence. Show how the details you’ve provided contribute to the main idea. Thanks Helpful 3 Not Helpful 1

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Write a Paragraph

  • ↑ https://writingcenter.unc.edu/tips-and-tools/editing-and-proofreading/
  • ↑ https://writingcenter.unc.edu/tips-and-tools/paragraphs/
  • ↑ https://openoregon.pressbooks.pub/wrd/chapter/writing-summaries/
  • ↑ https://writingcenter.unc.edu/tips-and-tools/transitions/
  • ↑ https://lsa.umich.edu/sweetland/undergraduates/writing-guides/how-do-i-write-an-intro--conclusion----body-paragraph.html
  • ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/general_writing/academic_writing/essay_writing/argumentative_essays.html
  • ↑ https://owl.excelsior.edu/rhetorical-styles/compare-and-contrast-essay/
  • ↑ https://owl.excelsior.edu/rhetorical-styles/cause-and-effect-essay/
  • ↑ https://www.grammarly.com/blog/how-to-write-an-informative-essay/
  • ↑ https://wts.indiana.edu/writing-guides/paragraphs-and-topic-sentences.html
  • ↑ https://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/conclusion

About This Article

Diane Stubbs

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Traditional Academic Essays In Three Parts

Part i: the introduction.

An introduction is usually the first paragraph of your academic essay. If you’re writing a long essay, you might need 2 or 3 paragraphs to introduce your topic to your reader. A good introduction does 2 things:

  • Gets the reader’s attention. You can get a reader’s attention by telling a story, providing a statistic, pointing out something strange or interesting, providing and discussing an interesting quote, etc. Be interesting and find some original angle via which to engage others in your topic.
  • Provides a specific and debatable thesis statement. The thesis statement is usually just one sentence long, but it might be longer—even a whole paragraph—if the essay you’re writing is long. A good thesis statement makes a debatable point, meaning a point someone might disagree with and argue against. It also serves as a roadmap for what you argue in your paper.

Part II: The Body Paragraphs

Body paragraphs help you prove your thesis and move you along a compelling trajectory from your introduction to your conclusion. If your thesis is a simple one, you might not need a lot of body paragraphs to prove it. If it’s more complicated, you’ll need more body paragraphs. An easy way to remember the parts of a body paragraph is to think of them as the MEAT of your essay:

Main Idea. The part of a topic sentence that states the main idea of the body paragraph. All of the sentences in the paragraph connect to it. Keep in mind that main ideas are…

  • like labels. They appear in the first sentence of the paragraph and tell your reader what’s inside the paragraph.
  • arguable. They’re not statements of fact; they’re debatable points that you prove with evidence.
  • focused. Make a specific point in each paragraph and then prove that point.

Evidence. The parts of a paragraph that prove the main idea. You might include different types of evidence in different sentences. Keep in mind that different disciplines have different ideas about what counts as evidence and they adhere to different citation styles. Examples of evidence include…

  • quotations and/or paraphrases from sources.
  • facts , e.g. statistics or findings from studies you’ve conducted.
  • narratives and/or descriptions , e.g. of your own experiences.

Analysis. The parts of a paragraph that explain the evidence. Make sure you tie the evidence you provide back to the paragraph’s main idea. In other words, discuss the evidence.

Transition. The part of a paragraph that helps you move fluidly from the last paragraph. Transitions appear in topic sentences along with main ideas, and they look both backward and forward in order to help you connect your ideas for your reader. Don’t end paragraphs with transitions; start with them.

Keep in mind that MEAT does not occur in that order. The “ T ransition” and the “ M ain Idea” often combine to form the first sentence—the topic sentence—and then paragraphs contain multiple sentences of evidence and analysis. For example, a paragraph might look like this: TM. E. E. A. E. E. A. A.

Part III: The Conclusion

A conclusion is the last paragraph of your essay, or, if you’re writing a really long essay, you might need 2 or 3 paragraphs to conclude. A conclusion typically does one of two things—or, of course, it can do both:

  • Summarizes the argument. Some instructors expect you not to say anything new in your conclusion. They just want you to restate your main points. Especially if you’ve made a long and complicated argument, it’s useful to restate your main points for your reader by the time you’ve gotten to your conclusion. If you opt to do so, keep in mind that you should use different language than you used in your introduction and your body paragraphs. The introduction and conclusion shouldn’t be the same.
  • For example, your argument might be significant to studies of a certain time period .
  • Alternately, it might be significant to a certain geographical region .
  • Alternately still, it might influence how your readers think about the future . You might even opt to speculate about the future and/or call your readers to action in your conclusion.

Handout by Dr. Liliana Naydan. Do not reproduce without permission.

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How to Write a Conclusion Paragraph (in Three Easy Steps!)


Written by  Scribendi

If you've ever seen or read about a great lawyer (or watched a great actor play a great lawyer) in action, you know that a key element in winning a case is the closing argument.

The same goes for the concluding paragraph in a piece of writing.

The conclusion is your last opportunity to persuade your reader that the information you just imparted is significant. This is particularly important because a reader will typically remember the conclusion paragraph more vividly than the beginning of your paper. (Thank you, recency bias !)

Luckily, we've crafted a foolproof, three-step method to show you how to write a conclusion. Let's dive in!

Step 1: Anchor It

A good conclusion paragraph begins by transitioning your message from the body of your paper to the conclusion and anchoring it to your thesis statement .

