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Climate Change: Causes and Effects

Last updated on December 16, 2023 by ClearIAS Team

Climate

India ranks fifth globally in terms of climate change vulnerability. Due to climate change, India suffered losses of almost 37 billion dollars in 2018 (almost twice what it lost between 1998-2017).

According to MIT, 78 out of India’s 89 urban regions will experience a considerable increase in flash floods if preindustrial temperatures are increased by 2° Celsius.

Sea level rise and stronger cyclones have already been brought on by an increase in sea surface temperature.

Table of Contents

What Is Climate Change?

Climate change means a long-term shift in temperature and weather patterns that may be natural such as through variations in the solar cycle or a result of anthropogenic activities such as carbon emission.

Since the 1800s, human activities, primarily the combustion of fossil fuels like coal, oil, and gas have been the primary cause of climate change.

Fossil fuel combustion produces greenhouse gas emissions that serve as a blanket around the earth, trapping heat from the sun and increasing temperatures.

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Carbon dioxide and methane are two prominent greenhouse gas emissions that are contributing to climate change. These are produced, for instance, by burning coal or gasoline. Carbon dioxide can also be released during forest and land clearing and Methane is emitted primarily by waste landfills. Among all, the major emitters are energy, industry, transportation, buildings, agriculture, and land use.

Key Findings related to Climate

  • China is the largest emitter of carbon dioxide which comprises 30.60% of the CO2 emission worldwide. China is followed by USA and India.
  • The Earth is now about 1.1°C warmer than it was in the 1800s. The commitment made under Paris Agreement may not be met.
  • By the end of the century, the temperature might rise by as much as 4.4°C if carbon dioxide emissions continue on their current course.
  • The levels of greenhouse gases rose to a new height in 2019. The amount of carbon dioxide was 148% of preindustrial levels.
  • While sea ice, the Greenland ice sheet, and glaciers have decreased over the same time period and permafrost temperatures have climbed, the Arctic has warmed at least twice as fast as the global average.
  • Between 2020 and 2030, the world’s production of fossil fuels must drop by around 6% in order to maintain a 1.5°C trajectory.

Also read:  Planetary Boundaries

Causes of Climate Change

Several anthropogenic activities induce harm to the environment. A few important of them are-

Power Generation

Burning fossil fuels to provide power and heat accounts for a sizable portion of world emissions. Burning coal, oil, or gas releases carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide, which are still used to produce the majority of power.

Only a little over a quarter of the world’s electricity is generated by renewable energy sources including wind, solar, and other natural resources.

Manufacturing and Industrial goods

The manufacturing/industrial sector is one of the leading global producers of greenhouse gas emissions.

Emissions from manufacturing and industry are mostly the result of burning fossil fuels to create energy for the production of items like textiles, electronics, plastics, cement, iron, and steel.

Gases are also released during mining and other industrial activities, as well as during construction.

Some products are also manufactured from chemicals derived from fossil fuels i.e., plastic products.

Deforestation

A percent of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions is caused by deforestation, along with agriculture and other changes in land use.

As per an estimation, nearly 12 million hectares of forests are burned annually. Cutting down forests to make way for farms, pastures, or for other purposes also increases emissions.

Forests absorb carbon dioxide, hence cutting or destroying forests reduces nature’s capacity to absorb emissions.

Transportation

Fossil fuels are typically used to power transportation machines. As a result, emissions of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide, are greatly influenced by the transportation sector.

In addition, statistics suggest that over the next few years, energy use for transportation will rise significantly.

Food Production

In addition to deforestation and clearing land for agriculture and grazing, digestion by cows and sheep, production and use of fertilizers and manure, and the use of energy to run farm machinery or fishing boats, typically with fossil fuels, all contribute to the production of food.

Powering Buildings

Over half of all electricity used worldwide is consumed by residential and commercial structures.

Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions from buildings have increased over the past few years as a result of rising energy demand for heating and cooling, rising air conditioner ownership, and increased electricity use for lighting, appliances, and connected devices.

Effects of Climate Change

Climate change has devastating impacts on us and the environment. The major effects are-

Increase in Temperature

The global surface temperature rises together with greenhouse gas concentrations. The most recent ten years, 2011 to 2020, have been the warmest on record.

Higher temperatures worsen heat-related illnesses and make it more challenging to work outside. When the weather is hotter, wildfires start more easily and spread more quickly.

More Severe Storms

In many areas, destructive storms have increased in intensity and frequency. More moisture evaporates as temperatures rise , aggravating extremely heavy rains and flooding and resulting in more severe storms.

The warming ocean has an impact on both the intensity and frequency of tropical storms. Warm ocean surface waters are the primary source of cyclones, hurricanes, and typhoons.

Frequent Drought

Water availability is changing due to climate change, becoming more scarce in many places. In already water-stressed areas, global warming makes water shortages worse. It also increases the danger of ecological and agricultural droughts, which can harm crops and make ecosystems more vulnerable.

Warming and Rising Ocean

The ocean absorbs carbon dioxide, keeping it out of the atmosphere. However, additional carbon dioxide causes the water to become more acidic, endangering coral reefs and marine life.

It is the property of water that it expands when becomes warmer, therefore as the ocean warms, its volume will rise. Sea levels increase as a result of ice sheet melting, endangering coastal and island communities.

Loss of Species

Both animals on land and in the ocean are at risk from climate change. As the temperatures rise, these risks rise as well.

The rate of extinction on the planet is 1,000 times higher now than it has ever been in recorded human history. Within the next few decades, one million species face extinction .

Threats from climate change include invasive pests and illnesses, forest fires, and harsh weather.

Food Scarcity

Global hunger and poor nutrition are on the rise for a variety of reasons, including climate change and an increase in extreme weather occurrences. Crops, animals, and fisheries might all be lost or become less effective.

Marine resources that provide food for billions of people are in danger as a result of the ocean’s increasing acidity.

Food sources from herding, hunting, and fishing have been hampered in several Arctic regions due to changes in the snow and ice cover.

Heat stress can reduce available water and grazing areas, which can lower crop output and have an impact on cattle.

Health Hazards

The single greatest hazard to human health is climate change. Air pollution, sickness, harsh weather, forced relocation, stress on mental health, increasing hunger and inadequate nutrition in areas where people cannot grow or get enough food are only a few of the health effects of climate change.

13 million individuals every year are killed by environmental conditions. Extreme weather events increase fatalities and make it challenging for healthcare systems to keep up with the growing number of diseases caused by changing weather patterns.

Read:  Climate Resilient Health Systems;   Climate Change and Health

Deepen Poverty and Displacement

Climate change makes it easier for people to fall into and stay in poverty.

Floods have the potential to devastate homes and livelihoods in urban slums. Outdoor jobs may be challenging to perform in the heat. Crops may be impacted by water scarcity.

Weather-related disasters have uprooted an estimated 23.1 million people annually on average over the previous ten years (2010-2019), leaving millions more at risk of poverty.

The majority of refugees are from countries that are least able and prepared to adjust to the effects of climate change.

Read:  Impact of climate change on Indian monsoon

Every increase in global warming matters

Numerous UN assessments were endorsed by hundreds of experts and government reviewers who concluded that keeping the increase in global temperature to 1.5°C will help us escape the worst climatic effects and maintain a habitable climate. However, according to current national climate plans, the average global warming by the end of the century will reach about 3.2°C.

Across the world, emissions that contribute to climate change are produced, yet some countries produce significantly more than others. 3 percent of global emissions are produced by the 100 countries with the lowest emissions. 68% of the contribution comes from the ten countries with the highest emissions. Everyone must act to combat climate change, but those who contribute most to the issue must be the countries with a larger obligation to do so first.

Article Written By: Priti Raj

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Climate Change and India in 2021

  • January 2, 2021

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ENVIRONMENT/ GOVERNANCE

Topic: General Studies 2,3: Conservation of Environment Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
  • High Vulnerability to Climate risks: 75% of districts in India, home to over half the population, were vulnerable to extreme climate risks. Drought-affected districts have increased by yearly average of 13 times over the last two decades. The frequency of cyclones has also doubled. 
  • Increased Frequency of extreme Climate events: While India witnessed 250 extreme climate events between 1970 and 2005, the country recorded 310 extreme climate events after 2005 alone.
  • Financial Losses: Between 1990 and 2019, India incurred losses exceeding $100 billion. 
  • Enhanced Intensity of Extreme Climate events: The intensity of floods increased eightfold and that of associated events such as landslides and heavy rainfall increased by over 20 times since 1970. 
  • Swaping Trend: Over 40% of Indian districts now show a swapping trend: flood-prone areas are becoming drought-prone, and vice-versa.

Steps India should take in 2021 to enhance its resilience and adaptive capacity against extreme climate events

  • Focused Mission: India should create an Environment and Health De-risking Mission to increase emergency preparedness, secure critical resources and build resilient infrastructure and governance systems to counter the increasing frequency and intensity of extreme climate events.
  • Decentralization: Focus on democratising local climate-related and weather-related data along with integrating risk projections in national, sub-national and district disaster and climate plans.
  • Focus on Indigenous Communities : Restoration, revival, and recreation of traditional climate-resilient practices, with a special focus on indigenous communities, often on the front lines of ecosystem conservation.
  • Creation of Comprehensive Climate Risk Atlas: This Atlas should identify, assess and project chronic and acute risks at a granular level to better prepare against extreme climate events. The Atlas would also help in assessing the resilience and adaptation capabilities of communities & business and act as risk-informed decision-making toolkit for policymakers. It would help in climate-proofing critical infrastructure.
  • Financing Tools: To finance climate action at scale, risk financing instruments and risk retention and identification tools should be supplemented by contingency and adaptation funds such as the Green Climate Fund. This will enhance the public finance pool and gear up efficient allocation across sectors at risk by mobilising investments on critical infrastructures and resilient community actions.
  • International Collaboration : As the permanent chair of the recently formed Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure, India should play a pivotal role in attracting private investments into climate-proofing of infrastructure. It should also promote adaptation-based infrastructure investment decision making in these countries. 

Connecting the dots:

  • Paris Climate Deal
  • Do you think COVID-19 has enhanced environmental consciousness of the world?

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Perspective article, unprecedented climate change in india and a three-pronged method for reliable weather and climate prediction.

climate change essay upsc 2021

  • 1 National Institute for Space Research, São José dos Campos, Brazil
  • 2 Department of Meteorology and Oceanography, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, India
  • 3 Centre for Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, India

India, one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world, has suffered severe economic losses as well as life losses as per the World Focus report. 1 More than 80% of its land and more than 50 million of its people are affected by weather disasters. Disaster mitigation necessitates reliable future predictions, which need focused climate change research. From the climate change perspective, the summer monsoon, the main lifeline of India, is predicted to change very adversely. The duration of the rainy season is going to shrink, and pre-monsoon drying can also occur. These future changes can impact the increase of vector-borne diseases, such as malaria, dengue, and others. In another recent study, 29 world experts from various institutions found that the largest exposure to disasters, such as tropical cyclones (TCs), river floods, droughts, and heat waves, is over India. For improved and skillful prediction, we suggest a three-stage cumulative method, namely, K is for observational analysis, U is for knowledge and understanding, and M is for modeling and prediction. In this brief note, we report our perspective of imminent weather disasters to India, namely, monsoons and TCs, and how the weather and climate forecasting can be improved, leading to better climate change adaptation.

Introduction

The Indian economy still significantly depends on agriculture, which, in turn, depends on the summer monsoon rains occurring from June to September. In the present scenario of climate change, it is essential to know how the Indian summer monsoon rainfall is going to change in the future. In a recent detailed study with regional climate model projections, Ashfaq et al. (2020) suggest that an important adverse signal of future climate change over the Indian monsoon region in the RCP8.5 scenario ( Krishnan et al., 2020 ; Jyoteeshkumar Reddy et al., 2021 ) can occur. The sinking of the Indian monsoon rainy season onset is projected to delay by five to eight pentads and a shrinking of the monsoon rainy season. India can experience pre-monsoon drying as well.

