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How to Write a Thesis in LaTeX (Part 4): Bibliographies with BibLaTeX

Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3 | Part 4 | Part 5

Author: Josh Cassidy (August 2013)

This five-part series of articles uses a combination of video and textual descriptions to teach the basics of writing a thesis using LaTeX. These tutorials were first published on the original ShareLateX blog site during August 2013; consequently, today's editor interface (Overleaf) has changed considerably due to the development of ShareLaTeX and the subsequent merger of ShareLaTeX and Overleaf. However, much of the content is still relevant and teaches you some basic LaTeX—skills and expertise that will apply across all platforms.

In the previous post we looked at using images and tables in our thesis. In this post we are going to look at adding a bibliography to our thesis. To do this we are going to use the biblatex package . This involves creating a list of sources in a separate file called a .bib file.

The Bib File

When we create this file we need to choose a name for it and save it as a .bib file rather than a .tex file.

Thesis newbib.png

Now every time we need to reference a source we can cite it in the text and then fill in the source details in the .bib file. First we'll look at filling in our .bib file and then we'll move on to discussing citations. To add a new entry to our .bib file we need to first tell BibLaTeX what type of source we are referencing. We do this using an @ symbol followed immediately by the source type.

Then comes an opening curly bracket and a citation key of our choice followed by a comma. We then need to tell it all the details it wants for that particular type of source. We do this using a list of keywords each followed by an equals sign and the corresponding information in curly brackets. Items in the list are separated by commas. Each recognised source type has a list of required details which we must provide. But we'll often want to give more details. For example, for an article entry we need to use the author , title , journaltitle and year or date keywords. For an online source we need to use the author or editor , title , year or date and url keywords, and finally for a book it's the author , title and year or date keywords. Here's an example of what they might look like filled-in:

All of the information about the recognised source types and all the keywords you can use can be found in the biblatex documentation .

Now let's return to the main .tex file. To set it up for a bibliography we need to load up the biblatex package using the \usepackage command. Also in the preamble we need to specify which .bib files we want to use by calling the \addbibresource command and entering the file name in the curly brackets including the .bib extension.

Now let's look at citations. To cite a source in the text we use one of the biblatex citation commands. The simplest is the \cite command which prints the citation without any brackets unless you are using the numeric or alphabetic styles. We'll discuss styles a little later on. For example we may cite a source in the text like this:

Another one is the \parencite command which prints citations in parentheses except when using the numeric or alphabetic styles when it uses square brackets. There are more citation commands available to you which again can be found in the biblatex documentation .

The citation commands in biblatex also give us the option of adding a prenote and postnote in as arguments:

  • a prenote is a word or phrase like "see" that is inserted at the start of the citation;
  • a postnote is text you want inserted at the end of the citation.

To add these notes in you uses two sets of square brackets in the citation command. If you only open one set of square brackets it will assume the contents of the brackets is a postnote , so if you only want a prenote make sure you still open the second set of square brackets and then just leave them empty. Here are some examples:

Now to actually get the bibliography printed in our thesis we use the \printbibliography command at the end of the document. By default the bibliography and citations use the numeric style which looks like this:

Thesis numericcite.png

To change the style we pass more arguments into the \usepackage command in square brackets. For example this specifies the alphabetic style:

Which looks like this:

Thesis alphabeticcite.png

And this is the authoryear style:

Thesis authoryearcite.png

Another thing we can change here is the way the bibliography is ordered. For example this sorts entries by year , name , title :

While this doesn't sort them at all but displays them in the order they are cited.

More information about the numerous styles and sorting options available can be found in the biblatex documentation . This concludes our discussion on adding a bibliography. In the final post of this series we'll look at customising some of the opening pages.

All articles in this series

  • Part 1: Basic Structure ;
  • Part 2: Page Layout ;
  • Part 3: Figures, Subfigures and Tables ;
  • Part 4: Bibliographies with BibLaTeX ;
  • Part 5: Customising Your Title Page and Abstract .
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Overleaf for LaTeX Theses & Dissertations: Home

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Tips and tools for writing your LaTeX thesis or dissertation in Overleaf, including templates, managing references , and getting started guides.

Managing References

BibTeX is a file format used for lists of references for LaTeX documents. Many citation management tools support the ability to export and import lists of references in .bib format. Some reference management tools can generate BibTeX files of your library or folders for use in your LaTeX documents.