A transitional phrase should be used in the opening of your conclusion; consider using a phrase like "it is clear," "it is evident," or "overall." Similarly, a lawyer might begin their closing argument with a line like "without a doubt." This sentence will set the tone for the rest of the concluding argument.

Rephrasing your main point to establish your conclusion and tie all your arguments together is an effective way to kick off the paragraph and begin to bring your thought process full circle for your reader.

Step 2: Prove It

Every good lawyer's closing argument is presented with intent and persuasion. Lawyers explain why their evidence is superior to that of the opposing council and why the judge or jury should consider their arguments when arriving at a verdict. This is what your conclusion paragraph should also achieve.

Your conclusion is the big finish to your paper. Be careful not to repeat your introduction or main ideas verbatim. Instead, you want to summarize your evidence while reminding the reader why it is significant in the context of your paper.

In the courtroom, once the closing argument has begun, a lawyer will try to persuade the jury to consider all of the valid points they presented throughout the case and why that evidence matters—similarly, you should explain to your reader why they should care about what you said in your paper.

To begin this process, review the main points you made within your paper. Create a summary of each point as well as the significant contributions each makes to your argument. Next, concisely present each summary in a sentence or two for the reader.

Think of it this way—if a lawyer's client has an alibi supported by their employer and colleagues that they were at work when a particular crime took place, the lawyer might summarize this finding as follows:

The alibi provided by my client's employer and colleagues indicates that there were no plausible means by which my client could have left the office, robbed the bank, and made it back to their desk without being noticed. The time required to travel between these locations is too significant for this to be possible; no person could have successfully accomplished this task without their absence being noted.

Use transitional phrases to move from one idea to the next. Consider how each point works in tandem with the others to arrive at the conclusion you have drawn—or want the reader to draw—from your work.

If our hypothetical accused has an alibi, an eyewitness description of the actual culprit, and no DNA evidence placing them at the scene of the crime, then a seamless summary of these facts using this advice may read as follows:

The alibi provided by my client's employer and colleagues indicates that there were no plausible means by which my client could have left the office, robbed the bank, and made it back to their desk without being noticed. The time required to travel between these locations is too significant for this to be possible; no person could have successfully accomplished this task without their absence being noted. Furthermore, a key witness stated that the perpetrator of this crime was a Caucasian male with blonde hair and a tall frame. My client is not only female but also stands at a height of only 5'2"; this is a clear indication that my client's appearance does not align with the eyewitness's account of the true culprit's appearance. These key description discrepancies are only furthered by the lack of DNA evidence produced by the prosecution.

As you can see here, each idea supports one overall theme and provides evidence that leads to a verdict or a conclusion (i.e., innocence). This evidence is used to persuade the target audience (in this case [pun intended], the jury). Similarly, your conclusion should present evidence to convince your reader to agree with your main argument.

In the final sentence(s) of your conclusion paragraph, you need to bring your desired conclusion to light. Leave the reader feeling as though your evidence is, without a doubt, valid. Accordingly, the lawyer of the hypothetical client accused of bank robbery may read a closing sentence similar to the following:

Not only has the prosecution failed to produce any substantially valid evidence against my client, but the evidence that has been presented in this court further supports my client's innocence. Therefore, we ask the jury to render a verdict of not guilty.

Step 3: Close It (Flawlessly)

If you were undergoing the trial of a lifetime, you would want your lawyer's closing statements to be delivered flawlessly and without hesitation. The same is true for your conclusion paragraph. To be persuasive and convincing, it needs to be logical, coherent, and grammatically correct.

Once you have written the first draft of your conclusion paragraph, take a moment to reread it. Ensure that you have indicated a transition from the body of your paper to your conclusion and that the key elements of your paper are anchored on your overall argument.

Make adjustments to your statements to ensure that they are concise, accurately reflect your intention, and explicitly provide the evidence required to support your claims. Furthermore, check that you did not introduce any new major ideas (these should all be discussed in the main body of your work).

Then, ask a friend or—better yet—a professional essay editor to edit your paper. This step may seem inconsequential; however, the most minor details and adjustments can truly empower and sculpt an argument.

How many shows or movies have you watched more than once? You may have observed that each time you rewatch certain scenes, you notice inconsistencies and inaccuracies. Editing a paper is no different. The editing process ensures that your ideas are clear of all ambiguities and errors and polishes your conclusion paragraph into a beautifully articulated reflection on your work as a whole.

Here’s an Example

If the thesis of your paper indicated that businesses would be more profitable if they adopted a four-day workweek to ensure higher employee engagement, then your concluding paragraph might be structured and written as follows using our foolproof, three-step method to writing a great conclusion paragraph.

It is clear that a four-day work week is beneficial for both businesses and employees.
When an employee has a healthy work–life balance, they are more likely to be engaged when they are at work. As a result of this heightened engagement, the business can operate more efficiently, thus generating higher profits. Furthermore, if an employee is engaged, they are less likely to leave their organization, and instances of absenteeism will decrease. This will lower both hiring and turnover costs as well as benefit plan costs.

Close It (Flawlessly)

Although this business structure may require operational adjustments and potential increases in short-term costs, the long-term benefits are indisputable.

Using our three-step method, you, too, can learn how to write a conclusion paragraph. Just remember: practice makes perfect! No lawyer becomes great overnight, and the same goes for great writers.