In a recent innovative study, 29 world experts ( Lange et al., 2020 ) from different institutions and different countries, reached some important conclusions. These inferences deserve urgent attention and action plans by policymakers. They considered six categories of extreme climate impact events, namely, river floods, cyclones, crop failures, wildfires, heat waves, and droughts. These authors ( Lange et al., 2020 ) quantified the pure effect of climate change on the exposure of the global population to the events mentioned. One important conclusion, which is of grave concern to India, is that the largest increase in exposure is projected here. Thus, to avoid huge damages due to these disasters, such as deaths and loss of property, urgent and more reliable predictions are needed. We, however, must clarify that there has been tremendous improvement in numerical prediction of tropical cyclones (TCs) in the last few decades in India [e.g., Pattanaik and Mohapatra, 2021 ; Saranya Ganesh et al., 2021 ; Sarkar et al., 2021 , and all other papers in January 2021 of Mausam, a special issue on the state of the art on TC prediction in the North Indian Ocean (NIO)], but what we claim is that applying theory can enhance the skills from the current day model outputs substantially more as discussed in the following section. To provide an analogy, in a recent study, Rao et al. (2021) attempted to connect observations, theory, and a prediction plan for heat waves. This prediction method can be applied to a numerical weather prediction model to predict deadly heat waves; thus, Rao et al. (2021) used a K, U, and M approach for the prediction of deadly heat waves over India.

From the context of the three-pronged K, U, and M method (hereafter, KUM), there are sufficient observational studies, or K, and also some attempts have been made using highly sophisticated, state-of-the-art (atmosphere and ocean) coupled models for predictions, M. What is most lacking, however, are theoretical studies (U) aiming to find out the causes for disastrous TCs or the highly complex regional monsoons.

According to a recent 2021 overview of current research results by the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory of Global Warming and Hurricanes 2 , the severity and frequency of TCs are increasing globally. A recent study ( Balaguru et al., 2015 ) also suggests an increase of TCs globally even over the NIO. Essentially, the increase in the strong TCs has far-reaching implications for society because these include the most harmful aspects, namely, storm surges and heavy rains with intense wind speeds. Indeed, TC rainfall rates will possibly increase in the future due to various anthropogenic effects and accompanying increases in atmospheric moisture. Rapid intensification of TCs poses forecast challenges and increased risks for coastal communities ( Emanuel, 2017 ). Recent modeling studies ( Emanuel, 2020 ) show an increase of 10–15% for precipitation rates averaged within about 100 km of the cyclone for a 2°C global warming scenario. As per IPCC AR5, higher levels of coastal flooding due to TCs are expected to occur, all else assumed to be constant due to rising sea levels. In this situation, together with the rise in sea level, the impact due to the strong TCs deteriorates the conditions of the increasing coastal population across India and the neighborhood. As the NIO is one of the typical regions with a population of 1.353 billion (2018), about 18% of the global population by 2020, it is highly susceptible to strong TCs causing adverse living conditions, and the implication is that stronger TCs will be worse.

According to reports from a respected BBC newspaper 3 , 4 , and a potential report 5 from the Indian Meteorological Department, Amphan is a very severe cyclone that transited the west coast of India in 2020 and also caused a lot of damage. The super cyclonic storm Amphan is the costliest case in the recorded history of TCs with damage of US$15.78 billion and also total fatalities of 269. Similarly, in the year 2019, a loss of US$11 billion occurred due to TCs. In the year 2020, there was a record-breaking occurrence of eight TCs over the NIO: five cyclones and three major cyclones compared to the climatology of 4.9, 1.5, and 0.7. We note a drastic increase in category 3 and beyond hurricanes occurring in the NIO and also a significant increase in the Northern and Southern hemispheres ( Figure 1 ). Also, there is a substantial increase in accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) in the last two decades in the NIO and Northern and Southern hemispheres ( Figure 2 ). In 2019, record-breaking ACE of 85 × 10 4 knots 2 , occurred in the NIO, nearly twice the previous record ( Singh et al., 2021 ; Wang et al., 2021 , BAMS). The decrease in the projected number of TCs found in some studies ( Sugi et al., 2017 ) is overcompensated by the huge increase in intensity similar to that found over the NIO in 2019 and 2020. Furthermore, as if to worsen the situation in a colloquial sense, Wang and Murakami (2020) show that the general atmospheric and ocean parameters, which show a high global correlation with the number of TCs, nevertheless show only a very low correlation with TCs of the NIO. Thus, urgent research should be carried out to understand the causes of the occurrence of TCs over the NIO. Even globally, in the last 39 years (1980–2018), weather disasters caused about 23,000 fatalities and US$100 billion in damages worldwide. Each year, weather events displace huge populations, drive people into poverty, and dampen economic growth globally ( Kousky, 2014 ; Munich, 2020 ; Hoegh-Guldberg et al., in press ). The underlying causes show a marked signal of anthropogenic roots and global warming (e.g., Sobel et al., 2016 ; Im et al., 2017 ).

www.frontiersin.org

Figure 1 . The number of category 3+ hurricanes that occurred in the Northern and Southern hemispheres and the NIO (black dotted line indicates a linear trend, and orange line indicates significance at the 95% confidence level) ( http://tropical.atmos.colostate.edu/Realtime/index.php?archandloc=northindian ).

www.frontiersin.org

Figure 2 . ACE (in 10 4 Knots 2 ) in the Northern and Southern hemispheres and the NIO (black dotted line indicates a linear trend, and orange line indicates significance at 95% confidence level) ( http://tropical.atmos.colostate.edu/Realtime/index.php?archandloc=northindian ).

Henceforth, we focus on the TCs as well as summer monsoons, which are the two most relevant weather and climate phenomena for the Indian region.

A Three-Stage Method to Study and Plan Reliable Prediction

Because India is rigorously prone to natural disasters as well as impacts due to anticipated changes in the summer monsoon in the future, there is indeed a serious question as to how to study the causal mechanisms of these disasters and plan to mitigate them. In this context, the late Gill (1985) , an accomplished geosciences expert, suggested almost 35 years ago the KUM method, namely, knowledge, understanding, and modeling, a three-pronged approach. The first step (K) is to improve observational knowledge of calamity-causing weather events and next a theoretical understanding to find out the cause of a specific effect, probably utilizing linear analytical mathematical solutions (U). Finally, the third one (M), using the presently available highly complex coupled (atmosphere and ocean) models giving numerical solutions to non-linear equations, pioneered by Phillips (1956) , predicting future occurrences. The order of KUM seems to be important. Although relatively substantial observational results are available in the Indian context for meteorological and oceanographic events, very few theoretical studies have been made delineating the causal mechanisms. Thus, this aspect should be given priority. In a recent comment, Emanuel (2020) also stressed the need for theoretical studies. Finally, only after acquiring the observational, knowledge, and cause-and-effect relationships in theoretical studies, only then , should one embark on numerical or climate modeling to successfully predict the future.

In this context, it is illuminating to recall the comments of Phillips (1970) , one of the founding fathers of theoretical meteorology and numerical weather prediction: “in making a numerical forecast, one takes a set of numbers.regardless of.synoptic structures.by another set of numbers, representing the forecast. The computation of a set of numbers depicting the formation of a front, is of course, not a theory of fronts (unless one is content to point to the equation of motion as theory!!!!!)” Thus, one should be very careful using numerical models to develop a theory of TCs, and in the Indian context, monsoon depressions (MDs) are crucial for monsoon rainfall. Today, many students and scientists worldwide spend most of their valuable time dealing with huge data sets and running numerical models to simulate rather than to develop a theory. Tellingly, Emanuel (2020) , mentions that presently there is “computing too much and thinking too little.” Indeed, there is an urgent need for curiosity-driven theoretical research even in the Indian context. One interesting example to stress the importance of theory is, today, that the best numerical weather prediction is in mid and high latitudes in winter. This is because the basic theory behind the mechanism of winter weather changes, the baroclinic instability, was discovered more than 70 years ago by Charney (1947) , and models and observations evolved accordingly. Thus, it is important to realize, without the correct understanding of the causal mechanisms through theory, one will never be able to predict correctly and completely the required weather or climate or its changes with just the brute force of computers available today!!!

TCs Over the NIO

Regarding the theory of the generation mechanisms of TCs, there are two well-known hypotheses, namely, (a) the conditional instability of the second kind (CISK) and (b) wind-induced surface heat exchange (WISHE) (please refer to Tomassini, 2020 for a comprehensive discussion of these two processes). A detailed discussion of these two is beyond the scope of the present short article. However, the authors quickly discuss these two mechanisms in the context of TCs over NIO.

In the case of TCs, the pre-synoptic disturbances get their energy by the complex interaction of two different horizontal scales, namely, cumulus convection of about 1 km and synoptic systems of about 500 km. How this interaction happens is a topic of debate, though, and most of the research in the published literature is about TCs in tropical ocean basins other than the NIO region.

Briefly, we discuss the basic characteristics of CISK and quasi-equilibrium (or WISHE). In the process of CISK, the buoyant convection can occur only when low-level stability is weakened (see Figure 2 ; Ooyama, 1969 ), and in the other, moist convection is governed by the vertically integrated measure of instability. As noted by Tomassini (2020) , meteorological conditions vary greatly from one region to the other in the tropics and also in the same region from one season to another (see Ashok et al., 2000 ; Rao et al., 2000 ; Raymond et al., 2015 ). Raymond mentions two tropical places, Sahel and the Western Pacific, where conditions are very different. Now, how do the conditions vary, during (i) pre-monsoon, (ii) MDs, and (iii) post-monsoon TCs? Similar to Bony et al. (2017) , we suggest that more detailed observations of both satellite measurements and data developed in field programs should be used to understand the convection and circulation coupling of TCs over NIO. For example, the INCOMPASS IOP field program, which collects data from strategically installed ground-based instruments in India, is one such program ( Fletcher et al., 2018 ).

Another, synoptic disturbance of importance is a MD. Despite several observational and theoretical studies by many authors (for example, Sikka, 1977 ; Mishra and Salvekar, 1979 ; Aravequia et al., 1995 ; Boos et al., 2017 ) trying to understand the basic mechanism of origin, some fundamental questions remain unanswered. Similar to TCs, the lack of understanding of how convection and MD circulation couple hinders the prediction. For both TCs and MDs, we suggest analyzing time vertical sections of potential temperature, equivalent potential temperature, and saturated equivalent potential temperature such that one can get an idea of the relative importance of CISK or the quasi-equilibrium hypothesis discussed briefly above.

Another method for elucidating the study is to examine the system's energetics, i.e., TCs or MDs. Lorenz (1960) mentions, “one enlightening method of studying the behaviour of the atmosphere, or a portion of it, consists of examining the behaviour of the energy involved.” Earlier Mishra and Rao (2001) used limited area energetics to infer the mechanism of generation of Northeast Brazil's upper tropospheric vortices. Also, Rao and Rajamani (1972) examined the energetics of MDs. These methods of energy analysis, for example, can be used to isolate or single out the basic mechanism of generation of TCs or MDs, using more recent well-covered data, such as the INCOMPASS IOP program ( Turner et al., 2019 ). Later, targeted numerical model studies should be used to not only verify the process/processes identified in energetic and diagnostic studies, but to design dynamics-based indices related to TC formation that are relatively easier to predict. For example, a CISK parameter may be easier to predict with a longer lead as compared with the TC rainfall. These methods are again akin to the KUM approach. Such carefully verified and designed indices, when operationalized, will substantially help in extending the lead prediction time. Probabilistic dynamical-statistical downscaling tools can also be developed to relate local rainfall with these indices. This will also potentially enhance the lead time of the TC-related deluge. Similarly, a better understanding of model ability in capturing the conversions between different forms of energy.

Again, several aspects of monsoons, particularly, the Indian Monsoon are still not completely clear and hinder the mechanisms of prediction. In a recent exhaustive study, Geen et al. (2020) , discussed several aspects, primarily from a theoretical standpoint even though this study was developed based on the concept of a global monsoon, Figure 2 of Geen et al. (2020) shows only a very low correlation in interannual variations of rainfall, the main meteorological element that must be predicted. However, the different regions of monsoons with different geographical boundaries raise serious objections about the global monsoon concept.

Several studies exist in the literature regarding the observed aspects of the Indian summer monsoon (the K part of the three-pronged method), and modern numerical models are employed to improve prediction skills ( Sahai et al., 2016 ; Rao et al., 2019 ; Mohanty et al., 2020 ). From an almost zero skill, we have reached a stage at which the skills for predicting the area-averaged Indian summer monsoon are found to be statistically significant. This is great progress. Having said that, there is a great scope for further improvement. Although the broad regionally averaged skills are statistically significant, they are modest. Further, improving the skills such that they are locally useful is the obvious goal but still a long way ahead. Although the prediction skill improved through better methods of, for example, data assimilation and parametrization schemes, to improve the predictions further, we need to diagnose the improved representation (e.g., Halder et al., 2016 ; Saha et al., 2019 ; Hazra et al., 2020 ), better replication of physical processes and scale interactions.