LaTeX on Wikibooks has a Bibliography Management page.

Find list of BibTeX styles available on Overleaf here

View a video tutorial on how to include a bibliography using BibTeX  here

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How to get started writing your thesis in LaTeX

Writing a thesis or dissertation in LaTeX can be challenging, but the end result is well worth it - nothing looks as good as a LaTeX-produced pdf, and for large documents it's a lot easier than fighting with formatting and cross-referencing in MS Word. Review this video from Overleaf to help you get started writing your thesis in LaTeX, using a standard thesis template from the Overleaf Gallery .

You can upload your own thesis template to the Overleaf Gallery if your university provides a set of LaTeX template files or you may find your university's thesis template already in the Overleaf Gallery.

This video assumes you've used LaTeX before and are familiar with the standard commands (see our other tutorial videos  if not), and focuses on how to work with a large project split over multiple files.

Add Institutional Library contact info here.

Contact Overleaf   or email [email protected]

5-part Guide on How to Write a Thesis in LaTeX

5-part LaTeX Thesis Writing Guide

Part 1: Basic Structure corresponding  video

Part 2: Page Layout corresponding  video

Part 3: Figures, Subfigures and Tables   corresponding video

Part 4: Bibliographies with Biblatex corresponding video

Part 5: Customizing Your Title Page and Abstract corresponding video

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Guide to Writing Your Thesis in LaTeX

The bibliography and list of references.

The Graduate School requires a Bibliography which includes all the literature cited for the complete thesis or dissertation. Quoting from the Graduate School’s Guidelines for the Format of Theses and Dissertations :

“Every thesis in Standard Format must contain a Bibliography which lists all the sources used or consulted in writing the entire thesis and is placed at the very end of the work. The complete citations are arranged alphabetically by last name of the author. Individual citations are not numbered. No abbreviations in titles of published works will be accepted. The full title of a book, journal, website, proceedings, or any other published work must be italicized or underlined. Citations must follow standards set by the style manual that the student is using. The bibliography for URI theses is not broken into categories.”

The List of References is not required by the Graduate School, but is the style commonly used in Engineering, Mathematics, and many of the Sciences. It consists of a numbered list of the sources used or consulted in writing the thesis in the order that they are referenced in the text. There can be either one List of References for the entire thesis, or a List of References at the end of each chapter.

Both the Bibliography and the List of References will be generated by the urithesis LaTeX class. All you need to do is add information about your sources to the references.bib file, which is a database containing all of the necessary information about the references, then cite the reference in your thesis using the \cite{} command.

Generating the Bibliography and References

The bibliography and list of references are generated by running BibTeX. To generate the bibliography, load the file thesisbib.tex into your editor, then run BibTeX on it.

If each chapter has its own list of references, you will need to run BibTeX on each chapter to update its list of references. If there is one list of references for the whole thesis (because you used the oneref option, you will only need to run BibTeX on the top level file thesis.tex .

How to Add a Bibliography Entry

When we want to refer to a source in the thesis, we place an entry for that source in the file references.bib , then cite the source in the thesis with the \cite{LABEL} command. The syntax for an entry in the references.bib file is of the form:

ENTRYTYPE is the type of bibliographic entry such as Book , Article , or TechReport , that this entry describes. At the end of this page is a list of all possible entry types .

LABEL is a unique string that is used to refer to this entry in the body of the thesis when using the \cite{LABEL} command.

The FIELDNAMEn entries are the fields that describe this entry, (ie. author, title, pages, year, etc.). Each entry type has certain required fields and optional fields. See the list of all entry types for a description of the available fields.

As an example, suppose we have a paper from a conference proceedings that we want to cite. First we make an entry in the our references.bib file of the form:

We then cite this source in the text of our thesis with the command \cite{re:toolan:as03} . This will generate a Bibliography entry that looks something like:

and a List of References entry that looks something like:

Types of List of References

The Graduate School requires that the bibliography is always at the end of the thesis and sorted alphabetically by author, therefore there is no options that affect it. The list of references is optional, therefore there are a few different ways that it can created.

By default a separate list of references appears at the end of each chapter, and are sorted by the order that they are cited in that chapter. The option oneref (see options ) will create a single list of references for the whole thesis, which due to the requirements of the Graduate School, will appear after the last chapter and before any appendices.