Here's a handy graphic describing each step involved in writing a great conclusion paragraph. Feel free to download, save, and print it at your convenience.

How to Write a Conclusion Paragraph with Scribendi

Happy writing!

Image source: stevanovicigor/elements.envato.com

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In Summary: 10 Examples of Essay Conclusions


The conclusion of an essay may be the toughest section to write. Think about it; you're really tired at this point. It's probably the night before your paper is due and you just want to be done . So, the temptation is there to simply rush through it, and hope that your teacher is exhausted once she gets to your paper and doesn't bother to read it fully.

But the conclusion is probably the most important part of the paper. It ties everything together up nicely in the end. Not writing a good conclusion would be like if we never found out if Elizabeth and Mr. Darcy got together or if we never knew what that monster was in the Upside Down in "Stranger Things." Though not every ending has to be 100% conclusive (in fact, most endings never are— think the movie Inception ), it does have to have a well-thought out conclusion.

How To Write a Concluding Paragraph

So, how do you write a good conclusion? What are the key components of a solid conclusion? What does a thorough and effective conclusion look like?

Read on for more information about our conclusion on conclusions.

What are the key components of a good conclusion?

Remember that thesis statement which you wrote in the first or second paragraph of your essay? You know, the one where you stated a claim about something? You argued something about a topic and you used the body paragraphs to prove your thesis statement through all of the research that you've performed.

Perfecting Your Thesis Statement

Now that you've fully explained the research and the support for your thesis statement throughout the body of the paper, it's time to come back to that original idea in the conclusion. The conclusion basically asks us to do a few things:

  • Restate the main idea of the paper (why you wrote this entire long piece to begin with).
  • Summarize all the key points you made throughout the body of the paper (things that proved your thesis statement).
  • Write about why this paper and topic are important, and leave the reader with ideas for additional research or maybe some questions that didn't get answered. The idea is that you want to leave the reader with a long-lasting impression. This is your opportunity to really drive your point home and to use some really interesting language.

Okay, so now that we have a game plan of how we need to write a good conclusion and what components consists of, let's look at a few examples of some sample essay conclusions.

Essay conclusion 1 — Why Ross didn't deserve Rachel on "Friends"

Although viewers always expected Ross and Rachel to reunite at the end of the series, the fact remains that Ross didn't deserve Rachel as a partner. As we saw in the beginning of the series, Ross was unfaithful to Rachel when they had been dating for over a year, and he didn't want to admit his wrongdoing when they tried to get back together after their initial breakup. Additionally, Ross was an extremely jealous and demanding partner, yelling at Rachel in front of all of their friends on several occasions. Finally, and most egregiously, Ross had a terrible reaction when Rachel told Ross she was pregnant after Monica and Chandler's wedding, making him an undesirable romantic partner for her, or any other character on the show for that matter. This conclusion is especially apparent after viewing the show more than 10 years after the final episode aired and having a collectively better understanding of women's rights and domestic abuse in relationships.

Essay conclusion 2 — Should students be allowed to have cell phones in elementary school?

In conclusion, although it's easy to see why allowing an elementary school child to have a cell phone would be convenient for after-school pickups or arranging playdates with friends, there is too much evidence to show that it's generally not a good idea. Children already have a lot of access to media (on average over seven hours per day) and it is the parent's responsibility to monitor their media access, which is more difficult if the child has exclusive cell phone access. Cyber bullying, which is increasingly becoming a problem, is also going to be a risk when your child has unlimited access to a smart phone. Clearly, elementary school-aged children are not emotionally mature enough to handle the responsibility of a smart phone, and the borrowing of a parent's cell phone should be highly monitored to ensure safe and healthful usage.

Essay conclusion 3 — Should sexual education be taught in public schools?

It's clear that sexual education is completely vital to the public-school curriculum. Not only does this lead to a better understanding of human development and human sexuality, but awareness and sex education also reduce the rates of teen pregnancy. Studies have shown that comprehensive sexual education increases the age of when teens have sex for the first time. Learning about contraception and how to use contraception correctly ultimately leads to lower rates of STDs. Lastly, comprehensive sex education also teaches students about consensual sex, and will hopefully lead to healthier sexual relationships and lower rates of sexual assault in the future. Not only should sex education be taught in public schools, but it should be mandatory for all public-school systems.

Essay conclusion 4 — What are the biggest challenges for women in the workplace?

Women have outnumbered men on the payroll in nonfarm jobs since 2010, but even with a majority of females in the office, there are still huge challenges for them at work. One of the biggest issues, which has been widely covered and debated on, is the fact that women still earn less of a wage for the same job as their male counterparts. Now that women are the breadwinners of many families, this is stunting economic growth and opportunity for their children. Additionally, women are less likely to be in charge at work. With less than 6% of Fortune 500 companies with a female CEO, women have a steeper hill to climb at the very top echelon of jobs. With a more level playing field, women's opportunities will increase and the workforce will ultimately be more inviting for all.

Essay conclusion 5 — You're having dinner with your favorite author. What happens? Describe the scene.

Harper Lee puts down her cup of coffee on the table, quietly scanning the room for an exit.

I'm nervous, wondering what to say to end this surreal evening.

"Thank you so much for meeting with me. I know that you're a very private person, and I can't tell you how much this means to me."

