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What Is a Good Thesis Statement About Depression?

Lonely girl with depression

Do you need to compose an informative or an argumentative essay on depression? One of the vital parts of your paper is a thesis statement on depression. Note there are various types of thesis statements, and what you use depends on the type of essay you are writing. A thesis summarizes the concept that you write on your research paper or the bottom line that you will write in your essay. It should elaborate more on the depression topics for the research paper you are working on. But at times, you might have a hard time writing your thesis statement.

Good Thesis Statement about Teenage Depression

Bipolar disorder thesis statements about depression, interesting thesis statements about depression, interesting thesis statement about diagnosis and treatment of depression, thesis statement about stress and depression, free thesis statements about depression and anxiety, get help with your depression research paper.

Here is a list of thesis statements to have an easier time writing your essay. They cover different topics, making it easy to select what excites you. Here we go!

Are you writing about teenagers and how they are always overthinking about their future, and they end up getting depressed? You need to write a good thesis statement for a depression research paper. That will help your depression argumentative essay stand out. Here are some thesis statement for depression to check out.

  • There is a link between depression and alcohol among teenagers and the various ways to control it.
  • Teenagers dealing with mood disorders eat and sleep more than usual, getting less interested in regular activities.
  • Mediation is an effective way to reach out to adolescents that show heightened symptoms of depression.
  • Self-blaming attributions are social cognitive mechanisms among adolescents.
  • Peer victimization causes high-stress levels among adolescents and has negative psychological consequences.

Choosing a good depression thesis statement on bipolar disorder can be hectic. Research on bipolar will require a good thesis statement for mental health. Choose a thesis statement about mental health awareness here.

  • People with Bipolar depression have more difficulties getting quality sleep.
  • Bipolar disorder influences every aspect of a person’s life and changes their quality of life.
  • Bipolar disorder causes depressive moods or lows of mental disorder.
  • Bipolar is a severe mental issue that can negatively impact your moods, self-esteem, and behavior.
  • Psychological evaluations play a significant role in diagnosing bipolar disorder.

When writing your essay, ensure that the thesis statement for mental health is fascinating. You will impress your professors if you get the right depression research paper outline as your thesis statement. Here is a depression thesis statement you can use.

  • The effects of human psychology are viewed in the form of depression.
  • Clinical psychology can help to bring outpatients who have depression.
  • Treating long-term depression in bipolar patients is possible.
  • Bipolar patients are drained to the roots of depression.
  • Well-established rehabilitation centers can help bring drug addicts from depression.

Are you thinking of writing a thesis on depression and how to treat it? If so, you need to have an excellent thesis statement about mental health that will impress your professor. Read this list to find a thesis you need for your research paper.

  • There are different ways to diagnose and treat depression from its early stage.
  • People who show signs of depression from an early stage and seek treatment are likely to recover instead of those who do not show early signs.
  • After you receive treatment for depression, putting the right measure in place is one of the best and effective ways to ensure that you do not get it again for the second time.
  • Anxiety can interfere with daily living, and it can get anyone from children to adults.
  • Besides medication, you need a lifestyle change and acceptance to treat depression.

Is your research about stress and how it can impact mental health? Getting a thesis statement for depression research paper that impresses your examiners can be challenging. Choose a thesis statement for your mental illness research paper below.

  • Although it is normal for various situations to cause stress, having constant stress can have detrimental effects.
  • To survive the modern industrial society, you need to have stress management strategies.
  • The challenges of understanding and adapting to the changing environment can lead to stress.
  • Lack of proper stress management will lead to inefficiency in everything people do.
  • Stress does not come unless there are underlying stressors in your life.

Our team of writers is well-conversant about a free thesis statement about anxiety you can use. The best anxiety thesis statement will help you get the best grades. Here is a list of statements that stands out:

  • Many factors can lead to early anxiety, but the leading cause of anxiety in adolescents is directly linked to families.
  • Anxiety is a severe mental disorder that can occur without any apparent triggers.
  • Long-term depression and anxiety can impact your mental health, but you can recover if you seek treatment.
  • Depression and anxiety are not interlinked, and it is essential to learn how to differentiate them on practical grounds.
  • Society has a role to play in helping people come out of depression and anxiety.

How do you write a research paper about depression and how it affects mental health? Before choosing a thesis statement on mental health, have a clear understanding of the essay that you are writing. That will help you get the best thesis to make our essay stand out.

But don’t keep stressing out about your thesis statement for mental illness research paper. We have your work cut out because our skilled writers have compiled a list of thesis statements about mental health and depression topics for research paper writing. We will also suggest correct thesis statements for your essay homework or assignment.

If you are still unsure of the statement to use, get in touch with us today. We have a team of skilled and experienced writers that can help you with your essay or research project and ensure that you get the best grades.

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10 New Thesis Statement about Depression & Anxiety | How to Write One?


Did you know according to the National Institute of Mental Health; it is estimated that approximately 8.4% of adults are patients of major depression in the US? Well, depression is a common illness globally that affects a lot of people. Yet, the reasons for this psychological sickness vary from person to person and numerous studies are being conducted to discover more about depression.

Therefore, college and university students are currently assigned to write research papers, dissertations, essays, and a thesis about depression. However, writing essays on such topics aims to increase the awareness of physical and mental well-being among youth and help them find solutions.

However, a lot of students find it pretty challenging to write a thesis statement about depression and seek someone to write my essay . No worries! In this article, you will learn about what is a good thesis statement about mental health and some effective methods and approaches to write a killer headline and compose an astonishing essay about depression.

5 Thesis Statement About Depression:

  • “The complexity of depression, which includes biological, psychological, and environmental components, emphasizes the need for individualized treatment plans that consider each person’s particular requirements.”
  • “Depression in the workplace not only affects an individual’s productivity but also carries economic implications, emphasizing the importance of fostering a mental health-friendly work environment.”
  • “Alternative, holistic approaches to mental health care have the potential to be more successful as the link between creative expressions, such as art therapy, and depression management becomes more commonly recognized.”
  • “It is critical to enhance geriatric mental health treatment and reduce the stigma associated with mental illness in older people since depression in senior populations is typically underdiagnosed and mistreated.”
  • “The link between early childhood adversity and the risk of developing depression later in life accentuates the importance of early intervention and support systems for children exposed to adverse experiences.”

5 Thesis Statements about Anxiety & Depression :

  • “Depression and anxiety Co-occurring disorders are a major concern in mental health, necessitating integrated treatment options that meet the unique challenges that co-occurring diseases provide.”
  • “The utilization of technology-driven therapies, such as smartphone apps and telehealth services, is a realistic approach of addressing persons suffering from anxiety and depression, while also increasing access to mental health care.”
  • “The examination of the gut-brain connection and its potential role in anxiety and depression showcases a burgeoning area of research that could lead to novel treatments emphasizing nutrition and gut health.”
  • “Adolescents who experience both anxiety and depression face a serious issue that calls for comprehensive school-based mental health programs and preventative measures to promote young people’s mental health.”
  • “Exploring the impact of sociocultural factors and the role of community support systems in the experience of anxiety and depression provides insights into the development of culturally sensitive mental health interventions.”

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Follow 7 Proven Methods to Compose Thesis Statement about Depression

A thesis is the overview of the concepts and ideas that you will write in your research paper or in the essay. Yet, a thesis statement about anxiety focuses more on the stress and depression topics for the paper you’re working on, which can be written by following the tips given below.

Nonetheless, you can compose an outline by covering the points mentioned below:

1. Pick a good study topic and perform a basic reading. Look for some intriguing statistics and try to come up with creative ways to approach your subject. Examine a few articles for deficiencies in understanding.

2. Make a list of your references and jot down when you come across a noteworthy quotation. You can cite them in your paper as references. Organize all of the information you’ve acquired in one location.

3. In one phrase, state the purpose of your essay. Consider what you want to happen when other people read your article.

4. Examine your notes and construct a list of all the key things you wish to emphasize. Make use of brainstorming strategies and jot down any ideas that come to mind.

5. Review and revise the arguments and write a thesis statement for a research paper or essay about depression.

6. Organize your essay by organizing the list of points. Arrange the points in a logical sequence. Analyze all elements to ensure that they are all relevant to your goal.

7. Reread all of your statements and arrange your outline in a standard manner, such as a bulleted list.

Final Words

So, what is an ideal way to write a thesis statement about depression for your research paper or essay? We hope you have a thorough idea of the essay you’re writing before picking a thesis statement about mental well-being. That will assist you in developing the greatest thesis for our essay.

But don’t get too worked up over your thesis statement for a research paper on mental disorders. Our professional subject experts have produced a list of thesis statements about mental health and depression themes for research paper writing, so you’ve got your job cut out for you. For your essay assignments or assignments, we will also offer appropriate thesis statements.

If you’re still confused about which statement to use, contact us right away. We have a staff of highly qualified and seasoned writers who can assist you with your essay or research work and guarantee that you receive the highest possible score.

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How To Write A Strong Essay On Depression?

Jared Houdi

Table of Contents

a thesis statement about depression

Looking for useful information that will help you write a powerful essay on depression? You’ve come to the right place, then!

Depression is a worldwide spread disease that negatively affects how people feel, the way they think, and how they act. It is also the leading cause of disability. There are estimates that more than 300 million people are affected by depression globally, and this condition is also one of the most common mental disorders in the USA.

No wonder depression essay is a typical assignment for high school and college students. The goal of writing about this mental condition is to increase awareness among young people about mental health and help them find solutions to this problem.

In this guide, you will find all the necessary information for writing the best essays on this topic.

Depression essay: what’s the deal?

At some point in our lives, we all may experience symptoms like sadness, loss of interest, lack of pleasure from performing daily activities, etc.

For most people, these symptoms are a completely normal response to unpleasant or stressful events that they experience, for example, romantic relationships failures or financial issues.

Negative feelings are usually painful and overwhelming, but as time goes by, they become less intense and disappear.

But if these feelings persist, they may affect people’s life substantially and result in depression.

In recent decades, clinical depression has reached epidemic proportions and is widespread in the suburbs inner cities, farms, refugee camps, boardrooms, and classrooms, and women are more likely to be depressed than man.

Recent research reveals that the United States is the most depressed country in the world.

When writing an essay about this mental illness, you need to examine different aspects. For example, you may write a postpartum depression essay or explore how this mental condition affects the brain, personality, and physical health.

The choice of topics is endless, but you should follow standard writing requirements when working on your projects. Let’s discuss some important steps of writing an essay about mental disorders in detail.

Depression research paper outline: a brief how-to

Many students skip this stage in the writing process and as a result, may waste a lot of time when doing research and actually writing.

Creating a working outline for your project is an essential step that will help you stay focused and increase your overall productivity. Never skip this crucial step if you want to succeed.

Here are some tips on how you can do it right.

  • Choose a topic for your research and do some preliminary reading. Search for some interesting facts and try to think about new ways to address your topic. Scan some articles and look for knowledge gaps.
  • Take notes when you see an interesting quote and create a list of your sources. You can use them as references in your essay. Keep all the information you have gathered in one place.
  • Write down the objective of your essay in one sentence. Think about the outcome you want to achieve when other people read your essay.
  • Look through your notes and make a list of all the important points you want to make. Use brainstorming techniques and write down all ideas that pop into your head.
  • Review the points and create a thesis statement for depression research paper or essay.
  • Organize the list of points to create a structure of your essay . Put the points in a logical order. Check all aspects to make sure that each of them is relevant to your objective.
  • Revise all your points and try to put your outline in a standard format: numbered or bulleted list.

Depression essay introduction: how to start?

The introduction of your essay should provide some context and prepare your readers for the arguments you would present next.

Start your introduction with an attention grabber to engage your audience. It can be a provocative question, statistics, an anecdote, an interesting fact, etc.

Introduce your specific topic and provide some context to help your readers understand your paper. For example, you can define some key terms.

Finish your introduction with a strong thesis statement that clearly and concisely states the central argument or the purpose of your paper.

e.g., Students who drop out of a high school before graduation are more susceptible to depression and anxiety and have a higher risk of facing mental and physical health problems later in life.

You may also briefly outline the major points of your paper to help your audience follow your argument.

Depression essay conclusion: what should be included?

The conclusion is the last chance to impress your readers so it can be the most challenging part of an essay to write.

It should give your paper a sense of completeness and answer the question, “so what?”

You need to restate your main claim and tie that claim to a larger discussion. Don’t introduce any new ideas or subtopics here.

You can conclude your paper using one of the following strategies:

  • Call for a specific action.
  • Outline next steps for other researchers.
  • Speak about future implications.
  • Compare different situations or issues.
  • Use a quotation.
  • Ask a provocative question.

The use of depression essay example

A good essay example may help you understand how your project must be written. You can find a lot of essay examples online or order a well-written example from a professional writer.

You should read it and analyze what strategies and techniques are used to convey the main ideas and make an impression on readers.

Besides, you can get a better understanding of how you can structure your paper and what transitions you can use to ensure a logical flow of ideas.

Essay on depression: what to cover?

Writing about depression in college essay can involve a lot of different topics, especially those connected with the epidemic of mental disorders in teens.

For example, you may write causes of teenage depression essay and discuss multiple factors that create chemical imbalances in the human brain which may result in mental disorders and lead to such symptoms like anger, irritability, and agitation:

  • Biological factors – family history of mental disorders.
  • Social factors – loneliness and isolation, lack of meaningful relationships with family or peers.
  • Behavioral factors – alcohol or drug abuse.
  • Psychological factors – early childhood trauma, recent stressful experiences like a death in the family.

TOP-10 depression essay topics

  • Effects of mood disorders on physical health.
  • Causes of depression among teens.
  • Compare depression and bipolar disorder.
  • Neurodegenerative effects of long-term depression.
  • Mental disorders and personality changes in adults.
  • Impact of psychological stress on mental disorders.
  • Teen depression and suicide.
  • Depression symptoms in children and adults.
  • Are we witnessing an epidemic of serious mood disorders?
  • Digital media and mental disorders in children.

Argumentative essay on depression: how to prove you’re right?

Argumentative essay on depression is a more complex task because you need to take a stance and create a convincing argument to persuade your readers and make them accept your point of view or take a specific action.

You need compelling evidence to support your claims and main points.

Consult credible online sources, for example, a website of the American Psychiatric Association, to find some facts or statistics about mental disorders or news about current research on the topic.

Review some statistics which you can use to support your argument.

  • According to estimates, about 15% of adults experience depressive episodes in their lifetime.
  • About 5% of the US population experience seasonal depression every year.
  • The most “depressed” countries in the world are the USA, France, the Netherlands, Ukraine, and Colombia.
  • Japan has one of the lowest depression rates in the world, but it has one of the highest suicide rates, which is one of the leading causes of death among Japanese teens.
  • 4.8% of men and 8.5% of women suffer from depression in the USA.
  • The median age of people experiencing a major depressive episode is 32.
  • More than 44,000 American commit suicide each year and it’s the 2nd leading cause of death for young people aged from 15 to 24.

Argumentative essay topics about depression

  • Is there any correlation between burnout, depression, and anxiety?
  • How to deal with a crisis when living with mental disorders?
  • Is it common to have both anxiety and depression at the same time?
  • Can sleep deprivation cause mental disorders?
  • Is there any relationship between the consumption of certain food and mental disorders?
  • Can food help with overcoming anxiety?
  • Social media obsession and mental health issues.
  • Why do a lot of teens struggle with mental disorders?
  • Can exercise treat mental health issues?
  • How can we tell the difference between grief and depression?

Feel free to choose any of these interesting topics and write your own depression essay.

Although mental disorders are a complicated thing to write about, you are much likely to successfully cope with this challenging task if you follow our easy guidelines.

Depressed with the task to write depression? Forget the anxiety! Order your paper within three clicks and enjoy the bright side of life!

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7 Depression Research Paper Topic Ideas

Nancy Schimelpfening, MS is the administrator for the non-profit depression support group Depression Sanctuary. Nancy has a lifetime of experience with depression, experiencing firsthand how devastating this illness can be.

Cara Lustik is a fact-checker and copywriter.

a thesis statement about depression

In psychology classes, it's common for students to write a depression research paper. Researching depression may be beneficial if you have a personal interest in this topic and want to learn more, or if you're simply passionate about this mental health issue. However, since depression is a very complex subject, it offers many possible topics to focus on, which may leave you wondering where to begin.

If this is how you feel, here are a few research titles about depression to help inspire your topic choice. You can use these suggestions as actual research titles about depression, or you can use them to lead you to other more in-depth topics that you can look into further for your depression research paper.

What Is Depression?

Everyone experiences times when they feel a little bit blue or sad. This is a normal part of being human. Depression, however, is a medical condition that is quite different from everyday moodiness.

Your depression research paper may explore the basics, or it might delve deeper into the  definition of clinical depression  or the  difference between clinical depression and sadness .

What Research Says About the Psychology of Depression

Studies suggest that there are biological, psychological, and social aspects to depression, giving you many different areas to consider for your research title about depression.

Types of Depression

There are several different types of depression  that are dependent on how an individual's depression symptoms manifest themselves. Depression symptoms may vary in severity or in what is causing them. For instance, major depressive disorder (MDD) may have no identifiable cause, while postpartum depression is typically linked to pregnancy and childbirth.

Depressive symptoms may also be part of an illness called bipolar disorder. This includes fluctuations between depressive episodes and a state of extreme elation called mania. Bipolar disorder is a topic that offers many research opportunities, from its definition and its causes to associated risks, symptoms, and treatment.

Causes of Depression

The possible causes of depression are many and not yet well understood. However, it most likely results from an interplay of genetic vulnerability  and environmental factors. Your depression research paper could explore one or more of these causes and reference the latest research on the topic.

For instance, how does an imbalance in brain chemistry or poor nutrition relate to depression? Is there a relationship between the stressful, busier lives of today's society and the rise of depression? How can grief or a major medical condition lead to overwhelming sadness and depression?

Who Is at Risk for Depression?

This is a good research question about depression as certain risk factors may make a person more prone to developing this mental health condition, such as a family history of depression, adverse childhood experiences, stress , illness, and gender . This is not a complete list of all risk factors, however, it's a good place to start.

The growing rate of depression in children, teenagers, and young adults is an interesting subtopic you can focus on as well. Whether you dive into the reasons behind the increase in rates of depression or discuss the treatment options that are safe for young people, there is a lot of research available in this area and many unanswered questions to consider.