The option aparefs will cite references using the APA style, which is the last name of the author and year of publication, such as (Toolan, 2006), instead of the default IEEE style, which is a number, such as [1]. This option will also sort the references alphabetically by author, instead of in order of citation. The options oneref and aparefs can be used together to create a single list of references using the APA style.

Supported Bibliography Entry Types

The following is a list of all the entry types that can be used. Click on the desired type to see a detailed description of how to use that type.

  • Article – An article from a journal or magazine
  • Book – A book with an explicit publisher
  • InBook – A part of a book, such as a chapter or selected page(s)
  • InCollection – A part of a book having its own title
  • Booklet – Printed and bound works that are not formally published
  • Manual – Technical documentation
  • InProceedings – An article in a conference proceedings
  • Proceedings – The entire proceedings of a conference
  • MastersThesis – A Master’s thesis
  • PhDThesis – A Ph.D. dissertation
  • TechReport – A report published by a school or other institution
  • Unpublished – A document that has not been formally published
  • Electronic – An internet reference like a web page
  • Patent – A patent or patent application
  • Periodical – A magazine or journal
  • Standard – Formally published standard
  • Misc – For use when nothing else fits

Articles that have not yet been published can be handled as a misc type with a note. Sometimes it is desirable to put extra information into the month field such as the day, or additional months. This is accomplished by using the BIBTEX concatenation operator “#“:

Example .bib using this type:

Books may have authors, editors or both. Example .bib using this type:

Inbook is used to reference a part of a book, such as a chapter or selected page(s). The type field can be used to override the word chapter (for which IEEE uses the abbreviation “ch.”) when the book uses parts, sections, etc., instead of chapters

Incollection is used to reference part of a book having its own title. Like book , incollection supports the series, chapter and pages fields. Also, the type field can be used to override the word chapter.

Booklet is used for printed and bound works that are not formally published. A primary difference between booklet and unpublished is that the former is/was distributed by some means. Booklet is rarely used in bibliographies.

Technical documentation is handled by the manual entry type.

References of papers in conference proceedings are handled by the inproceedings or conference entry type. These two types are functionally identical and can be used interchangeably. Example .bib using this type:

It is rare to need to reference an entire conference proceedings, but, if necessary, the proceedings entry type can be used to do so.

Master’s (or minor) theses can be handled with the mastersthesis entry type. The optional type field can be used to override the words “Master’s thesis” if a different designation is desired:

The phdthesis entry type is used for Ph.D. dissertations (major theses). Like mastersthesis , the type field can be used to override the default designation. Example .bib using this type:

Techreport is used for technical reports. The optional type field can be used to override the default designation “Tech. Rep.” Example .bib using this type:

The unpublished entry type is used for documents that have not been formally published. IEEE typically just uses “unpublished” for the required note field.

The electronic entry type is for internet references. IEEE formats electronic references differently by not using italics or quotes and separating fields with periods rather than commas. Also, the date is enclosed within parentheses and is placed closer to the title. This is probably done to emphasize that electronic references may not remain valid on the rapidly changing internet. Note also the liberal use of the howpublished field to describe the form or category of the entries. The organization and address fields may also be used. Example .bib using this type:

The nationality field provides a means to handle patents from different countries

The nationality should be capitalized. The assignee and address (of the assignee) fields are not used, however, they are provided. The type field provides a way to override the “patent” description with other patent related descriptions such as “patent application” or “patent request”:

The periodical entry type is used for journals and magazines.

The standard entry type is used for formally published standards. Alternatively, the misc entry type, along with its howpublished field, can be used to create references of standards.

Misc is the most flexible type and can be used when none of the other entry types are applicable. The howpublished field can be used to describe what exactly (or in what form) the reference is (or appears as). Possible applications include technical-report-like entries that lack an institution, white papers and data sheets.

Additional Comments

Because we are effectively creating multiple bibliographies, (one for the actual bibliography, and one for each list of references), the two LATEX commands \bibliographystyle{} and \bibliography{} are not used. They have been redefined to do nothing, and the equivalent of these commands are done automatically when necessary.