She smiles slightly at me and waves at the waiter for the check, which he brings promptly.

Essay conclusion 6 — Should music with curse words be allowed at school dances?

Language can be powerful and sometimes even harmful, but censorship of language is one of the worst things we can do as a society. I believe that the content of the song is more important than a few curse words. If a song's content is designed to provoke, intimidate, or make someone feel inferior, then I believe that is more harmful than a few impolite words in a chorus.

Essay conclusion 7 — What is something that should be taught in school that isn't?

Financial literacy is one of the most important things a person needs to understand as a fully functional adult. It's crucial for someone to be able to know how to purchase a car, open a bank account, invest in a 401k plan, and pay back his or her student debt all while being able to balance paying rent and saving money. Financial literacy should be taught to students while they are still in high school so that they can feel prepared to go out on their own and make a positive contribution to society.

Essay conclusion 8 — Is an increased dependence on technology good for society?

Technology surely isn't going anywhere. If anything, we will become more and more dependent on the capabilities of our smartphones and other devices in the future. However, we have to make sure that this dependence on technology isn't making us lazier or less curious about the world around us. With more knowledge available than ever before with today's technology, people are less discerning about what kind of materials they read and whether or not those materials are factual. People are also less likely to make a personal connection with someone while they're out in the world, which can increase levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. Ultimately, we have to learn how to co-exist with technology in a way that is both healthful and constructive.

Essay conclusion 9 — Should schools start later in the morning?

There are some clear benefits to starting school later in the morning for K-12 students such as better academic performance and improved sleeping schedules. Although it might take a bit of rearranging schedules for parents to take their kids to school later on in the day, it's more important that students perform better academically than for the drop-off to be convenient for the parents on their way to work. To combat this, increased bus routes and crossing guards should be implemented so that parents who have to get to work at a certain time can be assured that their kids are making it to school safely.

Essay conclusion 10 — How do video games affect children and teenagers?

Video games have been an integral part of childhood and adolescence for a few decades now, but the effects on aggression levels and exposure to violence may make us take pause on how much exposure parents should let their kids have to these games. The video game industry is growing exponentially, and as the technology and video quality increase so does the ability to separate virtual reality from reality. Games with violent content are known to cause aggressive and sometimes even violent behavior in teens. Many video games, first-person shooter games in particular, have violent content. When the player is rewarded for violent behavior in the game, it reinforces the subtle idea that violence is acceptable and can be used in real life. With busy schedules and easy access to so much media, it's difficult for parents to be able to oversee everything that their children are exposed to. Video game designers should be held accountable for the violent content in their games, and a push should be made for more parental oversight and rules on video game usage.

In conclusion of conclusions

Conclusions are really just about wrapping things up. You want to be as succinct as possible, you want to reiterate the points you've already made throughout the essay, and you want to be compelling. With a little bit of practice and revision, you should be able to get the process down in no time. And if you need help with revising your conclusion or any other part of your paper, be sure to seek out the advice of a trusted teacher or a writing center, or hire one of our professional editors to give you a second opinion on your paper.

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Concluding sentence: easy writing guide.

January 21, 2021

Concluding Sentence

A concluding sentence should tie up an argument in a paragraph, essay, or paper. Unfortunately, many people make a mistake when writing essays and papers by leaving out this sentence. Others don’t even know what a conclusion sentence is and why it is important, leave alone knowing how to write it. So, let’s start by answering, what is a conclusion sentence?

What is a Concluding Sentence?

Every paragraph has a topic sentence, supporting sentences, and a concluding sentence. But, what’s a concluding sentence? Well, this is the sentence that sums up all the information that has been presented in the paragraph. It tells the readers that you’re getting to the closure of the paragraph.

Essentially, this sentence completes a paragraph while restating the main argument or idea. Conclusion sentence starters include words and phrases like “thus”, “therefore”, “resulting”, “in brief”, “hence”, and “to sum up” are often used to start this sentence.

This sentence summarizes the main argument. It also ties the paragraph without rephrasing or your topic sentence. A concluding sentence in a paragraph wraps up the entire argument while guiding the readers regarding the information that you have provided.

How to Write a Concluding Sentence

The concluding sentence definition may vary. However, this sentence should serve its purpose effectively. To achieve this, you should learn how to write a good concluding sentence. Here is a step-by-step guide on how to write a conclusion sentence.

  • Summarize Start by summarizing the paragraph’s content. Remember that this sentence should not introduce anything new to the paragraph. It should recap what you’ve shared with your readers in simple and few words. Essentially, this sentence should wrap up your main points briefly.
  • Make your sentence short The concluding sentence words should be few. However, the length of this sentence should depend on the essay or paragraph size. For instance, two lines could be sufficient for a paragraph that has ten lines. Essentially, summarize everything without losing the meaning.
  • Provide a closure In addition to summarizing a paragraph, this sentence should provide a solid closure to your readers. The importance of a solid close is less when composing a cliff-hanger only. Readers should feel at ease after reading your paper or essay. They should not be confused by the last sentence. Therefore, make sure that your sentence wraps up everything nicely.
  • Read the sentence Learning how to make a concluding sentence alone is not enough. You should also ensure that this sentence serves its purpose. Therefore, check your sentence to ensure that it mentions the chief points. It should provide a sense of summarization to the paragraph by wrapping up and summarizing all the key points. It should also rephrase the thesis statement to enhance understanding. What’s more, it should restate your topic sentence. It should represent all the findings, data, figures, materials, logic, and facts.