Depression Signs and Symptoms

The signs of depression are those outward manifestations of the illness that a doctor can observe when they examine a patient. For example, a lack of emotional responsiveness is a visible sign. On the other hand, symptoms are subjective things about the illness that only the patient can observe, such as feelings of guilt or sadness.

An illness such as depression is often invisible to the outside observer. That is why it is very important for patients to make an accurate accounting of all of their symptoms so their doctor can diagnose them properly. In your depression research paper, you may explore these "invisible" symptoms of depression in adults or explore how depression symptoms can be different in children .

How Is Depression Diagnosed?

This is another good depression research topic because, in some ways, the diagnosis of depression is more of an art than a science. Doctors must generally rely upon the patient's set of symptoms and what they can observe about them during their examination to make a diagnosis. 

While there are certain  laboratory tests that can be performed to rule out other medical illnesses as a cause of depression, there is not yet a definitive test for depression itself.

If you'd like to pursue this topic, you may want to start with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). The fifth edition, known as DSM-5, offers a very detailed explanation that guides doctors to a diagnosis. You can also compare the current model of diagnosing depression to historical methods of diagnosis—how have these updates improved the way depression is treated?

Treatment Options for Depression

The first choice for depression treatment is generally an antidepressant medication. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most popular choice because they can be quite effective and tend to have fewer side effects than other types of antidepressants.

Psychotherapy, or talk therapy, is another effective and common choice. It is especially efficacious when combined with antidepressant therapy. Certain other treatments, such as electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) or vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), are most commonly used for patients who do not respond to more common forms of treatment.

Focusing on one of these treatments is an option for your depression research paper. Comparing and contrasting several different types of treatment can also make a good research title about depression.

A Word From Verywell

The topic of depression really can take you down many different roads. When making your final decision on which to pursue in your depression research paper, it's often helpful to start by listing a few areas that pique your interest.

From there, consider doing a little preliminary research. You may come across something that grabs your attention like a new study, a controversial topic you didn't know about, or something that hits a personal note. This will help you narrow your focus, giving you your final research title about depression.

Remes O, Mendes JF, Templeton P. Biological, psychological, and social determinants of depression: A review of recent literature . Brain Sci . 2021;11(12):1633. doi:10.3390/brainsci11121633

National Institute of Mental Health. Depression .

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition . American Psychiatric Association.

National Institute of Mental Health. Mental health medications .

Ferri, F. F. (2019). Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2020 E-Book: 5 Books in 1 . Netherlands: Elsevier Health Sciences.

By Nancy Schimelpfening Nancy Schimelpfening, MS is the administrator for the non-profit depression support group Depression Sanctuary. Nancy has a lifetime of experience with depression, experiencing firsthand how devastating this illness can be.  

434 Depression Essay Titles & Research Topics: Argumentative, Controversial, and More

Depression is undeniably one of the most prevalent mental health conditions globally, affecting approximately 5% of adults worldwide. It often manifests as intense feelings of hopelessness, sadness, and a loss of interest in previously enjoyable activities. Many also experience physical symptoms like fatigue, sleep disturbances, and appetite changes. Recognizing and addressing this mental disorder is extremely important to save lives and treat the condition.

In this article, we’ll discuss how to write an essay about depression and introduce depression essay topics and research titles for students that may be inspirational.

  • 🔝 Top Depression Essay Titles
  • ✅ Essay Prompts
  • 💡 Research Topics
  • 🔎 Essay Titles
  • 💭 Speech Topics
  • 📝 Essay Structure

🔗 References

🔝 top 12 research titles about depression.

  • How is depression treated?
  • Depression: Risk factors.
  • The symptoms of depression.
  • What types of depression exist?
  • Depression in young people.
  • Differences between anxiety and depression.
  • The parents’ role in depression therapy.
  • Drugs as the root cause of depression.
  • Dangerous consequences of untreated depression.
  • Effect of long-term depression.
  • Different stages of depression.
  • Treatment for depression.

The picture provides a list of topics for a research paper about depression.

✅ Prompts for Essay about Depression

Struggling to find inspiration for your essay? Look no further! We’ve put together some valuable essay prompts on depression just for you!

Prompt for Personal Essay about Depression

Sharing your own experience with depression in a paper can be a good idea. Others may feel more motivated to overcome their situation after reading your story. You can also share valuable advice by discussing things or methods that have personally helped you deal with the condition.

For example, in your essay about depression, you can:

  • Tell about the time you felt anxious, hopeless, or depressed;
  • Express your opinion on depression based on the experiences from your life;
  • Suggest a way of dealing with the initial symptoms of depression ;
  • Share your ideas on how to protect mental health at a young age.

How to Overcome Depression: Essay Prompt

Sadness is a common human emotion, but depression encompasses more than just sadness. As reported by the National Institute of Mental Health, around 21 million adults in the United States, roughly 8.4% of the total adult population , faced at least one significant episode of depression in 2020. When crafting your essay about overcoming depression, consider exploring the following aspects:

  • Depression in young people and adolescents;
  • The main causes of depression;
  • The symptoms of depression;
  • Ways to treat depression;
  • Help from a psychologist (cognitive behavioral therapy or interpersonal therapy ).

Postpartum Depression: Essay Prompt

The birth of a child often evokes a spectrum of powerful emotions, spanning from exhilaration and happiness to apprehension and unease. It can also trigger the onset of depression. Following childbirth, many new mothers experience postpartum “baby blues,” marked by shifts in mood, bouts of tears, anxiety, and sleep disturbances. To shed light on the subject of postpartum depression, explore the following questions:

  • What factors may increase the risk of postpartum depression?
  • Is postpartum depression predictable?
  • How to prevent postpartum depression?
  • What are the symptoms of postpartum depression?
  • What kinds of postpartum depression treatments exist?

Prompt for Essay about Teenage Depression

Teenage depression is a mental health condition characterized by sadness and diminishing interest in daily activities. It can significantly impact a teenager’s thoughts, emotions, and behavior, often requiring long-term treatment and support.

By discussing the primary symptoms of teenage depression in your paper, you can raise awareness of the issue and encourage those in need to seek assistance. You can pay attention to the following aspects:

  • Emotional changes (feelings of sadness, anger, hopelessness, guilt, etc.);
  • Behavioral changes (loss of energy and appetite , less attention to personal hygiene, self-harm, etc.);
  • New addictions (drugs, alcohol, computer games, etc.).

💡 Research Topics about Depression

  • The role of genetics in depression development.
  • The effectiveness of different psychotherapeutic interventions for depression.
  • Anti-depression non-pharmacological and medication treatment .
  • The impact of childhood trauma on the onset of depression later in life.
  • Exploring the efficacy of antidepressant medication in different populations.
  • The impact of exercise on depression symptoms and treatment outcomes.
  • Mild depression: pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy .
  • The relationship between sleep disturbances and depression.
  • The role of gut microbiota in depression and potential implications for treatment.
  • Investigating the impact of social media on depression rates in adolescents.
  • Depression, dementia, and delirium in older people .
  • The efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy in preventing depression relapse.
  • The influence of hormonal changes on depression risk.
  • Assessing the effectiveness of self-help and digital interventions for depression.
  • Herbal and complementary therapies for depression .
  • The relationship between personality traits and vulnerability to depression.
  • Investigating the long-term consequences of untreated depression on physical health.
  • Exploring the link between chronic pain and depression.
  • Depression in the elderly male .
  • The impact of childhood experiences on depression outcomes in adulthood.
  • The use of ketamine and other novel treatments for depression.
  • The effect of stigma on depression diagnosis and treatment.
  • The conducted family assessment: cases of depression .
  • The role of social support in depression recovery.
  • The effectiveness of online support groups for individuals with depression.
  • Depression and cognitive decline in adults.
  • Depression: PICOT question component exploration .
  • Exploring the impact of nutrition and dietary patterns on depression symptoms.
  • Investigating the efficacy of art-based therapies in depression treatment.
  • The role of neuroplasticity in the development and treatment of depression.
  • Depression among HIV-positive women .
  • The influence of gender on depression prevalence and symptomatology.
  • Investigating the impact of workplace factors on depression rates and outcomes.
  • The efficacy of family-based interventions in reducing depression symptoms in teenagers.
  • Frontline nurses’ burnout, anxiety, depression, and fear statuses .
  • The role of early-life stress and adversity in depression vulnerability.
  • The impact of various environmental factors on depression rates.
  • Exploring the link between depression and cardiovascular health .
  • Depression detection in adults in nursing practice .
  • Virtual reality as a therapeutic tool for depression treatment.
  • Investigating the impact of childhood bullying on depression outcomes.
  • The benefits of animal-assisted interventions in depression management.
  • Depression and physical exercise .
  • The relationship between depression and suicidal behavior .
  • The influence of cultural factors on depression symptom expression.
  • Investigating the role of epigenetics in depression susceptibility.
  • Depression associated with cognitive dysfunction .
  • Exploring the impact of adverse trauma on the course of depression.
  • The efficacy of acceptance and commitment therapy in treating depression.
  • The relationship between depression and substance use disorders .
  • Depression and anxiety among college students .
  • Investigating the effectiveness of group therapy for depression.
  • Depression and chronic medical conditions .

Psychology Research Topics on Depression

  • The influence of early attachment experiences on the development of depression.
  • The impact of negative cognitive biases on depression symptomatology.
  • Depression treatment plan for a queer patient .
  • Examining the relationship between perfectionism and depression.
  • The role of self-esteem in depression vulnerability and recovery.
  • Exploring the link between maladaptive thinking styles (e.g., rumination, catastrophizing) and depression.
  • Investigating the impact of social support on depression outcomes and resilience.
  • Identifying depression in young adults at an early stage .
  • The influence of parenting styles on the risk of depression in children and adolescents.
  • The role of self-criticism and self-compassion in depression treatment.
  • Exploring the relationship between identity development and depression in emerging adulthood.
  • The role of learned helplessness in understanding depression and its treatment.
  • Depression in the elderly .
  • Examining the connection between self-efficacy beliefs and depression symptoms.
  • The influence of social comparison processes on depression and body image dissatisfaction .
  • Exploring the impact of trauma-related disorders on depression.
  • The role of resilience factors in buffering against the development of depression.
  • Investigating the relationship between personality traits and depression.
  • Depression and workplace violence .
  • The impact of cultural factors on depression prevalence and symptom presentation.
  • Investigating the effects of chronic stress on depression risk.
  • The role of coping strategies in depression management and recovery.
  • The correlation between discrimination/prejudice and depression/anxiety .
  • Exploring the influence of gender norms and societal expectations on depression rates.
  • The impact of adverse workplace conditions on employee depression.
  • Investigating the effectiveness of narrative therapy in treating depression.
  • Cognitive behavior and depression in adolescents .
  • Childhood emotional neglect and adult depression.
  • The influence of perceived social support on treatment outcomes in depression.
  • The effects of childhood bullying on the development of depression.
  • The impact of intergenerational transmission of depression within families.
  • Depression in children: symptoms and treatments .
  • Investigating the link between body dissatisfaction and depression in adolescence.
  • The influence of adverse life events and chronic stressors on depression risk.
  • The effects of peer victimization on the development of depression in adolescence.
  • Counselling clients with depression and addiction .
  • The role of experiential avoidance in depression and its treatment.
  • The impact of social media use and online interactions on depression rates.
  • Depression management in adolescent .
  • Exploring the relationship between emotional intelligence and depression symptomatology.
  • Investigating the influence of cultural values and norms on depression stigma and help-seeking behavior.
  • The effects of childhood maltreatment on neurobiological markers of depression.
  • Psychological and emotional conditions of suicide and depression .
  • Exploring the relationship between body dissatisfaction and depression.
  • The influence of self-worth contingencies on depression vulnerability and treatment response.
  • The impact of social isolation and loneliness on depression rates.
  • Psychology of depression among college students .
  • The effects of perfectionistic self-presentation on depression in college students.
  • The role of mindfulness skills in depression prevention and relapse prevention.
  • Investigating the influence of adverse neighborhood conditions on depression risk.
  • Personality psychology and depression .
  • The impact of attachment insecurity on depression symptomatology.

Postpartum Depression Research Topics

  • Identifying risk factors for postpartum depression.
  • Exploring the role of hormonal changes in postpartum depression.
  • “Baby blues” or postpartum depression and evidence-based care .
  • The impact of social support on postpartum depression.
  • The effectiveness of screening tools for early detection of postpartum depression.
  • The relationship between postpartum depression and maternal-infant bonding .
  • Postpartum depression educational program results .
  • Identifying effective interventions for preventing and treating postpartum depression.
  • Examining the impact of cultural factors on postpartum depression rates.
  • Investigating the role of sleep disturbances in postpartum depression.
  • Depression and postpartum depression relationship .
  • Exploring the impact of a traumatic birth experience on postpartum depression.
  • Assessing the impact of breastfeeding difficulties on postpartum depression.
  • Understanding the role of genetic factors in postpartum depression.
  • Postpartum depression: consequences .
  • Investigating the impact of previous psychiatric history on postpartum depression risk.
  • The potential benefits of exercise on postpartum depression symptoms.
  • The efficacy of psychotherapeutic interventions for postpartum depression.
  • Postpartum depression in the twenty-first century .
  • The influence of partner support on postpartum depression outcomes.
  • Examining the relationship between postpartum depression and maternal self-esteem.
  • The impact of postpartum depression on infant development and well-being.
  • Maternal mood symptoms in pregnancy and postpartum depression .
  • The effectiveness of group therapy for postpartum depression management.
  • Identifying the role of inflammation and immune dysregulation in postpartum depression.
  • Investigating the impact of childcare stress on postpartum depression.
  • Postpartum depression among low-income US mothers .
  • The role of postnatal anxiety symptoms in postpartum depression.
  • The impact of postpartum depression on the marital relationship.
  • The influence of postpartum depression on parenting practices and parental stress.
  • Postpartum depression: symptoms, role of cultural factors, and ways to support .
  • Investigating the efficacy of pharmacological treatments for postpartum depression.
  • The impact of postpartum depression on breastfeeding initiation and continuation.
  • The relationship between postpartum depression and post-traumatic stress disorder .
  • Postpartum depression and its identification .
  • The impact of postpartum depression on cognitive functioning and decision-making.
  • Investigating the influence of cultural norms and expectations on postpartum depression rates.
  • The impact of maternal guilt and shame on postpartum depression symptoms.
  • Beck’s postpartum depression theory: purpose, concepts, and significance .
  • Understanding the role of attachment styles in postpartum depression vulnerability.
  • Investigating the effectiveness of online support groups for women with postpartum depression.
  • The impact of socioeconomic factors on postpartum depression prevalence.
  • Perinatal depression: research study and design .
  • The efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions for postpartum depression.
  • Investigating the influence of birth spacing on postpartum depression risk.
  • The role of trauma history in postpartum depression development.
  • The link between the birth experience and postnatal depression .
  • How does postpartum depression affect the mother-infant interaction and bonding ?
  • The effectiveness of home visiting programs in preventing and managing postpartum depression.
  • Assessing the influence of work-related stress on postpartum depression.
  • The relationship between postpartum depression and pregnancy-related complications.
  • The role of personality traits in postpartum depression vulnerability.

🔎 Depression Essay Titles

Depression essay topics: cause & effect.

  • The effects of childhood trauma on the development of depression in adults.
  • The impact of social media usage on the prevalence of depression in adolescents.
  • “Predictors of Postpartum Depression” by Katon et al.
  • The effects of environmental factors on depression rates.
  • The relationship between academic pressure and depression among college students.
  • The relationship between financial stress and depression.
  • The best solution to predict depression because of bullying .
  • How does long-term unemployment affect mental health ?
  • The effects of unemployment on mental health, particularly the risk of depression.
  • The impact of genetics and family history of depression on an individual’s likelihood of developing depression.
  • The relationship between depression and substance abuse .
  • Child abuse and depression .
  • The role of gender in the manifestation and treatment of depression.
  • The effects of chronic stress on the development of depression.
  • The link between substance abuse and depression.
  • Depression among students at Elon University .
  • The influence of early attachment styles on an individual’s vulnerability to depression.
  • The effects of sleep disturbances on the severity of depression.
  • Chronic illness and the risk of developing depression.
  • Depression: symptoms and treatment .
  • Adverse childhood experiences and the likelihood of experiencing depression in adulthood.
  • The relationship between chronic illness and depression.
  • The role of negative thinking patterns in the development of depression.
  • Effects of depression among adolescents .
  • The effects of poor body image and low self-esteem on the prevalence of depression.
  • The influence of social support systems on preventing symptoms of depression.
  • The effects of child neglect on adult depression rates.
  • Depression caused by hormonal imbalance .
  • The link between perfectionism and the risk of developing depression.
  • The effects of a lack of sleep on depression symptoms.
  • The effects of childhood abuse and neglect on the risk of depression.
  • Social aspects of depression and anxiety .
  • The impact of bullying on the likelihood of experiencing depression.
  • The role of serotonin and neurotransmitter imbalances in the development of depression.
  • The impact of a poor diet on depression rates.
  • Depression and anxiety run in the family .
  • The effects of childhood poverty and socioeconomic status on depression rates in adults.
  • The impact of divorce on depression rates.
  • The relationship between traumatic life events and the risk of developing depression.
  • The influence of personality traits on susceptibility to depression.
  • The impact of workplace stress on depression rates.
  • Depression in older adults: causes and treatment .
  • The impact of parental depression on children’s mental health outcomes.
  • The effects of social isolation on the prevalence and severity of depression.
  • The role of cultural factors in the manifestation and treatment of depression.
  • The relationship between childhood bullying victimization and future depressive symptoms.
  • The impact of early intervention and prevention programs on reducing the risk of postpartum depression.
  • Treating mood disorders and depression .
  • How do hormonal changes during pregnancy contribute to the development of depression?
  • The effects of sleep deprivation on the onset and severity of postpartum depression.
  • The impact of social media on depression rates among teenagers.
  • The role of genetics in the development of depression.
  • The impact of bullying on adolescent depression rates.
  • Mental illness, depression, and wellness issues .
  • The effects of a sedentary lifestyle on depression symptoms.
  • The correlation between academic pressure and depression in students.
  • The relationship between perfectionism and depression.
  • The correlation between trauma and depression in military veterans.
  • Anxiety and depression during childhood and adolescence .
  • The impact of racial discrimination on depression rates among minorities.
  • The relationship between chronic pain and depression.
  • The impact of social comparison on depression rates among young adults.
  • The effects of childhood abuse on adult depression rates.