When there is a reference that should be included in the bibliography, but does not need to be explicitly referenced in the thesis, use the \nocite{} command. This command works like the \cite{} command, except it does not put the citation in the list of references, only in the bibliography. The \nocite{} command must appear after the first \newchapter{} command, or it will be ignored.

When using the option aparefs , and a citation does not have an author, (such as often occurs with a web page), the key field can be used to specify what to use in the citation instead of the author’s name.

About the Bibliography Format

The bibliography format used by the urithesis class is based on the IEEE format. See the article “How to Use the IEEEtran BIBTEX Style” by Michael Shell for more details.

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  NPS Thesis Template v2.7 (rel. 3 April 2023): Code Examples (Using template version ≤  2.6? Click here:  IEEE  or  INFORMS )

The following codes are customized for NPS theses and are not intended for use with any other publisher or template. The NPS thesis LaTeX template comes prepackaged with a BibTeX tool and a bib file containing the examples below.

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Choosing a BibTeX Style

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The Seven Standard Styles

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Biblatex-Chicago Style

Discipline specific listings of bibtex journal styles.

The great feature of BibTeX is that it takes a standardized database of books, articles, and other bibliographic entries and puts it in a customized format. A BibTeX style can change how a work is cited and how the bibliography is formatted. For more about using BibTeX than is described here, read our BibTeX documentation .

How to Use a Specific Style

  • Choose your BibTeX style from the list below. Place it in the same folder as your LaTeX document.
  • Change the \bibliographystyle line of your LaTeX document to reflect the style you chose. Remember to remove the file extension. For example, if you wanted to use the American Anthropologist style, \bibliographystyle{ filename } would become \bibliographystyle{humannat}.
  • Many BibTeX styles require the inclusion of a package at the top of the document. The comments about a style will tell you exactly how to include its package. To learn more about your specific style, open up the .bst in your LaTeX editor or read the readme file, if available.
  • Anytime you want to cite a document, type \cite[ pagenumber ]{ citekey }. The square brackets and page number are optional. Some BibTeX styles use non-standard citations. Such styles include citation directions within the .bst itself or an included readme file.
  • You will need to typeset your document four times, first LaTeX, BibTeX, LaTeX, and then LaTeX again. Your bibliography will now appear in the style of your choice and your citations will be correctly formatted. If question marks appear where citations should, that means you need to LaTeX your document once more. If the citations are entirely missing, you have likely forgotten to BibTeX your document.

Every computer with LaTeX comes with the following seven standard styles. While they work, we recommend the natbib interpretations below. NatBib is a citation package that standardizes citation commands across many different bibliography styles, so you can switch from using plain.bst to acm.bst without having to change your in-text citations.

The following two styles were created or modified by Reed to match the following style manuals as closely as possible. Right-click (Control-Click on a Mac) on the linked name to download the style you want.

Natbib Standard Styles

Citation commands within natbib.

For additional modifications not covered above, this is a great NatBib reference sheet put out by a physical science professor in France.

And this one too!  - This reference sheet includes instructions on how to change (Jones 1990, 341) to (Jones 1990: 341) [or (Jones, 1990: 341) to (Jones 1990: 341)] using the \setcitestyle command

You will see that your urls are formatted in typewritter font. If you want to change the font of your urls, add the command \urlstyle{same} to your preamble to make them the same font as the body of your paper. 

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To use biblatex-Chicago, you need to change the backend from "bibtex" to "biber." To do this, pull up the preferences window (TeXShop/Preferences... or "⌘,"). Go to the "Engine" tab and change the entry in the BibTeX Engine field to "biber." This does require a somewhat new-ish version of tex, so if it's not working and you have an old version, you may need to download a new one.

Chicago A (footnotes)

To use Chicago style citations, comment out or remove the following line from the preamble: \usepackage{natbib}

To use Chicago A (footnote style citations), add these lines to the preamble (where "thesis" should be changed to the title of your .bib file): \usepackage{biblatex-chicago} \bibliography{thesis}

Then go to the end of the .tex file and remove the following lines: \bibliographystyle{APA/apa-good} \bibliography{thesis}

And replace them with this line: \printbibliography[heading=bibintoc]

Chicago B (parenthetical in-line citations)

To use Chicago B (parenthetical in-line citations), add these lines to the preamble (where "thesis" should be changed to the title of your .bib file): \usepackage[authordate,autocite=inline,backend=biber, natbib]{biblatex-chicago} \bibliography{thesis}

In order to have the author and year all in parenthesis, use \autocite for in-text citation. If you want only the year in parenthesis, use \citet instead. 

