Browse Course Material

Course info, instructors.

  • Prof. Samuel Madden
  • Prof. Robert Morris
  • Prof. Michael Stonebraker
  • Dr. Carlo Curino


  • Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

As Taught In

  • Information Technology
  • Algorithms and Data Structures
  • Data Mining
  • Software Design and Engineering

Learning Resource Types

Database systems, final project assignment and ideas.

A large portion (20%) of your grade in 6.830 consists of a final project. This project is meant to be a substantial independent research or engineering effort related to material we have studied in class. Your project may involve a comparison of systems we have read about, an application of database techniques to a system you are familiar with, or be a database-related project in your research area.

This document describes what is expected of a final project and proposes some possible project ideas.

What Is Expected

Good class projects can vary dramatically in complexity, scope, and topic. The only requirement is that they be related to something we have studied in this class and that they contain some element of research — e.g., that you do more than simply engineer a piece of software that someone else has described or architected. To help you determine if your idea is of reasonable scope, we will arrange to meet with each group several times throughout the semester.

What to Hand In

There are two written deliverables, a project proposal and a final report.

Project Proposal : The proposal should consist of 1-2 pages describing the problem you plan to solve, outlining how you plan to solve it, and describing what you will “deliver” for the final project. We will arrange short meetings with every group before the project proposal to help you refine your topic and would be happy to provide feedback on a draft of your proposal before it is due.

Final Report : You should prepare a conference-style report on your project with maximum length of 15 pages (10 pt font or larger, one or two columns, 1 inch margins, single or double spaced — more is not better). Your report should introduce and motivate the problem your project addresses, describe related work in the area, discuss the elements of your solution, and present results that measure the behavior, performance, or functionality of your system (with comparisons to other related systems as appropriate.)

Because this report is the primary deliverable upon which you will be graded, do not treat it as an afterthought . Plan to leave at least a week to do the writing, and make sure you proofread and edit carefully!

Please submit a paper copy of your report. You will also be expected to give a presentation on your project in class that will provide an opportunity for you to present a short demo of your work and show what you have done to other students in the class. Details about the format of the presentation will be posted as the date gets closer.

Project Ideas

The following is a list of possible project ideas; you are not required to choose from this list — in fact, we encourage you to try to solve a problem of your own choosing! If you are interested in working on one of these projects, contact the instructors and we can put you in touch with students and others around MIT working on these ideas. Note that these are not meant to be complete project proposals, but just suggestions for areas to explore — you will need to flesh them out into complete projects by talking with your group members, the course staff, and graduate students working on these projects.

Being able to compare performance of different DBMSs and different storage and access techniques is vital for the database community. To this purpose several synthetic benchmark has been designed and adopted over time (see TPC-C, TPC-H etc…). Wikipedia open source application, and publicly available data (several TB!!), provide a great starting point to develop a benchmark based on real-world data. Moreover, we obtained from the Wikimedia foundation 10% of 4 months of Wikipedia accesses (roughly 20 billion HTTP requests!). The project will consists in using this real-world data, queries and access patterns to design one of the first benchmarks based on real-world data.

Amazon RDS is a database service provided within the EC2 cloud. An interesting project consists in investigating performance and scalability characteristics of Amazon RDS. Also since RDS services run in a virtualized environment, studying the “stability” and “isolation” of the performance offered is interesting.

Hosted database services such as Amazon RDS, Microso SQL Azure are starting to become popular. It is still unclear what is the performance impact of running applications on a local (non-hosted) platform, such as a local enterprise datacenter, while having the data hosted “in the cloud”. An interesting project aim at investigating the performance impact for different classes of applications e.g., OLAP, OLTP, Web.

Performance monitoring is an important portion of data-center and database management. An interesting project consists in developing a monitoring interface for MySQL, capable of monitoring multiple nodes, reporting both DBMS internal statistics, and OS-level statistics (CPU, RAM, DIsk), potentially automating the detection of saturation of resources.

Being able to predict cpu/mem/disk load of database machines can enable “consolidation”, i.e., the co-location of multiple DB within a smaller set of physical servers. We have an interesting set of data from real-world data-centers, the project would consist in investigating machine-learning and other predictive techniques on such real-world data.

Flash memories are very promising technologies, providing lower latency for random operations. However, they have a series of unusual restrictions and performance. An interesting project investigates the performance impact of using flash memories for DB applications.

Often database assume data to be stored on a local disk, however data stored on network file systems can allow for easier administration, and is rather common in enterprises using SAN or NAS storage systems. The project will investigate the impact of local-vs-networked storage on query performance.

Partition-aware object-relational mapping. Many programmers seem to prefer object-relational mapping (ORM) layers such as like Ruby on Rails or Hibernate to a traditional ODBC/JDBC interface to a database. In the H-store Project we have been studying performance benefits that can be obtained in a “partitonable” database, where the tables can be cleanly partitioned according to some key attribute (for example, customer-id), and queries are generally run over just one partition. The goal of this project would be to study how to exploit partitioning to improve the performance of a distributed ORM layer.

Twitter provides a fire hose of data. Automatically filtering, aggregating, analyzing such data can allow a way to harness the full value of the data, extracting valuable information. The idea of this project is investigating stream processing technology to operate on social streams.

Client-side database. Build a Javascript library that client-side Web applications can use to access a database; the idea is to avoid the painful way in which current client-side application have to use the XMLHttpRequest interface to access server-side objects asynchronously. This layer should cache objects on the client side whenever possible, but be backed by a shared, server-side database system.

As a related project, HTML5 browsers (including WebKit, used by Safari and Chrome), include a client-side SQL API in JavaScript. This project would involve investigating how to user such a database to improve client performance, offload work from the server, etc.