Notwithstanding all these technical improvements, the large-scale physical causal mechanisms are not clear yet. This can only be done with the studies aiming to understand the cause-and-effect relation or the U in the three-pronged method. As mentioned earlier, with more observational studies aiming to identify the correct interaction mechanism over NIO between convection and large-scale monsoon circulation (either CISK or WHISE), then this mechanism can be included in the numerical models. Also, controlled experiments using simple models, such as the one by Rao et al. (2000) , can be used to identify relative roles of mountains and thermal contrast in generating the Indian summer monsoon. In the state-of-the-art coupled models, because of extremely complex non-linear interactions among various physical mechanisms, it is almost impossible to isolate the cause of a specific effect.

Again, the diagnostic study based on energetics, such as the generation of available potential energy (PE) by latent heat and the baroclinic conversions, for example, may reveal relative roles of some physical processes, such as convection in the Indian monsoon. In a recent companion study (Rao et al., under review), comparing the South American and Indian monsoons, we found that, in the Indian monsoon, the baroclinic conversions P ¯ (mean available PE) to P ′ (eddy PE) to kinetic energy (KE) is non-existent, and the KE of monsoon is mainly furnished by the generation of perturbation PE by latent heating (rainfall) and subsequent conversion to KE. In contrast, over the South American monsoon, both the baroclinic conversions and generation terms are equally important. This is probably because the Himalayas extend from East to West across the cardinal northern border of the country, which does not allow mid-latitude baroclinic waves to penetrate at lower levels while the Andes mountains in South America extend along North to South, permit these waves to penetrate even as low latitude as Manaus, where even austral summer cold waves (FRAIAGENS) are noted. Furthermore, studies are necessary to verify how energetics vary between wet and dry monsoons in these two regions.

In a review article by Geen et al. (2020) , the authors discuss attempts to understand fundamental dynamics (U in our three-pronged method). Geen et al. (2020) mention a very similar KUM approach for monsoons (their section 3). Such efforts are urgently needed from the context of the Indian monsoon. They even discuss the south Asian monsoon (their section 3.1.2). Although they tried to reconcile between global and regional monsoon features, the differences are more striking as we mentioned earlier, regarding the Indian and South American monsoons. In the case of the East Asian monsoon, at least one author ( Molnar et al., 2010 ) mentions, “‘monsoon' is somewhat of a misnomer.”

Although there are some uncertainties in the methods used by Lange et al. (2020) , the importance of their conclusion is unambiguous. They mention that “anthropogenic” climate change has already substantially increased the exposure to extreme global climatic impacts, and anthropogenic warming is projected to exacerbate the pattern of climate change that we are already noticing nowadays. Thus, it is urgent to restrain the increase in global average temperature well below 2°C, which would significantly reduce the risks and impacts of climate change 6 ( Benitez, 2009 ; Dash et al., 2013 ). All this, therefore, underscores the urgency for climate action expressed in the Paris agreement of 2015. Even in a climate change context, using the KUM approach will help in a better diagnosis of the changes in regional implications for large-scale instabilities to diabatic processes. These can help in design model-based indices that can inform the stakeholders working on climate change mitigation and adaptation.

Recommendations

We are in an era in which observational data availability in the tropics has improved significantly and is going to be further improved. In this context, it is recommended that the forecasters and researchers of Indian weather and climate use this excellent opportunity to build theoretical knowledge unique to the regional weather and climate. The knowledge gained should be translated to identify tangible, large-scale dynamical process indices. Such indices will be very useful to extend the lead prediction skills of important weather and climate phenomenon, such as TCs, MDs, etc. Similarly, (i) evaluating the model capacity in predicting and calibration of association between hindcast perturbation PE, latent heating, and subsequent conversion to KE, and (ii) comparing the observations will potentially provide us with indices that can be directly used to predict subseasonal monsoonal rainfall with longer leads. The above recommendations are just examples. In summary, identifying the key dynamics behind important weather and climate processes at discernible time scales and designing useful dynamical indices that can be used to extend the lead forecast envelope will be the way forward.

Data Availability Statement

The datasets presented in this study can be found in online repositories. The names of the repository/repositories and accession number(s) can be found below: http://tropical.atmos.colostate.edu .

Author Contributions

VB conceived the idea. VB wrote the manuscript with inputs from KA and using the results from DG analysis. KA comprehensively revised the article. All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version.

The publication charge of this article is fully funded by the Frontiers in Climate Journal.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Publisher's Note

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Prof. Matthew Collins, Specialty Chief Editor, Frontiers in Climate Journal, and reviewers for their helpful feedback and recommendations in improving the manuscript quality. The authors are grateful to the Frontiers in Climate Journal Committee for waiving the article's publishing fees. We thank the reviewers for their critical comments, which helped to improve the quality of the article.

1. ^ World focus-special issue July 2014, editorial (peer-reviewed, refereed research journal).

2. ^ https://www.gfdl.noaa.gov/global-warming-and-hurricanes/

3. ^ https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-52749935

4. ^ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2020_North_Indian_Ocean_cyclone_season

5. ^ https://mausam.imd.gov.in/Forecast/marquee_data/indian111.pdf

6. ^ https://unfccc.int/process-and-meetings/the-paris-agreement/the-paris-agreement

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Keywords: KUM method, extreme weather, human suffering, tropical cyclone, monsoon, Indian summer monsoon (ISM)

Citation: Brahmananda Rao V, Ashok K and Govardhan D (2021) Unprecedented Climate Change in India and a Three-Pronged Method for Reliable Weather and Climate Prediction. Front. Clim. 3:716507. doi: 10.3389/fclim.2021.716507

Received: 28 May 2021; Accepted: 04 October 2021; Published: 15 November 2021.

Reviewed by:

Copyright © 2021 Brahmananda Rao, Ashok and Govardhan. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) . The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

*Correspondence: Vadlamudi Brahmananda Rao, raovadlamud@gmail.com orcid.org/0000-0001-5905-9806

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Impacts of Global Warming on Ecology and Meteorology and the Related Physical Mechanisms, Evaluation and Prediction

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Essay on Global Warming

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essay on global warming

Being able to write an essay is an integral part of mastering any language. Essays form an integral part of many academic and scholastic exams like the SAT , and UPSC amongst many others. It is a crucial evaluative part of English proficiency tests as well like IELTS , TOEFL , etc. Major essays are meant to emphasize public issues of concern that can have significant consequences on the world. To understand the concept of Global Warming and its causes and effects, we must first examine the many factors that influence the planet’s temperature and what this implies for the world’s future. Here’s an unbiased look at the essay on Global Warming and other essential related topics.

climate change essay upsc 2021

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Since the industrial and scientific revolutions, Earth’s resources have been gradually depleted. Furthermore, the start of the world’s population’s exponential expansion is particularly hard on the environment. Simply put, as the population’s need for consumption grows, so does the use of natural resources , as well as the waste generated by that consumption.

Climate change has been one of the most significant long-term consequences of this. Climate change is more than just the rise or fall of global temperatures; it also affects rain cycles, wind patterns, cyclone frequencies, sea levels, and other factors. It has an impact on all major life groupings on the planet.

Also Read: World Population Day

What is Global Warming?

Global warming is the unusually rapid increase in Earth’s average surface temperature over the past century, primarily due to the greenhouse gases released by people burning fossil fuels . The greenhouse gases consist of methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, carbon dioxide, water vapour, and chlorofluorocarbons. The weather prediction has been becoming more complex with every passing year, with seasons more indistinguishable, and the general temperatures hotter. The number of hurricanes, cyclones, droughts, floods, etc., has risen steadily since the onset of the 21st century. The supervillain behind all these changes is Global Warming. The name is quite self-explanatory; it means the rise in the temperature of the Earth.

Also Read: What is a Natural Disaster?

According to recent studies, many scientists believe the following are the primary four causes of global warming:

  • Deforestation 
  • Greenhouse emissions
  • Carbon emissions per capita

Extreme global warming is causing natural disasters , which can be seen all around us. One of the causes of global warming is the extreme release of greenhouse gases that become trapped on the earth’s surface, causing the temperature to rise. Similarly, volcanoes contribute to global warming by spewing excessive CO2 into the atmosphere.

The increase in population is one of the major causes of Global Warming. This increase in population also leads to increased air pollution . Automobiles emit a lot of CO2, which remains in the atmosphere. This increase in population is also causing deforestation, which contributes to global warming.

The earth’s surface emits energy into the atmosphere in the form of heat, keeping the balance with the incoming energy. Global warming depletes the ozone layer, bringing about the end of the world. There is a clear indication that increased global warming will result in the extinction of all life on Earth’s surface.

Also Read: Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation, and Wildlife Resources

Of course, industries and multinational conglomerates emit more carbon than the average citizen. Nonetheless, activism and community effort are the only viable ways to slow the worsening effects of global warming. Furthermore, at the state or government level, world leaders must develop concrete plans and step-by-step programmes to ensure that no further harm is done to the environment in general.

Although we are almost too late to slow the rate of global warming, finding the right solution is critical. Everyone, from individuals to governments, must work together to find a solution to Global Warming. Some of the factors to consider are pollution control, population growth, and the use of natural resources.

One very important contribution you can make is to reduce your use of plastic. Plastic is the primary cause of global warming, and recycling it takes years. Another factor to consider is deforestation, which will aid in the control of global warming. More tree planting should be encouraged to green the environment. Certain rules should also govern industrialization. Building industries in green zones that affect plants and species should be prohibited.

Also Read: Essay on Pollution

Global warming is a real problem that many people want to disprove to gain political advantage. However, as global citizens, we must ensure that only the truth is presented in the media.

This decade has seen a significant impact from global warming. The two most common phenomena observed are glacier retreat and arctic shrinkage. Glaciers are rapidly melting. These are clear manifestations of climate change.

Another significant effect of global warming is the rise in sea level. Flooding is occurring in low-lying areas as a result of sea-level rise. Many countries have experienced extreme weather conditions. Every year, we have unusually heavy rain, extreme heat and cold, wildfires, and other natural disasters.

Similarly, as global warming continues, marine life is being severely impacted. This is causing the extinction of marine species as well as other problems. Furthermore, changes are expected in coral reefs, which will face extinction in the coming years. These effects will intensify in the coming years, effectively halting species expansion. Furthermore, humans will eventually feel the negative effects of Global Warming.

Also Read: Concept of Sustainable Development

Sample Essays on Global Warming

Here are some sample essays on Global Warming:

Global Warming is caused by the increase of carbon dioxide levels in the earth’s atmosphere and is a result of human activities that have been causing harm to our environment for the past few centuries now. Global Warming is something that can’t be ignored and steps have to be taken to tackle the situation globally. The average temperature is constantly rising by 1.5 degrees Celsius over the last few years. The best method to prevent future damage to the earth, cutting down more forests should be banned and Afforestation should be encouraged. Start by planting trees near your homes and offices, participate in events, and teach the importance of planting trees. It is impossible to undo the damage but it is possible to stop further harm.

Also Read: Social Forestry

Over a long period, it is observed that the temperature of the earth is increasing. This affected wildlife , animals, humans, and every living organism on earth. Glaciers have been melting, and many countries have started water shortages, flooding, and erosion and all this is because of global warming. No one can be blamed for global warming except for humans. Human activities such as gases released from power plants, transportation, and deforestation have increased gases such as carbon dioxide, CFCs, and other pollutants in the earth’s atmosphere. The main question is how can we control the current situation and build a better world for future generations. It starts with little steps by every individual. Start using cloth bags made from sustainable materials for all shopping purposes, instead of using high-watt lights use energy-efficient bulbs, switch off the electricity, don’t waste water, abolish deforestation and encourage planting more trees. Shift the use of energy from petroleum or other fossil fuels to wind and solar energy. Instead of throwing out the old clothes donate them to someone so that it is recycled. Donate old books, don’t waste paper.  Above all, spread awareness about global warming. Every little thing a person does towards saving the earth will contribute in big or small amounts. We must learn that 1% effort is better than no effort. Pledge to take care of Mother Nature and speak up about global warming.