When learning how to write concluding sentence, bear in mind that this is a final word on the topic. As such, it should leave readers with a sense of closure or completion. This should be the clincher instead of a summary. The essential points of your write-up should be presented in your essay conclusion. What’s more, this sentence should compel readers to focus on new views regarding the topic. And most importantly, it should end on a positive note.

How to Start a Concluding Sentence

There are many ways of starting this sentence. You can learn about these ways by checking out well written concluding sentence examples. For instance, you can use these concluding sentence starters:

  • In conclusion ,
  • In general ,
  • Therefore ,

To understand how these starters can be used, check these conclusion sentence examples for essays.

Example 1 : In conclusion, marijuana may become recognized as a healing tool one day because it has more than recreational value.

Example 2 : Lastly, the widespread abuse of marijuana and its profitability should compel lawmakers to decriminalize its use in the U.S

Example 3: Therefore, marijuana should be availed to the general public due to its therapeutic benefits.

Example 4 : Clearly, a significant correlation between health risks and marijuana risks that explain why it should be decriminalized exist.

Example 5 : In general, marijuana should be legalized globally because its use is as old as the history of mankind.

The effective use of starters signals the beginning of this paragraph to the readers. It also ensures a smooth transition from the explanation of the main points to the end of the paragraph.

Concluding Sentence Transitions

You’ve probably read a good concluding sentence example and come across what seems like a transition word. Well, some of these sentences start with transition words. Here are examples of such transitions:

  • In other words ,
  • All in all ,

A writer can also include their final thought. This is very common in write-ups that do not provide a chance for writers to interject their opinion. Here is a concluding sentence essay sample that includes the final thought and a concluding statement.

In short, you can gain both stamina and muscle by following these steps though all exercise programs take time to achieve the desired results.

In this example, the writer starts the sentence with a transition, then moves on to the concluding statement before giving their opinion about the program’s results.

Useful Tips and Insights

In addition to using conclusion sentence examples, follow these tips:

  • Add a summary – Include a summary of your essay or paper in the sentence to serve as the crux of your writing. Your final thought or judgment should be supported by the summary of the main point in this sentence.
  • Call for action – This sentence should call readers to take action using an emotional and factual argument to evoke the desired response from the readers.
  • Evoke a certain image – Make sure that your sentence has an impact on the readers by painting a vivid picture. You should convey your ideas and transfer your mental image into the mind of the readers.
  • Make suggestions – Recommend beneficial changes to the surrounding and the audience.
  • Add quotations – Starting or ending your paper or essay with a quotation can create a good impression. It can also leave a lasting effect on the reader. Therefore, consider using a quotation in your conclusion.

By reading a good conclusion sentence example, you will see how the author restates their thesis or topic sentence using the right synonyms. You will also learn to wrap up the paragraph with the right words. What’s more, a good example will show you the best way to use starters and transition words to signal the beginning of this paragraph.

The purpose of the last sentence in a paragraph is to remind the audience about the discussed topic. It also sums up all the information provided in that paragraph. Although you can use a concluding sentence generator, you should learn and practice writing it. This will enable you to give every paragraph that you write a great sense of completion or closure. Writing services may also come in handy here. In short, your readers will feel that you addressed the main point to its conclusion.

contoh concluding paragraph

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Conclusion transition words: Phrases for summarizing and ending

contoh concluding paragraph

Transition words help us structure our thoughts and guide the reader or listener through what we are saying. When it’s time to summarize your message or end a paragraph, conclusion transition words let you signal this closing.

It’s good to know some synonyms for ‘in conclusion’ and ‘to conclude’, because although these are good examples of concluding words, they can get repetitive.

Our comprehensive list of transition words for conclusion and summary should give you all the inspiration you need, whether you are writing an essay or speech, or just want to become more confident forming an argument. These signal words can also be helpful for restating ideas, drawing attention to key points as you conclude.

We have included plenty of examples of how you can use these transition words for concluding paragraphs or sentences, so by the end of this article, you should be clear on how to use them properly.

contoh concluding paragraph

Conclusion transition words with examples

We have grouped these summarizing and concluding transition words according to how and where they can be used. For example, some should only be used when forming a final conclusion, whereas others can be used to summarize sections mid-way through your speech or writing.

First, let’s be clear about the difference between a summary and a conclusion .

Summary vs conclusion

A conclusion comes at the end of a speech, chapter, or piece of text, and it brings together all of the points mentioned. A summary, however, can be placed anywhere (even at the beginning). A summary gives a brief outline of the main points but is not as in-depth as a conclusion.

If you are giving a presentation or writing a blog, you may wish to summarize the main points in your introduction so that people know what you are going to cover. You could also summarize a section part-way through before moving on to another angle or topic.

In contrast, the conclusion always comes at the end, and you should only use specific conclusion transition words as you are drawing to a close.

Transition words for conclusion paragraphs

Let’s begin with some discourse markers that signal you are moving to the concluding paragraph in your presentation, speech, essay, or paper. These can all be used to start a conclusion paragraph.

  • In conclusion
  • To conclude
  • We can conclude that
  • Given these points
  • In the final analysis
  • As can be seen
  • In the long run
  • When all is said and done
  • I’ll end by
  • As we draw to a close

The last three on this list, the ‘closing’ transition words, would generally only be used in spoken discourse.