Depression Argumentative Essay Topics

  • The role of social media in contributing to depression among teenagers.
  • The effectiveness of antidepressant medication: an ongoing debate.
  • Depression treatment: therapy or medications ?
  • Should depression screening be mandatory in schools and colleges?
  • Is there a genetic predisposition to depression?
  • The stigma surrounding depression: addressing misconceptions and promoting understanding.
  • Implementation of depression screening in primary care .
  • Is psychotherapy more effective than medication in treating depression?
  • Is teenage depression overdiagnosed or underdiagnosed: a critical analysis.
  • The connection between depression and substance abuse: untangling the relationship.
  • Humanistic therapy of depression .
  • Should ECT (electroconvulsive therapy) be a treatment option for severe depression?
  • Where is depression more prevalent: in urban or rural communities? Analyzing the disparities.
  • Is depression a result of chemical imbalance in the brain? Debunking the myth.
  • Depression: a serious mental and behavioral problem .
  • Should depression medication be prescribed for children and adolescents?
  • The effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions in managing depression.
  • Should depression in the elderly be considered a normal part of aging?
  • Is depression hereditary? Investigating the role of genetics in depression risk.
  • Different types of training in managing the symptoms of depression .
  • The effectiveness of online therapy platforms in treating depression.
  • Should psychedelic therapy be explored as an alternative treatment for depression?
  • The connection between depression and cardiovascular health: Is there a link?
  • The effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy in preventing depression relapse.
  • Depression as a bad a clinical condition .
  • Should mind-body interventions (e.g., yoga , meditation) be integrated into depression treatment?
  • Should emotional support animals be prescribed for individuals with depression?
  • The effectiveness of peer support groups in decreasing depression symptoms.
  • The use of antidepressants: are they overprescribed or necessary for treating depression?
  • Adult depression and anxiety as a complex problem .
  • The effectiveness of therapy versus medication in treating depression.
  • The stigma surrounding depression and mental illness: how can we reduce it?
  • The debate over the legalization of psychedelic drugs for treating depression.
  • The relationship between creativity and depression: does one cause the other?
  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety disorder and depression .
  • The role of childhood trauma in shaping adult depression: Is it always a causal factor?
  • The debate over the medicalization of sadness and grief as forms of depression.
  • Alternative therapies, such as acupuncture or meditation, are effective in treating depression.
  • Depression as a widespread mental condition .

Controversial Topics about Depression

  • The existence of “chemical imbalance” in depression: fact or fiction?
  • The over-reliance on medication in treating depression: are alternatives neglected?
  • Is depression overdiagnosed and overmedicated in Western society?
  • Measurement of an individual’s level of depression .
  • The role of Big Pharma in shaping the narrative and treatment of depression.
  • Should antidepressant advertisements be banned?
  • The inadequacy of current diagnostic criteria for depression: rethinking the DSM-5.
  • Is depression a biological illness or a product of societal factors?
  • Literature review on depression .
  • The overemphasis on biological factors in depression treatment: ignoring environmental factors.
  • Is depression a normal reaction to an abnormal society?
  • The influence of cultural norms on the perception and treatment of depression.
  • Should children and adolescents be routinely prescribed antidepressants?
  • The role of family in depression treatment .
  • The connection between depression and creative genius: does depression enhance artistic abilities?
  • The ethics of using placebo treatment for depression studies.
  • The impact of social and economic inequalities on depression rates.
  • Is depression primarily a mental health issue or a social justice issue?
  • Depression disassembling and treating .
  • Should depression screening be mandatory in the workplace?
  • The influence of gender bias in the diagnosis and treatment of depression.
  • The controversial role of religion and spirituality in managing depression.
  • Is depression a result of individual weakness or societal factors?
  • Abnormal psychology: anxiety and depression case .
  • The link between depression and obesity: examining the bidirectional relationship.
  • The connection between depression and academic performance : causation or correlation?
  • Should depression medication be available over the counter?
  • The impact of internet and social media use on depression rates: harmful or beneficial?
  • Interacting in the workplace: depression .
  • Is depression a modern epidemic or simply better diagnosed and identified?
  • The ethical considerations of using animals in depression research.
  • The effectiveness of psychedelic therapies for treatment-resistant depression.
  • Is depression a disability? The debate on workplace accommodations.
  • Polysubstance abuse among adolescent males with depression .
  • The link between depression and intimate partner violence : exploring the relationship.
  • The controversy surrounding “happy” pills and the pursuit of happiness.
  • Is depression a choice? Examining the role of personal responsibility.

Good Titles for Depression Essays

  • The poetic depictions of depression: exploring its representation in literature.
  • The melancholic symphony: the influence of depression on classical music.
  • Moderate depression symptoms and treatment .
  • Depression in modern music: analyzing its themes and expressions.
  • Cultural perspectives on depression: a comparative analysis of attitudes in different countries.
  • Contrasting cultural views on depression in Eastern and Western societies.
  • Diagnosing depression in the older population .
  • The influence of social media on attitudes and perceptions of depression in global contexts.
  • Countries with progressive approaches to mental health awareness.
  • From taboo to acceptance: the evolution of attitudes towards depression.
  • Depression screening tool in acute settings .
  • The Bell Jar : analyzing Sylvia Plath’s iconic tale of depression .
  • The art of despair: examining Frida Kahlo’s self-portraits as a window into depression.
  • The Catcher in the Rye : Holden Caulfield’s battle with adolescent depression.
  • Music as therapy: how jazz artists turned depression into art.
  • Depression screening tool for a primary care center .
  • The Nordic paradox: high depression rates in Scandinavian countries despite high-quality healthcare.
  • The Stoic East: how Eastern philosophies approach and manage depression.
  • From solitude to solidarity: collective approaches to depression in collectivist cultures.
  • The portrayal of depression in popular culture: a critical analysis of movies and TV shows.
  • The depression screening training in primary care .
  • The impact of social media influencers on depression rates among young adults.
  • The role of music in coping with depression: can specific genres or songs help alleviate depressive symptoms?
  • The representation of depression in literature: a comparative analysis of classic and contemporary works.
  • The use of art as a form of self-expression and therapy for individuals with depression.
  • Depression management guidelines implementation .
  • The role of religion in coping with depression: Christian and Buddhist practices.
  • The representation of depression in the video game Hellblade: Senua’s Sacrifice .
  • The role of nature in coping with depression: can spending time outdoors help alleviate depressive symptoms?
  • The effectiveness of dance/movement therapy in treating depression among older adults.
  • The National Institute for Health: depression management .
  • The portrayal of depression in stand-up comedy: a study of comedians like Maria Bamford and Chris Gethard.
  • The role of spirituality in coping with depression: Islamic and Hindu practices .
  • The portrayal of depression in animated movies : an analysis of Inside Out and The Lion King .
  • The representation of depression by fashion designers like Alexander McQueen and Rick Owens.
  • Depression screening in primary care .
  • The portrayal of depression in documentaries: an analysis of films like The Bridge and Happy Valley .
  • The effectiveness of wilderness therapy in treating depression among adolescents.
  • The connection between creativity and depression: how art can help heal.
  • The role of Buddhist and Taoist practices in coping with depression.
  • Mild depression treatment research funding sources .
  • The portrayal of depression in podcasts: an analysis of the show The Hilarious World of Depression .
  • The effectiveness of drama therapy in treating depression among children and adolescents.
  • The representation of depression in the works of Vincent van Gogh and Edvard Munch.
  • Depression in young people: articles review .
  • The impact of social media on political polarization and its relationship with depression.
  • The role of humor in coping with depression: a study of comedians like Ellen DeGeneres.
  • The portrayal of depression in webcomics: an analysis of the comics Hyperbole and a Half .
  • The effect of social media on mental health stigma and its relationship with depression.
  • Depression and the impact of human services workers .
  • The masked faces: hiding depression in highly individualistic societies.

💭 Depression Speech Topics

Informative speech topics about depression.

  • Different types of depression and their symptoms.
  • The causes of depression: biological, psychological, and environmental factors.
  • How depression and physical issues are connected .
  • The prevalence of depression in different age groups and demographics.
  • The link between depression and anxiety disorders .
  • Physical health: The effects of untreated depression.
  • The role of genetics in predisposing individuals to depression.
  • What you need to know about depression .
  • How necessary is early intervention in treating depression?
  • The effectiveness of medication in treating depression.
  • The role of exercise in managing depressive symptoms.
  • Depression in later life: overview .
  • The relationship between substance abuse and depression.
  • The impact of trauma on depression rates and treatment.
  • The effectiveness of mindfulness meditation in managing depressive symptoms.
  • Enzymes conversion and metabolites in major depression .
  • The benefits and drawbacks of electroconvulsive therapy for severe depression.
  • The effect of gender and cultural norms on depression rates and treatment.
  • The effectiveness of alternative therapies for depression, such as acupuncture and herbal remedies .
  • The importance of self-care in managing depression.
  • Symptoms of anxiety, depression, and peritraumatic dissociation .
  • The role of support systems in managing depression.
  • The effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy in treating depression.
  • The benefits and drawbacks of online therapy for depression.
  • The role of spirituality in managing depression.
  • Depression among minority groups .
  • The benefits and drawbacks of residential treatment for severe depression.
  • What is the relationship between childhood trauma and adult depression?
  • How effective is transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for treatment-resistant depression?
  • The benefits and drawbacks of art therapy for depression.
  • Mood disorder: depression and bipolar .
  • The impact of social media on depression rates.
  • The effectiveness of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) in treating depression.
  • Depression in older people .
  • The impact of seasonal changes on depression rates and treatment options.
  • The impact of depression on daily life and relationships, and strategies for coping with the condition.
  • The stigma around depression and the importance of seeking help.

Persuasive Speech Topics about Depression

  • How important is it to recognize the signs and symptoms of depression ?
  • How do you support a loved one who is struggling with depression?
  • The importance of mental health education in schools to prevent and manage depression.
  • Social media: the rise of depression and anxiety .
  • Is there a need to increase funding for mental health research to develop better treatments for depression?
  • Addressing depression in minority communities: overcoming barriers and disparities.
  • The benefits of including alternative therapies , such as yoga and meditation, in depression treatment plans.
  • Challenging media portrayals of depression: promoting accurate representations.
  • Two sides of depression disease .
  • How social media affects mental health: the need for responsible use to prevent depression.
  • The importance of early intervention: addressing depression in schools and colleges.
  • The benefits of seeking professional help for depression.
  • There is a need for better access to mental health care, including therapy and medication, for those suffering from depression.
  • Depression in adolescents and suitable interventions .
  • How do you manage depression while in college or university?
  • The role of family and friends in supporting loved ones with depression and encouraging them to seek help.
  • The benefits of mindfulness and meditation for depression.
  • The link between sleep and depression, and how to improve sleep habits.
  • How do you manage depression while working a high-stress job?
  • Approaches to treating depression .
  • How do you manage depression during pregnancy and postpartum?
  • The importance of prioritizing employee mental health and providing resources for managing depression in the workplace.
  • How should you manage depression while caring for a loved one with a chronic illness?
  • How to manage depression while dealing with infertility or pregnancy loss.
  • Andrew Solomon: why we can’t talk about depression .
  • Destigmatizing depression: promoting mental health awareness and understanding.
  • Raising funds for depression research: investing in mental health advances.
  • The power of peer support: establishing peer-led programs for depression.
  • Accessible mental health services: ensuring treatment for all affected by depression.
  • Evidence-based screening for depression in acute care .
  • The benefits of journaling for mental health: putting your thoughts on paper to heal.
  • The power of positivity: changing your mindset to fight depression .
  • The healing power of gratitude in fighting depression.
  • The connection between diet and depression: eating well can improve your mood.
  • Teen depression and suicide in Soto’s The Afterlife .
  • The benefits of therapy for depression: finding professional help to heal.
  • The importance of setting realistic expectations when living with depression.

📝 How to Write about Depression: Essay Structure

We’ve prepared some tips and examples to help you structure your essay and communicate your ideas.

Essay about Depression: Introduction

An introduction is the first paragraph of an essay. It plays a crucial role in engaging the reader, offering the context, and presenting the central theme.

A good introduction typically consists of 3 components:

  • Hook. The hook captures readers’ attention and encourages them to continue reading.
  • Background information. Background information provides context for the essay.
  • Thesis statement. A thesis statement expresses the essay’s primary idea or central argument.

Hook : Depression is a widespread mental illness affecting millions worldwide.

Background information : Depression affects your emotions, thoughts, and behavior. If you suffer from depression, engaging in everyday tasks might become arduous, and life may appear devoid of purpose or joy.

Depression Essay Thesis Statement

A good thesis statement serves as an essay’s road map. It expresses the author’s point of view on the issue in 1 or 2 sentences and presents the main argument.

Thesis statement : The stigma surrounding depression and other mental health conditions can discourage people from seeking help, only worsening their symptoms.

Essays on Depression: Body Paragraphs

The main body of the essay is where you present your arguments. An essay paragraph includes the following:

  • a topic sentence,
  • evidence to back up your claim,
  • explanation of why the point is essential to the argument;
  • a link to the next paragraph.

Topic sentence : Depression is a complex disorder that requires a personalized treatment approach, comprising both medication and therapy.

Evidence : Medication can be prescribed by a healthcare provider or a psychiatrist to relieve the symptoms. Additionally, practical strategies for managing depression encompass building a support system, setting achievable goals, and practicing self-care.

Depression Essay: Conclusion

The conclusion is the last part of your essay. It helps you leave a favorable impression on the reader.

The perfect conclusion includes 3 elements:

  • Rephrased thesis statement.
  • Summary of the main points.
  • Final opinion on the topic.

Rephrased thesis: In conclusion, overcoming depression is challenging because it involves a complex interplay of biological, psychological, and environmental factors that affect an individual’s mental well-being.

Summary: Untreated depression heightens the risk of engaging in harmful behaviors such as substance abuse and can also result in negative thought patterns, diminished self-esteem, and distorted perceptions of reality.

We hope you’ve found our article helpful and learned some new information. If so, feel free to share it with your friends. You can also try our free online topic generator !

  • Pain, anxiety, and depression – Harvard Health | Harvard Health Publishing
  • Depression-related increases and decreases in appetite reveal dissociable patterns of aberrant activity in reward and interoceptive neurocircuitry – PMC | National Library of Medicine
  • How to Get Treatment for Postpartum Depression – The New York Times
  • What Is Background Information and What Purpose Does It Serve? | Indeed.com
  • Thesis | Harvard College Writing Center
  • Topic Sentences: How Do You Write a Great One? | Grammarly Blog

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Essays About Depression: Top 8 Examples Plus Prompts

Many people deal with mental health issues throughout their lives; if you are writing essays about depression, you can read essay examples to get started.

An occasional feeling of sadness is something that everyone experiences from time to time. Still, a persistent loss of interest, depressed mood, changes in energy levels, and sleeping problems can indicate mental illness. Thankfully, antidepressant medications, therapy, and other types of treatment can be largely helpful for people living with depression.

People suffering from depression or other mood disorders must work closely with a mental health professional to get the support they need to recover. While family members and other loved ones can help move forward after a depressive episode, it’s also important that people who have suffered from major depressive disorder work with a medical professional to get treatment for both the mental and physical problems that can accompany depression.

If you are writing an essay about depression, here are 8 essay examples to help you write an insightful essay. For help with your essays, check out our round-up of the best essay checkers .

  • 1. My Best Friend Saved Me When I Attempted Suicide, But I Didn’t Save Her by Drusilla Moorhouse
  • 2. How can I complain? by James Blake
  • 3. What it’s like living with depression: A personal essay by Nadine Dirks
  • 4. I Have Depression, and I’m Proof that You Never Know the Battle Someone is Waging Inside by Jac Gochoco
  • 5. Essay: How I Survived Depression by Cameron Stout
  • 6. I Can’t Get Out of My Sweat Pants: An Essay on Depression by Marisa McPeck-Stringham
  • 7. This is what depression feels like by Courtenay Harris Bond

8. Opening Up About My Struggle with Recurring Depression by Nora Super

1. what is depression, 2. how is depression diagnosed, 3. causes of depression, 4. different types of depression, 5. who is at risk of depression, 6. can social media cause depression, 7. can anyone experience depression, the final word on essays about depression, is depression common, what are the most effective treatments for depression, top 8 examples, 1.  my best friend saved me when i attempted suicide, but i didn’t save her  by drusilla moorhouse.

“Just three months earlier, I had been a patient in another medical facility: a mental hospital. My best friend, Denise, had killed herself on Christmas, and days after the funeral, I told my mom that I wanted to die. I couldn’t forgive myself for the role I’d played in Denise’s death: Not only did I fail to save her, but I’m fairly certain I gave her the idea.”

Moorhouse makes painstaking personal confessions throughout this essay on depression, taking the reader along on the roller coaster of ups and downs that come with suicide attempts, dealing with the death of a loved one, and the difficulty of making it through major depressive disorder.

2.  How can I complain?  by James Blake

“I wanted people to know how I felt, but I didn’t have the vocabulary to tell them. I have gone into a bit of detail here not to make anyone feel sorry for me but to show how a privileged, relatively rich-and-famous-enough-for-zero-pity white man could become depressed against all societal expectations and allowances. If I can be writing this, clearly it isn’t only oppression that causes depression; for me it was largely repression.”

Musician James Blake shares his experience with depression and talks about his struggles with trying to grow up while dealing with existential crises just as he began to hit the peak of his fame. Blake talks about how he experienced guilt and shame around the idea that he had it all on the outside—and so many people deal with issues that he felt were larger than his.

3.  What it’s like living with depression: A personal essay   by Nadine Dirks

“In my early adulthood, I started to feel withdrawn, down, unmotivated, and constantly sad. What initially seemed like an off-day turned into weeks of painful feelings that seemed they would never let up. It was difficult to enjoy life with other people my age. Depression made typical, everyday tasks—like brushing my teeth—seem monumental. It felt like an invisible chain, keeping me in bed.”

Dirks shares her experience with depression and the struggle she faced to find treatment for mental health issues as a Black woman. Dirks discusses how even though she knew something about her mental health wasn’t quite right, she still struggled to get the diagnosis she needed to move forward and receive proper medical and psychological care.

4.  I Have Depression, and I’m Proof that You Never Know the Battle Someone is Waging Inside  by Jac Gochoco

“A few years later, at the age of 20, my smile had fallen, and I had given up. The thought of waking up the next morning was too much for me to handle. I was no longer anxious or sad; instead, I felt numb, and that’s when things took a turn for the worse. I called my dad, who lived across the country, and for the first time in my life, I told him everything. It was too late, though. I was not calling for help. I was calling to say goodbye.”