Preventing denial-of-service attacks on database systems. Databases are a vulnerable point in many Web sites, because it is often possible for attackers to make some simple request that causes the Web site to issue queries asking the database to do a lot of work. By issuing a large number of such requests, and attacker can effectively issue a denial of service attack against the Web site by disabling the database. The goal of this project would be to develop a set of techniques to counter this problem — for example, one approach might be to modify the database scheduler so that it doesn’t run the same expensive queries over and over.

Auto-admin tools to recommend indices, etc. Design a tool that recommends a set of indices to build given a particular workload and a set of statistics in a database. Alternatively investigate the question of which materialized views to create in a data-warehousing system, such as

Scientific community data management requirements significantly differ from regular web/enterprise ones. To this purpose a specialized DB is currently being developed named: SciDB. Studying performance of SciDB on dedicated servers vs. on virtualized environment such as EC2 is an intriguing topic. Another interesting investigation would cover the impact on SciDB performance of storing the data over the network (e.g., network file system). A third interesting project would explore the performance of clustering algorithms on SciDB vs. MapReduce.

Asynchronous Database Access. Client software interacts with standard SQL databases via a blocking interface like ODBC or JDBC; the client sends SQL, waits for the database to process the query, and receives an answer. A non-blocking interface would allow a single client thread to issue many parallel queries from the same thread, with potential for some impressive performance gains. This project would investigate how this would work (do the queries have to be in different transactions? what kind of modification would need to be made to the database) and would look at the possible performance gains in some typical database benchmarks or applications.

Extend SimpleDB. SimpleDB is very simple. There are a number of ways you might extend it to explore some of the research ideas we have studied in this class. For example, you could add support for optimistic concurrency control and compare its performance to the basic concurrency control scheme you will implement in Problem Set 3. There are a number of other possible projects of this type; we would be happy to discuss these in more detail.

CarTel. In the CarTel project, we are building a system for collecting and managing data from automobiles. There are several possible CarTel related projects: * One of the features of CarTel is a GUI for browsing geo-spatial data collected from cars. We currently have a primitive interface for retrieving parts of the data that are of interest, but developing a more sophisticated interface or query language for browsing and exploring this data would make a great project. * One of the dangers with building a system like CarTel is that it collects relatively sensitive personal information about users location and driving habits. Protecting this information from casual browsers, insurance companies, or other undesired users is important. However, it is also important to be able to combine different users data together to do things like intelligent route planning or vehicle anomaly detection. The goal of this project would be to find a way to securely perform certain types of aggregate queries over CarTel data without exposing personally identifiable information. * We have speed and position data from the last year for 30 taxi cabs on the Boston streets. Think of something exciting you could do with this.

Rollback of long-running or committed transactions. Database systems typically only support UNDO of committed transactions, but there are cases where it might be important to rollback already committed transactions. One approach is to use user-supplied compensating actions, but there may be other models that are possible, or it may be possible to automatically derive such compensating action for certain classes of transactions.


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Database Management Systems and SQL – Tutorial for Beginners

Bikash Daga (Jain)

Database Management Systems and SQL are two of the most important and widely used tools on the internet today.

You use a Database Management System (DBMS) to store the data you collect from various sources, and SQL to manipulate and access the particular data you want in an efficient way.

Many different businesses use these tools to increase their sales and improve their products. Other institutions like schools and hospitals also use them to improve their administrative services.

In this article, you will learn about:

  • The basics of DBMS and SQL
  • The most important features of DBMS and SQL
  • The reasons you should learn DBMS and SQL.

What Does a DBMS Do?

DBMS stands for Database Management System, as we mentioned above. SQL stands for Structured Query Language.

If you have lots of data that you need to store, you don't just want to keep it anywhere – then there would be no sense of what that huge amount of data means or can tell you. That's why we use a DBMS.

A database is basically where we store data that are related to one-another – that is, inter-related data. This inter-related data is easy to work with.

A DBMS is software that manages the database. Some of the commonly used DBMS (software) are MS ACCESS, MySQL, Oracle, and others.

Suppose you have some data like different names, grades, and ID numbers of students. You'd probably prefer to have that data in a nice table where a particular row consists of students’ names, grades, and ID numbers. And to help you organize and read that data efficiently, you'll want to use a DBMS.

Using a DBMS goes hand in hand with SQL. This is because when you store data and want to access and alter it, you'll use SQL.

A database stores data in various forms like schemas, views, tables, reports, and more.

Types of DBMS

There are two types of DBMS.

First, you have Relational Databases (RDBMS). In these types of databases, data is stored in the format of tables by the software. In an RDBMS, each row consists of data from a particular entity only.

Some of the RDBMS commonly used are MySQL, MSSQL, Oracle, and others.

Then you have Non-Relational Databases. In these databases, data is stored in the form of key and value pairs.

Some of the Non-Relational DBMSs commonly used are MongoDB, Amazon, Redis, and others.

Components of a DBMS

There are mainly four components of a DBMS which you can understand by checking out the image below:


You have your Users. There can be multiple users, like someone who manages the database (the database administrator), system developers, and also those who are just regular users like the customer.

You also have the Database Application. The application of a database can be either departmental or personal or may be for internal use in an organization.

Then you have the DBMS, which we've been discussing. This is software that helps the users create the database and access the data inside it in an efficient manner.

Finally, you have the Database, which is a collection of data stored in the form of a single unit.

One important feature of a DBMS is that it helps reduce the redundancy in the data stored. Having the same data stored at multiple locations in a database is called redundancy.

To eliminate and reduce the redundancy in the database, normalization is used.