Some transition words for order and sequencing should also help with structuring what you want to say, including the ending.

Example conclusion sentences

The following sentences show how to use conclusion words correctly:

  • In conclusion , we can say that plan A will be of greater benefit to the company.
  • When all is said and done , it’s clear that we should steer clear of this investment strategy.
  • Given these points , I believe the trial was a great success.
  • I’ll end by reminding you all that this experiment was just the beginning of a much larger project.
  • To wrap up , let’s look at how this learning can be applied.
  • In the long run , we will make more profit by investing heavily in new machinery.
  • Having analyzed seven of our competitors in detail, we can conclude that our content marketing strategy should be updated.

Transition words for summary

The following summary transition words may be used as part of a conclusion paragraph, but they are especially helpful for concisely drawing together several points.

  • To summarize
  • On the whole
  • Generally speaking
  • All things considered
  • In a nutshell (informal)
  • In any case

Note that although you can insert summary transition words anywhere, the specific phrases ‘In summary’, ‘To summarize’ and ‘To sum up’ are generally only used at the end, similar to conclusion phrases.

Example summary sentences

  • In brief , this presentation is going to cover the pros and cons of the device and how we can apply this to our own product development.
  • This new technology is, in a word , revolutionary.
  • All things considered , we found that Berlin was a great city for a weekend break.
  • To summarize , we can say that Shakespeare’s writing continues to have a global influence.
  • We can say that the combustion engine was, on the whole , a good invention.
  • In any case , we should put the necessary precautions in place.
  • Generally speaking , girls are more thoughtful than boys.

Transition words to end a paragraph

You may wish to add ending transition words in the final sentence of a paragraph to conclude the ideas in that section of text, before moving on to another point.

Here are some transition words to conclude a paragraph:

  • This means that
  • With this in mind
  • By and large
  • For the most part

Note that some of these could equally be used to begin a new paragraph, so long as that paragraph is summarizing the points previously mentioned.

Cause and effect transition words could also be helpful in this context.

Examples of transition words for the end of a paragraph

  • Jamie is a vegan and Sheryl has a lot of allergies. This means that we should be careful which restaurant we choose.
  • The weather forecast said it would rain this afternoon. With this in mind , should we postpone our hike?
  • Each of the students has their own opinion about where to go for the field trip. Ultimately , though, it’s the teacher who will decide.

Restating points as you conclude

Conclusion transition words can also signal that you are restating a point you mentioned earlier. This is common practice in both writing and speaking as it draws the reader or listener’s attention back to something you want them to keep in mind. These are, therefore, also examples of transition words for emphasizing a point .

Here are some helpful transition words for concluding or summarizing by restating points:

  • As mentioned previously
  • As stated earlier
  • As has been noted
  • As shown above
  • As I have said
  • As I have mentioned
  • As we have seen
  • As has been demonstrated

You may switch most of these between the passive and active voice, depending on which is most appropriate. For example, ‘As has been demonstrated’ could become ‘As I have demonstrated’ and ‘As shown above’ could become ‘As I have shown’.

Example sentences to restate a point in conclusion or summary

  • As I stated earlier , the only way we can get meaningful results from this survey is by including at least a thousand people.
  • As has been demonstrated throughout this conference, there are exciting things happening in the world of neuroscience.
  • As shown by this study, the trials have been promising.

If you were researching these transition words for concluding an essay, you might find it helpful to read this guide to strong essay conclusions . Of course, there are many ways to use summary transition words beyond essays. They may be a little formal for casual conversation, but they certainly can be used in speech as part of a presentation, debate, or argument.

Can you think of any other concluding words or phrases that should be on this list? Leave a comment below to share them!

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contoh concluding paragraph

Your conclusion paragraph should logically conclude your essay, just like your concluding sentences logically conclude your body paragraphs. The conclusion paragraph should begin by restating your thesis, and then you should broaden back out to a general topic. End with a closing statement. This paragraph looks like the reverse of your introduction paragraph, going from specific to general.


Restate your thesis

The first sentence of your conclusion paragraph should restate your thesis. A restated thesis expresses the same idea, but the words are different. Remember that the meaning of your thesis should not change. Compare the thesis with the restatement below.

Thesis: Exercise is essential because it improves overall physical and mental health. Restated: Due to the mental and physical health benefits of exercise, it is absolutely crucial for our bodies.

You can restate your thesis by

  • changing the order of the phrases
  • using synonyms (e.g., essential > crucial)
  • stating main points direcly instead of implying them (or vice versa)
  • using different word forms (e.g., adjective > noun)

Apply your thesis to general contexts

Connect your thesis back to the general topics you mentioned in your introduction.

Give a closing statement

Your closing statement is very similar to the concluding sentence of a body paragraph except that you will not restate your main idea at the very end of your paper. Your last sentences can be a prediction, suggestion, opinion, or question. 

Exercise 1: Identify effective restated thesis statements

Read the thesis statement. Choose the best restated thesis from the options below.  

Thesis: Apartment complexes should provide quiet study rooms for residents so they can study without distractions.  

  • Study rooms are important for students to study in.  
  • Apartment managers should build quiet places to study for residents.  
  • Now we can see that study rooms are valuable for students who live in apartments.  
  • It is important for apartments to provide their residents with quiet study areas.