Also Read: Types of Water Pollution

Global warming isn’t a prediction, it is happening! A person denying it or unaware of it is in the most simple terms complicit. Do we have another planet to live on? Unfortunately, we have been bestowed with this one planet only that can sustain life yet over the years we have turned a blind eye to the plight it is in. Global warming is not an abstract concept but a global phenomenon occurring ever so slowly even at this moment.

Global Warming is a phenomenon that is occurring every minute resulting in a gradual increase in the Earth’s overall climate. Brought about by greenhouse gases that trap the solar radiation in the atmosphere, global warming can change the entire map of the earth, displacing areas, flooding many countries, and destroying multiple lifeforms. Extreme weather is a direct consequence of global warming but it is not an exhaustive consequence. There are virtually limitless effects of global warming which are all harmful to life on earth.

The sea level is increasing by 0.12 inches per year worldwide. This is happening because of the melting of polar ice caps because of global warming. This has increased the frequency of floods in many lowland areas and has caused damage to coral reefs. The Arctic is one of the worst-hit areas affected by global warming. Air quality has been adversely affected and the acidity of the seawater has also increased causing severe damage to marine life forms. Severe natural disasters are brought about by global warming which has had dire effects on life and property.

As long as mankind produces greenhouse gases, global warming will continue to accelerate. The consequences are felt at a much smaller scale which will increase to become drastic shortly. The power to save the day lies in the hands of humans, the need is to seize the day. Energy consumption should be reduced on an individual basis. Fuel-efficient cars and other electronics should be encouraged to reduce the wastage of energy sources. This will also improve air quality and reduce the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Global warming is an evil that can only be defeated when fought together.

It is better late than never. If we all take steps today, we will have a much brighter future tomorrow. Global warming is the bane of our existence and various policies have come up worldwide to fight it but that is not enough. The actual difference is made when we work at an individual level to fight it. Understanding its import now is crucial before it becomes an irrevocable mistake. Exterminating global warming is of utmost importance and each one of us is as responsible for it as the next.  

Always hear about global warming everywhere, but do we know what it is? The evil of the worst form, global warming is a phenomenon that can affect life more fatally. Global warming refers to the increase in the earth’s temperature as a result of various human activities. The planet is gradually getting hotter and threatening the existence of lifeforms on it. Despite being relentlessly studied and researched, global warming for the majority of the population remains an abstract concept of science. It is this concept that over the years has culminated in making global warming a stark reality and not a concept covered in books.

Global warming is not caused by one sole reason that can be curbed. There are multifarious factors that cause global warming most of which are a part of an individual’s daily existence. Burning of fuels for cooking, in vehicles, and for other conventional uses, a large amount of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, and methane amongst many others is produced which accelerates global warming. Rampant deforestation also results in global warming as lesser green cover results in an increased presence of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere which is a greenhouse gas. 

Finding a solution to global warming is of immediate importance. Global warming is a phenomenon that has to be fought unitedly. Planting more trees can be the first step that can be taken toward warding off the severe consequences of global warming. Increasing the green cover will result in regulating the carbon cycle. There should be a shift from using nonrenewable energy to renewable energy such as wind or solar energy which causes less pollution and thereby hinder the acceleration of global warming. Reducing energy needs at an individual level and not wasting energy in any form is the most important step to be taken against global warming.

The warning bells are tolling to awaken us from the deep slumber of complacency we have slipped into. Humans can fight against nature and it is high time we acknowledged that. With all our scientific progress and technological inventions, fighting off the negative effects of global warming is implausible. We have to remember that we do not inherit the earth from our ancestors but borrow it from our future generations and the responsibility lies on our shoulders to bequeath them a healthy planet for life to exist. 

Also Read: Essay on Disaster Management

One good action in a day is to combat the heat.

Global Warming and Climate Change are two sides of the same coin. Both are interrelated with each other and are two issues of major concern worldwide. Greenhouse gases released such as carbon dioxide, CFCs, and other pollutants in the earth’s atmosphere cause Global Warming which leads to climate change. Black holes have started to form in the ozone layer that protects the earth from harmful ultraviolet rays. Human activities have created climate change and global warming. Industrial waste and fumes are the major contributors to global warming. Another factor affecting is the burning of fossil fuels, deforestation and also one of the reasons for climate change.  Global warming has resulted in shrinking mountain glaciers in Antarctica, Greenland, and the Arctic and causing climate change. Switching from the use of fossil fuels to energy sources like wind and solar. When buying any electronic appliance buy the best quality with energy savings stars. Don’t waste water and encourage rainwater harvesting in your community. 

Also Read: Essay on Air Pollution

Writing an effective essay needs skills that few people possess and even fewer know how to implement. While writing an essay can be an assiduous task that can be unnerving at times, some key pointers can be inculcated to draft a successful essay. These involve focusing on the structure of the essay, planning it out well, and emphasizing crucial details. Mentioned below are some pointers that can help you write better structure and more thoughtful essays that will get across to your readers:

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  • Make your beginning catchy and include solutions in your conclusion to make the essay insightful and lucrative to read
  • Reread before putting it out and add your flair to the essay to make it more personal and thereby unique and intriguing for readers  

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Ans. Both natural and man-made factors contribute to global warming. The natural one also contains methane gas, volcanic eruptions, and greenhouse gases. Deforestation , mining , livestock raising, burning fossil fuels, and other man-made causes are next.

Ans. The government and the general public can work together to stop global warming. Trees must be planted more often, and deforestation must be prohibited. Auto usage needs to be curbed, and recycling needs to be promoted.

Ans. Switching to renewable energy sources , adopting sustainable farming, transportation, and energy methods, and conserving water and other natural resources.

We hope this blog gave you an idea about how to write and present an essay on global warming that puts forth your opinions. The skill of writing an essay comes in handy when appearing for standardized language tests . Thinking of taking one soon? Leverage Edu provides the best online test prep for the same via Leverage Live . Register today to know more!

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This was really a good essay on global warming… There has been used many unic words..and I really liked it!!!Seriously I had been looking for a essay about Global warming just like this…

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I want to learn how to write essay writing so I joined this page.This page is very useful for everyone.

Hi, we are glad that we could help you to write essays. We have a beginner’s guide to write essays ( https://leverageedu.com/blog/essay-writing/ ) and we think this might help you.

It is not good , to have global warming in our earth .So we all have to afforestation program on all the world.

thank you so much

Very educative , helpful and it is really going to strength my English knowledge to structure my essay in future

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Global warming is the increase in 𝓽𝓱𝓮 ᴀᴠᴇʀᴀɢᴇ ᴛᴇᴍᴘᴇʀᴀᴛᴜʀᴇs ᴏғ ᴇᴀʀᴛʜ🌎 ᴀᴛᴍᴏsᴘʜᴇʀᴇ

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Our Future Is Now - A Climate Change Essay by Francesca Minicozzi, '21

Francesca Minicozzi (class of 2021) is a Writing/Biology major who plans to study medicine after graduation. She wrote this essay on climate change for WR 355/Travel Writing, which she took while studying abroad in Newcastle in spring 2020. Although the coronavirus pandemic curtailed Francesca’s time abroad, her months in Newcastle prompted her to learn more about climate change. Terre Ryan Associate Professor, Writing Department

Our Future Is Now

By Francesca Minicozzi, '21 Writing and Biology Major

 “If you don’t mind me asking, how is the United States preparing for climate change?” my flat mate, Zac, asked me back in March, when we were both still in Newcastle. He and I were accustomed to asking each other about the differences between our home countries; he came from Cambridge, while I originated in Long Island, New York. This was one of our numerous conversations about issues that impact our generation, which we usually discussed while cooking dinner in our communal kitchen. In the moment of our conversation, I did not have as strong an answer for him as I would have liked. Instead, I informed him of the few changes I had witnessed within my home state of New York.

Francesca Minicozzi, '21

Zac’s response was consistent with his normal, diplomatic self. “I have been following the BBC news in terms of the climate crisis for the past few years. The U.K. has been working hard to transition to renewable energy sources. Similar to the United States, here in the United Kingdom we have converted over to solar panels too. My home does not have solar panels, but a lot of our neighbors have switched to solar energy in the past few years.”

“Our two countries are similar, yet so different,” I thought. Our conversation continued as we prepared our meals, with topics ranging from climate change to the upcoming presidential election to Britain’s exit from the European Union. However, I could not shake the fact that I knew so little about a topic so crucial to my generation.

After I abruptly returned home from the United Kingdom because of the global pandemic, my conversation with my flat mate lingered in my mind. Before the coronavirus surpassed climate change headlines, I had seen the number of internet postings regarding protests to protect the planet dramatically increase. Yet the idea of our planet becoming barren and unlivable in a not-so-distant future had previously upset me to the point where a part of me refused to deal with it. After I returned from studying abroad, I decided to educate myself on the climate crisis.

My quest for climate change knowledge required a thorough understanding of the difference between “climate change” and “global warming.” Climate change is defined as “a pattern of change affecting global or regional climate,” based on “average temperature and rainfall measurements” as well as the frequency of extreme weather events. 1   These varied temperature and weather events link back to both natural incidents and human activity. 2   Likewise, the term global warming was coined “to describe climate change caused by humans.” 3   Not only that, but global warming is most recently attributed to an increase in “global average temperature,” mainly due to greenhouse gas emissions produced by humans. 4

I next questioned why the term “climate change” seemed to take over the term “global warming” in the United States. According to Frank Luntz, a leading Republican consultant, the term “global warming” functions as a rather intimidating phrase. During George W. Bush’s first presidential term, Luntz argued in favor of using the less daunting phrase “climate change” in an attempt to overcome the environmental battle amongst Democrats and Republicans. 5   Since President Bush’s term, Luntz remains just one political consultant out of many politicians who has recognized the need to address climate change. In an article from 2019, Luntz proclaimed that political parties aside, the climate crisis affects everyone. Luntz argued that politicians should steer clear of trying to communicate “the complicated science of climate change,” and instead engage voters by explaining how climate change personally impacts citizens with natural disasters such as hurricanes, tornadoes, and forest fires. 6   He even suggested that a shift away from words like “sustainability” would gear Americans towards what they really want: a “cleaner, safer, healthier” environment. 7

The idea of a cleaner and heathier environment remains easier said than done. The Paris Climate Agreement, introduced in 2015, began the United Nations’ “effort to combat global climate change.” 8   This agreement marked a global initiative to “limit global temperature increase in this century to 2 degrees Celsius above preindustrial levels,” while simultaneously “pursuing means to limit the increase to 1.5 degrees.” 9    Every country on earth has joined together in this agreement for the common purpose of saving our planet. 10   So, what could go wrong here? As much as this sounds like a compelling step in the right direction for climate change, President Donald Trump thought otherwise. In June 2017, President Trump announced the withdrawal of the United States from the Paris Agreement with his proclamation of climate change as a “’hoax’ perpetrated by China.” 11   President Trump continued to question the scientific facts behind climate change, remaining an advocate for the expansion of domestic fossil fuel production. 12   He reversed environmental policies implemented by former President Barack Obama to reduce fossil fuel use. 13

Trump’s actions against the Paris Agreement, however, fail to represent the beliefs of Americans as a whole. The majority of American citizens feel passionate about the fight against climate change. To demonstrate their support, some have gone as far as creating initiatives including America’s Pledge and We Are Still In. 14   Although the United States officially exited the Paris Agreement on November 4, 2020, this withdrawal may not survive permanently. 15   According to experts, our new president “could rejoin in as short as a month’s time.” 16   This offers a glimmer of hope.

The Paris Agreement declares that the United States will reduce greenhouse gas emission levels by 26 to 28 percent by the year 2025. 17   As a leader in greenhouse gas emissions, the United States needs to accept the climate crisis for the serious challenge that it presents and work together with other nations. The concept of working coherently with all nations remains rather tricky; however, I remain optimistic. I think we can learn from how other countries have adapted to the increased heating of our planet. During my recent study abroad experience in the United Kingdom, I was struck by Great Britain’s commitment to combating climate change.