Normalization is the process of structuring the data in an RDBMS by removing anomalies. It is important to enable easy retrieval of data from the database as well as to add or delete data without losing consistency. This might be implemented with the help of “Normal Forms” in DBMS. These normal forms help in establishing relations in a relational database instead of having to redefine existing fields again and again. In this way, normalization reduces redundancy.

What is SQL?

SQL is a database language. SQL is used widely and almost all Relational Database Management Systems can recognize it.

SQL contains a set of commands that enable you to create a database. You can also use it to execute commands in your Relational Database Management System.

SQL has certain advantages which have helped it thrive from the 1970s until now. It is widely accepted by both people and platforms, in part because of the following features:

  • SQL is fast
  • SQL is a very high-level language
  • SQL is a platform-independent language
  • SQL is a standardized language
  • SQL is a portable language

Along with all the features mentioned above, you need almost no coding skills to work with SQL.

SQL performs a variety of tasks like creating, altering, maintaining and retrieving data, setting properties, and so on. All the tasks are done based on the commands you write, and these commands are grouped into various categories like DDL commands, DML commands, DCL commands, and so on.

Let's discuss some of the frequently used commands and their types.

DDL commands

DDL stands for Data Definition Language. It includes the set of commands that you use to perform various tasks related to data definition. You use these commands to specify the structure of the storage and methods through which you can access the database system.

You use DDL commands to perform the following functions:

  • To create, drop, and alter.
  • To grant and revoke various roles and privileges.
  • Maintenance commands

Example DDL commands include CREATE , ALTER , DROP , and TRUNCATE .

DML commands

DML stands for Data Manipulation Language. As the name suggests, it consists of commands which you use to manipulate the data.

You use these commands for the following actions:

  • Modification

Example DML commands are SELECT , INSERT , UPDATE , and DELETE .

TCL commands

TCL stands for Transaction Control Language. As the name says, you use these commands to control and manage transactions.

One complete unit of work that involves various steps is called a transaction.

You use these commands for the following purposes:

  • To create savepoints
  • To set properties of the transaction going on
  • To undo the changes to the database (permanent)
  • To make changes in the database (permanent)

Example TCL commands include COMMIT , ROLLBACK , and SAVE TRANSACTION .

How to Write Basic Queries in SQL

There are various keywords you use in SQL like SELECT, FROM, WHERE, and others. These SQL keywords are not case-sensitive.

To create a table called Student that has a name, roll numbers, and marks in it, you can write:

Here CREATE, TABLE, and NOT NULL are keywords. You use CREATE and TABLE to create a table and NOT NULL to specify that the column cannot be left blank while making a record.

To make a query from a table, you'll write:  

You use the ‘select’ keyword to pull the information from a table. The ‘From’ keyword selects the table from which the information is to be pulled. The ‘where’ keyword specifies the condition to be specified.

For example, say we want to retrieve the marks from the student table that has data for marks, roll numbers, and names. The command would be as follows:

If you want to learn more about SQL for beginners, you can check out this cheatsheet that'll teach you the basics pretty quickly.

You can also go through this Relational Database Course for Beginners to get a more solid understanding of the query language.

Why Are DBMS and SQL Important?

Being able to work with DBMS and SQL are some of the most critical skills in today’s world. After all, you know what they say - "Data is the new oil." So you should know how to work with it effectively.

Here are a few reasons why you should learn how to use at least one DBMS and SQL.

Reasons to Learn How to Use a DBMS

If you're storing an extremely large amount of data.

If your organization needs to store a huge amount of data, you'll want to use a DBMS to keep them organized and be able to access them easily.

DBMS store the data in a very logical manner making it very easy to work with a humongous amount of Data. You can read more about database management systems in this tutorial by freeCodeCamp , in this Wiki , and on Scaler for a better understanding of data storage in DBMS.

If you're doing data mining

Data mining is the process of extracting usable data that includes only relevant information from a very large dataset. Using a DBMS, you can perform data mining very efficiently. For managing the data, you use CRUD operations which stands for Create, Read, Update, and Delete. You can perform these operations with a DBMS easily and efficiently.

Integrity constraint and scalability

The data you store in your database satisfies integrity constraints. Integrity constraints are the set of rules that are already defined and which are responsible for maintaining the quality and consistency of data in that database. The DBMS makes sure that the data is consistent. Scalability is another important feature of a DBMS. You can insert a lot of data into a database very easily and it will be accessible to the user quickly and with some basic queries. You do not need to write new code and spend lots of time and money on expanding the same database.

When you have multiple user interfaces

When you're using a DBMS, you can have multiple users access the system at the same time. Just like in a UNIX operating system two users can log into a single account at the same time.

DBMS makes storing data simple. You can also add security permissions on data access to make sure access is restricted and the privacy of the data remains intact. DBMS protects the confidentiality, availability, integrity, and consistency of the data stored in it. Along with making the data secure it reduces the time taken to develop an application and makes the process efficient.

Learning a DBMS is an in-demand skill:

Most companies out there – big or small – have lots of data to work with. And so they'll need people to analyze it.

If you know how to use a DBMS, you can use those skills in almost all data-oriented technologies. So once you learn DBMS, it will be easy to work on any data-driven technology.

Reasons to Learn SQL

Since SQL is a language that is used for database management, some of the above points also apply to learning it (such as data storage, data mining, and so on).

Here are some of the additional reasons you should learn SQL.

SQL is relatively easy to learn

SQL is quite easy to learn in the context of database management. SQL queries resemble the simple English we use in our day-to-day life. For example, if we want to make a table named Topics, we just have to use the command:

Understanding how a computer works helps you learn other skills related to computers like any programming language, spreadsheet software like MS Excel, and word processing software like MS word.

You also use SQL to manage data on various platforms like SQLite .