Gochoco describes the war that so many people with depression go through—trying to put on a brave face and a positive public persona while battling demons on the inside. The Olympic weightlifting coach and yoga instructor now work to share the importance of mental health with others.

5.  Essay: How I Survived Depression   by Cameron Stout

“In 1993, I saw a psychiatrist who prescribed an antidepressant. Within two months, the medication slowly gained traction. As the gray sludge of sadness and apathy washed away, I emerged from a spiral of impending tragedy. I helped raise two wonderful children, built a successful securities-litigation practice, and became an accomplished cyclist. I began to take my mental wellness for granted. “

Princeton alum Cameron Stout shared his experience with depression with his fellow Tigers in Princeton’s alumni magazine, proving that even the most brilliant and successful among us can be rendered powerless by a chemical imbalance. Stout shares his experience with treatment and how working with mental health professionals helped him to come out on the other side of depression.

6.  I Can’t Get Out of My Sweat Pants: An Essay on Depression  by Marisa McPeck-Stringham

“Sometimes, when the depression got really bad in junior high, I would come straight home from school and change into my pajamas. My dad caught on, and he said something to me at dinner time about being in my pajamas several days in a row way before bedtime. I learned it was better not to change into my pajamas until bedtime. People who are depressed like to hide their problematic behaviors because they are so ashamed of the way they feel. I was very ashamed and yet I didn’t have the words or life experience to voice what I was going through.”

McPeck-Stringham discusses her experience with depression and an eating disorder at a young age; both brought on by struggles to adjust to major life changes. The author experienced depression again in her adult life, and thankfully, she was able to fight through the illness using tried-and-true methods until she regained her mental health.

7.  This is what depression feels like  by Courtenay Harris Bond

“The smallest tasks seem insurmountable: paying a cell phone bill, lining up a household repair. Sometimes just taking a shower or arranging a play date feels like more than I can manage. My children’s squabbles make me want to scratch the walls. I want to claw out of my own skin. I feel like the light at the end of the tunnel is a solitary candle about to blow out at any moment. At the same time, I feel like the pain will never end.”

Bond does an excellent job of helping readers understand just how difficult depression can be, even for people who have never been through the difficulty of mental illness. Bond states that no matter what people believe the cause to be—chemical imbalance, childhood issues, a combination of the two—depression can make it nearly impossible to function.

“Once again, I spiraled downward. I couldn’t get out of bed. I couldn’t work. I had thoughts of harming myself. This time, my husband urged me to start ECT much sooner in the cycle, and once again, it worked. Within a matter of weeks I was back at work, pretending nothing had happened. I kept pushing myself harder to show everyone that I was “normal.” I thought I had a pattern: I would function at a high level for many years, and then my depression would be triggered by a significant event. I thought I’d be healthy for another ten years.”

Super shares her experience with electroconvulsive therapy and how her depression recurred with a major life event despite several years of solid mental health. Thankfully, Super was able to recognize her symptoms and get help sooner rather than later.

7 Writing Prompts on Essays About Depression

When writing essays on depression, it can be challenging to think of essay ideas and questions. Here are six essay topics about depression that you can use in your essay.

What is Depression?

Depression can be difficult to define and understand. Discuss the definition of depression, and delve into the signs, symptoms, and possible causes of this mental illness. Depression can result from trauma or personal circumstances, but it can also be a health condition due to genetics. In your essay, look at how depression can be spotted and how it can affect your day-to-day life. 

Depression diagnosis can be complicated; this essay topic will be interesting as you can look at the different aspects considered in a diagnosis. While a certain lab test can be conducted, depression can also be diagnosed by a psychiatrist. Research the different ways depression can be diagnosed and discuss the benefits of receiving a diagnosis in this essay.

There are many possible causes of depression; this essay discusses how depression can occur. Possible causes of depression can include trauma, grief, anxiety disorders, and some physical health conditions. Look at each cause and discuss how they can manifest as depression.

Different types of depression

There are many different types of depression. This essay topic will investigate each type of depression and its symptoms and causes. Depression symptoms can vary in severity, depending on what is causing it. For example, depression can be linked to medical conditions such as bipolar disorder. This is a different type of depression than depression caused by grief. Discuss the details of the different types of depression and draw comparisons and similarities between them.

Certain genetic traits, socio-economic circumstances, or age can make people more prone to experiencing symptoms of depression. Depression is becoming more and more common amongst young adults and teenagers. Discuss the different groups at risk of experiencing depression and how their circumstances contribute to this risk.

Social media poses many challenges to today’s youth, such as unrealistic beauty standards, cyber-bullying, and only seeing the “highlights” of someone’s life. Can social media cause depression in teens? Delve into the negative impacts of social media when writing this essay. You could compare the positive and negative sides of social media and discuss whether social media causes mental health issues amongst young adults and teenagers.

This essay question poses the question, “can anyone experience depression?” Although those in lower-income households may be prone to experiencing depression, can the rich and famous also experience depression? This essay discusses whether the privileged and wealthy can experience their possible causes. This is a great argumentative essay topic, discuss both sides of this question and draw a conclusion with your final thoughts.

When writing about depression, it is important to study examples of essays to make a compelling essay. You can also use your own research by conducting interviews or pulling information from other sources. As this is a sensitive topic, it is important to approach it with care; you can also write about your own experiences with mental health issues.

Tip: If writing an essay sounds like a lot of work, simplify it. Write a simple 5 paragraph essay instead.

FAQs On Essays About Depression

According to the World Health Organization, about 5% of people under 60 live with depression. The rate is slightly higher—around 6%—for people over 60. Depression can strike at any age, and it’s important that people who are experiencing symptoms of depression receive treatment, no matter their age. 

Suppose you’re living with depression or are experiencing some of the symptoms of depression. In that case, it’s important to work closely with your doctor or another healthcare professional to develop a treatment plan that works for you. A combination of antidepressant medication and cognitive behavioral therapy is a good fit for many people, but this isn’t necessarily the case for everyone who suffers from depression. Be sure to check in with your doctor regularly to ensure that you’re making progress toward improving your mental health.

If you’re still stuck, check out our general resource of essay writing topics .

a thesis statement about depression

Amanda has an M.S.Ed degree from the University of Pennsylvania in School and Mental Health Counseling and is a National Academy of Sports Medicine Certified Personal Trainer. She has experience writing magazine articles, newspaper articles, SEO-friendly web copy, and blog posts.

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11 days ago

International Students in Canada Experiencing Crisis as Never Before Calling for Government Action

Kristen stewart embraces androgyny in bold rolling stone cover shoot – explore style essay topics, most written responses on staar exams will be graded by a computer, quizrise review: ace tests with ai, the causes of depression essay sample, example.


The first—and surprising—risk factor for developing depression is gender. About 20-25% women in the United States develop serious depression, sometimes not just once in their lives; for comparison, only about 12% of male Americans face the same problem—or maybe, they visit a doctor’s office less often (All About Depression.com). This is probably connected to the fact that in today’s America, women often have to deal with a wide range of roles, such as business woman, mother, wife, housekeeper, and so on—and these roles often conflict with each other. Unhappy marriages, hormonal changes, and heredity can be contributing factors.

Another group of factors that lead to depression are different psychological problems. Most often, low self-esteem is the major cause, since it makes a person treat themselves with neglect, prevent them from believing in their own strengths, and see the world pessimistically. Other possible psychological reasons are stress, perfectionism, chronic anxiety, avoidant personality disorders, and so on (PsychCentral).

Personal factors, such as complicated life situations, a tragic family history, childhood traumas, living in stressful environments for a long time, and other similar life circumstances can garner depressive conditions. Genetic proneness is also related to this group of causes. At the same time, it does not mean that a person will automatically develop depression if he or she had cases of depression in their family, or they are in a complicated life situation. This group of factors mostly creates premises, and is commonly combined with other risk factors (Beyond Blue).

Alcohol, by the way, is as strong of a cause of depression as genetic factors or psychological problems. Although it is usually considered that alcohol helps people get rid of stress, and increase their communication, in fact it is a depressant that increases a person’s chances to develop depression (femah.net). These are not the only possible causes of depression, but commonly, this disorder is caused by an aggregate of the factors described above. It is likely that women develop depression more often than men; also, people with psychological problems and complicated personal circumstances are more prone to developing depression. The usage of alcohol not only does not help people get rid of stress, but on the contrary, increases the risks of developing depression. These factors should be taken into account in one’s daily life in order to avoid depression.

“Causes.” All About Depression. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Feb. 2015.

“What are the Risk Factors for Depression?” Psych Central.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Feb. 2015.

“What Causes Depression.” Beyond Blue. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Feb. 2015.

“Alcohol as a Depressant.” Femah.net. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Feb. 2015. .

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An Exploratory Study of Students with Depression in Undergraduate Research Experiences

  • Katelyn M. Cooper
  • Logan E. Gin
  • M. Elizabeth Barnes
  • Sara E. Brownell

*Address correspondence to: Katelyn M. Cooper ( E-mail Address: [email protected] ).

Department of Biology, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, 32816

Search for more papers by this author

Biology Education Research Lab, Research for Inclusive STEM Education Center, School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85281

Depression is a top mental health concern among undergraduates and has been shown to disproportionately affect individuals who are underserved and underrepresented in science. As we aim to create a more inclusive scientific community, we argue that we need to examine the relationship between depression and scientific research. While studies have identified aspects of research that affect graduate student depression, we know of no studies that have explored the relationship between depression and undergraduate research. In this study, we sought to understand how undergraduates’ symptoms of depression affect their research experiences and how research affects undergraduates’ feelings of depression. We interviewed 35 undergraduate researchers majoring in the life sciences from 12 research-intensive public universities across the United States who identify with having depression. Using inductive and deductive coding, we identified that students’ depression affected their motivation and productivity, creativity and risk-taking, engagement and concentration, and self-perception and socializing in undergraduate research experiences. We found that students’ social connections, experiencing failure in research, getting help, receiving feedback, and the demands of research affected students’ depression. Based on this work, we articulate an initial set of evidence-based recommendations for research mentors to consider in promoting an inclusive research experience for students with depression.


Depression is described as a common and serious mood disorder that results in persistent feelings of sadness and hopelessness, as well as a loss of interest in activities that one once enjoyed ( American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013 ). Additional symptoms of depression include weight changes, difficulty sleeping, loss of energy, difficulty thinking or concentrating, feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt, and suicidality ( APA, 2013 ). While depression results from a complex interaction of psychological, social, and biological factors ( World Health Organization, 2018 ), studies have shown that increased stress caused by college can be a significant contributor to student depression ( Dyson and Renk, 2006 ).

Depression is one of the top undergraduate mental health concerns, and the rate of depression among undergraduates continues to rise ( Center for Collegiate Mental Health, 2017 ). While we cannot discern whether these increasing rates of depression are due to increased awareness or increased incidence, it is clear that is a serious problem on college campuses. The percent of U.S. college students who self-reported a diagnosis with depression was recently estimated to be about 25% ( American College Health Association, 2019 ). However, higher rates have been reported, with one study estimating that up to 84% of undergraduates experience some level of depression ( Garlow et al. , 2008 ). Depression rates are typically higher among university students compared with the general population, despite being a more socially privileged group ( Ibrahim et al. , 2013 ). Prior studies have found that depression is negatively correlated with overall undergraduate academic performance ( Hysenbegasi et al. , 2005 ; Deroma et al. , 2009 ; American College Health Association, 2019 ). Specifically, diagnosed depression is associated with half a letter grade decrease in students’ grade point average ( Hysenbegasi et al. , 2005 ), and 21.6% of undergraduates reported that depression negatively affected their academic performance within the last year ( American College Health Association, 2019 ). Provided with a list of academic factors that may be affected by depression, students reported that depression contributed to lower exam grades, lower course grades, and not completing or dropping a course.

Students in the natural sciences may be particularly at risk for depression, given that such majors are noted to be particularly stressful due to their competitive nature and course work that is often perceived to “weed students out”( Everson et al. , 1993 ; Strenta et al. , 1994 ; American College Health Association, 2019 ; Seymour and Hunter, 2019 ). Science course instruction has also been described to be boring, repetitive, difficult, and math-intensive; these factors can create an environment that can trigger depression ( Seymour and Hewitt, 1997 ; Osborne and Collins, 2001 ; Armbruster et al ., 2009 ; Ceci and Williams, 2010 ). What also distinguishes science degree programs from other degree programs is that, increasingly, undergraduate research experiences are being proposed as an essential element of a science degree ( American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2011 ; President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology, 2012 ; National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine [NASEM], 2017 ). However, there is some evidence that undergraduate research experiences can add to the stress of college for some students ( Cooper et al. , 2019c ). Students can garner multiple benefits from undergraduate research, including enhanced abilities to think critically ( Ishiyama, 2002 ; Bauer and Bennett, 2003 ; Brownell et al. , 2015 ), improved student learning ( Rauckhorst et al. , 2001 ; Brownell et al. , 2015 ), and increased student persistence in undergraduate science degree programs ( Jones et al. , 2010 ; Hernandez et al. , 2018 ). Notably, undergraduate research experiences are increasingly becoming a prerequisite for entry into medical and graduate programs in science, particularly elite programs ( Cooper et al. , 2019d ). Although some research experiences are embedded into formal lab courses as course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs; Auchincloss et al. , 2014 ; Brownell and Kloser, 2015 ), the majority likely entail working with faculty in their research labs. These undergraduate research experiences in faculty labs are often added on top of a student’s normal course work, so they essentially become an extracurricular activity that they have to juggle with course work, working, and/or personal obligations ( Cooper et al. , 2019c ). While the majority of the literature surrounding undergraduate research highlights undergraduate research as a positive experience ( NASEM, 2017 ), studies have demonstrated that undergraduate research experiences can be academically and emotionally challenging for students ( Mabrouk and Peters, 2000 ; Seymour et al. , 2004 ; Cooper et al. , 2019c ; Limeri et al. , 2019 ). In fact, 50% of students sampled nationally from public R1 institutions consider leaving their undergraduate research experience prematurely, and about half of those students, or 25% of all students, ultimately leave their undergraduate research experience ( Cooper et al. , 2019c ). Notably, 33.8% of these individuals cited a negative lab environment and 33.3% cited negative relationships with their mentors as factors that influenced their decision about whether to leave ( Cooper et al. , 2019c ). Therefore, students’ depression may be exacerbated in challenging undergraduate research experiences, because studies have shown that depression is positively correlated with student stress ( Hish et al. , 2019 ).

While depression has not been explored in the context of undergraduate research experiences, depression has become a prominent concern surrounding graduate students conducting scientific research. A recent study that examined the “graduate student mental health crisis” ( Flaherty, 2018 ) found that work–life balance and graduate students’ relationships with their research advisors may be contributing to their depression ( Evans et al. , 2018 ). Specifically, this survey of 2279 PhD and master’s students from diverse fields of study, including the biological/physical sciences, showed that 39% of graduate students have experienced moderate to severe depression. Fifty-five percent of the graduate students with depression who were surveyed disagreed with the statement “I have good work life balance,” compared to only 21% of students with depression who agreed. Additionally, the study highlighted that more students with depression disagreed than agreed with the following statements: their advisors provided “real” mentorship, their advisors provided ample support, their advisors positively impacted their emotional or mental well-being, their advisors were assets to their careers, and they felt valued by their mentors. Another recent study identified that depression severity in biomedical doctoral students was significantly associated with graduate program climate, a perceived lack of employment opportunities, and the quality of students’ research training environment ( Nagy et al. , 2019 ). Environmental stress, academic stress, and family and monetary stress have also been shown to be predictive of depression severity in biomedical doctoral students ( Hish et al. , 2019 ). Further, one study found that self-esteem is negatively correlated and stress is positively correlated with graduate student depression; presumably research environments that challenge students’ self-esteem and induce stress are likely contributing to depressive symptoms among graduate students ( Kreger, 1995 ). While these studies have focused on graduate students, and there are certainly notable distinctions between graduate and undergraduate research, the research-related factors that affect graduate student depression, including work–life balance, relationships with mentors, research environment, stress, and self-esteem, may also be relevant to depression among undergraduates conducting research. Importantly, undergraduates in the United States have reported identical levels of depression as graduate students but are often less likely to seek mental health care services ( Wyatt and Oswalt, 2013 ), which is concerning if undergraduate research experiences exacerbate depression.

Based on the literature on the stressors of undergraduate research experiences and the literature identifying some potential causes of graduate student depression, we identified three aspects of undergraduate research that may exacerbate undergraduates’ depression. Mentoring: Mentors can be an integral part of a students’ research experience, bolstering their connections with others in the science community, scholarly productivity, and science identity, as well as providing many other benefits ( Thiry and Laursen, 2011 ; Prunuske et al. , 2013 ; Byars-Winston et al. , 2015 ; Aikens et al. , 2016 , 2017 ; Thompson et al. , 2016 ; Estrada et al. , 2018 ). However, recent literature has highlighted that poor mentoring can negatively affect undergraduate researchers ( Cooper et al. , 2019c ; Limeri et al. , 2019 ). Specifically, one study of 33 undergraduate researchers who had conducted research at 10 institutions identified seven major ways that they experienced negative mentoring, which included absenteeism, abuse of power, interpersonal mismatch, lack of career support, lack of psychosocial support, misaligned expectations, and unequal treatment ( Limeri et al. , 2019 ). We hypothesize negative mentoring experiences may be particularly harmful for students with depression, because support, particularly social support, has been shown to be important for helping individuals with depression cope with difficult circumstances ( Aneshensel and Stone, 1982 ; Grav et al. , 2012 ). Failure: Experiencing failure has been hypothesized to be an important aspect of undergraduate research experiences that may help students develop some the most distinguishing abilities of outstanding scientists, such as coping with failure, navigating challenges, and persevering ( Laursen et al. , 2010 ; Gin et al. , 2018 ; Henry et al. , 2019 ). However, experiencing failure and the stress and fatigue that often accompany it may be particularly tough for students with depression ( Aldwin and Greenberger, 1987 ; Mongrain and Blackburn, 2005 ). Lab environment: Fairness, inclusion/exclusion, and social support within one’s organizational environment have been shown to be key factors that cause people to either want to remain in the work place and be productive or to want to leave ( Barak et al. , 2006 ; Cooper et al. , 2019c ). We hypothesize that dealing with exclusion or a lack of social support may exacerbate depression for some students; patients with clinical depression react to social exclusion with more pronounced negative emotions than do individuals without clinical depression ( Jobst et al. , 2015 ). While there are likely other aspects of undergraduate research that affect student depression, we hypothesize that these factors have the potential to exacerbate negative research experiences for students with depression.