Explore the Biblatex-Chicago readme  on CTAN to find customizations.

Styles Available at CTAN.org

CTAN.org is the official LaTeX archive containing both the official LaTeX packages and items contributed by LaTeX users. Many of these BibTeX styles have either been created by journal editors or publishers for their authors or by users creating packages to fulfill a personal need. One problem with the user-contributed styles is that they may not match the official style they claim to implement exactly. However, the journal-specific styles will exactly match the journal's house style, as they were designed by the journals. Therefore, we recommend testing any non-journal style by using it with a large BibTeX database and compare the resulting bibliography to the official style.

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  • Cell (cell.bst)
  • Development (development.bst)
  • Ecology (ecology.bst, include natbib, emboj, floatfig packages)
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  • Molecular Cell Biology (molcellbiol, include molcellbiol package)
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  • Nature (nature.bst, include nature, citesuppernumber, naturefem packages)
  • Neuron (neuron.bst)
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  • Economic Theory (et.bst, include et package)
  • Journal of Economics and Business (JEB.bst, include JEB, harvard, endnotes, caption2 packages)
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  • Macroeconomic Dynamics (et.bst, include et package)
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Guide to BibTeX Type MasterThesis

BibTeX is a reference management tool that is commonly used in LaTeX documents. The "masterthesis" BibTeX type is used for master's theses. In this guide, we will explain the required and optional fields for the "masterthesis" BibTeX type.

Required Fields ​

The "masterthesis" BibTeX type requires the following fields:

  • author : The author of the thesis.
  • title : The title of the thesis.
  • school : The name of the institution that awarded the degree.
  • year : The year the degree was awarded.

Optional Fields ​

In addition to the required fields, the "masterthesis" BibTeX type also has a number of optional fields that can be used to provide additional information. These fields include:

  • type : The type of the thesis, such as "Master's thesis".
  • address : The location of the institution.
  • month : The month the thesis was submitted.
  • note : Any additional information about the thesis.

Here is an example of how to use the "masterthesis" BibTeX type:

In this example, the BibTeX entry defines a master's thesis authored by Jane Doe titled "A Study of Example". The degree was awarded in 2022 by the University of Example, and the thesis was submitted in June in Example City, CA. The type of the thesis is specified as "Master's thesis", and a note is included that provides a URL for the thesis.

  • Required Fields
  • Optional Fields

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The 14 BibTeX entry types

Possibly the most difficult aspect of using BibTeX to manage bibliographies is deciding what entry type to use for a reference source. We list all the 14 BibTeX entry types including their description on when to use.

An article from a journal, magazine, newspaper, or periodical.

BibTeX example: article citation style abbrv

A book where the publisher is clearly identifiable.

BibTeX example: book citation style abbrv

A printed work that is bound, but does not have a clearly identifiable publisher or supporting institution.

BibTeX example: booklet citation style abbrv

An article that has been included in conference proceedings. See inproceedings for details.

A section, such as a chapter, or a page range within a book.

BibTeX example: inbook citation style abbrv

  • incollection

A titled section of a book. Such as a short story within the larger collection of short stories that make up the book.

BibTeX example: incollection citation style abbrv

  • inproceedings

A paper that has been published in conference proceedings. The usage of conference and inproceedings is the same. The conference entry was included for Scribe compatibility.

BibTeX example: inproceedings citation style abbrv

A technical manual for a machine software such as would come with a purchase to explain operation to the new owner.

BibTeX example: manual citation style abbrv

  • mastersthesis

A thesis written for the Master’s level degree.

BibTeX example: mastersthesis citation style abbrv

Used if none of the other entry types quite match the source. Frequently used to cite web pages, but can be anything from lecture slides to personal notes.

BibTeX example: misc citation style abbrv

A thesis written for the PhD level degree.

BibTeX example: phdthesis citation style abbrv

  • proceedings

A conference proceeding.

BibTeX example: proceedings citation style abbrv

An institutionally published report such as a report from a school, a government organization, an organization, or a company. This entry type is also frequently used for white papers and working papers.

BibTeX example: techreport citation style abbrv

  • unpublished

A document that has not been officially published such as a paper draft or manuscript in preparation.