SQL is standardized

SQL was developed in the 1970s and has been extensively used for more than 50 years without many significant changes made to it. This makes it a standard skill for working with data, so typically when you apply for a job, they will be using SQL for data storage and management purposes. This general standardization also makes it easier to learn because you don't need to constantly update your knowledge, again and again, to be adept at it.

SQL is easy to troubleshoot

Any error you get while using SQL will show a clear message about what's going on in very simple English.

For example, if you are trying to use a table or any database that does not exist, it will show the error that the table or the database you are trying to access does not exist.

There is the concept of exception handling in SQL also just like any other           programming language.

Exception handling is used for handling query runtime errors with the TRY CATCH construct. The TRY block is used to specify the set of statements that need to be checked for an error, while CATCH block executes certain statements in case an error has occurred. Exception handling is crucial for writing bug-free code.

Easy to manipulate data

Data manipulation refers to Adding (or inserting), deleting (removing), and modifying (updating) the data in a database. The data you store in the SQL is dynamic in nature which makes it easy for you to manipulate the data at any point in time.

You can also retrieve data easily using a single-line SQL command.And if you want to present the data in the form of charts or graphs, then SQL plays a key role in that and makes data visualization easy for you.

Client and server data sharing

Whenever an application is used, the data stored in the database management system is retrieved based on the option selected by the user. To create and manage the servers, SQL is used. SQL is used to navigate through the large amount of data stored in the database management system.

Easy to sync data from multiple sources

You'll come across many cases when you have to get data from multiple sources and combine them to get the desired output. This means you'll be dealing with outputs from multiple sources at one time, which can be time-consuming and a tedious job.

But when you use SQL, it is much easier to handle data from multiple sources at the same time and combine them to get the desired output.

In SQL you can use the UNION operation to combine data, like this:

Using this combines the columns “name” and “order_id” from the “customers” and “orders” tables, respectively, and renders the combined table.

Flexibility, versatility, and data analysis

SQL is a programming language, but the scope of this language is not only limited to programming tasks. You can use it for various purposes like in the finance sector and in sales and marketing, as well. By executing a few queries you can get the data you need and analyze it for your purposes.

There are various roles that are specific to SQL like SQL developer, SQL database Administrator, Database Tester, SQL Data analyst DBA, Data Modeler, and more. You can learn more about salary insights here .

Another important role is that of a data analyst. The process of cleansing, modeling, and transforming data to draw conclusions from it based on certain information is called Data analysis.

The role of a data analyst is important in any organization as it helps in analyzing trends and making fast and flexible decisions on the basis of the available data.

SQL and DBMS are two of the most in-demand skills for Data Analysis.

How DBMS and SQL Work Together

DBMS and SQL are interdependent and cooperate to make the data organized and accessible. Now, let's understand how SQL works in synchronization with a Database Management System.


SQL is the way you interact with the database management system. You use it to retrieve, insert, update, or delete data (CRUD operations), among other things.

When you execute a SQL command, the DBMS figures out the most efficient way to execute that command. The interpretation of the task to be performed is determined by the SQL engine.

The classic query engine is used to handle all the non-SQL queries, but it will not handle any logical files.

The query processor interprets the queries of the user and translates them into a database-understandable format.

The parser is used for translation purposes (in query processing). It also checks the syntax of the query and looks for errors, if present.

The optimisation engine, as the name suggests, optimises the performance of the database with the help of useful insights.

The DBMS engine is the underlying software component for performing CRUD operations on the database.

The file manager is used for managing the files in the database, one at a time.

And the transaction manager is used for managing the transactions to maintain concurrency while accessing data.

In this article, we have discussed the basics of DBMS and SQL and why you should learn these skills.

We have discussed the purpose and importance of DBMS and SQL, what they're used for, and what professionals who work with databases and SQL do.

After reading this article you have a good understanding of where knowledge of DBMS and SQL can take you. Happy Learning!

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The database development life cycle

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Relational database systems underpin the majority of the managed data storage in computer systems. In this course we have considered database development as an instance of the waterfall model of the software development life cycle. We have seen that the same activities are required to develop and maintain databases that meet user requirements.


  • Engineering Mathematics
  • Discrete Mathematics
  • Operating System
  • Computer Networks
  • Digital Logic and Design
  • C Programming
  • Data Structures
  • Theory of Computation
  • Compiler Design
  • Computer Org and Architecture
  • DBMS Tutorial - Database Management System

Basic of DBMS

  • Introduction of DBMS (Database Management System) - Set 1
  • History of DBMS
  • Advantages of Database Management System

Disadvantages of DBMS

  • Application of DBMS
  • Need for DBMS
  • DBMS Architecture 1-level, 2-Level, 3-Level
  • Difference between File System and DBMS

Entity Relationship Model

  • Introduction of ER Model
  • Structural Constraints of Relationships in ER Model
  • Difference between entity, entity set and entity type
  • Difference between Strong and Weak Entity
  • Generalization, Specialization and Aggregation in ER Model
  • Recursive Relationships in ER diagrams

Relational Model

  • Introduction of Relational Model and Codd Rules in DBMS
  • Types of Keys in Relational Model (Candidate, Super, Primary, Alternate and Foreign)
  • Anomalies in Relational Model
  • Mapping from ER Model to Relational Model
  • Strategies for Schema design in DBMS

Relational Algebra

  • Introduction of Relational Algebra in DBMS
  • Basic Operators in Relational Algebra
  • Extended Operators in Relational Algebra
  • SQL | Join (Inner, Left, Right and Full Joins)
  • Join operation Vs Nested query in DBMS
  • Tuple Relational Calculus (TRC) in DBMS
  • Domain Relational Calculus in DBMS