Depression has been shown to disproportionately affect many populations that are underrepresented or underserved within the scientific community, including females ( American College Health Association, 2018 ; Evans et al. , 2018 ), first-generation college students ( Jenkins et al. , 2013 ), individuals from low socioeconomic backgrounds ( Eisenberg et al. , 2007 ), members of the LGBTQ+ community ( Eisenberg et al. , 2007 ; Evans et al. , 2018 ), and people with disabilities ( Turner and Noh, 1988 ). Therefore, as the science community strives to be more diverse and inclusive ( Intemann, 2009 ), it is important that we understand more about the relationship between depression and scientific research, because negative experiences with depression in scientific research may be contributing to the underrepresentation of these groups. Specifically, more information is needed about how the research process and environment of research experiences may affect depression.

Given the high rate of depression among undergraduates, the links between depression and graduate research, the potentially challenging environment of undergraduate research, and how depression could disproportionately impact students from underserved communities, it is imperative to begin to explore the relationship between scientific research and depression among undergraduates to create research experiences that could maximize student success. In this exploratory interview study, we aimed to 1) describe how undergraduates’ symptoms of depression affect their research experiences, 2) understand how undergraduate research affects students’ feelings of depression, and 3) identify recommendations based on the literature and undergraduates’ reported experiences to promote a positive research experience for students with depression.

This study was done with an approved Arizona State University Institutional Review Board protocol #7247.

In Fall 2018, we surveyed undergraduate researchers majoring in the life sciences across 25 research-intensive (R1) public institutions across the United States (specific details about the recruitment of the students who completed the survey can be found in Cooper et al. (2019c) ). The survey asked students for their opinions about their undergraduate research experiences and their demographic information and whether they would be interested in participating in a follow-up interview related to their research experiences. For the purpose of this study, we exclusively interviewed students about their undergraduate research experiences in faculty member labs; we did not consider students’ experiences in CUREs. Of the 768 undergraduate researchers who completed the survey, 65% ( n = 496) indicated that they would be interested in participating in a follow-up interview. In Spring 2019, we emailed the 496 students, explaining that we were interested in interviewing students with depression about their experiences in undergraduate research. Our specific prompt was: “If you identify as having depression, we would be interested in hearing about your experience in undergraduate research in a 30–60 minute online interview.” We did not define depression in our email recruitment because we conducted think-aloud interviews with four undergraduates who all correctly interpreted what we meant by depression ( APA, 2013 ). We had 35 students agree to participate in the interview study. The interview participants represented 12 of the 25 R1 public institutions that were represented in the initial survey.

Student Interviews

We developed an interview script to explore our research questions. Specifically, we were interested in how students’ symptoms of depression affect their research experiences, how undergraduate research negatively affects student depression, and how undergraduate research positively affects student depression.

We recognized that mental health, and specifically depression, can be a sensitive topic to discuss with undergraduates, and therefore we tried to minimize any discomfort that the interviewees might experience during the interview. Specifically, we conducted think-aloud interviews with three graduate students who self-identified with having depression at the time of the interview. We asked them to note whether any interview questions made them uncomfortable. We also sought their feedback on questions given their experiences as persons with depression who had once engaged in undergraduate research. We revised the interview protocol after each think-aloud interview. Next, we conducted four additional think-aloud interviews with undergraduates conducting basic science or biology education research who identified with having depression to establish cognitive validity of the questions and to elicit additional feedback about any questions that might make someone uncomfortable. The questions were revised after each think-aloud interview until no question was unclear or misinterpreted by the students and we were confident that the questions minimized students’ potential discomfort ( Trenor et al. , 2011 ). A copy of the final interview script can be found in the Supplemental Material.

All interviews were individually conducted by one of two researchers (K.M.C. and L.E.G.) who conducted the think-aloud interviews together to ensure that their interviewing practices were as similar as possible. The interviews were approximately an hour long, and students received a $15 gift card for their participation.

Personal, Research, and Depression Demographics

All student demographics and information about students’ research experiences were collected using the survey distributed to students in Fall 2018. We collected personal demographics, including the participants’ gender, race/ethnicity, college generation status, transfer status, financial stability, year in college, major, and age. We also collected information about the students’ research experiences, including the length of their first research experiences, the average number of hours they spend in research per week, how they were compensated for research, who their primary mentors were, and the focus areas of their research.

In the United States, mental healthcare is disproportionately unavailable to Black and Latinx individuals, as well as those who come from low socioeconomic backgrounds ( Kataoka et al. , 2002 ; Howell and McFeeters, 2008 ; Santiago et al. , 2013 ). Therefore, to minimize a biased sample, we invited anyone who identified with having depression to participate in our study; we did not require students to be diagnosed with depression or to be treated for depression in order to participate. However, we did collect information about whether students had been formally diagnosed with depression and whether they had been treated for depression. After the interview, all participants were sent a link to a short survey that asked them if they had ever been diagnosed with depression and how, if at all, they had ever been treated for depression. A copy of these survey questions can be found in the Supplemental Material. The combined demographic information of the participants is in Table 1 . The demographics for each individual student can be found in the Supplemental Material.

a Students reported the time they had spent in research 6 months before being interviewed and only reported on the length of time of their first research experiences.

b Students were invited to report multiple ways in which they were treated for their depression; other treatments included lifestyle changes and meditation.

c Students were invited to report multiple means of compensation for their research if they had been compensated for their time in different ways.

d Students were asked whether they felt financially stable, particularly during the undergraduate research experience.

e Students reported who they work/worked with most closely during their research experiences.

f Staff members included lab coordinators or lab managers.

g Other focus areas of research included sociology, linguistics, psychology, and public health.

Interview Analysis

The initial interview analysis aimed to explore each idea that a participant expressed ( Charmaz, 2006 ) and to identify reoccurring ideas throughout the interviews. First, three authors (K.M.C., L.E.G., and S.E.B.) individually reviewed a different set of 10 interviews and took detailed analytic notes ( Birks and Mills, 2015 ). Afterward, the authors compared their notes and identified reoccurring themes throughout the interviews using open coding methods ( Saldaña, 2015 ).

Once an initial set of themes was established, two researchers (K.M.C. and L.E.G.) individually reviewed the same set of 15 randomly selected interviews to validate the themes identified in the initial analysis and to screen for any additional themes that the initial analysis may have missed. Each researcher took detailed analytic notes throughout the review of an interview, which they discussed after reviewing each interview. The researchers compared what quotes from each interview they categorized into each theme. Using constant comparison methods, they assigned quotes to each theme and constantly compared the quotes to ensure that each quote fit within the description of the theme ( Glesne and Peshkin, 1992 ). In cases in which quotes were too different from other quotes, a new theme was created. This approach allowed for multiple revisions of the themes and allowed the authors to define a final set of codes; the researchers created a final codebook with refined definitions of emergent themes (the final coding rubric can be found in the Supplemental Material). Once the final codebook was established, the researchers (K.M.C. and L.E.G.) individually coded seven additional interviews (20% of all interviews) using the coding rubric. The researchers compared their codes, and their Cohen’s κ interrater score for these seven interviews was at an acceptable level (κ  =  0.88; Landis and Koch, 1977 ). One researcher (L.E.G.) coded the remaining 28 out of 35 interviews. The researchers determined that data saturation had been reached with the current sample and no further recruitment was needed ( Guest et al. , 2006 ). We report on themes that were mentioned by at least 20% of students in the interview study. In the Supplemental Material, we provide the final coding rubric with the number of participants whose interview reflected each theme ( Hannah and Lautsch, 2011 ). Reporting the number of individuals who reported themes within qualitative data can lead to inaccurate conclusions about the generalizability of the results to a broader population. These qualitative data are meant to characterize a landscape of experiences that students with depression have in undergraduate research rather than to make claims about the prevalence of these experiences ( Glesne and Peshkin, 1992 ). Because inferences about the importance of these themes cannot be drawn from these counts, they are not included in the results of the paper ( Maxwell, 2010 ). Further, the limited number of interviewees made it not possible to examine whether there were trends based on students’ demographics or characteristics of their research experiences (e.g., their specific area of study). Quotes were lightly edited for clarity by inserting clarification brackets and using ellipses to indicate excluded text. Pseudonyms were given to all students to protect their privacy.

The Effect of Depressive Symptoms on Undergraduate Research

We asked students to describe the symptoms associated with their depression. Students described experiencing anxiety that is associated with their depression; this could be anxiety that precedes their depression or anxiety that results from a depressive episode or a period of time when an individual has depression symptoms. Further, students described difficulty getting out of bed or leaving the house, feeling tired, a lack of motivation, being overly self-critical, feeling apathetic, and having difficulty concentrating. We were particularly interested in how students’ symptoms of depression affected their experiences in undergraduate research. During the think-aloud interviews that were conducted before the interview study, graduate and undergraduate students consistently described that their depression affected their motivation in research, their creativity in research, and their productivity in research. Therefore, we explicitly asked undergraduate researchers how, if at all, their depression affected these three factors. We also asked students to describe any additional ways in which their depression affected their research experiences. Undergraduate researchers commonly described five additional ways in which their depression affected their research; for a detailed description of each way students’ research was affected and for example quotes, see Table 2 . Students described that their depression negatively affected their productivity in the lab. Commonly, students described that their productivity was directly affected by a lack of motivation or because they felt less creative, which hindered the research process. Additionally, students highlighted that they were sometimes less productive because their depression sometimes caused them to struggle to engage intellectually with their research or caused them to have difficulty remembering or concentrating; students described that they could do mundane or routine tasks when they felt depressed, but that they had difficulty with more complex and intellectually demanding tasks. However, students sometimes described that even mundane tasks could be difficult when they were required to remember specific steps; for example, some students struggled recalling a protocol from memory when their depression was particularly severe. Additionally, students noted that their depression made them more self-conscious, which sometimes held them back from sharing research ideas with their mentors or from taking risks such as applying to competitive programs. In addition to being self-conscious, students highlighted that their depression caused them to be overly self-critical, and some described experiencing imposter phenomenon ( Clance and Imes, 1978 ) or feeling like they were not talented enough to be in research and were accepted into a lab by a fluke or through luck. Finally, students described that depression often made them feel less social, and they struggled to socially engage with other members of the lab when they were feeling down.

The Effect of Undergraduate Research Experiences on Student Depression

We also wanted to explore how research impacted students’ feelings of depression. Undergraduates described how research both positively and negatively affected their depression. In the following sections, we present aspects of undergraduate research and examine how each positively and/or negatively affected students’ depression using embedded student quotes to highlight the relationships between related ideas.

Lab Environment: Relationships with Others in the Lab.

Some aspects of the lab environment, which we define as students’ physical, social, or psychological research space, could be particularly beneficial for students with depression.

Specifically, undergraduate researchers perceived that comfortable and positive social interactions with others in the lab helped their depression. Students acknowledged how beneficial their relationships with graduate students and postdocs could be.

Marta: “I think always checking in on undergrads is important. It’s really easy [for us] to go a whole day without talking to anybody in the lab. But our grad students are like ‘Hey, what’s up? How’s school? What’s going on?’ (…) What helps me the most is having that strong support system. Sometimes just talking makes you feel better, but also having people that believe in you can really help you get out of that negative spiral. I think that can really help with depression.”

Kelley: “I know that anytime I need to talk to [my postdoc mentors] about something they’re always there for me. Over time we’ve developed a relationship where I know that outside of work and outside of the lab if I did want to talk to them about something I could talk to them. Even just talking to someone about hobbies and having that relationship alone is really helpful [for depression].”

In addition to highlighting the importance of developing relationships with graduate students or postdocs in the lab, students described that forming relationships with other undergraduates in the lab also helped their depression. Particularly, students described that other undergraduate researchers often validated their feelings about research, which in turn helped them realize that what they are thinking or feeling is normal, which tended to alleviate their negative thoughts. Interestingly, other undergraduates experiencing the same issues could sometimes help buffer them from perceiving that a mentor did not like them or that they were uniquely bad at research. In this article, we use the term “mentor” to refer to anyone who students referred to in the interviews as being their mentors or managing their research experiences; this includes graduate students, postdoctoral scholars, lab managers, and primary investigators (PIs).

Abby: “One of my best friends is in the lab with me.  A lot of that friendship just comes from complaining about our stress with the lab and our annoyance with people in the lab. Like when we both agree like, ‘Yeah, the grad students were really off today, it wasn’t us,’ that helps. ‘It wasn’t me, it wasn’t my fault that we were having a rough day in lab; it was the grad students.’ Just being able to realize, ‘Hey, this isn’t all caused by us,’ you know? (…) We understand the stresses in the lab. We understand the details of what each other are doing in the lab, so when something doesn’t work out, we understand that it took them like eight hours to do that and it didn’t work. We provide empathy on a different level.”

Meleana: “It’s great to have solidarity in being confused about something, and it’s just that is a form of validation for me too. When we leave a lab meeting and I look at [another undergrad] I’m like, ‘Did you understand anything that they were just saying?’ And they’re like, ‘Oh, no.’ (…) It’s just really validating to hear from the other undergrads that we all seem to be struggling with the same things.”

Developing positive relationships with faculty mentors or PIs also helped alleviate some students’ depressive feelings, particularly when PIs shared their own struggles with students. This also seemed to normalize students’ concerns about their own experiences.

Alexandra: “[Talking with my PI] is helpful because he would talk about his struggles, and what he faced. A lot of it was very similar to my struggles.  For example, he would say, ‘Oh, yeah, I failed this exam that I studied so hard for. I failed the GRE and I paid so much money to prepare for it.’ It just makes [my depression] better, like okay, this is normal for students to go through this. It’s not an out of this world thing where if you fail, you’re a failure and you can’t move on from it.”

Students’ relationships with others in the lab did not always positively impact their depression. Students described instances when the negative moods of the graduate students and PIs would often set the tone of the lab, which in turn worsened the mood of the undergraduate researchers.

Abby: “Sometimes [the grad students] are not in a good mood. The entire vibe of the lab is just off, and if you make a joke and it hits somebody wrong, they get all mad. It really depends on the grad students and the leadership and the mood that they’re in.”

Interviewer: “How does it affect your depression when the grad students are in a bad mood?”

Abby: “It definitely makes me feel worse. It feels like, again, that I really shouldn’t go ask them for help because they’re just not in the mood to help out. It makes me have more pressure on myself, and I have deadlines I need to meet, but I have a question for them, but they’re in a bad mood so I can’t ask. That’s another day wasted for me and it just puts more stress, which just adds to the depression.”

Additionally, some students described even more concerning behavior from research mentors, which negatively affected their depression.

Julie: “I had a primary investigator who is notorious in the department for screaming at people, being emotionally abusive, unreasonable, et cetera. (…) [He was] kind of harassing people, demeaning them, lying to them, et cetera, et cetera. (…) Being yelled at and constantly demeaned and harassed at all hours of the day and night, that was probably pretty bad for me.”

While the relationships between undergraduates and graduate, postdoc, and faculty mentors seemed to either alleviate or worsen students’ depressive symptoms, depending on the quality of the relationship, students in this study exclusively described their relationships with other undergraduates as positive for their depression. However, students did note that undergraduate research puts some of the best and brightest undergraduates in the same environment, which can result in students comparing themselves with their peers. Students described that this comparison would often lead them to feel badly about themselves, even though they would describe their personal relationship with a person to be good.

Meleana: “In just the research field in general, just feeling like I don’t really measure up to the people around me [can affect my depression]. A lot of the times it’s the beginning of a little spiral, mental spiral. There are some past undergrads that are talked about as they’re on this pedestal of being the ideal undergrads and that they were just so smart and contributed so much to the lab. I can never stop myself from wondering like, ‘Oh, I wonder if I’m having a contribution to the lab that’s similar or if I’m just another one of the undergrads that does the bare minimum and passes through and is just there.’”

Natasha: “But, on the other hand, [having another undergrad in the lab] also reminded me constantly that some people are invested in this and meant to do this and it’s not me. And that some people know a lot more than I do and will go further in this than I will.”

While students primarily expressed that their relationships with others in the lab affected their depression, some students explained that they struggled most with depression when the lab was empty; they described that they did not like being alone in the lab, because a lack of stimulation allowed their minds to be filled with negative thoughts.

Mia: “Those late nights definitely didn’t help [my depression]. I am alone, in the entire building.  I’m left alone to think about my thoughts more, so not distracted by talking to people or interacting with people. I think more about how I’m feeling and the lack of progress I’m making, and the hopelessness I’m feeling. That kind of dragged things on, and I guess deepened my depression.”

Freddy: “Often times when I go to my office in the evening, that is when I would [ sic ] be prone to be more depressed. It’s being alone. I think about myself or mistakes or trying to correct mistakes or whatever’s going on in my life at the time. I become very introspective. I think I’m way too self-evaluating, way too self-deprecating and it’s when I’m alone when those things are really, really triggered. When I’m talking with somebody else, I forget about those things.”

In sum, students with depression highlighted that a lab environment full of positive and encouraging individuals was helpful for their depression, whereas isolating or competitive environments and negative interactions with others often resulted in more depressive feelings.

Doing Science: Experiencing Failure in Research, Getting Help, Receiving Feedback, Time Demands, and Important Contributions.

In addition to the lab environment, students also described that the process of doing science could affect their depression. Specifically, students explained that a large contributor to their depression was experiencing failure in research.

Interviewer: “Considering your experience in undergraduate research, what tends to trigger your feelings of depression?”

Heather: “Probably just not getting things right. Having to do an experiment over and over again. You don’t get the results you want. (…) The work is pretty meticulous and it’s frustrating when I do all this work, I do a whole experiment, and then I don’t get any results that I can use. That can be really frustrating. It adds to the stress. (…) It’s hard because you did all this other stuff before so you can plan for the research, and then something happens and all the stuff you did was worthless basically.”

Julie: “I felt very negatively about myself [when a project failed] and pretty panicked whenever something didn’t work because I felt like it was a direct reflection on my effort and/or intelligence, and then it was a big glaring personal failure.”