BibTeX example: unpublished citation style abbrv

  • Plagiarism and grammar
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Check your paper before your teacher does!

Avoid plagiarism — quickly check for missing citations and check for writing mistakes., is this source credible consider the criteria below..

Is the purpose to entertain, sell, persuade, or inform/teach ? Journal articles are often designed to inform or teach. Books and websites could have any of these or a combination of the purposes above. So it is important to determine why the source was created and if it is appropriate for your research. For websites in particular, looking at their "About Us" page or "Mission Statement" can help you evaluate purpose.

Accuracy is the reliability and truthfulness of the source. Here are a few indicators of an accurate source:

  • Citations or a works cited list. For websites, this can be links to other credible sites.
  • Evidence that backs up claims made by the author(s).
  • Text that is free of spelling and grammatical errors.
  • Information that matches that in other, credible sources.
  • Language that is unbiased and free of emotion.

Based on the above the source could be accurate, inaccurate, a mixture of accurate and inaccurate, or hard to tell.

Authority: Author

The author is the individual or organization who wrote the information in the book, in the journal article, or on the website. If no author is listed, there may be another contributor instead. For example, an editor or a translator. A credible author has:

  • Written several articles or books on the topic.
  • Provided contact information. For example, an email address, mailing address, social media account, etc.
  • The experience or qualifications to be an expert on the topic.

Authority: Publisher

The credibility of the publisher can contribute to the authority of a source. The publisher can be a person, company or organization. Authoritative publishers:

  • Accept responsibility for content.
  • Are often well-known.
  • Often publish multiple works on the same or related topics.

Relevance describes how related or important a source is to your topic. While a source may be credible, it does not necessarily mean it is relevant to your assignment. To determine relevance, you should:

  • Determine the website's intended audience. Look at the level of the information and the tone of the writing. For example, is it meant for academics or the general public?
  • Make sure that the information is related to your research topic.
  • Make sure that the information helps you answer your research question.

A publication date is an important part of evaluating the credibility of a source and its appropriateness for your topic. It is generally best to use content that was recently published or updated, but depending on your assignment, it may be appropriate to use older information. For example, a journal entry from Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War is too outdated to use in a discussion about modern politics and war, but would be appropriate for a paper about the Civil War. Consider the following when evaluating currency:

  • Was it published or updated recently? If a website, is there even a publication date listed?
  • Is the date of the source appropriate or inappropriate for my assignment?

After analyzing your source, do you believe it is credible, not credible, partially credible, or are you unsure? If you are still unsure, it may help to ask your instructor a librarian for assistance.

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Quantum Physics

Title: reinforcement learning-assisted quantum architecture search for variational quantum algorithms.

Abstract: A significant hurdle in the noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) era is identifying functional quantum circuits. These circuits must also adhere to the constraints imposed by current quantum hardware limitations. Variational quantum algorithms (VQAs), a class of quantum-classical optimization algorithms, were developed to address these challenges in the currently available quantum devices. However, the overall performance of VQAs depends on the initialization strategy of the variational circuit, the structure of the circuit (also known as ansatz), and the configuration of the cost function. Focusing on the structure of the circuit, in this thesis, we improve the performance of VQAs by automating the search for an optimal structure for the variational circuits using reinforcement learning (RL). Within the thesis, the optimality of a circuit is determined by evaluating its depth, the overall count of gates and parameters, and its accuracy in solving the given problem. The task of automating the search for optimal quantum circuits is known as quantum architecture search (QAS). The majority of research in QAS is primarily focused on a noiseless scenario. Yet, the impact of noise on the QAS remains inadequately explored. In this thesis, we tackle the issue by introducing a tensor-based quantum circuit encoding, restrictions on environment dynamics to explore the search space of possible circuits efficiently, an episode halting scheme to steer the agent to find shorter circuits, a double deep Q-network (DDQN) with an $\epsilon$-greedy policy for better stability. The numerical experiments on noiseless and noisy quantum hardware show that in dealing with various VQAs, our RL-based QAS outperforms existing QAS. Meanwhile, the methods we propose in the thesis can be readily adapted to address a wide range of other VQAs.

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bibtex thesis

Green Chemistry

Deep eutectic solvent as emerging green platform for synthesis of functional materials.