Functional Dependencies

  • Functional Dependency and Attribute Closure
  • Armstrong's Axioms in Functional Dependency in DBMS
  • Equivalence of Functional Dependencies
  • Canonical Cover of Functional Dependencies in DBMS


  • Introduction of Database Normalization
  • Normal Forms in DBMS
  • First Normal Form (1NF)
  • Second Normal Form (2NF)
  • Boyce-Codd Normal Form (BCNF)
  • Introduction of 4th and 5th Normal Form in DBMS
  • The Problem of Redundancy in Database
  • Database Management System | Dependency Preserving Decomposition
  • Lossless Decomposition in DBMS
  • Lossless Join and Dependency Preserving Decomposition
  • Denormalization in Databases

Transactions and Concurrency Control

  • Concurrency Control in DBMS
  • ACID Properties in DBMS
  • Implementation of Locking in DBMS
  • Lock Based Concurrency Control Protocol in DBMS
  • Graph Based Concurrency Control Protocol in DBMS
  • Two Phase Locking Protocol
  • Multiple Granularity Locking in DBMS
  • Polygraph to check View Serializability in DBMS
  • Log based Recovery in DBMS
  • Timestamp based Concurrency Control
  • Dirty Read in SQL
  • Types of Schedules in DBMS
  • Conflict Serializability in DBMS
  • Condition of schedules to View-equivalent
  • Recoverability in DBMS
  • Precedence Graph for Testing Conflict Serializability in DBMS
  • Database Recovery Techniques in DBMS
  • Starvation in DBMS
  • Deadlock in DBMS
  • Types of Schedules based Recoverability in DBMS
  • Why recovery is needed in DBMS

Indexing, B and B+ trees

  • Indexing in Databases - Set 1
  • Introduction of B-Tree
  • Insert Operation in B-Tree
  • Delete Operation in B-Tree
  • Introduction of B+ Tree
  • Bitmap Indexing in DBMS
  • Inverted Index
  • Difference between Inverted Index and Forward Index
  • SQL Queries on Clustered and Non-Clustered Indexes

File organization

  • File Organization in DBMS - Set 1
  • File Organization in DBMS | Set 2
  • File Organization in DBMS | Set 3

DBMS Interview questions and Last minute notes

  • Last Minute Notes - DBMS
  • Commonly asked DBMS interview questions
  • Commonly asked DBMS interview questions | Set 2

DBMS GATE Previous Year Questions

  • Database Management System - GATE CSE Previous Year Questions
  • Database Management Systems | Set 2
  • Database Management Systems | Set 3
  • Database Management Systems | Set 4
  • Database Management Systems | Set 5
  • Database Management Systems | Set 6
  • Database Management Systems | Set 7
  • Database Management Systems | Set 8

Introduction of DBMS (Database Management System) – Set 1

A Database Management System (DBMS) is a software system that is designed to manage and organize data in a structured manner. It allows users to create, modify, and query a database, as well as manage the security and access controls for that database.

DBMS provides an environment to store and retrieve the data in coinvent and efficient manner.

Key Features of DBMS

  • Data modeling: A DBMS provides tools for creating and modifying data models, which define the structure and relationships of the data in a database.
  • Data storage and retrieval: A DBMS is responsible for storing and retrieving data from the database, and can provide various methods for searching and querying the data.
  • Concurrency control: A DBMS provides mechanisms for controlling concurrent access to the database, to ensure that multiple users can access the data without conflicting with each other.
  • Data integrity and security: A DBMS provides tools for enforcing data integrity and security constraints, such as constraints on the values of data and access controls that restrict who can access the data.
  • Backup and recovery: A DBMS provides mechanisms for backing up and recovering the data in the event of a system failure.
  • DBMS can be classified into two types: Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) and Non-Relational Database Management System (NoSQL or Non-SQL)
  • RDBMS: Data is organized in the form of tables and each table has a set of rows and columns. The data are related to each other through primary and foreign keys.
  • NoSQL: Data is organized in the form of key-value pairs, documents, graphs, or column-based. These are designed to handle large-scale, high-performance scenarios.

A database is a collection of interrelated data which helps in the efficient retrieval, insertion, and deletion of data from the database and organizes the data in the form of tables, views, schemas, reports, etc. For Example, a university database organizes the data about students, faculty, admin staff, etc. which helps in the efficient retrieval, insertion, and deletion of data from it.

Database Languages

Data definition language, data manipulation language, data control language, transactional control language.

DDL is the short name for Data Definition Language, which deals with database schemas and descriptions, of how the data should reside in the database.

  • CREATE: to create a database and its objects like (table, index, views, store procedure, function, and triggers)
  • ALTER: alters the structure of the existing database
  • DROP: delete objects from the database
  • TRUNCATE: remove all records from a table, including all spaces allocated for the records are removed
  • COMMENT: add comments to the data dictionary
  • RENAME: rename an object

DML is the short name for Data Manipulation Language which deals with data manipulation and includes most common SQL statements such SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, etc., and it is used to store, modify, retrieve, delete and update data in a database.

  • SELECT: retrieve data from a database
  • INSERT: insert data into a table
  • UPDATE: updates existing data within a table
  • DELETE: Delete all records from a database table
  • MERGE: UPSERT operation (insert or update)
  • CALL: call a PL/SQL or Java subprogram
  • EXPLAIN PLAN: interpretation of the data access path
  • LOCK TABLE: concurrency Control

DCL is short for Data Control Language which acts as an access specifier to the database.(basically to grant and revoke permissions to users in the database

  • GRANT: grant permissions to the user for running DML(SELECT, INSERT, DELETE,…) commands on the table
  • REVOKE: revoke permissions to the user for running DML(SELECT, INSERT, DELETE,…) command on the specified table

TCL is short for Transactional Control Language which acts as an manager for all types of transactional data and all transactions. Some of the command of TCL are

  • Roll Back: Used to cancel  or Undo changes made in the database 
  • Commit: It is used to apply or save changes in the database
  • Save Point: It is used to save the data on the temporary basis in the database

Data retrieval language:

DRL is short for Data Retrieval Language which is used for retrieval of data. It can also be said as DML.