Since the United Kingdom joined the Paris Agreement, the country targets a “net-zero” greenhouse gas emission for 2050. 18   This substantial alteration would mark an 80% reduction of greenhouse gases from 1990, if “clear, stable, and well-designed policies are implemented without interruption.” 19   In order to stay on top of reducing emissions, the United Kingdom tracks electricity and car emissions, “size of onshore and offshore wind farms,” amount of homes and “walls insulated, and boilers upgraded,” as well as the development of government policies, including grants for electric vehicles. 20   A strong grip on this data allows the United Kingdom to target necessary modifications that keep the country on track for 2050. In my brief semester in Newcastle, I took note of these significant changes. The city of Newcastle is small enough that many students and faculty are able to walk or bike to campus and nearby essential shops. However, when driving is unavoidable, the majority of the vehicles used are electric, and many British citizens place a strong emphasis on carpooling to further reduce emissions. The United Kingdom’s determination to severely reduce greenhouse emissions is ambitious and particularly admirable, especially as the United States struggles to shy away from its dependence on fossil fuels.

So how can we, as Americans, stand together to combat global climate change? Here are five adjustments Americans can make to their homes and daily routines that can dramatically make a difference:

  • Stay cautious of food waste. Studies demonstrate that “Americans throw away up to 40 percent of the food they buy.” 21   By being more mindful of the foods we purchase, opting for leftovers, composting wastes, and donating surplus food to those in need, we can make an individual difference that impacts the greater good. 22   
  • Insulate your home. Insulation functions as a “cost-effective and accessible” method to combat climate change. 23   Homes with modern insulation reduce energy required to heat them, leading to a reduction of emissions and an overall savings; in comparison, older homes can “lose up to 35 percent of heat through their walls.” 24   
  • Switch to LED Lighting. LED stands for “light-emitting diodes,” which use “90 percent less energy than incandescent bulbs and half as much as compact fluorescents.” 25   LED lights create light without producing heat, and therefore do not waste energy. Additionally, these lights have a longer duration than other bulbs, which means they offer a continuing savings. 26  
  • Choose transportation wisely. Choose to walk or bike whenever the option presents itself. If walking or biking is not an option, use an electric or hybrid vehicle which emits less harmful gases. Furthermore, reduce the number of car trips taken, and carpool with others when applicable. 
  • Finally, make your voice heard. The future of our planet remains in our hands, so we might as well use our voices to our advantage. Social media serves as a great platform for this. Moreover, using social media to share helpful hints to combat climate change within your community or to promote an upcoming protest proves beneficial in the long run. If we collectively put our voices to good use, together we can advocate for change.

As many of us are stuck at home due to the COVID-19 pandemic, these suggestions are slightly easier to put into place. With numerous “stay-at-home” orders in effect, Americans have the opportunity to make significant achievements for climate change. Personally, I have taken more precautions towards the amount of food consumed within my household during this pandemic. I have been more aware of food waste, opting for leftovers when too much food remains. Additionally, I have realized how powerful my voice is as a young college student. Now is the opportunity for Americans to share how they feel about climate change. During this unprecedented time, our voice is needed now more than ever in order to make a difference.

However, on a much larger scale, the coronavirus outbreak has shed light on reducing global energy consumption. Reductions in travel, both on the roads and in the air, have triggered a drop in emission rates. In fact, the International Energy Agency predicts a 6 percent decrease in energy consumption around the globe for this year alone. 27   This drop is “equivalent to losing the entire energy demand of India.” 28   Complete lockdowns have lowered the global demand for electricity and slashed CO2 emissions. However, in New York City, the shutdown has only decreased carbon dioxide emissions by 10 percent. 29   This proves that a shift in personal behavior is simply not enough to “fix the carbon emission problem.” 30   Climate policies aimed to reduce fossil fuel production and promote clean technology will be crucial steppingstones to ameliorating climate change effects. Our current reduction of greenhouse gas emissions serves as “the sort of reduction we need every year until net-zero emissions are reached around 2050.” 31   From the start of the coronavirus pandemic, politicians came together for the common good of protecting humanity; this demonstrates that when necessary, global leaders are capable of putting humankind above the economy. 32

After researching statistics comparing the coronavirus to climate change, I thought back to the moment the virus reached pandemic status. I knew that a greater reason underlay all of this global turmoil. Our globe is in dire need of help, and the coronavirus reminds the world of what it means to work together. This pandemic marks a turning point in global efforts to slow down climate change. The methods we enact towards not only stopping the spread of the virus, but slowing down climate change, will ultimately depict how humanity will arise once this pandemic is suppressed. The future of our home planet lies in how we treat it right now. 

  • “Climate Change: What Do All the Terms Mean?,” BBC News (BBC, May 1, 2019), https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-48057733 )
  • Ibid. 
  • Kate Yoder, “Frank Luntz, the GOP's Message Master, Calls for Climate Action,” Grist (Grist, July 26, 2019), https://grist.org/article/the-gops-most-famous-messaging-strategist-calls-for-climate-action
  • Melissa Denchak, “Paris Climate Agreement: Everything You Need to Know,” NRDC, April 29, 2020, https://www.nrdc.org/stories/paris-climate-agreement-everything-you-need-know)
  • “Donald J. Trump's Foreign Policy Positions,” Council on Foreign Relations (Council on Foreign Relations), accessed May 7, 2020, https://www.cfr.org/election2020/candidate-tracker/donald-j.-trump?gclid=CjwKCAjw4871BRAjEiwAbxXi21cneTRft_doA5if60euC6QCL7sr-Jwwv76IkgWaUTuyJNx9EzZzRBoCdjsQAvD_BwE#climate and energy )
  • David Doniger, “Paris Climate Agreement Explained: Does Congress Need to Sign Off?,” NRDC, December 15, 2016, https://www.nrdc.org/experts/david-doniger/paris-climate-agreement-explained-does-congress-need-sign )
  • “How the UK Is Progressing,” Committee on Climate Change, March 9, 2020, https://www.theccc.org.uk/what-is-climate-change/reducing-carbon-emissions/how-the-uk-is-progressing/)
  • Ibid.  
  • “Top 10 Ways You Can Fight Climate Change,” Green America, accessed May 7, 2020, https://www.greenamerica.org/your-green-life/10-ways-you-can-fight-climate-change )
  • Matt McGrath, “Climate Change and Coronavirus: Five Charts about the Biggest Carbon Crash,” BBC News (BBC, May 5, 2020), https://www.bbc.com/news/amp/science-environment-52485712 )
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NCERT Notes: Causes Of Climate Change [Geography Notes For UPSC]

NCERT notes on important topics for the IAS aspirants. These notes will also be useful for other competitive exams like banking PO, SSC, state civil services exams and so on. This article talks about Climate Change.

What is climate?

  • Climate is the average weather in a place over many years.
  • The weather can change in just a few hours whereas climate takes millions of years to change.
  • Planet earth has witnessed many variations in climate since the beginning.

Causes of Climate Change (UPSC Notes):- Download PDF Here

What are the pieces of evidence of Climate Change?

  • Sea level rise
  • Global temperature rise
  • Warming oceans
  • Shrinking ice sheets
  • Declining Arctic sea ice
  • Glacial retreat
  • Extreme natural events
  • Ocean acidification
  • Decreased snow cover

What are the causes of Climate Change?

  • There are several causes of climate change. The most significant anthropogenic effect on the climate is the increasing trend in the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
  • Sunspot activities
  • Millankovitch oscillations
  • Concentration of greenhouse
  • The astronomical causes are the variations in solar output related to sunspot activities.
  • Sunspots are dark and cooler patches on the sun which rise and fall in a recurring manner.
  • When the number of sunspots increases, cooler and wetter weather and greater storminess occur.
  • These modify the amount of insolation received from the sun, which in turn, might have a bearing on the climate.
  • Milankovitch oscillations, which infer cycles in the variations in the earth’s orbital characteristics around the sun, the wobbling of the earth and the changes in the earth’s axial tilt. All these alter the amount of insolation received from the sun, which in turn, might have a bearing on the climate.
  • Volcanism is regarded as another cause for climate change.
  • Volcanic eruptions throw up loads of aerosols into the atmosphere.
  • These aerosols persist in the atmosphere for a substantial period of time decreasing the radiation of sun reaching the surface of Earth.
  • The primary Greenhouse gases of concern are Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), Methane (CH 4 ), Nitrous oxide (N 2 O), Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and Ozone (O 3 ).
  • Some other gases such as nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) easily react with Greenhouse gases and affect their concentration in the atmosphere.
  • The largest concentration of Greenhouse gas in the atmosphere is carbon dioxide.
  • The greenhouse effect is a normal process that warms the surface of the Earth.
  • Solar radiation reaches the atmosphere of Earth and some of this is reflected back into space.
  • The rest of the energy of the sun is absorbed by the terrestrial and the oceans, heating the Earth.
  • Heat radiates from Earth towards space.
  • Some of this heat is trapped by greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, keeping the Earth warm enough to sustain life.
  • Human activities such as burning fossil fuels, agriculture, and land clearing are increasing the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere.
  • This is trapping extra heat, and causing the temperature of the earth to rise and ultimately result in Global Warming.
  • Global warming is the gradual heating of the surface of the Earth, ocean, and atmosphere.
  • Global warming begins with the greenhouse effect, which is caused by the interaction between incoming radiation from the sun and the atmosphere of Earth.
  • The atmosphere is acting as a greenhouse due to the presence of greenhouse gases.

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Following are the topics on which our followers have written (and writing essays) every Sunday to hone their essay writing skills. The topics are chosen based on UPSC previous year topics. Writing one essay on each Sunday will help you get better marks in this paper.

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  • February 18, 2024 : Never Let School Interfere With Your Education
  • February 11, 2024 : Whoever Controls the Media Controls the Mind
  • February 04, 2024 : A certain darkness is needed to see the stars
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  • December 17, 2023 : We are drowning in information, but starved for Knowledge
  • December 10, 2023 : Violence Is the last resort of the incompetent
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  • November 26, 2023 : A Society that has more justice is the society that needs less charity
  • November 19, 2023 : Sell Your Cleverness and Buy Bewilderment
  • November 12, 2023 : love takes off the masks that we fear we cannot live without and know we cannot live within
  • November 5, 2023 : Clothes Make The Man
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  • October 22, 2023 : Mathematics is the music of reason
  • October 15, 2023 : Girls are weighed down by restrictions, boys with demands – two equally harmful disciplines
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  • August 27, 2023 : Nations Do Not Die From Invasion. They Die From Internal Rottenness
  • August 20, 2023 : In Individuals, insanity is rare; In groups, parties and nations, it is the rule.
  • August 13, 2023 : Economics Is Too Important To Leave To The Economists.
  • August 06, 2023 : A self without a book-shelf is naked.
  • July 30, 2023 : Wrong Choices Lead To Right Places
  • July 23, 2023 : Credit where credit is due.
  • July 16, 2023 : A right is not what someone gives you; it’s what no one can take away from you.
  • July 9, 2023 : The measure of intelligence is the ability to change
  • July 2, 2023 : Do what you can, with what you have, where you are. 
  • June 25, 2023 : In the long run , the sword will always be conquered by the spirit
  • June 18, 2023 : The company you keep determines your Success
  • June 11, 2023 : A disciplined mind brings happiness.
  • June 4, 2023 : Our moral responsibility is not to stop the future but to shape it
  • May 28, 2023 : Action breeds confidence and courage
  • May 21, 2023 : A library is a hospital for the mind
  • May 14, 2023 : Self-Education is Life-Long Curiosity
  • May 7, 2023 : Silence is Spurious Golden
  • April 30, 2023 : The price of greatness is responsibility
  • April 23, 2023 : Progress is impossible without change
  • April 16, 2023 : The Impact of Artificial Intelligence.
  • April 9, 2023 : People would rather believe than know.
  • April  2, 2023 : Prioritizing education technology for global growth
  • March 26, 2023 : Technology is a weapon against poverty
  • March 19, 2023 : Every choice you make makes you
  • March 12, 2023 : Patience is a virture ; virtue is a grace
  • March 5, 2023 : Before any fight, it is the fight of mind
  • February 26, 2023 :  The Measure of a man is what he does with Power.
  • February 19, 2023 : When you kill time, you kill life.
  • February 12, 2023 : Delayed success mostly stays forever.
  • February 05, 2023 : The wound is the place where the Light enters you.
  • January 29, 2023 : Doubt is an uncomfortable condition, but certainty is a ridiculous one.
  • January 22, 2023 : I am what I am, so take me as I am
  • January 15, 2023 : Real learning comes about when the competitive spirit has ceased
  • January 08, 2023 : Time hurts but it also heals. It punishes but it rewards too- it is the greatest teacher ever for a human.
  • January 01, 2023 : The Beginning is the End and the End is The Beginning.