Exercise 2: Restate a thesis

On a piece of paper, rewrite each thesis statement as you would at the beginning of a conclusion paragraph.

  • In order for students to manage stress better, they need to prioritize their tasks, eat well, and get enough sleep.
  • Even though Salt Lake City and Madrid may seem similar based on climate, their major religions, language, and food are distinct.
  • Business owners need to make decisions that satisfy employees, customers, and investors.
  • Increasing your vocabulary is easy if you try to notice new words in context, review them often, and use them as much as you can.

Exercise 3: Write a conclusion paragraph

Read the introduction paragraph and then finish writing the conclusion paragraph on a piece of paper.

Prompt: Describe how to write an essay.


         Many writers feel overwhelmed when they write an essay. They are unsure of where to start or how to be successful. However, the process is very basic. There are simple steps that can simplify the process and make writing a good essay possible for anyone. In order to write an impactful essay, it is essential that writers plan, draft, and share their writing.

Exercise 4: Identify types of paragraphs.

Identify whether each paragraph is an introduction, body, or conclusion paragraph.  

1. T ype of paragraph: __________________________  

Touchscreen technology, wireless charging, and a better camera are the best features on the new iPhone. These qualities all encourage customers to consider buying this phone because it is easier to use, more convenient, and more useful than other models. When you start looking for your upgrade, you should ask yourself if your new phone should have these features. The new iPhone does. What are you waiting for? You won’t regret upgrading to the new iPhone.

2. Type of paragraph: __________________________  

A successful restaurant requires many workers, each with specific jobs that help things run smoothly. Cooks in the kitchen skillfully prepare the food. Servers take orders, deliver meals, and ensure the customers are satisfied. The hostess greets the customers as they enter the restaurant and sets the tone for the customer’s experience. All of these people are necessary to make a restaurant successful.  

3. Type of paragraph: __________________________

All year long, the scenery in Utah Valley is amazing. In the winter, the valley is covered with a blanket of snow. In the spring, the trees blossom with flowers. The summer weather beckons hikers to discover the stunning vistas in the canyons. The Rocky Mountains then take on beautiful shades of red, orange, and yellow in the fall. As each season changes, the beauty of the area is evident. While all of the seasons are stunning, the most beautiful season in Utah is the autumn. 

Exercise 5: Analyze an essay

Read one of the following example essays on the following pages to complete this exercise.

  • Label the introduction paragraph, the body paragraphs, and the conclusion paragraph.
  • Circle the hook.
  • What is the general topic of the essay?
  • Underline the thesis.
  • Underline each of the topic sentences.
  • Do each of the topic sentences support the thesis?
  • Does the conclusion paragraph start by restating the thesis?

This content is provided to you freely by BYU Open Learning Network.

Access it online or download it at https://open.byu.edu/academic_a_writing/conclusion_paragraph .

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Clear Guide to Introduction & Conclusion Paragraphs Examples

Table of Contents

The introduction and conclusion play a major role in academic essays. Writing these paragraphs typically requires much of your focus. While the introduction engages the reader, the conclusion makes a lasting impression on the reader. Proper introduction and conclusion paragraphs examples will make the idea clear.

An effective introduction must pique the reader’s curiosity. It should state your topic, give relevant background information, and describe your essay’s specific focus.

The conclusion, on the other hand, provides a sense of closure and sets your concepts in a somewhat broader framework. This article will discuss how to structure the introduction and conclusion paragraphs for academic papers with examples.

How to Write an Effective Introduction

The introduction paragraph aims to introduce the reader to the topic. The thesis statement explains the primary purpose and clarifies the argument of the paper. This should pique the reader’s interest and make them want to keep reading the paper.

Take into account the following tips to draw readers in and fill out your introduction:

  • Find a startling statistic demonstrating the gravity of the issue you intend to address.
  • Cite an expert to accentuate the credibility of your work.
  • Mention a widespread misconception that your thesis will refute.
  • Provide brief background information for better comprehension of the essay.
  • Use a short narrative or anecdote to explain your reasoning for selecting the topic. For personal reflection essays, you may draw from personal experiences. For research essays, use a narrative that depicts a common real-world situation. 
  • In the case of technical writing, define any possibly unfamiliar term to your audience if that is essential to understanding the essay.
  • For scientific papers, explain fundamental scientific concepts and refer to relevant works of literature.

Avoid the following errors when writing your essay introduction:

  • Don’t give dictionary definitions for the terms that your audience is already familiar with.
  • Refrain from using the professor’s exact words when repeating the assignment requirements.
  • Don’t include detailed or lengthy explanations that are better left for your body paragraphs.

a fountain pen tip placed on black lined paper

How to Write Effective Conclusions

A conclusion paragraph summarizes the “takeaway” or relevance of the discussion while reminding the reader of the paper’s key arguments. You could use the following tips to write an effective conclusion paragraph for your essay.

  • Remember to refer back to your introduction paragraph to guide your conclusion.
  • Rephrase and restate the thesis statement of the essay. It is advisable to reword the thesis rather than repeat it entirely.
  • You should summarize the key points from each of your body paragraphs.
  • It’s wise to give the reader something to ponder after finishing the essay to encourage further research into the topic.
  • Briefly reiterate a quotation, example, or anecdote from the introduction with insights from the body paragraphs.
  • For scientific papers, mention relevant directions for additional research on your subject.
  • Bringing back concepts from the introduction will help you wrap up the conclusion and engage your audience.
  • Consider the conclusion as the complete opposite of the introduction. The introduction starts with general statements and becomes more specific. However, the conclusion begins with a specific point and ends with a more general statement.