  • SELECT: Used for extracting the required data.

Database Management System

The software which is used to manage databases is called Database Management System (DBMS). For Example, MySQL, Oracle, etc. are popular commercial DBMS used in different applications. DBMS allows users the following tasks: 

  • Data Definition: It helps in the creation, modification, and removal of definitions that define the organization of data in the database. 
  • Data Updation: It helps in the insertion, modification, and deletion of the actual data in the database. 
  • Data Retrieval: It helps in the retrieval of data from the database which can be used by applications for various purposes. 
  • User Administration: It helps in registering and monitoring users, enforcing data security, monitoring performance, maintaining data integrity, dealing with concurrency control, and recovering information corrupted by unexpected failure.

Applications of DBMS:

  • Enterprise Information: Sales, accounting, human resources, Manufacturing, online retailers.
  • Banking and Finance Sector: Banks maintaining the customer details, accounts, loans, banking transactions, credit card transactions. Finance: Storing the information about sales and holdings, purchasing of financial stocks and bonds.
  • University: Maintaining the information about student course enrolled information, student grades, staff roles.
  • Airlines: Reservations and schedules.
  • Telecommunications: Prepaid, postpaid bills maintance.

Paradigm Shift from File System to DBMS

  File System manages data using files on a hard disk. Users are allowed to create, delete, and update the files according to their requirements. Let us consider the example of file-based University Management System. Data of students is available to their respective Departments, Academics Section, Result Section, Accounts Section, Hostel Office, etc. Some of the data is common for all sections like Roll No, Name, Father Name, Address, and Phone number of students but some data is available to a particular section only like Hostel allotment number which is a part of the hostel office. Let us discuss the issues with this system:

  • Redundancy of data: Data is said to be redundant if the same data is copied at many places. If a student wants to change their Phone number, he or she has to get it updated in various sections. Similarly, old records must be deleted from all sections representing that student.
  • Inconsistency of Data: Data is said to be inconsistent if multiple copies of the same data do not match each other. If the Phone number is different in Accounts Section and Academics Section, it will be inconsistent. Inconsistency may be because of typing errors or not updating all copies of the same data.
  • Difficult Data Access: A user should know the exact location of the file to access data, so the process is very cumbersome and tedious. If the user wants to search the student hostel allotment number of a student from 10000 unsorted students’ records, how difficult it can be.
  • Unauthorized Access: File Systems may lead to unauthorized access to data. If a student gets access to a file having his marks, he can change it in an unauthorized way.
  • No Concurrent Access: The access of the same data by multiple users at the same time is known as concurrency. The file system does not allow concurrency as data can be accessed by only one user at a time.
  • No Backup and Recovery: The file system does not incorporate any backup and recovery of data if a file is lost or corrupted.

Advantages of DBMS

  • Data organization: A DBMS allows for the organization and storage of data in a structured manner, making it easy to retrieve and query the data as needed.
  • Data integrity: A DBMS provides mechanisms for enforcing data integrity constraints, such as constraints on the values of data and access controls that restrict who can access the data.
  • Concurrent access: A DBMS provides mechanisms for controlling concurrent access to the database, to ensure that multiple users can access the data without conflicting with each other.
  • Data security: A DBMS provides tools for managing the security of the data, such as controlling access to the data and encrypting sensitive data.
  • Data sharing: A DBMS allows multiple users to access and share the same data, which can be useful in a collaborative work environment.
  • Complexity: DBMS can be complex to set up and maintain, requiring specialized knowledge and skills.
  • Performance overhead: The use of a DBMS can add overhead to the performance of an application, especially in cases where high levels of concurrency are required.
  • Scalability: The use of a DBMS can limit the scalability of an application, since it requires the use of locking and other synchronization mechanisms to ensure data consistency.
  • Cost: The cost of purchasing, maintaining and upgrading a DBMS can be high, especially for large or complex systems.
  • Limited Use Cases: Not all use cases are suitable for a DBMS, some solutions don’t need high reliability, consistency or security and may be better served by other types of data storage.

These are the main reasons which made a shift from file system to DBMS. Also, see

A Database Management System (DBMS) is a software system that allows users to create, maintain, and manage databases. It is a collection of programs that enables users to access and manipulate data in a database. A DBMS is used to store, retrieve, and manipulate data in a way that provides security, privacy, and reliability.

Several Types of DBMS

  • Relational DBMS (RDBMS): An RDBMS stores data in tables with rows and columns, and uses SQL (Structured Query Language) to manipulate the data.
  • Object-Oriented DBMS (OODBMS): An OODBMS stores data as objects, which can be manipulated using object-oriented programming languages.
  • NoSQL DBMS: A NoSQL DBMS stores data in non-relational data structures, such as key-value pairs, document-based models, or graph models.

Overall, a DBMS is a powerful tool for managing and manipulating data, and is used in many industries and applications, such as finance, healthcare, retail, and more.

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  • How to conclude an essay | Interactive example

How to Conclude an Essay | Interactive Example

Published on January 24, 2019 by Shona McCombes . Revised on July 23, 2023.

The conclusion is the final paragraph of your essay . A strong conclusion aims to:

  • Tie together the essay’s main points
  • Show why your argument matters
  • Leave the reader with a strong impression

Your conclusion should give a sense of closure and completion to your argument, but also show what new questions or possibilities it has opened up.