WEEKLY UPSC IAS ESSAY WRITING CHALLENGES – 2022

  • December 25, 2022 : To tolerate is purely an act of mind
  • December 18, 2022 : The arc of moral universe is long, but it bends towards justice
  • December 11, 2022 : Religion is a culture of faith; Science is a culture of doubt.
  • December 04, 2022 : My best friend is a person who will give me a book I have not read
  • November 27, 2022 : Everything comes to him who hustles while he waits
  • November 20, 2022 : We are always blind as we want to be
  • November 13, 2022  : By your stumbling, the world is perfected.
  • November 6, 2022 : You cannot step twice in the same river
  • October 30, 2022 : Just because you have a choice, it does not mean that any of them has to be right.
  • October 23, 2022 : A smile is the chosen vehicle for all ambiguities
  • October 16, 2022 : The time to repair the roof is when the sun is shining
  • October 9, 2022 : A ship in harbour is safe, but that is not what ship is for
  • October 2, 2022 : History is a series of victories won by the scientific man over the romantic man
  • September 25, 2022 : Poets are the unacknowledged legislators of the world
  • September 18, 2022 : Forests are the best case studies for economic excellence
  • September 11, 2022 : Culture changes with economic development.
  • September 4 2022 : We don’t see things as they are, we see them as we are.
  • August 28 2022 :  The obstacle is the path.
  • August 21 2022 : What is to give light must endure burning.
  • August 14 2022 : “He who has never learned to obey cannot be a good commander.” Aristotle.
  • August 7 2022 : Any fool can know. The point is to understand.” Albert Einstein
  • July 31, 2022 : A bad conscience is easier to cope with than a bad reputation. Friedrich Nietzsche.
  • July 24, 2022 : Time is all we have and don’t
  • July 17, 2022 : Life fritters away when distractions become your lifestyle
  • July 10, 2022 : After every darkness comes the dawn July 10, 2022 : After every darkness comes the dawn
  • July 3, 2022 : Mind – a beautiful servant? Or a dangerous master?
  • June 26, 2022 : Education Breeds Peace
  • June 19, 2022 : A great leader is never angry
  • June 12, 2022 : That which hurts, instructs; That which instructs, creates; Creates Wonders!
  • June 05, 2022 : Don’t let what you cannot do interfere with what you can do
  • May 29, 2022 : The journey is a reward as well as destination
  • May 22, 2022 : Imagination creates reality
  • May 15, 2022 : The curious paradox is, only if we accept things as they are, things can change
  • May 08, 2022:  The whole problem with the world is that fools and fanatics are so certain of themselves, while wiser people are so full of doubts
  • May 01, 2022:  Loyalty To Country Always. Loyalty To Government Only When It Deserves
  • April 24, 2022: Successful Investing Is Anticipating The Anticipations of Others
  • April 17, 2022: Courage is resistance to fear, mastery of fear, not absence of fear
  • April 10, 2022 : Tell me and I forget. Teach me and I remember. Involve me and I learn
  • April 03, 2022 : Forgiveness is the final form of love
  • March 27, 2022 : The world of reality has its limits; the world of imagination is boundless
  • March 20, 2022 : Reason has always existed, but not always in a reasonable form.
  • March 13, 2022 : Everything we hear is an opinion; not a fact
  • March 5, 2022 : There are better practices to “best practices”
  • February 27, 2022 : History repeats itself first as a tragedy second as a farce.
  • February 20, 2022 : What is research, but a blind date with knowledge!
  • February 13, 2022 : Hand that rocks the cradle rules the world
  • February 6, 2022 : The real is rational and the rational is real.
  • January 30, 2022 : Philosophy of Wantlessness Is Utopian, while the philosophy of materialism is chimera.
  • January 23, 2022 : Your perception of me is a reflection of you; my reaction to you is an awareness of me.
  • January 16, 2022 : The process of self-discovery has now been technologically outsourced.
  • January 09, 2022 : Knowing oneself is the beginning of all wisdom
  • January 02, 2022 : Biased Media Is A Real Threat To Indian Democracy

WEEKLY UPSC IAS ESSAY WRITING CHALLENGES – 2021

  • December 26, 2021 : What Gets Measured Gets Managed
  • December 19, 2021 : The enemy of stability is complacency
  • December 12, 2021 : A clear conscience fears no accusation
  • December 05, 2021 : Power of vested interests is vastly exaggerated compared with the gradual encroachment of ideas
  • November 28, 2021 : The whole is more than a sum of its parts
  • November 21, 2021 : Scientific and technological progress cannot be equated with the progress of humanity
  • November 14, 2021 : The price of our vitality is the sum of all our fears
  • November 7, 2021 : Lawlessness is the result of failure to cultivate a sense of self-evaluation
  • October 30, 2021 : What you do makes a difference, and you have to decide what kind of difference you want to make
  • October 24, 2021 : Science for the economic freedom of humanity
  • October 17, 2021 : An interdependent world cannot be an inequitable world
  • October 03, 2021 : Strength comes from an indomitable Will
  • SEPTEMBER 26, 2021 : Ethnocracy and concentration of power can derail even an affluent nation
  • SEPTEMBER 19, 2021 : Conservation is a state of harmony between men and land.
  • SEPTEMBER 12, 2021 : Culture of entitlement comes with unreasonable expectations and insecurities 
  • SEPTEMBER 5, 2021 : Literacy is a vital skill that enhances dignity, improves health outcomes, empowers people to access their rights and bolsters opportunities
  • AUGUST 29, 2021 : A parliamentary system of government rests on a functioning opposition as ‘no democracy can do without it’.
  • AUGUST 22, 2021 : Development must lead to dismantle all kinds of human unfreedom
  • AUGUST 15, 2021 : Sport is a reflection of larger social phenomena
  • AUGUST 8, 2021 : Every social stratum has its own Common Sense and its own good sense
  • AUGUST 1, 2021 : Capitalism without competition is not Capitalism. It is Exploitation.
  • JULY 25, 2021 : We don’t have to sacrifice a Strong Economy for a Healthy Environment
  • JULY 18,2021 : We Need not a social conscience, but a social consciousness.
  • JULY 11, 2021 : The cure for evils of democracy is more democracy.
  • JULY 04, 2021 : No Constitution by itself achieves perfect justice
  • JUNE 27, 2021 : Our world has achieved brilliance without conscience.
  • JUNE 20, 2021 : Our common humanity demands that we make the impossible possible.
  • JUNE 13, 2021 : Without courage we cannot practice any other virtue with consistency. We can’t be kind, true, merciful, generous, or honest.
  • JUNE 06, 2021 : The political problem of mankind is to combine three things: economic efficiency, social justice and individual liberty.
  • MAY 30, 2021 : Economics without ethics is a caricature & ethics without economics is a fairy tale.
  • MAY 23 , 2021 : Indecisiveness is the rival of Progression
  • MAY 16 , 2021 : Time changes everything except something within us which is always surprised by change.
  • May 09, 2021 : The possession of arbitrary power has always, the world over, tended irresistibly to destroy humane sensibility, magnanimity, and truth
  • May 02, 2021 : The truth of character is expressed through choice of act ions
  • April 25, 2021 : It is not our differences that divide us; It is our inability to recognise, accept, and celebrate those differences.
  • April 18, 2021 : Nothing in the world is more dangerous than sincere ignorance and conscientious stupidity.
  • April 11, 2021 : Solutions emerge if situations are not forced
  • April 04, 2021 : Morality is subservient to materialistic values in present times
  • March 28, 2021 : Prejudice is a burden that confuses the past, threatens the future and renders the present inaccessible
  • March 21, 2021 : Our major social problems are not the cause of our decadence but are a reflection of it
  • March 14, 2021 : The Future of Multilateralism : Towards a responsible Globalization
  • March 07, 2021 : Subtlety may deceive you; Integrity never will
  • February 28, 2021 :Technology as the silent factor in international relations
  • February 21, 2021 :Patriarchy is the least noticed yet the most significant structure of social inequality
  • February 14, 2021:There can be no social justice without economic prosperity but economic prosperity without social justice is meaningless
  • February 07, 2021: Culture is what we are civilization is what we have
  • January 31, 2021: Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication
  • January 24, 2021: Ships do not sink because of water around them , ships sink because of water that gets into them
  • January 17, 2021: Mindful manifesto is the catalyst to a tranquil self
  • January 10, 2021: Life is long journey between human being and being humane
  • January 03, 2021: The Covid pandemic has revealed the urgent need for effective governance everywhere”
  • December 27, 2020: Challenges of 21st Century – insurmountable?
  • December 20, 2020: Too much Democracy is Detrimental to Development
  • December 13, 2020: Happiness is not an ideal of reason, but of imagination.

WEEKLY UPSC IAS ESSAY WRITING CHALLENGES – 2020

  • December 06, 2020 : As you Start to walk on the way, the Way appears
  • November 29, 2020: Need of the Hour is to Maximise Possibilities of Agriculture in India
  • November 22, 2020: The survival of democracy depends on its ability to lower social uncertainty
  • November 15, 2020: There is no greatness where there is no simplicity
  • November 08, 2020: Inequality can be Reduced by the Power of the Market rather than the Government
  • November 01, 2020: Civil liberties are fundamental to the functioning of modern democracies
  • October 25, 2020: Artificial Intelligence is Not All Evil – It can Promote Social Good Too
  • October 18, 2020: Wherever law ends, tyranny begins
  • October 11, 2020:Hyper-globalism is threat to human prosperity
  • September 27, 2020: Our World is in a Surplus of Multilateral Challenges and a Deficit of Solutions
  • September 20, 2020: In India Agriculture and the Farmer are both the Victims of Narrow Political Vision
  • September 13, 2020: India Needs Aggressive and Pragmatic Neighbourhood Policy
  • September 6, 2020: “The greatest discovery of all time is that a person can change his future by merely changing his  attitude .
  • August 30, 2020: The worst form of inequality is to try to make unequal things equal
  • August 23, 2020: Justice will not be served until those who are unaffected are as outraged as those who are.
  • August 16, 2020: Life without liberty is like a body without spirit.
  • August 09, 2020: Strive not to be a success, but rather to be of value
  • August 02, 2020: New Education Policy 2020: A Progressive Policy with Diverse Challenges
  • July 26, 2020: In a democracy, the individual enjoys not only the ultimate power but carries the ultimate responsibility
  • July 19, 2020: Education is a progressive discovery of our own ignorance
  • July 12, 2020: The human spirit must prevail over technology
  • July 05, 2020: When the power of love overcomes the love of power the world will know peace.
  • June 28, 2020: Today India Needs ‘Harmony in Diversity’, Not Unity in Diversity.
  • June 21, 2020: A people without the knowledge of their past history, origin and culture is like a tree without roots.
  • June 14, 2020: Post Independence, the Issue of Land is at the Core of India’s Non-Achievement of Its Development Aspirations
  • June 7, 2020: Never Let a Good Crisis Go to Waste
  • May 31, 2020: Despite Challenges, To be a Healthy and Successful Nation, India must Ensure Universal Health Coverage 
  • May 24, 2020: Nearly all men can stand adversity, but if you want to test a man’s character, give him power.
  • May 17, 2020:The test of our progress is not whether we add more to the abundance of those who have much it is whether we provide enough for those who have too little
  • May 10, 2020: Urban Exclusion of Migrant Workers in India is a Reality and Needs Urgent Robust Policy Measures
  • May 03, 2020: Uncertainty should ignite creativity, not depravity
  • April 26, 2020: The fool doth think he is wise but the wise man knows himself to be a fool
  • April 19, 2020: Social Harmony, not Social Distancing, is the final solution to all our problems
  • April 12, 2020: It is our choices, that show what we truly are, far more than our abilities
  • April 05, 2020: Education must also train one for quick, resolute and effective thinking
  • March 29, 2020: “Problems cannot be solved at the same level of awareness that created them”
  • March 22, 2020: In order to understand the world one has to turn away from it on occasion
  • March 15, 2020: Pandemics such as COVID-19, though Catastrophic, are in the end Meant to Reset Humanity and its Priorities
  • March 08, 2020: Those who have wisdom have all: Fools with all have nothing
  • March 01, 2020: Indifferentism is the worst kind of disease that can affect people.
  • [VIDEO] Perspectives on Essay Topic of Feb 23
  • February 23, 2020: To ease another’s heartache is to forget one’s own.
  • February 16, 2020 : When civil services does its job, people will not need social service
  • February 09, 2020 : The greatest threat to our planet is the belief that someone else will save it.
  • February 02, 2020: Ability will get you success, Character will keep you successful.
  • January 26, 2020: Media’s duty is to inform public, not manufacture opinion.
  • January 19, 2020: Freedom is not worth having if it does not include the freedom to make mistakes
  • January 12, 2020 : Women who seek to be equal with men lack ambition
  • J anuary 5, 2020 : All war is a symptom of man’s failure as a thinking animal
  • December 29, 2019 : There cannot be daily democracy without daily citizenship
  • December 22, 2019: War is the ultimate Price we pay for lasting Peace
  • December 15, 2019 : Inclusivity and Plurality are the hallmarks of a peaceful society
  • December 08, 2019: Justice Loses Character if it becomes Revenge
  • December 01. 2019: Economic Growth and Development are Shaped by the Societies in which they Operate
  • November 24, 2019: Social Media is the Fourth Pillar of Democracy
  • November 17, 2019: Media is No More a Fourth Pillar of Democracy
  • November 10, 2019: Rise of Artificial Intelligence: the threat of jobless future or better job opportunities through reskilling and upskilling
  • November 03, 2019:Biased media is a real threat to Indian democracy
  • October 27, 2019: Neglect of primary health care and education in India are reasons for its backwardness
  • October 20, 2019: South Asian societies are woven not around the state, but around their plural cultures and plural identities
  • October 13, 2019: Courage to accept and dedication to improve are two keys to success
  • October 06, 2019: Best for an individual is not necessarily best for the society
  • September 29, 2019: Values are not what humanity is, but what humanity ought to be
  • September 22, 2019: Wisdom finds truth