As a multifunctional solvent, deep eutectic solvents (DESs) possess numerous potential applications in a variety of fields due to their low vapor pressure, tunability, environmental friendliness, and the ability to dissolve a wide range of chemicals. DES serves as solvents, templates, and functionalization agents, among other functions, in the synthesis of functional materials, all of which are covered in this work. In addition, recent developments in the creation of different functional materials utilizing DES are reviewed, as is the mechanism of DES activity throughout the preparation process and its potential to control the material characteristics. The inherent features, cost-effectiveness, and environmental friendliness of DES are highlighted in the study, and it is argued that this makes it a potential green platform. Finally, the potential, key problems, and limitations of DES are outlined for use in the materials sciences. It is anticipated that this study will work as a resource for proponents and users of green chemistry, assisting them in reducing pollution, boosting productivity, and reaping the rewards of DES progress.

  • This article is part of the themed collection: 2023 Green Chemistry Reviews

Article information

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bibtex thesis

Y. Ma, Y. Yang, T. Li, S. Hussain and M. Zhu, Green Chem. , 2024, Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.1039/D3GC04289H

To request permission to reproduce material from this article, please go to the Copyright Clearance Center request page .

If you are an author contributing to an RSC publication, you do not need to request permission provided correct acknowledgement is given.

If you are the author of this article, you do not need to request permission to reproduce figures and diagrams provided correct acknowledgement is given. If you want to reproduce the whole article in a third-party publication (excluding your thesis/dissertation for which permission is not required) please go to the Copyright Clearance Center request page .

Read more about how to correctly acknowledge RSC content .

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IMAGES

  1. Bibtex Phd Thesis

    bibtex thesis

  2. Thesis bibtex example

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  3. Bibtex Phd Thesis Master Thesis

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  5. Bibliography management with bibtex

    bibtex thesis

  6. Complete list of BibTeX entry types [with examples]

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COMMENTS

  1. BibTeX template: phdthesis

    BibTeX phdthesis template The phdthesis entry type is intended to be used for a PhD thesis. Minimal template Minimal template with required fields only for a BibTeX phdthesis entry. @phdthesis { citekey, author = "", title = "", school = "", year = "" } Download BibTeX file | Copy to clipboard Full template

  2. citing

    biblatex citing biber thesis Share Improve this question Follow asked Apr 7, 2019 at 19:54 Jonas Stein 8,849 7 42 65 Add a comment 1 Answer Sorted by: 3 Define a new bibstring diplomathesis and give it a useful replacement text

  3. bibtex

    bibtex - Referencing a Bachelor's Thesis - TeX - LaTeX Stack Exchange Referencing a Bachelor's Thesis Ask Question Asked 10 years, 4 months ago Modified 1 year, 5 months ago Viewed 56k times 37 LaTeX only offers @mastersthesis or @phdthesis, but no bachelor's thesis. I tried to keep the entry as @misc, but the university name doesn't appear.

  4. Guide to BibTeX Type PhdThesis

    The "phdthesis" BibTeX type is used for PhD dissertations or theses. In this guide, we will explain the required and optional fields for the "phdthesis" BibTeX type. Required Fields The "phdthesis" BibTeX type requires the following fields: author: The author of the thesis. title: The title of the thesis.

  5. Bibliography management with bibtex

    Bibliography management with bibtex Contents 1 Advisory note 2 Introduction 3 Bibliography: just a list of \bibitems 3.1 A note on compilation times 4 Enter Bib T E X 4.1 Some notes on using Bib T E X and .bib files 5 Taking another look at .bib files 5.1 Multiple authors in Bib T E X 5.2 Multiple-word last names

  6. How to Write a Thesis in LaTeX (Part 4): Bibliographies with ...

    How to Write a Thesis in LaTeX (Part 4): Bibliographies with BibLaTeX Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3 | Part 4 | Part 5 Author: Josh Cassidy (August 2013) This five-part series of articles uses a combination of video and textual descriptions to teach the basics of writing a thesis using LaTeX.

  7. PDF BibTeX Templates

    PhD thesis, Podunk IN, 1996. [5] R. Swearingen. Morpholoty and syntax of british sailors' english. Tech-nical report, New York NY, 1985. [6] T. Upsilon. Obscure greek letters and their meanings in mathematics and the sciences. In V. W. Xavier, editor, Proceedings of the seventh international trivia conference, pages 129{158.