This conclusion is taken from our annotated essay example , which discusses the history of the Braille system. Hover over each part to see why it’s effective.

Braille paved the way for dramatic cultural changes in the way blind people were treated and the opportunities available to them. Louis Braille’s innovation was to reimagine existing reading systems from a blind perspective, and the success of this invention required sighted teachers to adapt to their students’ reality instead of the other way around. In this sense, Braille helped drive broader social changes in the status of blindness. New accessibility tools provide practical advantages to those who need them, but they can also change the perspectives and attitudes of those who do not.

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Table of contents

Step 1: return to your thesis, step 2: review your main points, step 3: show why it matters, what shouldn’t go in the conclusion, more examples of essay conclusions, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about writing an essay conclusion.

To begin your conclusion, signal that the essay is coming to an end by returning to your overall argument.

Don’t just repeat your thesis statement —instead, try to rephrase your argument in a way that shows how it has been developed since the introduction.

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Next, remind the reader of the main points that you used to support your argument.

Avoid simply summarizing each paragraph or repeating each point in order; try to bring your points together in a way that makes the connections between them clear. The conclusion is your final chance to show how all the paragraphs of your essay add up to a coherent whole.

To wrap up your conclusion, zoom out to a broader view of the topic and consider the implications of your argument. For example:

  • Does it contribute a new understanding of your topic?
  • Does it raise new questions for future study?
  • Does it lead to practical suggestions or predictions?
  • Can it be applied to different contexts?
  • Can it be connected to a broader debate or theme?

Whatever your essay is about, the conclusion should aim to emphasize the significance of your argument, whether that’s within your academic subject or in the wider world.

Try to end with a strong, decisive sentence, leaving the reader with a lingering sense of interest in your topic.

The easiest way to improve your conclusion is to eliminate these common mistakes.

Don’t include new evidence

Any evidence or analysis that is essential to supporting your thesis statement should appear in the main body of the essay.

The conclusion might include minor pieces of new information—for example, a sentence or two discussing broader implications, or a quotation that nicely summarizes your central point. But it shouldn’t introduce any major new sources or ideas that need further explanation to understand.

Don’t use “concluding phrases”

Avoid using obvious stock phrases to tell the reader what you’re doing:

  • “In conclusion…”
  • “To sum up…”

These phrases aren’t forbidden, but they can make your writing sound weak. By returning to your main argument, it will quickly become clear that you are concluding the essay—you shouldn’t have to spell it out.

Don’t undermine your argument

Avoid using apologetic phrases that sound uncertain or confused:

  • “This is just one approach among many.”
  • “There are good arguments on both sides of this issue.”
  • “There is no clear answer to this problem.”

Even if your essay has explored different points of view, your own position should be clear. There may be many possible approaches to the topic, but you want to leave the reader convinced that yours is the best one!

  • Argumentative
  • Literary analysis

This conclusion is taken from an argumentative essay about the internet’s impact on education. It acknowledges the opposing arguments while taking a clear, decisive position.

The internet has had a major positive impact on the world of education; occasional pitfalls aside, its value is evident in numerous applications. The future of teaching lies in the possibilities the internet opens up for communication, research, and interactivity. As the popularity of distance learning shows, students value the flexibility and accessibility offered by digital education, and educators should fully embrace these advantages. The internet’s dangers, real and imaginary, have been documented exhaustively by skeptics, but the internet is here to stay; it is time to focus seriously on its potential for good.

This conclusion is taken from a short expository essay that explains the invention of the printing press and its effects on European society. It focuses on giving a clear, concise overview of what was covered in the essay.

The invention of the printing press was important not only in terms of its immediate cultural and economic effects, but also in terms of its major impact on politics and religion across Europe. In the century following the invention of the printing press, the relatively stationary intellectual atmosphere of the Middle Ages gave way to the social upheavals of the Reformation and the Renaissance. A single technological innovation had contributed to the total reshaping of the continent.

This conclusion is taken from a literary analysis essay about Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein . It summarizes what the essay’s analysis achieved and emphasizes its originality.

By tracing the depiction of Frankenstein through the novel’s three volumes, I have demonstrated how the narrative structure shifts our perception of the character. While the Frankenstein of the first volume is depicted as having innocent intentions, the second and third volumes—first in the creature’s accusatory voice, and then in his own voice—increasingly undermine him, causing him to appear alternately ridiculous and vindictive. Far from the one-dimensional villain he is often taken to be, the character of Frankenstein is compelling because of the dynamic narrative frame in which he is placed. In this frame, Frankenstein’s narrative self-presentation responds to the images of him we see from others’ perspectives. This conclusion sheds new light on the novel, foregrounding Shelley’s unique layering of narrative perspectives and its importance for the depiction of character.

If you want to know more about AI tools , college essays , or fallacies make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

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Your essay’s conclusion should contain:

  • A rephrased version of your overall thesis
  • A brief review of the key points you made in the main body
  • An indication of why your argument matters

The conclusion may also reflect on the broader implications of your argument, showing how your ideas could applied to other contexts or debates.

For a stronger conclusion paragraph, avoid including:

  • Important evidence or analysis that wasn’t mentioned in the main body
  • Generic concluding phrases (e.g. “In conclusion…”)
  • Weak statements that undermine your argument (e.g. “There are good points on both sides of this issue.”)

Your conclusion should leave the reader with a strong, decisive impression of your work.

The conclusion paragraph of an essay is usually shorter than the introduction . As a rule, it shouldn’t take up more than 10–15% of the text.

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

McCombes, S. (2023, July 23). How to Conclude an Essay | Interactive Example. Scribbr. Retrieved April 3, 2024, from

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This repository contains solutions to the weekly assignments (2 & 3) of the Database Management Systems (DBMS) course offered by the Indian Institute of Technology Madras (IITM) as part of the Diploma in Programming program. Additionally, it also contains past OPPE solutions for the course.