WEEKLY UPSC IAS ESSAY WRITING CHALLENGES – 2019

  • September 15, 2019: Kashmir Problem – Historical Injustice or Misguided Geopolitics?
  • September 08, 2019: India’s Space Ambitions – Are they Welfarist?
  • September 01, 2019: India – $5 Trillion Economy: Dream or Reality?
  • August 25, 2019 Knowledge will give you power, but character respect.
  • August 18, 2019 The mind is everything. What you think you become.
  • August 11, 2019: Virtue is Knowledge
  • August 04, 2019: Inclusive governance begets Inclusive growth
  • July 28, 2019: India’s headache: Unemployment or Underemployment?
  • July 21, 2019: The road to science and spirituality are opposite, but we should tread both
  • July 14, 2019: India is a leading power, rather than just a balancing power
  • July 07, 2019: Should the world embrace democratic socialism or progressive capitalism?
  • June 30, 2019: Impact of Digital Revolution on Human Wellbeing
  • June 23, 20 19: Contentment is natural wealth, luxury is artificial poverty
  • June 16, 2019: The definition of happiness is the full use of your powers, along the lines of excellence.
  • June 09, 2019: Not Corruption, Communalism is the Greatest Threat India is facing Today
  • May 19, 2019: First they ignore you, then they laugh at you, then they fight you, then you win.
  • May 12, 2019: Never interrupt your enemy when he is making a mistake
  • May 05, 2019: Happiness equals reality minus expectations
  • April 28, 2019: Political correctness is tyranny with manners
  • April 21, 2019: The only thing necessary for the triumph of evil is for good men to do nothing.
  • April 07, 2019: Dogma is the sacrifice of wisdom to consistency
  • March 31, 2019: The true measure of a man is how he treats someone who can do him absolutely no good.
  • March 24, 2019: Terrorism has No Religion
  • March 17, 2019: Money and Religion – Great Unifiers of Humankind?
  • March 10, 2019: Tradition becomes our security, and when the mind is secure it is in decay
  • March 03, 2019: Innovation distinguishes between a leader and a follower
  • February 24,2019: Knowledge speaks, but wisdom listens
  • February 17, 2019: Problems worthy of attack prove their worth by fighting back
  • February 10, 2019: Nothing in the world is more dangerous than sincere ignorance and conscientious stupidity.
  • February 03, 2019: You can avoid reality, but you cannot avoid the consequences of avoiding reality
  • January 27, 2019: Glory is fleeting, but obscurity is forever
  • January 20, 2019: All that we are is the result of what we have thought.
  • January 12, 2019: All differences in this world are of degree, and not of kind, because oneness is the secret of everything.
  • January 06, 2019: National security is Irreversibly linked to good economic growth

WEEKLY UPSC IAS ESSAY WRITING CHALLENGES – 2018

  • December 28, 2018: To plan for smart development, governments and business must recognize nature’s role in supporting economic activity
  • December 23, 2018: Government Surveillance – Good or Bad?
  • December 16, 2018: Trade Wars – Economic or Geopolitical?
  • December 02, 2018: Immigration is Not a Threat, but Fundamentally it’s an Economic Issue
  • November 25, 2018: A people that values its privileges above its principles loses both
  • November 18, 2018: “The past’ is a permanent dimension of human consciousness and values
  • November 11, 2018: A good life is one inspired by love and guided by knowledge
  • November 04, 2018: Management of Indian border disputes – a complex task
  • October 28, 2018: Alternative technologies for a climate change resilient India
  • October 21, 2018: Poverty anywhere is a threat to prosperity everywhere
  • October 14, 2018: Reality does not conform to the ideal, but confirms it
  • October 07, 2018: Customary morality cannot be a guide to modern life
  • September 30, 2018: Commercialization of Space : Importance and the need for regulation
  • September 23, 2018: E-commerce as a new form of trade and its challenges to India.
  • September 16, 2018: Ability is nothing without opportunity
  • September 09, 2018: Death Penalty eliminates Criminals, not Crime.
  • September 02, 2018: Dissent is the foundation of democracy.
  • August 26, 2018: Mars Mission and Mob lynchings are two obverse faces of India
  • August 19, 2018: Strengthening Land Rights Strengthens Development
  • August 12, 2018: Age of Big Data: Data is the New Oil, History is its oldest bank
  • August 05, 2018: Strong Institutions and fair procedures, not personalities constitute the fundamentals of good governance
  • July 29, 2018: Social reform is a myth if places of worship are open only to all castes and not to all genders.
  • July 22, 2018: Section 377, not the carnal acts banned under it is ‘against the order of nature ‘
  • July 15, 2018: Schooling Is Not Education
  • July 08, 2018: Sometimes it takes a natural disaster to reveal a social disaster.
  • July 01, 2018: Normal human activity is worse for nature than the greatest nuclear accident in history
  • June 24, 2018: Gender Sensitive Indian Society is Prerequisite for Women and Child Empowerment
  • June 17, 2018: Where Should India Invest More – Human Capital or Human Development?
  • June 10, 2018: Has Democracy Taken Backseat Due to the Rise of Populists and Demagogues?
  • June 03, 2018: We won’t have a society ,if we destroy the environment
  • May 27, 2018: Can Development and Environment Protection Go Together?
  • May 20, 2018: Governor is the Choke Point of Federal Circuit of India
  • May 13, 2018: Anonymity is the Best and the Worst Feature of Urbanism
  • May 06, 2018: A man is but the product of his thoughts; what he thinks, he becomes
  • April 29, 2018: Guaranteeing Right to Vote may Establish a Democracy, But Ensuring it’s Right Use Only Will Bring a True Democracy
  • April 22, 2018: Stereotyping is an Ideological Force Which Hinders and Endangers Consolidation of India
  • April 15, 2018: Can Education and legislation Address Violence Against Women and Children in India?
  • April 8, 2018: Banking Crisis in India – Failure of Governance and Regulation?
  • April 1, 2018: Privacy is the fountainhead of all other rights
  • March 25, 2018: Impact of Technology on Human Relations and Human Productivity
  • March 18, 2018: India’s Focus should be on Ease of Living, not on Easy of Doing Business
  • March 11, 2018: A friend to everybody is a friend to nobody
  • March 04, 2018: Capitalism can not Bring Inclusive Growth
  • February 25, 2018: The unprecedented advance of technologies facilitate individual empowerment but at the cost of Institutions and Democratic societies
  • February 18, 2018: Threats being Faced by Liberal Democratic Systems are both Dangerous and Permanent
  • February 11, 2018: For India, Stigmatised Capitalism is Better than Crony Socialism
  • February 04, 2018: Art, freedom and creativity will change society faster than politics.
  • January 28, 2018: Politics of Identity is the Politics of the Weak
  • January 21, 2018: Poverty is the parent of revolution and crime
  • January 14, 2018: Peace cannot be kept by force; it can only be achieved by understanding
  • January 07, 2018: The Root Cause of Agrarian Distress in India – Failure of Policies or Failure of Governance?

WEEKLY UPSC IAS ESSAY WRITING CHALLENGES – 2017

  • December 31, 2017: Impact of the new economic measures on fiscal ties between the union and states in India
  • December 24, 2017: Fulfilment of ‘new woman’ in India is a myth
  • December 17, 2017: Joy is the simplest form of gratitude.
  • December 10, 2017: Farming has lost the ability to be a source of subsistence for majority of farmers in India
  • December 03, 2017: Destiny of a nation is shaped in its classrooms
  • November 19, 2017: Has the Non- Alignment Movement(NAM) lost its relevance in a multipolar world
  • November 12, 2017: Social media is inherently a selfish medium.
  • November 04, 2017: We may brave human laws but cannot resist natural laws
  • October 29, 2017: Gratitude is not only the greatest of virtues, but the parent of all the others.
  • October 22, 2017: Harith Diwali, Swasth Diwali : What measures are needed to deal with Festivity and Air Pollution?
  • October 15, 2017: Biggest Threat to Humanity – Moral Crisis or Climate Change?
  • October 08, 2017: The monsoon is a defining aspect of India’s nationhood
  • October 01, 2017: India’s Infrastructure Story – Why is India not able to Build like China?
  • September 24, 2017: Impact of Digital Technologies on Globalisation
  • September 17, 2017: Urbanisation and Solid Waste Management in India – Challenges and Opportunities
  • September 10,2017: Gender Equality and Peace: Are They Connected?
  • September 03, 2017: Recent Natural Disasters – What do they Reveal about Humanity?
  • August 27, 2017: Godmen – A Threat to Indian Society and Culture
  • August 20, 2017: Corruption in India: Neither Systemic Reforms nor Surgical Strikes would End it
  • August 13,2017: Interrelationship between Gender Equality and Sustainable Development
  • August 06, 2017: Utility and relevance of Parliament in our polity
  • July 30, 2017: Caste System – Source of India’s Eternal Inequality?
  • July 23, 2017: Indian Democracy, Media and Public Opinion – Does Public Opinion Matter in Policymaking?
  • July 16, 2017: Poverty and Environment – Their Interrelationship is the Key to Sustainable World
  • July 09, 2017: Soft Power is India’s Strength, not its Weakness
  • July 02, 2017: Technology and Jobs – Is Technology a Curse?
  • June 25, 2017: Democracy’s Relevance in the Face of New Global Threats
  • June 18, 2017: Federalism in India – Competitive or Cooperative?
  • June 11, 2017: Peace, Environment and Development: Are these Interrelated?
  • June 04, 2017: Role of Technology in Development – Is Technology Helping or Hindering Development?
  • May 28, 2017: Poverty is a State of Mind
  • May 21, 2017: Does India Need Superpower Status?
  • May 14, 2017: India’s Achilles Heel – Lack of Ambition or Lack of Leadership in Achieving Greatness?
  • May 07, 2017: Don’t limit a child to your own learning, for he was born in another time.
  • April 29, 2017: The greatest happiness of the greatest number is the foundation of morals and legislation
  • April 23, 2017: To conquer fear is the beginning of wisdom
  • April 16, 2017: One-Party-Dominant System – Is it Good for India?
  • April 09, 2017: Should Youth in India Consider Politics as Career?
  • April 02, 2017: Can World Save Succeeding Generations from the Scourge of War?
  • March 26, 2017: Low, stagnating female labour-force participation in India: An anomaly or an outcome of economic reforms?
  • March 19, 2017: When a man is denied the right to live the life he believes in, he has no choice but to become an outlaw
  • March 12, 2017: The marks humans leave are too often scars
  • March 05, 2017: Environmental Challenges and Geopolitics: How to save our Environment?
  • February 27, 2017: Radical Solutions are Needed to Address Today’s Radical Problems
  • February 19, 2017: India’s Importance in the Post-truth World
  • February 12, 2017: The Role of Politics in Development
  • February 05, 2017: Facts do not cease to exist because they are ignored
  • January 29, 2017: Building Walls and Banning Refugees – Does this Help Humanity?
  • January 22, 2017: Digital economy: A leveller or a source of economic inequality
  • January 15, 2017: Cyberspace and internet: Blessing or curse to the human civilization in the long run
  • January 08, 2017: Water disputes between states in federal India
  • January 01, 2017: Need brings greed, if greed increases it spoils breed