Students explained that their depression related to failing in research was exacerbated if they felt as though they could not seek help from their research mentors. Perceived insufficient mentor guidance has been shown to be a factor influencing student intention to leave undergraduate research ( Cooper et al. , 2019c ). Sometimes students talked about their research mentors being unavailable or unapproachable.

Michelle: “It just feels like [the graduate students] are not approachable. I feel like I can’t approach them to ask for their understanding in a certain situation. It makes [my depression] worse because I feel like I’m stuck, and that I’m being limited, and like there’s nothing I can do. So then I kind of feel like it’s my fault that I can’t do anything.”

Other times, students described that they did not seek help in fear that they would be negatively evaluated in research, which is a fear of being judged by others ( Watson and Friend, 1969 ; Weeks et al. , 2005 ; Cooper et al. , 2018 ). That is, students fear that their mentor would think negatively about them or judge them if they were to ask questions that their mentor thought they should know the answer to.

Meleana: “I would say [my depression] tends to come out more in being more reserved in asking questions because I think that comes more like a fear-based thing where I’m like, ‘Oh, I don’t feel like I’m good enough and so I don’t want to ask these questions because then my mentors will, I don’t know, think that I’m dumb or something.’”

Conversely, students described that mentors who were willing to help them alleviated their depressive feelings.

Crystal: “Yeah [my grad student] is always like, ‘Hey, I can check in on things in the lab because you’re allowed to ask me for that, you’re not totally alone in this,’ because he knows that I tend to take on all this responsibility and I don’t always know how to ask for help. He’s like, ‘You know, this is my lab too and I am here to help you as well,’ and just reminds me that I’m not shouldering this burden by myself.”

Ashlyn: “The graduate student who I work with is very kind and has a lot of patience and he really understands a lot of things and provides simple explanations. He does remind me about things and he will keep on me about certain tasks that I need to do in an understanding way, and it’s just because he’s patient and he listens.”

In addition to experiencing failure in science, students described that making mistakes when doing science also negatively affected their depression.

Abby: “I guess not making mistakes on experiments [is important in avoiding my depression]. Not necessarily that your experiment didn’t turn out to produce the data that you wanted, but just adding the wrong enzyme or messing something up like that. It’s like, ‘Oh, man,’ you know? You can get really down on yourself about that because it can be embarrassing.”

Commonly, students described that the potential for making mistakes increased their stress and anxiety regarding research; however, they explained that how other people responded to a potential mistake was what ultimately affected their depression.

Briana: “Sometimes if I made a mistake in correctly identifying an eye color [of a fly], [my PI] would just ridicule me in front of the other students. He corrected me but his method of correcting was very discouraging because it was a ridicule. It made the others laugh and I didn’t like that.”

Julie: “[My PI] explicitly [asked] if I had the dedication for science. A lot of times he said I had terrible judgment. A lot of times he said I couldn’t be trusted. Once I went to a conference with him, and, unfortunately, in front of another professor, he called me a klutz several times and there was another comment about how I never learn from my mistakes.”

When students did do things correctly, they described how important it could be for them to receive praise from their mentors. They explained that hearing praise and validation can be particularly helpful for students with depression, because their thoughts are often very negative and/or because they have low self-esteem.

Crystal: “[Something that helps my depression is] I have text messages from [my graduate student mentor] thanking me [and another undergraduate researcher] for all of the work that we’ve put in, that he would not be able to be as on track to finish as he is if he didn’t have our help.”

Interviewer: “Why is hearing praise from your mentor helpful?”

Crystal: “Because a lot of my depression focuses on everybody secretly hates you, nobody likes you, you’re going to die alone. So having that validation [from my graduate mentor] is important, because it flies in the face of what my depression tells me.”

Brian: “It reminds you that you exist outside of this negative world that you’ve created for yourself, and people don’t see you how you see yourself sometimes.”

Students also highlighted how research could be overwhelming, which negatively affected their depression. Particularly, students described that research demanded a lot of their time and that their mentors did not always seem to be aware that they were juggling school and other commitments in addition to their research. This stress exacerbated their depression.

Rose: “I feel like sometimes [my grad mentors] are not very understanding because grad students don’t take as many classes as [undergrads] do. I think sometimes they don’t understand when I say I can’t come in at all this week because I have finals and they’re like, ‘Why though?’”

Abby: “I just think being more understanding of student life would be great. We have classes as well as the lab, and classes are the priority. They forget what it’s like to be a student. You feel like they don’t understand and they could never understand when you say like, ‘I have three exams this week,’ and they’re like, ‘I don’t care. You need to finish this.’”

Conversely, some students reported that their research labs were very understanding of students’ schedules. Interestingly, these students talked most about how helpful it was to be able to take a mental health day and not do research on days when they felt down or depressed.

Marta: “My lab tech is very open, so she’ll tell us, ‘I can’t come in today. I have to take a mental health day.’ So she’s a really big advocate for that. And I think I won’t personally tell her that I’m taking a mental health day, but I’ll say, ‘I can’t come in today, but I’ll come in Friday and do those extra hours.’ And she’s like, ‘OK great, I’ll see you then.’  And it makes me feel good, because it helps me take care of myself first and then I can take care of everything else I need to do, which is amazing.”

Meleana: “Knowing that [my mentors] would be flexible if I told them that I’m crazy busy and can’t come into work nearly as much this week [helps my depression]. There is flexibility in allowing me to then care for myself.”

Interviewer: “Why is the flexibility helpful given the depression?”

Meleana: “Because sometimes for me things just take a little bit longer when I’m feeling down. I’m just less efficient to be honest, and so it’s helpful if I feel like I can only go into work for 10 hours in a week. It declutters my brain a little bit to not have to worry about all the things I have to do in work in addition the things that I need to do for school or clubs, or family or whatever.”

Despite the demanding nature of research, a subset of students highlighted that their research and research lab provided a sense of stability or familiarity that distracted them from their depression.

Freddy: “I’ll [do research] to run away from those [depressive] feelings or whatever. (…) I find sadly, I hate to admit it, but I do kind of run to [my lab]. I throw myself into work to distract myself from the feelings of depression and sadness.”

Rose: “When you’re sad or when you’re stressed you want to go to things you’re familiar with. So because lab has always been in my life, it’s this thing where it’s going to be there for me I guess. It’s like a good book that you always go back to and it’s familiar and it makes you feel good. So that’s how lab is. It’s not like the greatest thing in the world but it’s something that I’m used to, which is what I feel like a lot of people need when they’re sad and life is not going well.”

Many students also explained that research positively affects their depression because they perceive their research contribution to be important.

Ashlyn: “I feel like I’m dedicating myself to something that’s worthy and something that I believe in. It’s really important because it contextualizes those times when I am feeling depressed. It’s like, no, I do have these better things that I’m working on. Even when I don’t like myself and I don’t like who I am, which is again, depression brain, I can at least say, ‘Well, I have all these other people relying on me in research and in this area and that’s super important.’”

Jessica: “I mean, it just felt like the work that I was doing had meaning and when I feel like what I’m doing is actually going to contribute to the world, that usually really helps with [depression] because it’s like not every day you can feel like you’re doing something impactful.”

In sum, students highlighted that experiencing failure in research and making mistakes negatively contributed to depression, especially when help was unavailable or research mentors had a negative reaction. Additionally, students acknowledged that the research could be time-consuming, but that research mentors who were flexible helped assuage depressive feelings that were associated with feeling overwhelmed. Finally, research helped some students’ depression, because it felt familiar, provided a distraction from depression, and reminded students that they were contributing to a greater cause.

We believe that creating more inclusive research environments for students with depression is an important step toward broadening participation in science, not only to ensure that we are not discouraging students with depression from persisting in science, but also because depression has been shown to disproportionately affect underserved and underrepresented groups in science ( Turner and Noh, 1988 ; Eisenberg et al. , 2007 ; Jenkins et al. , 2013 ; American College Health Association, 2018 ). We initially hypothesized that three features of undergraduate research—research mentors, the lab environment, and failure—may have the potential to exacerbate student depression. We found this to be true; students highlighted that their relationships with their mentors as well as the overall lab environment could negatively affect their depression, but could also positively affect their research experiences. Students also noted that they struggled with failure, which is likely true of most students, but is known to be particularly difficult for students with depression ( Elliott et al. , 1997 ). We expand upon our findings by integrating literature on depression with the information that students provided in the interviews about how research mentors can best support students. We provide a set of evidence-based recommendations focused on mentoring, the lab environment, and failure for research mentors wanting to create more inclusive research environments for students with depression. Notably, only the first recommendation is specific to students with depression; the others reflect recommendations that have previously been described as “best practices” for research mentors ( NASEM, 2017 , 2019 ; Sorkness et al. , 2017 ) and likely would benefit most students. However, we examine how these recommendations may be particularly important for students with depression. As we hypothesized, these recommendations directly address three aspects of research: mentors, lab environment, and failure. A caveat of these recommendations is that more research needs to be done to explore the experiences of students with depression and how these practices actually impact students with depression, but our national sample of undergraduate researchers with depression can provide an initial starting point for a discussion about how to improve research experiences for these students.

Recommendations to Make Undergraduate Research Experiences More Inclusive for Students with Depression

Recognize student depression as a valid illness..

Allow students with depression to take time off of research by simply saying that they are sick and provide appropriate time for students to recover from depressive episodes. Also, make an effort to destigmatize mental health issues.

Undergraduate researchers described both psychological and physical symptoms that manifested as a result of their depression and highlighted how such symptoms prevented them from performing to their full potential in undergraduate research. For example, students described how their depression would cause them to feel unmotivated, which would often negatively affect their research productivity. In cases in which students were motivated enough to come in and do their research, they described having difficulty concentrating or engaging in the work. Further, when doing research, students felt less creative and less willing to take risks, which may alter the quality of their work. Students also sometimes struggled to socialize in the lab. They described feeling less social and feeling overly self-critical. In sum, students described that, when they experienced a depressive episode, they were not able to perform to the best of their ability, and it sometimes took a toll on them to try to act like nothing was wrong, when they were internally struggling with depression. We recommend that research mentors treat depression like any other physical illness; allowing students the chance to recover when they are experiencing a depressive episode can be extremely important to students and can allow them to maximize their productivity upon returning to research ( Judd et al. , 2000 ). Students explained that if they are not able to take the time to focus on recovering during a depressive episode, then they typically continue to struggle with depression, which negatively affects their research. This sentiment is echoed by researchers in psychiatry who have found that patients who do not fully recover from a depressive episode are more likely to relapse and to experience chronic depression ( Judd et al. , 2000 ). Students described not doing tasks or not showing up to research because of their depression but struggling with how to share that information with their research mentors. Often, students would not say anything, which caused them anxiety because they were worried about what others in the lab would say to them when they returned. Admittedly, many students understood why this behavior would cause their research mentors to be angry or frustrated, but they weighed the consequences of their research mentors’ displeasure against the consequences of revealing their depression and decided it was not worth admitting to being depressed. This aligns with literature that suggests that when individuals have concealable stigmatized identities, or identities that can be hidden and that carry negative stereotypes, such as depression, they will often keep them concealed to avoid negative judgment or criticism ( Link and Phelan, 2001 ; Quinn and Earnshaw, 2011 ; Jones and King, 2014 ; Cooper and Brownell, 2016 ; Cooper et al. , 2019b ; Cooper et al ., unpublished data ). Therefore, it is important for research mentors to be explicit with students that 1) they recognize mental illness as a valid sickness and 2) that students with mental illness can simply explain that they are sick if they need to take time off. This may be useful to overtly state on a research website or in a research syllabus, contract, or agreement if mentors use such documents when mentoring undergraduates in their lab. Further, research mentors can purposefully work to destigmatize mental health issues by explicitly stating that struggling with mental health issues, such as depression and anxiety, is common. While we do not recommend that mentors ask students directly about depression, because this can force students to share when they are not comfortable sharing, we do recommend providing opportunities for students to reveal their depression ( Chaudoir and Fisher, 2010 ). Mentors can regularly check in with students about how they’re doing, and talk openly about the importance of mental health, which may increase the chance that students may feel comfortable revealing their depression ( Chaudoir and Quinn, 2010 ; Cooper et al ., unpublished data ).

Foster a Positive Lab Environment.

Encourage positivity in the research lab, promote working in shared spaces to enhance social support among lab members, and alleviate competition among undergraduates.

Students in this study highlighted that the “leadership” of the lab, meaning graduate students, postdocs, lab managers, and PIs, were often responsible for establishing the tone of the lab; that is, if they were in a bad mood it would trickle down and negatively affect the moods of the undergraduates. Explicitly reminding lab leadership that their moods can both positively and negatively affect undergraduates may be important in establishing a positive lab environment. Further, students highlighted how they were most likely to experience negative thoughts when they were alone in the lab. Therefore, it may be helpful to encourage all lab members to work in a shared space to enhance social interactions among students and to maximize the likelihood that undergraduates have access to help when needed. A review of 51 studies in psychiatry supported our undergraduate researchers’ perceptions that social relationships positively impacted their depression; the study found that perceived emotional support (e.g., someone available to listen or give advice), perceived instrumental support (e.g., someone available to help with tasks), and large diverse social networks (e.g., being socially connected to a large number of people) were significantly protective against depression ( Santini et al. , 2015 ). Additionally, despite forming positive relationships with other undergraduates in the lab, many undergraduate researchers admitted to constantly comparing themselves with other undergraduates, which led them to feel inferior, negatively affecting their depression. Some students talked about mentors favoring current undergraduates or talking positively about past undergraduates, which further exacerbated their feelings of inferiority. A recent study of students in undergraduate research experiences highlighted that inequitable distribution of praise to undergraduates can create negative perceptions of lab environments for students (Cooper et al. , 2019). Further, the psychology literature has demonstrated that when people feel insecure in their social environments, it can cause them to focus on a hierarchical view of themselves and others, which can foster feelings of inferiority and increase their vulnerability to depression ( Gilbert et al. , 2009 ). Thus, we recommend that mentors be conscious of their behaviors so that they do not unintentionally promote competition among undergraduates or express favoritism toward current or past undergraduates. Praise is likely best used without comparison with others and not done in a public way, although more research on the impact of praise on undergraduate researchers needs to be done. While significant research has been done on mentoring and mentoring relationships in the context of undergraduate research ( Byars-Winston et al. , 2015 ; Aikens et al. , 2017 ; Estrada et al. , 2018 ; Limeri et al. , 2019 ; NASEM, 2019 ), much less has been done on the influence of the lab environment broadly and how people in nonmentoring roles can influence one another. Yet, this study indicates the potential influence of many different members of the lab, not only their mentors, on students with depression.

Develop More Personal Relationships with Undergraduate Researchers and Provide Sufficient Guidance.

Make an effort to establish more personal relationships with undergraduates and ensure that they perceive that they have access to sufficient help and guidance with regard to their research.

When we asked students explicitly how research mentors could help create more inclusive environments for undergraduate researchers with depression, students overwhelmingly said that building mentor–student relationships would be extremely helpful. Students suggested that mentors could get to know students on a more personal level by asking about their career interests or interests outside of academia. Students also remarked that establishing a more personal relationship could help build the trust needed in order for undergraduates to confide in their research mentors about their depression, which they perceived would strengthen their relationships further because they could be honest about when they were not feeling well or their mentors might even “check in” with them in times where they were acting differently than normal. This aligns with studies showing that undergraduates are most likely to reveal a stigmatized identity, such as depression, when they form a close relationship with someone ( Chaudoir and Quinn, 2010 ). Many were intimidated to ask for research-related help from their mentors and expressed that they wished they had established a better relationship so that they would feel more comfortable. Therefore, we recommend that research mentors try to establish relationships with their undergraduates and explicitly invite them to ask questions or seek help when needed. These recommendations are supported by national recommendations for mentoring ( NASEM, 2019 ) and by literature that demonstrates that both social support (listening and talking with students) and instrumental support (providing students with help) have been shown to be protective against depression ( Santini et al. , 2015 ).

Treat Undergraduates with Respect and Remember to Praise Them.

Avoid providing harsh criticism and remember to praise undergraduates. Students with depression often have low self-esteem and are especially self-critical. Therefore, praise can help calibrate their overly negative self-perceptions.

Students in this study described that receiving criticism from others, especially harsh criticism, was particularly difficult for them given their depression. Multiple studies have demonstrated that people with depression can have an abnormal or maladaptive response to negative feedback; scientists hypothesize that perceived failure on a particular task can trigger failure-related thoughts that interfere with subsequent performance ( Eshel and Roiser, 2010 ). Thus, it is important for research mentors to remember to make sure to avoid unnecessarily harsh criticisms that make students feel like they have failed (more about failure is described in the next recommendation). Further, students with depression often have low self-esteem or low “personal judgment of the worthiness that is expressed in the attitudes the individual holds towards oneself” ( Heatherton et al. , 2003 , p. 220; Sowislo and Orth, 2013 ). Specifically, a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies found that low self-esteem is predictive of depression ( Sowislo and Orth, 2013 ), and depression has also been shown to be highly related to self-criticism ( Luyten et al. , 2007 ). Indeed, nearly all of the students in our study described thinking that they are “not good enough,” “worthless,” or “inadequate,” which is consistent with literature showing that people with depression are self-critical ( Blatt et al. , 1982 ; Gilbert et al. , 2006 ) and can be less optimistic of their performance on future tasks and rate their overall performance on tasks less favorably than their peers without depression ( Cane and Gotlib, 1985 ). When we asked students what aspects of undergraduate research helped their depression, students described that praise from their mentors was especially impactful, because they thought so poorly of themselves and they needed to hear something positive from someone else in order to believe it could be true. Praise has been highlighted as an important aspect of mentoring in research for many years ( Ashford, 1996 ; Gelso and Lent, 2000 ; Brown et al. , 2009 ) and may be particularly important for students with depression. In fact, praise has been shown to enhance individuals’ motivation and subsequent productivity ( Hancock, 2002 ; Henderlong and Lepper, 2002 ), factors highlighted by students as negatively affecting their depression. However, something to keep in mind is that a student with depression and a student without depression may process praise differently. For a student with depression, a small comment that praises the student’s work may not be sufficient for the student to process that comment as praise. People with depression are hyposensitive to reward or have reward-processing deficits ( Eshel and Roiser, 2010 ); therefore, praise may affect students without depression more positively than it would affect students with depression. Research mentors should be mindful that students with depression often have a negative view of themselves, and while students report that praise is extremely important, they may have trouble processing such positive feedback.

Normalize Failure and Be Explicit about the Importance of Research Contributions.