Folders and files, repository files navigation, dbms_iitm ✨, course overview.

The DBMS course covers the fundamental concepts of database management systems, including the relational data model, SQL, transaction management, concurrency control, and database design.

Folder Structure

The repository is structured as follows:

How to Use this Repository

  • Clone the repository
  • The files contain practice queries for each week, while the files contain graded queries.
  • The OPPE practice questions for Week 7 are stored in separate files named through
  • The OPPE Python-PostgreSQL questions are stored in separate files named and
  • To use this repository, navigate to the desired folder and open the relevant markdown file in a text editor or browser.
  • Use the solutions as a reference to check your own work and to learn more about the concepts covered in the course.
  • The solutions provided in this repository are meant to be used as a reference only. It is recommended that you try to solve the assignments on your own before referring to the solutions.
  • The solutions provided may not be the most optimal or efficient solutions. They are intended to serve as a starting point for your own work.
  • This repository is not affiliated with the Indian Institute of Technology Madras or the Diploma in Programming program. The solutions provided are the work of the repository owner and contributors.


Contributions to this repository are welcome. If you find any errors or would like to add more queries, feel free to create a pull request. Please ensure that your queries are organized according to the folder structure above.

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conclusion for dbms assignment

This repository is licensed under the MIT License. See the LICENSE file for more details

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Database Management System by Mrs.M.Govindammal

conclusion for dbms assignment

The Link Between the CIA’s Classified Submarine Recovery and the Maryland Bridge Collapse: The Chesapeake 1000 Crane

A n extraordinary floating crane, known as the Chesapeake 1000 or “Chessy”, is currently engaged in the somber task of retrieving debris from the recent fatal bridge collapse in Baltimore.

This isn’t the crane’s first noteworthy assignment, though. Previously, it played a critical role in a CIA mission to salvage a fragment of a sunken Soviet submarine.


Back in the 1970s, the crane, then named the Sun 800 for its lifting capacity in tons, was instrumental in the construction of a specialized ship for the 1974 recovery of the submarine. It lifted indispensable machinery, including a giant claw, steel piping, and a robust hydraulic system, essential for this Cold-War era operation. The submarine lay deep in the Pacific Ocean, at a depth of roughly 3 miles (5 kilometers).

The CIA’s official website notes that the operation with the Hughes Glomar Explorer ship was carried out underwater, shielded from prying eyes of satellites and other surveillance.

The heavy components of the ship were assembled on land at a Philadelphia shipyard, and it was here that the crane barge was tasked with lifting these massive elements onto the vessel.

Gene Schorsch, who managed hull design at Sun Shipbuilding and Drydock Co., recollected, “The Sun 800 was built specifically to help us on the construction of the Hughes Glomar Explorer.”


Dubbed “Project Azorian,” this covert operation caught the public’s attention in 1975, though it wasn’t officially acknowledged by Washington until 2010 when a redacted CIA report was released. “It’s one of the most costly and creatively daring intelligence operations ever embarked on by the U.S.,” observed M. Todd Bennett, a historian who authored a book on the subject in 2022.

After the Soviet Union halted their search for the K-129 submarine lost northeast of Hawaii in 1968, the U.S. located it. According to Bennett, “Discovering it was one thing, but conceiving a recovery plan was quite remarkable, akin to an underwater moonshot.” The desired piece of the submarine weighed 1,750 tons and was 132 feet (40 meters) in length.

The CIA’s detailed website describes the complexities of lowering the claw with continuous additions of steel pipe to reach the submarine, all while battling ocean currents.

Schorsch elaborated on the challenges, emphasizing the necessity for the ship’s stability during the operation. The mission partially succeeded in lifting the submarine section, but a significant part of the sub broke off and was lost during ascension.

Despite the loss of what former CIA Director William Colby referred to as the most valuable parts of the sub, the operation did recover the remains of six Soviet sailors, who were then given a formal burial at sea.


While a second operation was considered, revelations about Project Azorian in 1975 by Seymour Hersh and Jack Anderson led to its public exposure and eventual cancellation. Though the project faced criticism for its costs and for diverging resources from other intelligence efforts, it provided insights into Soviet naval capabilities and the recovered information influenced U.S. intelligence activities.

Concerns over disclosing intelligence secrets subsequently grew, impacting media reporting. Still, despite these controversies, the mission remains a significant event in U.S. intelligence history according to Bennett, marking one of the first large-scale underwater intelligence operations.


The Hughes Glomar Explorer ship has been scrapped, but the crane that constructed it remains. The Chesapeake 1000, as it is now called after its tonnage capacity was boosted by Donjon Marine Co. Inc. in 1993, is touted as one of the largest on the East Coast.

The Engineering News-Record reported on its varied roles in construction post-upgrade. Despite its storied past, it is the urgent Baltimore project, amidst efforts to clear shipping channels and build a new Francis Scott Key Bridge, that now highlights its capabilities. As Maryland Governor Wes Moore stated, witnessing its current task underscores the complexities and critical nature of the recovery work ahead.

FAQ About The Chesapeake 1000 and Its Historic Missions

The Chesapeake 1000, a colossal crane with a history entwined with Cold War espionage and contemporary disaster recovery efforts, exemplifies the evolution and continued importance of such engineering marvels. From aiding the CIA in a high-stakes submarine recovery to addressing the aftermath of a critical infrastructure failure, “Chessy” remains a testament to human innovation and resilience in the face of daunting tasks. As it now contributes to restoring normalcy in Baltimore, its impressive legacy of secret missions and towering achievements continues to unfold.



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