Avoid the following errors when writing your essay conclusion:

  • Introducing new content or ideas
  • Contradicting your thesis statement
  • Revising your thesis
  • Avoid using apologetic words or disclaimers

Introduction and Conclusion Paragraphs Examples

Now you know how to write an engaging introduction and conclusion paragraph . Let’s look at one example for each. We have compiled the introduction and conclusion of the same essay below.

Introduction Paragraph Example

People in academics are held to a higher standard of ethics, given their access to a wealth of resources to broaden their knowledge. Any form of dishonesty in this community changes the representation of the information presented by the person.

Most importantly, it alters how they are perceived as a person. Academic dishonesty can take many forms, including plagiarism, collusion, falsification, conspiracy, misrepresentation, and cheating. However, plagiarism is the most widely known in academic fields.

In this essay, I’ll talk about academic dishonesty, with a focus on plagiarism and its adverse effects and prevention strategies.

Conclusion Paragraph Example

Even the smallest act of academic dishonesty, whether deliberate or accidental, can have a significant negative effect. The fundamental ideals of honesty, fairness, and integrity must be at the center of the academic experience.

Since academic dishonesty reduces the value of your past, current, and future work, it is crucial to prevent it. Academic dishonesty has a negative influence not only on the individual committing it but also on the institution they are enrolled in.

Anyone who violates these values must be evicted. In academia, truth and honesty are prioritized. It is preferable to fail openly and with integrity than to succeed by breaking the rules.

Wrapping Up

The introduction and conclusion paragraphs are the most important ones in your essay, as they can make or break your piece. The introduction states the central argument of your paper while enticing the reader to keep reading. And the conclusion sums up your essay on a positive note while giving a sense of closure on the topic .

Writing a good introduction and conclusion is often tedious and difficult for many students. But this article provides introduction and conclusion paragraphs examples with valuable tips to craft a compelling essay opening and closing.

Clear Guide to Introduction & Conclusion Paragraphs Examples

Abir Ghenaiet

Abir is a data analyst and researcher. Among her interests are artificial intelligence, machine learning, and natural language processing. As a humanitarian and educator, she actively supports women in tech and promotes diversity.

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    For example, a paragraph might look like this: TM. E. E. A. E. E. A. A. Part III: The Conclusion. A conclusion is the last paragraph of your essay, or, if you're writing a really long essay, you might need 2 or 3 paragraphs to conclude. A conclusion typically does one of two things—or, of course, it can do both: Summarizes the argument.

  16. How to Write a Conclusion Paragraph (in Three Easy Steps!)

    Step 1: Anchor It. A good conclusion paragraph begins by transitioning your message from the body of your paper to the conclusion and anchoring it to your thesis statement. A transitional phrase should be used in the opening of your conclusion; consider using a phrase like "it is clear," "it is evident," or "overall."

  17. In Summary: 10 Examples of Essay Conclusions

    Essay conclusion 1 — Why Ross didn't deserve Rachel on "Friends" Although viewers always expected Ross and Rachel to reunite at the end of the series, the fact remains that Ross didn't deserve Rachel as a partner.

  18. How To Write A Concluding Sentence (With Examples)

    January 21, 2021 A concluding sentence should tie up an argument in a paragraph, essay, or paper. Unfortunately, many people make a mistake when writing essays and papers by leaving out this sentence. Others don't even know what a conclusion sentence is and why it is important, leave alone knowing how to write it.

  19. How to Write a Conclusion (With Tips and Examples)

    How to write a conclusion. An effective conclusion is created by following these steps: 1. Restate the thesis. An effective conclusion brings the reader back to the main point, reminding the reader of the purpose of the essay. However, avoid repeating the thesis verbatim. Paraphrase your argument slightly while still preserving the primary point.

  20. 20 Essay Conclusion Examples to Help You Finish Strong

    March 14, 2018 Have you ever heard that different people learn in different ways? Well, it's true. And while some people may be able to learn just by reading the theories on how to do something, you learn differently—you need actual examples. Just like a protester, politician, or superhero, I'm here to lead by example.

  21. 42 Summary & conclusion transition words (with examples)

    Conclusion transition words with examples We have grouped these summarizing and concluding transition words according to how and where they can be used. For example, some should only be used when forming a final conclusion, whereas others can be used to summarize sections mid-way through your speech or writing.

  22. Conclusion Paragraphs

    Identify whether each paragraph is an introduction, body, or conclusion paragraph. 1.Type of paragraph: _____ Touchscreen technology, wireless charging, and a better camera are the best features on the new iPhone. These qualities all encourage customers to consider buying this phone because it is easier to use, more convenient, and more useful ...

  23. Clear Guide to Introduction & Conclusion Paragraphs Examples

    The conclusion, on the other hand, provides a sense of closure and sets your concepts in a somewhat broader framework. This article will discuss how to structure the introduction and conclusion paragraphs for academic papers with examples. How to Write an Effective Introduction. The introduction paragraph aims to introduce the reader to the topic.