WEEKLY UPSC IAS ESSAY WRITING CHALLENGES – 2016

  • (December 25, 2016) – Cooperative federalism: Myth or reality
  • (December 18, 2016) – Innovation is the key determinant of economic growth and social welfare
  • (December 11, 2016) – Near jobless growth in India: An anomaly or an outcome of economic reforms
  • (December 04, 2016) – If development is not engendered, it is endangered
  • (November 27, 2016) – Social media is better at breaking things than at making things
  • (November 20, 2016) – Deglobalization is good for the world
  • (November 12, 2016) – Democracy is the worst form of government, except for all the others
  • (November 06, 2016) – It is not inequality which is the real misfortune, it is dependence
  • (October 30, 2016) – Reducing Poverty while also Conserving Nature is an Impossible Task
  • (October 23, 2016) – Poverty can be eliminated by putting science at the heart of development
  • (October 16, 2016) – People shouldn’t be afraid of their government. Governments should be afraid of their people
  • (October 09, 2016) – Better Access is Key to Inclusive Cities
  • (October 02, 2016) – The weaker sections of Indian society – Are their Rights and Access to Justice Getting Better?
  • (September 25, 2016) – Imagination is more important than intelligence
  • (September 18, 2016) – Science is organized knowledge. Wisdom is organized life
  • (September 11, 2016) – Not what we have But what we enjoy, constitutes our abundance
  • (September 04, 2016) – It is the mark of an educated mind to be able to entertain a thought without accepting it
  • (August 28, 2016) – If one can Address Moral Crisis, many of World’s Problems can be Solved
  • (August 21, 2016) – Overdependence on Technology will Advance Human Development
  • (August 14, 2016) – Geography may remain the same ; history need not
  • (August 07, 2016) – Knowing yourself is the beginning of all wisdom
  • (July 31, 2016) – To live is the rarest thing in the world. Most people exist, that is all
  • (July 24, 2016) – True knowledge exists in knowing that you know nothing
  • (July 17, 2016) – We Can Not Fight Terrorism – We have to Live With it
  • (July 10, 2016) – A house divided against itself cannot stand
  • (July 02, 2016) – When the going gets tough, the tough get going
  • (June 26, 2016) – India a Reluctant Participant in the New Global Order?
  • (June 19, 2016) – Inclusiveness in India – Still a Dream?
  • (June 12, 2016) – No one can make you feel inferior without your consent
  • (June 05, 2016) – Not everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that counts can be counted
  • (May 29, 2016) – It is hard to free fools from the chains they revere
  • (May 22, 2016) – Honest disagreement is often a good sign of progress
  • (May 15, 2016) – Fire is a good servant but a bad master
  • (May 08, 2016) – The grass is always greener on the other side of the fence
  • (May 01, 2016) – Labour Reforms in India and its Role in Economic Development
  • (April 24, 2016) – It takes a whole village to raise a child
  • (April 17, 2016) – Trust take years to Build, Seconds to Break
  • (April 10, 2016) – Cleanliness is next to Godliness
  • (April 03, 2016) – Honesty is the Best Policy
  • (March 27, 2016) – Before criticizing a man, walk a mile in his shoes
  • (March 20, 2016) – Caste System – India’s Enduring Curse
  • (March 13, 2016) – Fortune favors the bold
  • (March 06, 2016) – Quick but steady wins the race
  • (February 28, 2016) – Dreams which should not let India sleep
  • (February 21, 2016) – Lending hands to someone is better than giving a dole
  • (February 14, 2016) – Technology cannot replace manpower
  • (February 7, 2016) – Character of an institution is reflected in its leader
  • (January 31, 2016) – Can Capitalism bring Inclusive Growth?
  • (January 24, 2016) – Crisis Faced in India – Moral or Economic?
  • (January 17, 2016) – Too many cooks spoil the broth
  • (January 10, 2016) – The Best Things in Life are Free
  • (January 3, 2016) – Don’t count your chickens before they hatch.

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  6. SONA 2024 I Climate Change Response Fund: James Reeler weighs in

COMMENTS

  1. COP 28: Charting the Roadmap for Climate Action

    What are the Key Outcomes of COP 28 (2023)? Global Stocktake Text: The Global Stocktake (GST) is a periodic review mechanism established under the Paris Agreement in 2015. The text proposes eight steps to keep the global temperature rise within the ambit of 1.5 degrees Celsius.

  2. RSTV: THE BIG PICTURE- CLIMATE CHANGE & INDIA

    Introduction: India is not historically responsible for climate change, but India is taking steps to reduce emission as a responsible country, environment minister Prakash Javadekar said on the eve of the fifth year of Paris Climate agreement. Paris Climate Agreement was adopted on December 12, 2015, by 196 parties.

  3. COP26: UN Climate Change Conference 2021

    COP26 was the 26th UN Climate change conference held in Glasgow, the United Kingdom in 2021. Read to know more about the conference and related key concepts here. The United Kingdom hosted the 26th UN Climate Change Conference of the Parties (COP26) in Glasgow on 31 October - 12 November 2021.

  4. Essay Paper UPSC 2021 (Mains): Question Paper and Analysis

    Section A 1. The process of self-discovery has now been technologically outsourced. 2. Your perception of me is a reflection of you; my reaction to you is an awareness of me. IAS, IPS, or IFS: How to succeed faster? No. It's not by reading books!

  5. Climate Change: Causes and Effects

    Climate Change: Causes and Effects Last updated on December 16, 2023 by ClearIAS Team According to NITI Aayog, because of climate change, over 600 million Indians will experience "serious water shortages" in the upcoming years. India ranks fifth globally in terms of climate change vulnerability.

  6. Climate Change and India in 2021

    Climate Change and India in 2021 IASbaba January 2, 2021 0 UPSC Articles ENVIRONMENT/ GOVERNANCE Topic: General Studies 2,3: Conservation of Environment Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. Climate Change and India in 2021 Issues

  7. Climate Change: A Roadblock to Economic Growth

    13 min read Tags: GS Paper - 3 Environmental Pollution & Degradation Conservation This editorial is based on "Inclusion of climate change in policy is crucial for a strong economy" which was published in The Indian Express on 27/08/2022. It talks about the impacts of climate change on the Indian Economy.

  8. Climate Change In India [UPSC Notes GS III]

    Attempt the CSAT Mock Test Download UPSC Environment and Ecology Notes PDF (Free) Download NCERT Notes PDF (Free) About Climate Change in India

  9. Intergovernmental Panel On Climate Change For UPSC IAS Exams

    The United Nations Environment Programme and the World Meteorological Organization established the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 1988 to assess the scientific, technical, and socioeconomic information required to appreciate the dangers of human-caused climate change. It neither performs new research nor collects and ...

  10. National Action Plan on Climate Change

    National Action Plan on Climate Change 19 Sep 2019 19 min read Tags: GS Paper - 2 GS Paper - 3 Planning Renewable Energy Government Policies & Interventions Introduction The National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) was launched in 2008 by the Prime Minister's Council on Climate Change.

  11. Climate Change and Associated Issues

    Climate Change is a periodic modification of Earth's climate brought about due to the changes in the atmosphere as well as the interactions between the atmosphere and various other geological, chemical, biological and geographical factors within the Earth's system. Climate change can make weather patterns less predictable.

  12. UNFCCC 1992

    UNFCCC is an acronym for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. It came into force on 21st March 1994. It has been ratified by 197 countries and is called to have a near-universal membership. The countries that have ratified the convention are called the UNFCCC conference of parties (COP). The latest, COP26, was scheduled to ...

  13. Climate change widespread, rapid, and intensifying

    Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ... For the assessment reports, IPCC scientists volunteer their time to assess the thousands of scientific papers published each year to provide a comprehensive summary of what is known ...

  14. Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis

    Weather and Climate Extreme Events in a Changing Climate. Chapter 11 assesses observed changes in weather and climate extremes, their attribution to human influence, and future projections at global warming levels of +1.5°C, +2°C and +4°C. Explore.

  15. Climate Change In India

    These UPSC Notes on climate change in India are aligned with the UPSC Syllabus and aspirants should prepare this topic for General Studies Paper III. Climate Change in India [UPSC Notes GS-III]:- Download PDF Here. Aspirants of the UPSC exam are advised to check other relevant topics for the Essay and GS III paper.

  16. Insights into Editorial: Code red: On IPCC's warning on climate points

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has released its Sixth Assessment Report, titled "Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis". IPCC reports on Climate Change: The IPCC produces reports that contribute to the work of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the main international treaty on climate change.

  17. Frontiers

    From the climate change perspective, the summer monsoon, the main lifeline of India, is predicted to change very adversely. The duration of the rainy season is going to shrink and pre-monsoon drying can also occur. ... 2021, and all other papers in January 2021 of Mausam, a special issue on the state of the art on TC prediction in the North ...

  18. Essay on Global Warming with Samples (150, 250, 500 Words

    Essay on Global Warming UPSC Climate Change and Global Warming Essay Tips to Write an Essay FAQs Short Essay on Global Warming and Climate Change? Since the industrial and scientific revolutions, Earth's resources have been gradually depleted.

  19. Environmental Conventions (Climate Change)

    GS Paper - 3 Government Policies & Interventions Environmental Pollution & Degradation What are International Environmental Conventions? An international environmental convention is a legally binding agreement negotiated among governments to take action together to combat or mitigate a global environmental threat.

  20. Paris Agreement (COP 21)

    The UK will host the 26th UN Climate Change Conference of the Parties (COP26) in Glasgow on 31 October - 12 November 2021. The article will in detail talk about COP 21 as it would be of importance in the IAS Exam for both Prelims and Mains.

  21. Our Future Is Now

    Our Future Is Now - A Climate Change Essay by Francesca Minicozzi, '21. Francesca Minicozzi (class of 2021) is a Writing/Biology major who plans to study medicine after graduation. She wrote this essay on climate change for WR 355/Travel Writing, which she took while studying abroad in Newcastle in spring 2020.

  22. A comprehensive review of environmental, sustainability and climate

    Abstract. Purpose This study aims to evaluate the current situation of education for sustainable development, climate change education and environmental education in a nationwide context. Methodologically, this study calls for more research to go beyond case studies and take a similar approach to examine university curricula and facilitate ...

  23. NCERT Notes: Causes Of Climate Change [Geography Notes For UPSC]

    Global temperature rise Warming oceans Shrinking ice sheets Declining Arctic sea ice Glacial retreat Extreme natural events Ocean acidification Decreased snow cover What are the causes of Climate Change? Causes of Climate Change There are several causes of climate change.

  24. Projections patterns of precipitation concentration under climate

    Precipitation is the most important climate element in supplying Iran's water resources. Its regular temporal distribution will guarantee the sustainability of water resources. Estimating precipitation behavior in near future will improve managing water resources. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine precipitation regulation in near future (2021-2040).

  25. WEEKLY UPSC IAS ESSAY WRITING CHALLENGE

    WEEKLY UPSC IAS ESSAY WRITING CHALLENGES - 2021. December 26, 2021 : What Gets Measured Gets Managed; December 19, 2021 : The enemy of stability is complacency ... October 28, 2018: Alternative technologies for a climate change resilient India; October 21, 2018: Poverty anywhere is a threat to prosperity everywhere; October 14, 2018: Reality ...

  26. A CMIP6-based assessment of regional climate change in the Chinese

    Climate warming profoundly affects hydrological changes, agricultural production, and human society. Arid and semi-arid areas of China are currently displaying a marked trend of warming and wetting. The Chinese Tianshan Mountains (CTM) have a high climate sensitivity, rendering the region particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate warming. In this study, we used monthly average ...

  27. Analysis, evaluation and implications of Rhode Island's "2021 Act on

    The state of Rhode Island is responding appropriately to the climate crisis by enacting "the Resilient Rhode Island Act of 2014" and then preparing the revised "2021 Act on Climate." Accordingly, Rhode Island strives to achieve carbon neutrality in 2050 by establishing and evaluating a climate change response plan and setting science-based climate goals through the Executive Climate Change ...