Explicitly remind students that experiencing failure is expected in research. Also explain to students how their individual work relates to the overall project so that they can understand how their contributions are important. It can also be helpful to explain to students why the research project as a whole is important in the context of the greater scientific community.

Experiencing failure has been thought to be a potentially important aspect of undergraduate research, because it may provide students with the potential to develop integral scientific skills such as the ability to navigate challenges and persevere ( Laursen et al. , 2010 ; Gin et al. , 2018 ; Henry et al. , 2019 ). However, in the interviews, students described that when their science experiments failed, it was particularly tough for their depression. Students’ negative reaction to experiencing failure in research is unsurprising, given recent literature that has predicted that students may be inadequately prepared to approach failure in science ( Henry et al. , 2019 ). However, the literature suggests that students with depression may find experiencing failure in research to be especially difficult ( Elliott et al. , 1997 ; Mongrain and Blackburn, 2005 ; Jones et al. , 2009 ). One potential hypothesis is that students with depression may be more likely to have fixed mindsets or more likely to believe that their intelligence and capacity for specific abilities are unchangeable traits ( Schleider and Weisz, 2018 ); students with a fixed mindset have been hypothesized to have particularly negative responses to experiencing failure in research, because they are prone to quitting easily in the face of challenges and becoming defensive when criticized ( Forsythe and Johnson, 2017 ; Dweck, 2008 ). A study of life sciences undergraduates enrolled in CUREs identified three strategies of students who adopted adaptive coping mechanisms, or mechanisms that help an individual maintain well-being and/or move beyond the stressor when faced with failure in undergraduate research: 1) problem solving or engaging in strategic planning and decision making, 2) support seeking or finding comfort and help with research, and 3) cognitive restructuring or reframing a problem from negative to positive and engaging in self encouragement ( Gin et al. , 2018 ). We recommend that, when undergraduates experience failure in science, their mentors be proactive in helping them problem solve, providing help and support, and encouraging them. Students also explained that mentors sharing their own struggles as undergraduate and graduate students was helpful, because it normalized failure. Sharing personal failures in research has been recommended as an important way to provide students with psychosocial support during research ( NASEM, 2019 ). We also suggest that research mentors take time to explain to students why their tasks in the lab, no matter how small, contribute to the greater research project ( Cooper et al. , 2019a ). Additionally, it is important to make sure that students can explain how the research project as a whole is contributing to the scientific community ( Gin et al. , 2018 ). Students highlighted that contributing to something important was really helpful for their depression, which is unsurprising, given that studies have shown that meaning in life or people’s comprehension of their life experiences along with a sense of overarching purpose one is working toward has been shown to be inversely related to depression ( Steger, 2013 ).

Limitations and Future Directions

This work was a qualitative interview study intended to document a previously unstudied phenomenon: depression in the context of undergraduate research experiences. We chose to conduct semistructured interviews rather than a survey because of the need for initial exploration of this area, given the paucity of prior research. A strength of this study is the sampling approach. We recruited a national sample of 35 undergraduates engaged in undergraduate research at 12 different public R1 institutions. Despite our representative sample from R1 institutions, these findings may not be generalizable to students at other types of institutions; lab environments, mentoring structures, and interactions between faculty and undergraduate researchers may be different at other institution types (e.g., private R1 institutions, R2 institutions, master’s-granting institutions, primarily undergraduate institutions, and community colleges), so we caution against making generalizations about this work to all undergraduate research experiences. Future work could assess whether students with depression at other types of institutions have similar experiences to students at research-intensive institutions. Additionally, we intentionally did not explore the experiences of students with specific identities owing to our sample size and the small number of students in any particular group (e.g., students of a particular race, students with a graduate mentor as the primary mentor). We intend to conduct future quantitative studies to further explore how students’ identities and aspects of their research affect their experiences with depression in undergraduate research.

The students who participated in the study volunteered to be interviewed about their depression; therefore, it is possible that depression is a more salient part of these students’ identities and/or that they are more comfortable talking about their depression than the average population of students with depression. It is also important to acknowledge the personal nature of the topic and that some students may not have fully shared their experiences ( Krumpal, 2013 ), particularly those experiences that may be emotional or traumatizing ( Kahn and Garrison, 2009 ). Additionally, our sample was skewed toward females (77%). While females do make up approximately 60% of students in biology programs on average ( Eddy et al. , 2014 ), they are also more likely to report experiencing depression ( American College Health Association, 2018 ; Evans et al. , 2018 ). However, this could be because women have higher rates of depression or because males are less likely to report having depression; clinical bias, or practitioners’ subconscious tendencies to overlook male distress, may underestimate depression rates in men ( Smith et al. , 2018 ). Further, females are also more likely to volunteer to participate in studies ( Porter and Whitcomb, 2005 ); therefore, many interview studies have disproportionately more females in the data set (e.g., Cooper et al. , 2017 ). If we had been able to interview more male students, we might have identified different findings. Additionally, we limited our sample to life sciences students engaged in undergraduate research at public R1 institutions. It is possible that students in other majors may have different challenges and opportunities for students with depression, as well as different disciplinary stigmas associated with mental health.

In this exploratory interview study, we identified a variety of ways in which depression in undergraduates negatively affected their undergraduate research experiences. Specifically, we found that depression interfered with students’ motivation and productivity, creativity and risk-taking, engagement and concentration, and self-perception and socializing. We also identified that research can negatively affect depression in undergraduates. Experiencing failure in research can exacerbate student depression, especially when students do not have access to adequate guidance. Additionally, being alone or having negative interactions with others in the lab worsened students’ depression. However, we also found that undergraduate research can positively affect students’ depression. Research can provide a familiar space where students can feel as though they are contributing to something meaningful. Additionally, students reported that having access to adequate guidance and a social support network within the research lab also positively affected their depression. We hope that this work can spark conversations about how to make undergraduate research experiences more inclusive of students with depression and that it can stimulate additional research that more broadly explores the experiences of undergraduate researchers with depression.

Important note

If you or a student experience symptoms of depression and want help, there are resources available to you. Many campuses provide counseling centers equipped to provide students, staff, and faculty with treatment for depression, as well as university-dedicated crisis hotlines. Additionally, there are free 24/7 services such as Crisis Text Line, which allows you to text a trained live crisis counselor (Text “CONNECT” to 741741; Text Depression Hotline , 2019 ), and phone hotlines such as the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 1-800-273-8255 (TALK). You can also learn more about depression and where to find help near you through the Anxiety and Depression Association of American website: https://adaa.org ( Anxiety and Depression Association of America, 2019 ) and the Depression and Biopolar Support Alliance: http://dbsalliance.org ( Depression and Biopolar Support Alliance, 2019 ).


We are extremely grateful to the undergraduate researchers who shared their thoughts and experiences about depression with us. We acknowledge the ASU LEAP Scholars for helping us create the original survey and Rachel Scott for her helpful feedback on earlier drafts of this article. L.E.G. was supported by a National Science Foundation (NSF) Graduate Fellowship (DGE-1311230) and K.M.C. was partially supported by a Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) Inclusive Excellence grant (no. 11046) and an NSF grant (no. 1644236). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the NSF or HHMI.

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a thesis statement about depression

Submitted: 4 November 2019 Revised: 24 February 2020 Accepted: 6 March 2020

© 2020 K. M. Cooper, L. E. Gin, et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2020 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

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  • How to Write a Thesis Statement | 4 Steps & Examples

How to Write a Thesis Statement | 4 Steps & Examples

Published on January 11, 2019 by Shona McCombes . Revised on August 15, 2023 by Eoghan Ryan.

A thesis statement is a sentence that sums up the central point of your paper or essay . It usually comes near the end of your introduction .

Your thesis will look a bit different depending on the type of essay you’re writing. But the thesis statement should always clearly state the main idea you want to get across. Everything else in your essay should relate back to this idea.

You can write your thesis statement by following four simple steps:

  • Start with a question
  • Write your initial answer
  • Develop your answer
  • Refine your thesis statement

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Table of contents

What is a thesis statement, placement of the thesis statement, step 1: start with a question, step 2: write your initial answer, step 3: develop your answer, step 4: refine your thesis statement, types of thesis statements, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about thesis statements.

A thesis statement summarizes the central points of your essay. It is a signpost telling the reader what the essay will argue and why.

The best thesis statements are:

  • Concise: A good thesis statement is short and sweet—don’t use more words than necessary. State your point clearly and directly in one or two sentences.
  • Contentious: Your thesis shouldn’t be a simple statement of fact that everyone already knows. A good thesis statement is a claim that requires further evidence or analysis to back it up.
  • Coherent: Everything mentioned in your thesis statement must be supported and explained in the rest of your paper.

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The thesis statement generally appears at the end of your essay introduction or research paper introduction .

The spread of the internet has had a world-changing effect, not least on the world of education. The use of the internet in academic contexts and among young people more generally is hotly debated. For many who did not grow up with this technology, its effects seem alarming and potentially harmful. This concern, while understandable, is misguided. The negatives of internet use are outweighed by its many benefits for education: the internet facilitates easier access to information, exposure to different perspectives, and a flexible learning environment for both students and teachers.

You should come up with an initial thesis, sometimes called a working thesis , early in the writing process . As soon as you’ve decided on your essay topic , you need to work out what you want to say about it—a clear thesis will give your essay direction and structure.

You might already have a question in your assignment, but if not, try to come up with your own. What would you like to find out or decide about your topic?

For example, you might ask:

After some initial research, you can formulate a tentative answer to this question. At this stage it can be simple, and it should guide the research process and writing process .

Now you need to consider why this is your answer and how you will convince your reader to agree with you. As you read more about your topic and begin writing, your answer should get more detailed.

In your essay about the internet and education, the thesis states your position and sketches out the key arguments you’ll use to support it.

The negatives of internet use are outweighed by its many benefits for education because it facilitates easier access to information.

In your essay about braille, the thesis statement summarizes the key historical development that you’ll explain.

The invention of braille in the 19th century transformed the lives of blind people, allowing them to participate more actively in public life.

A strong thesis statement should tell the reader:

  • Why you hold this position
  • What they’ll learn from your essay
  • The key points of your argument or narrative

The final thesis statement doesn’t just state your position, but summarizes your overall argument or the entire topic you’re going to explain. To strengthen a weak thesis statement, it can help to consider the broader context of your topic.

These examples are more specific and show that you’ll explore your topic in depth.

Your thesis statement should match the goals of your essay, which vary depending on the type of essay you’re writing:

  • In an argumentative essay , your thesis statement should take a strong position. Your aim in the essay is to convince your reader of this thesis based on evidence and logical reasoning.
  • In an expository essay , you’ll aim to explain the facts of a topic or process. Your thesis statement doesn’t have to include a strong opinion in this case, but it should clearly state the central point you want to make, and mention the key elements you’ll explain.

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A thesis statement is a sentence that sums up the central point of your paper or essay . Everything else you write should relate to this key idea.

The thesis statement is essential in any academic essay or research paper for two main reasons:

  • It gives your writing direction and focus.
  • It gives the reader a concise summary of your main point.

Without a clear thesis statement, an essay can end up rambling and unfocused, leaving your reader unsure of exactly what you want to say.

Follow these four steps to come up with a thesis statement :

  • Ask a question about your topic .
  • Write your initial answer.
  • Develop your answer by including reasons.
  • Refine your answer, adding more detail and nuance.

The thesis statement should be placed at the end of your essay introduction .

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307 Depression Essay Titles & Examples

When choosing a title about depression, you have to remain mindful since this is a sensitive subject. This is why our experts have listed 177 depression essay topics to help you get started.

🌧️ How to Write a Depression Essay: Do’s and Don’ts

🏆 unique titles about depression, 🥇 most interesting depression title ideas, 📌 good titles for depression essay, ✅ simple & easy depression essay titles, 🎓 interesting topics to write about depression, 📑 good research topics about depression.

  • ❓ Research Questions for a Depression Essay

Depression is a disorder characterized by prolonged periods of sadness and loss of interest in life. The symptoms include irritability, insomnia, anxiety, and trouble concentrating. This disorder can produce physical problems, self-esteem issues, and general stress in a person’s life. Difficult life events and trauma are typical causes of depression. Want to find out more? Check out our compilation below.

A depression essay is an important assignment that will help you to explore the subject and its impact on people. Writing this type of paper may seem challenging at first, but there are some secrets that will make achieving a high grade much easier. Check below for a list of do’s and don’ts to get started!

DO select a narrow topic. Before starting writing, define the subject of the paper, and write down some possible titles. This will help you to focus your thoughts instead of offering generic information that can easily be found on Wikipedia. Consider writing about a particular population or about the consequences of depression. For example, a teenage depression essay could earn you excellent marks! If you find this step challenging, try searching for depression essay topics online. This will surely give you some inspiration.

DON’T copy from peers or other students. Today, tutors are usually aware of the power of the Internet and will check your paper for plagiarism. Hence, if you copy information from other depression essays, you could lose a lot of marks. You could search for depression essay titles or sample papers online, but avoid copying any details from these sources.

DO your research before starting. High-quality research is crucial when you write essays on mental health issues. There are plenty of online resources that could help you, including Google Scholar, PubMed, and others. To find relevant scientific articles, search for your primary and secondary topics of interest. Then filter results by relevance, publication date, and access type. This will help you to identify sources that you can view online and use to support your ideas.

DON’T rely on unverified sources. This is a crucial mistake many students make that usually results in failing the paper. Sources that are not academic, such as websites, blogs, and Wiki pages, may contain false or outdated information. Some exceptions are official publications and web pages of medical organizations, such as the CDC, APA, and the World Health Organization.

DO consider related health issues. Depression is often associated with other mental or physical health issues, so you should reflect on this in your paper. Some examples of problems related to depression are suicide, self-harm, eating disorders, and panic attack disorder. To show your in-depth understanding of the issue, you could write a depression and anxiety essay that shows the relationship between the two. Alternatively, you can devote one or two paragraphs to examining the prevalence of other mental health problems in people with depression.

DON’T include personal opinions and experiences unless required. A good essay on the subject of depression should be focused and objective. Hence, you should rely on research rather than on your understanding of the theme. For example, if you have to answer the question “What is depression?” look for scientific articles or official publications that contain the definition rather than trying to explain it in your own words.

DON’T forget about structure. The structure of your essay helps to present arguments or points logically, thus assisting the reader in making sense of the information. A good thing to do is to write a depression essay outline before you start the paper. You should list your key points supported by relevant depression quotes from academic publications. Follow the outline carefully to avoid gaps and inconsistencies.

Use these do’s and don’ts, and you will be able to write an excellent paper on depression! If you want to see more tips and tricks that will help you elevate your writing, look around our website!