  8. LibGuides: Overleaf for LaTeX Theses & Dissertations: Home

    BibTeX is a file format used for lists of references for LaTeX documents. Many citation management tools support the ability to export and import lists of references in .bib format. Some reference management tools can generate BibTeX files of your library or folders for use in your LaTeX documents.

  9. BibTeX Guide: Mastering Reference Management for Bibliographies

    Understanding BibTeX. Developed in the 1980s by Oren Patashnik and Leslie Lamport, BibTeX has become the go-to software for managing and formatting bibliographies in LaTeX and markdown documents. Its widespread acceptance in academic circles, especially in fields like math, computer science, and physics, is a testament to its efficiency.

  10. Guide to Writing Your Thesis in LaTeX: Bibliography

    If there is one list of references for the whole thesis (because you used the oneref option, you will only need to run BibTeX on the top level file thesis.tex. How to Add a Bibliography Entry When we want to refer to a source in the thesis, we place an entry for that source in the file references.bib , then cite the source in the thesis with ...

  11. BibTeX Style Examples

    BibTeX Style Examples Next: Drawing in LaTeX with TikZ In the following section you see how different bibtex styles look in the resulting PDF. The style is defined in the \bibliographystyle { style } command where style is to be replaced with one of the following styles (e.g. alpha, etc.).

  12. BibTeX Code

    The NPS thesis LaTeX template comes prepackaged with a BibTeX tool and a bib file containing the examples below. Last Updated: Feb 9, 2024 12:23 PM URL: https://libguides.nps.edu/citation

  13. Choosing a BibTeX Style

    A BibTeX style can change how a work is cited and how the bibliography is formatted. For more about using BibTeX than is described here, read our BibTeX documentation. How to Use a Specific Style ... To use Chicago A (footnote style citations), add these lines to the preamble (where "thesis" should be changed to the title of your .bib file ...

  14. bibtex

    If you use the @misc entry type, you could put the "unpublished thesis" bit -- or should that maybe be "to be published thesis" or "Ph.D. thesis, fortcoming" -- in the note field. I often just include this information in the year field. year="2014, to be published", or similar. The correct format in Chicago style is as follows for a ...

  15. Guide to BibTeX Type MasterThesis

    The "masterthesis" BibTeX type is used for master's theses. In this guide, we will explain the required and optional fields for the "masterthesis" BibTeX type. Required Fields The "masterthesis" BibTeX type requires the following fields: author: The author of the thesis. title: The title of the thesis.

  16. BibMe: Generate BIBTEX thesis citations for your bibliography

    BIBTEX Citation Generator >. Cite a Thesis. BibMe Free Bibliography & Citation Maker - MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard.

  17. Complete list of BibTeX entry types [with examples]

    A thesis written for the Master's level degree. ``` @mastersthesis { CitekeyMastersthesis, author = "Jian Tang", title = "Spin structure of the nucleon in the asymptotic limit", school = "Massachusetts Institute of Technology", year = 1996, address = "Cambridge, MA", month = sep } ``` misc

  18. BibMe: Free BIBTEX Bibliography & Citation Maker

    Accuracy is the reliability and truthfulness of the source. Here are a few indicators of an accurate source: Citations or a works cited list. For websites, this can be links to other credible sites. Evidence that backs up claims made by the author (s). Text that is free of spelling and grammatical errors. Information that matches that in other ...

  19. bibtex

    35 At my school, PhD works are generally referred to as dissertations rather than theses. My bibtex file has this entry:

  20. [2402.13754] Reinforcement learning-assisted quantum architecture

    In this thesis, we tackle the issue by introducing a tensor-based quantum circuit encoding, restrictions on environment dynamics to explore the search space of possible circuits efficiently, an episode halting scheme to steer the agent to find shorter circuits, a double deep Q-network (DDQN) with an $\epsilon$-greedy policy for better stability.

  21. Deep eutectic solvent as emerging green platform for synthesis of

    As a multifunctional solvent, deep eutectic solvents (DESs) possess numerous potential applications in a variety of fields due to their low vapor pressure, tunability, environmental friendliness, and the ability to dissolve a wide range of chemicals. DES serves as solvents, templates, and functionalization a 2023 Green Chemistry Reviews