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  • Depression: A Critical Evaluation In spite of the fact that governments and agencies across the world have made significant steps in the fight against depression, there is compelling evidence that we are yet to be fully effective in translating, […]
  • Book Review: “Breadwinning Daughters: Young Women Working in a Depression- Era City, 1929-1939” by Katrina Srigley In an attempt to seal the gap that these researchers have created in the Canadian history, Srigley focuses on the lives of young women during the Great Depression era. Men’s reaction to the phenomenon was […]
  • Cognitive Treatment of Depression It describes the rationale for the therapy, some of the therapeutic techniques used to treat this disorder, and provide a brief overview of the empirical evidence on the effectiveness of this treatment method.
  • Depression and Cognitive Therapy The other type of medication that is widely used to treat depression condition is the healing process that helps in reverse or eliminates the fundamental process that results to the continuation of depression.
  • How Do Genetic and Environmental Factors Contribute To The Expression of Depression? It is believed that people’s reactions to stress that they encounter in life is one of the factors that leads to changes in the levels of the chemicals that are involved in bodily changes such […]
  • How Does Peer Pressure Contribute to Adolescent Depression? Therefore, it is possible to note that peer pressure is one of the most significant factors contributing to the development of adolescent depression.
  • Poly-Substance Abuse in Adolescent Males With Depression The proposal gives some of the articles that would be critical in understanding the relationship between poly-substance abuse and depression in adolescent males.
  • Depression in the Elderly Depression in the elderly differs from depression in the young in a number of ways. Older people with depression are twice as likely to develop cardiac diseases, and the consequent increase in the risk of […]
  • Effect of Social Media on Depression The number of friends that the participants of the mock study had in their social sites was also related to the degree of depression that they experienced.
  • Report Writing About Depression There is concrete evidence that many people in Australia tend to believe that depression is the cause of all suicide deaths in the world, but this not true.
  • Evolutionary Psychology: Depression As such, using the ideas formulated by evolutionary psychologists, it makes sense to argue that human behaviors are as a result of psychological adaptations that evolve in a bid to cope with the environment, social […]
  • The Impact of Exercise on Women Who Suffer From Depression As high levels of depression in women depend on ovarian function, estrogen has been observed to be the cause of depression in women, and is, thus, a possible agent for the management of depression.
  • Depression Diagnosis and Theoretical Models In this study, the researcher seeks to discuss a diagnosis done on a patient, and some of the theoretical models of psychology that can be used to address the problem once it is detected in […]
  • The Effects of Forgiveness Therapy on Depression, Anxiety and Posttraumatic Stress for Women After Spousal Emotional Abuse Enright forgiveness model applied in the study proved effective since it systematically addressed the forgiveness process identified the negative attributes caused by the abuse, and prepared the women for positive responses.
  • Depression and Workplace Violence Examples of these techniques include methods of reporting and the formal and informal announcements that violence and other forms of verbal abuse and aggression are not tolerated in the work environment, or even outside of […]
  • Psychological Disorder: Depression To answer the research question “What is the rate of depression in adults, ages 40-60 years, caring for loved ones with Alzheimer’s disease compared to adults of the same age group in the general population?”, […]
  • The Effects of Depression on Physical Activity The findings of the study show that future increases in depression incidences among the participants of the study would be significantly decreased by physical activity.
  • Relationship Between Sleep and Depression in Adolescence Using SPSS for data analysis, the results indicate the presence of a correlation between elements of depression and sleep duration and quality.
  • Methodological Bias Associated with Sex Depression However, depression is more common in women than men and statistics shows that in the united state in every three reported cases of depression one is a man while the ratio increases to worldwide statistics […]
  • Depression Measurements – Psychology To achieve the goal of making proper estimations on the effects of depression in the society, the authors assert that it is critical to making accurate measurements.
  • Job’ Stress and Depression It also investigates the various approaches that have been applied by many employees in managing job stress and depression, and the identification of the most appropriate approach to be used. The method that is to […]
  • Managing Stress and Depression at Work Places – Psychology It investigates the various approaches that have been applied by many employees in managing the job stress and depression and the identification of the most appropriate approach to be used.
  • Parents’ Depression and Toddler Behaviors The article “Longitudinal Contribution of Maternal and Paternal Depression to Toddler Behaviors: Interparental Conflict and Later Depression as Mediators” by Sheehan, Rebecca, Michael, Robin, and Stuart tested the effects of paternal depression on toddler behaviors.
  • Child’s Mental Health and Depression in Adulthood The objective of the proposed research is to provide a comprehensive study focusing on the impact of mental health in childhood on depressions in the adult age.
  • Relationship Between Depression and Sleep Disturbance It was emphasized that persistent disturbance, its severity, and the intermittent nature of the sleep were not associated with depression and its recurrence in the following years. The sleeping disturbance is a risk factor that […]
  • Organizational Behaviour: Depression in the Workplace This paper will examine the impacts of depression on the employees’ work performance and attendance and look at how managers can deal with hidden depression in such employees. The particular factors that bring about such […]
  • Arab-Americans’ Acculturation and Depression In particular, this study will determine the aspects of acculturation that cause depression and mental health disorders in this ethnic group.
  • Postpartum Depression and Comorbid Disorders For example, at a public hospital in Sydney, Australia, the psychiatrists used a Routine Comprehensive Psychosocial Assessment tool to study the chances of ‘low risk’ women developing the postpartum symptoms.
  • Depression in Late Life: Interpersonal Psychotherapy The authors of the article carried out an experiment in a bid to determine the effect of interpersonal psychotherapy on the elderly subjects.
  • Sleep Disturbance, Depression, Anxiety Correlation The above imply that many questions are still unanswered with respect to the kinds of sleep complaints affecting undergraduates and the impact on their psychological health.
  • Yoga for Depression and Anxiety A simple definition of yoga will lead people to generalize it as a system of exercise and a kind of mindset that would result in the union of mind and body.
  • Psychological Measures: The Beck Depression Inventory The BDI is used to evaluate levels of depression in patients and to observe the efficacy of other interventions such as antidepressants and electroconvulsive therapy.
  • Hamilton Depression Rating Scale Application In both cases, the researchers clearly indicated that the higher the level of rating, the higher the depression. This is worsened by the fact that the professional administering the question is not allowed to influence […]
  • Depression and Its Causes in the Modern Society The higher instances of depression among women can be explained using a number of reasons including the lifestyle of the modern woman and her role in the society.
  • Supporting the Health Needs of Patients With Parkinson’s, Preeclampsia, and Postpartum Depression The medical history of the patient will help the doctor to offer the best drug therapy. Members of the family might also be unable to cope with the disorder.
  • Problem of the Depression in Teenagers Despite the lack of sufficient data on the variation of depression among young adults over the last 10 to 20 years in the US, from the literature review, the research identifies an increasing trend of […]
  • Beck Depression Inventory in Psychological Practice Beck in the 1990s, the theory disrupted the traditional flow of Freudian theories development and introduced the audience to the concept of cognitive development, therefore, inviting psychologists to interpret the changes in the patient’s emotional […]
  • Depression and Melancholia Expressed by Hamlet The paper will not attempt and sketch the way the signs or symptoms of depression/melancholia play a part in the way Shakespeare’s period or culture concerning depression/melancholia, but in its place portrays the way particular […]
  • Stress, Depression, and Responses to Them A great number of people are not able or willing to find meaning in stressful experiences that they get through; for example, they often cannot understand the cause of their difficulties or the strengths that […]
  • Depression: Pathophysiology and Treatment The approach implying the identification and assessment of the stress response circuits is also viewed as a possible tool for determining the development of major depression in a patient.
  • Depression: Patients With a Difficult Psychological State It is necessary to determine physiological indicators that will provide insights into the health of the patient and collect the information about a woman’s medication regime to be able to determine the appropriate course of […]
  • Depression in the Future Public Health Further, the attention is drawn to the current measures aimed at the improvement of the public mental health, and the economic and social matters associated with depression management are considered.
  • Fast Food, Obesity, Depression, and Other Issues However, in busy communities, fast foods are increasingly being the preferred choice of food because of their price and convenience and that is why they are commonly served in many hotels, cafes and even some […]
  • Obesity and Major Depression Association In the article, not much information is given about the team, just brief facts that they are a part of the Johns Hopkins University team from the departments of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Mental Health, […]
  • Bipolar Expeditions: Mania and Depression Everyone always seems to focus on one side of the disorder, forgetting that there may be another aspect to depression that contributes to the individual’s mental state, and to the same extent.
  • Teen Website: Fish Will Keep Depression Away Remember that adolescence is one of the most important periods of your life as you build the body you will be using for the next 100 years.
  • Widowhood Effects on Men’s and Women’s Depression Considering the peculiarities of the marriage concept, the paper is aimed at exploring the similarity of the widowhood effects on men’s and women’s depression, explaining why men have more benefits from marriage than women do […]
  • The Canadian Depression Causes This ascent in their economy proceeded to the 1920s and depended on the fare of crude materials and sustenance to the USA and the British Empire.
  • Postpartum Depression Analysis in “Yellow Wallpaper” In reality, postpartum depression is the disease that has to be treated with the help of specific medications and therapies that are appropriate for a patient.
  • False Memories in Patients with Depression The focus will be made on the research of false memory reconstruction mechanisms, i.e, suggestion-induced false memories and spontaneous false memories; associative activation in memory reconstruction; and the way those mechanisms are performed in people […]
  • Depression Among High School Students The specific problem surrounding the issue of depression among adolescents is the absence of timely diagnosis as the first step to depression management.
  • Depression in Elders: Social Factors This paper is dedicated to the research and analysis of social factors that commonly affect depression in the elderly, such as cultural backgrounds, the inability to participate in social activities, disconnection from family, general loneliness, […]
  • Depression Treatment Changes in 2006-2017 Over the past ten years, some of the approaches to the treatment of depression remained the same whereas many new methods replaced the old ones.
  • Exercises as a Treatment for Depression A study published in the Journal of Affective Disorders on this subject stated that the dropout rate for people with depression is more than 18% and that people with more severe cases of depression have […]
  • Postpartum Depression and Its Peculiarities The major peculiarity of PPD in terms of its adverse effects is that it is detrimental to both the mother and the newborn child.
  • Women with Heart Disease: Risk of Depression The presence of heart disease can often lead to depression, as the person has to worry about his life and health every day, knowing that their heart is not as reliable as it used to […]
  • Postpartum Depression and Acute Depressive Symptoms It is hypothesized that the authors of the study wished to establish, with certainty, the effect of the proposed predictors for the development of PPD.
  • Depression and Psychosis: 32-Year-Old Female Patient This paper aims at analyzing the client’s personality assessment, the use of related instruments, and test interpretations to determine their relevance to the presented case.
  • Depression After Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Treatment Concerning the reoccurrence of depression after the use of TMS, in 2015, Levkovitz et al.found that in individuals receiving the 4-week TMS therapy preventing the relapse of acute depressive episodes, about one-third of patients achieved […]
  • Depression in Patients with Comorbidity The purpose of this paper is to describe depression as a mental health disease, including its etiology, prevalence, signs and symptoms, and assessment instruments that facilitate the diagnosis of the disease.
  • Depression and Cancer in Caucasian Female Patient HEENT/neurology: no eyesight problems, tension headache from time to time, no nose/ear pain, mild tooth pain, slow speech, no significant changes related to senses Cardiovascular/respiratory: no chest pain, PND, SOB, or abnormal cough.
  • Health Promotion: Depression Awareness in Teenagers In addition to community sensitization and promoting the expression of melancholic emotions by adolescents, the DAP program will include depression screening days in schools.
  • Suicide and Depression: Connection, Signs and Age Since the symptoms and signs of depression vary for individuals of different ages, it is possible to state that age can influence the course and treatment of depression.
  • Depression Patients’ Needs and Treatment Issues The mechanisms of depression are not fully understood, but common symptoms of the disease are sadness, loneliness, and a loss of interest in life and daily activities.
  • Depression Patients and Psychiatrist’s Work It is also necessary to pay attention to the physical state of the patient, so some tests and the discussion of health history are critical.
  • Beck Depression Inventory, Its History and Benefits Therefore, the detection of depression at its early stage, the evaluation of the risks, and the definition of the level of depression are the main goals.
  • Depression in Iranian Women and Health Policies Historically, this approach can be said to be a hindrance to early screening for depressive symptoms and preventive interventions, resulting in the current high prevalence of depression among women.
  • Beck Depression Inventory: Evaluation Plan Reliability test Pretest and posttest scores from a nonclinical sample of respondents screened a week apart will be compared to determine the reliability of the tool for use in a longitudinal study.
  • Diagnosing Depression: Implementation and Evaluation Plan The application of BDI will be considered in the study to create a framework for diagnosing the presence of depression in adolescents.
  • Depression and Grief in the “Ordinary People” Film At the end of the film, he is healed and ready to forgive his mother and stop blaming himself. I believe that the relationship between Conrad and his therapist, Dr.
  • Depression in Adolescents and Cognitive Therapy According to Bhatia and Bhatia, up to 15 percent of children and adolescents display symptoms of depression, five percent of adolescents qualify for the major depressive disorder, and three percent suffer from the dysthymic disorder. […]
  • Depression Assessment Using Intake Notes The outcomes of the analysis point to the presence of a mental health concern, and the selected tool leads to the identification of the health issue in question.
  • Depression, Grief, Loss in “Ordinary People” Film The coach is curious to know Conrad’s experiences at the hospital and the use of ECT. Towards the end of the film, Conrad reveals to the therapist that he feels guilty about his brother’s death.
  • Alcohol Abuse, Depression and Human Trafficking Patterson and Jeste point out that the high prevalence of alcohol abuse will increase in the future. Besides, Hanna indicates that domestic trafficking of girls in the US is a complex phenomenon to understand because […]
  • Peer Popularity and Depression Among Adolescents The relevance of the article is also justified by the article it is published in and the article provides articles on a wide range of issues in the sphere of child psychology.
  • Food Insecurity and Depression in Poor Families According to studies conducted in the period between 2001 and 2006, there was a significant increase in the rate of national poverty, particularly in the rural areas, where it was found to be more than […]
  • Depression Explanation in Psychological Theories After all, it has been brought about by the state of disintegration, between Kenny’s ‘external’ projection of himself, on the one hand, and his realization of the fact that he is not in a position […]
  • Drug Abuse and Depression Treatment She states that her father was the main person who was able to give the right pieces of advice and she was not afraid of making the wrong decision.
  • Depression Studies and Online Research Sources This is one of the issues that should not be overlooked. This argument is particularly relevant if one speaks about the precautions that should be taken by patients to overcome the effects of this disorder.
  • Anxiety and Depression in Children and Adolescents The effects of anxiety in children and adolescents are detrimental both to individuals and society. It is also said to contain a summary of the current research and theory that have been done by other […]
  • Social Media Impact on Depression and Eating Disorder When they turn to the social media, they are bombarded with a lot of information that they cannot properly comprehend. In the social media, they get to understand that beauty is associated with one’s body […]
  • Traditional Symptoms of Depression By the end of a three-month period of regular attendance to sessions, Susan should change her perceptions and desires pertaining to her relationships with others.
  • Patients’ Depression and Practitioners’ Suggestions A questionnaire with 20 survey questions was designed to measure the degree of depression among patients with depression in two treatment groups with a view of establishing the influence of practitioners’ suggestions on the level […]
  • Major Depression Treatment During Pregnancy Based on the personal and medical history of the patient, the first line of treatment would be to introduce fluoxetine at a starting dose of 10mg po each am and may increase to 20 mg […]
  • Postpartum Depression: Understanding the Needs of Women This article also emphasizes the need to consider and assess the needs of the mother, infant as well as family members during the treatment of PPD.
  • Bipolar Disorder: Reoccurring Hypomania & Depression Admission Date: 9/10/2018 Name J.D. DOB: 4/5/1990 Sex: Female Allergies: None Language: English VS: BP 130/98, HR 74, Respirations 19, Pulse Ox 98% Chief Complaint: The patient is concerned with reoccurring hypomania episodes and […]
  • Depression in Adolescents and Interventions The problem is defined as a mood disorder that affects the daily life of a person due to unexplained sadness and lack of interest in general activities. This paper aims to examine the causes of […]
  • Great Depression in “A Worn Path” by Eudora Welty The first few paragraphs of the story are dedicated specifically to painting the image of the old Afro-American woman in the mind of the reader by providing details on her appearance, closing, her manners of […]
  • Depression as a Psychological Disorder Summarizing and evaluating the information that trusted journals have published on the topic of depression might help create a well-rounded review of the condition and the scientific community’s understanding of it.
  • Optimal Mental Health Approaches: Depression & Anxiety The work of a counselor implies the necessity to understand and recognize the signs and symptoms of mental health problems, as well as find “the missing pieces of reality” that impact innermost lives.
  • Freud’s Depression: Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions In the example of Sigmund Freud, the symptoms of depression including a sense of guilt, apathy, periodic anxiety attacks, and fatigue.
  • Depression Screening in Primary Care for Adolescents Moreover, the authors question the effectiveness of some specialized therapies in primary care, which, in their opinion, are of a preventive nature and do not have the desired effect on the psyche of adolescents.
  • Psychodynamic Therapy for Depression The journal article under consideration presents the procedure and findings of the study investigating significant change events in psychodynamic psychotherapy, which attempts to discover the importance of cognition and emotion in this process. The issue […]
  • A Review of Postpartum Depression and Continued Post Birth Support In the first chapter – the introduction – the problem statement, background, purpose, and nature of the project are mentioned. The purpose of the project is to explain the significance of managing postpartum depression by […]
  • Mindfulness Meditation Therapy in Depression Cases The paper discusses the issue of the importance of new approaches to depression treatment due to the prevailing rate of the disorder in the sphere of mental problems.
  • Depression & Patient Safety: Speak Up Program The brochure is well-organized, and the information is presented logically. The format of the brochure makes it easy to spread information among patients and caregivers.
  • Dementia, Delirium, and Depression in Frail Elders The patient’s daughter should be educated about the necessity of contact with the patient and possible mobility and other aids to help her with ADL.
  • Atypical Depression Symptoms and Treatment The patient’s absence of negative thoughts, however, is replaced by confusion and increased sensitivity which also led to unstable relationships with her family.
  • Postpartum Depression: Treatment and Therapy It outlines the possible treatment and therapy methods, as well as the implications of the condition. A 28-year-old patient presented in the office three weeks after giving birth to her first son with the symptoms […]
  • Depression and Psychotherapy in Adolescence Society needs to acknowledge that depression is a major medical problem among adolescents in the United States and measures need to be taken to address it.
  • Experimental Psychology. Bouldering for Treating Depression As a result, this group of students is faced with the challenges of meeting the academic requirements, in addition to their work and family responsibilities.
  • Creating a Comprehensive Psychological Treatment Plan: Depression The symptoms, both cognitive and behavioral, include the compensatory mechanisms, binge eating, violated self-perception associated with the unwillingness to maintain normal body weight, as well as the presence of underweight and the inability to recognize […]
  • Depression and Anxiety Due to School and Work-Related Stress Many young students are not aware of the roots of their psychological problems and continue suffering from depression or anxiety, which results in low productivity, poor achievements, and a decreased quality of life.
  • Depression in People With Alcohol Dependence Alcoholic depression in the presence of alcohol dependence is a mood disorder that occurs quite often in the structure of the course of alcohol dependence syndrome during the period of withdrawal syndrome and alcoholic psychoses.
  • Dealing with Depression in the Workplace The basic purpose of a study is to examine the depression in workplace, the causes of it and finally produce remedies to address the problem.
  • Dementia, Delirium, and Depression in Older Adults The comparison is no pharmacological treatment or placebo to exclude the use of other medications, and the outcome is the reduction of delirium severity.
  • Geriatric Dementia, Delirium, and Depression I talked to the patient’s daughter to get additional information about the patient’s medical history and symptoms. In the future, I will consider more therapies and lifestyle changes to offer to the patient.
  • The Correlation Between Perfectionism and Depression A biological model explains this higher incidence by stating that gender differences in depression are due to the hormones estrogen and progesterone. Women are more likely to ruminate than men and as such have a […]
  • Depression and Diabetes Association in Adults The primary goal of their research was to study the association of depression and diabetes with some risk factors, including smoking and obesity in adults in the following racial and ethnic groups: American Indians and […]
  • Teen Suicide and Depression In a recent national survey of teenagers concerning their information level and attitudes toward youth suicide, Marcenko et al revealed that 60 percent of the adolescents in the survey knew another teen who had attempted […]
  • Concept Analysis of Loneliness, Depression, Self-esteem The purpose of this direct study was to look at levels of depression, self-esteem, loneliness, and communal support, and the relationships stuck between these variables, in the middle of teenage mothers participating in the New […]
  • Depression Diagnostics Methods Name:Ben Age:47 years Sex:Male Name of informant: Police Reason for referral: the client’s wife who reported that Ben had taken an overdose of paracetamol, sertraline and diazepam and wanted to die Recent Treatment history: […]
  • Depression: Risk Factors, Incidence, Preventive Measures & Prognostic Factors When in the depressed phase of the cycle, one can have any or all of the symptoms of a depressive disorder.
  • Cannabis Abuse Increases the Risk of Depression The youths who are the backbone of society are going to be wiped out by this killer drug, the students’ performance in schools which the government spends a lot is going to decline seriously, the […]
  • Beck’s Cognitive Therapy Approach to Depression Treatment The principle underlying Aaron Beck’s cognitive therapy model of approach to the treatment of depression capitalizes on the reality-supported interpretation of a situation and seeks to eliminate any doubts that often torment most stressed persons.
  • Anxiety and Depression Disorders The cognitive-behavioral model is different from the biological model in that anxiety and depression are seen as a manifestation of intense emotional distress and/or fear. The states of fear, anxiety, and panic are triggered in […]
  • “Gender Differences in Depression” by Nolen-Hoeksema They have poor biological responses to stress, and this increases the number of female victims of depression and such disorders. Reactivity to stress and stress factors both affect the greater incidences of depression in women […]
  • Rumination, Perfectionism and Depression in Young People Depression in the psychological sense displays the overall depression of the normal behavior of a person, and a depression in the ability of that person to respond normally to various circumstances in one’s life.
  • Depression and Alzheimer’s Disease Moretti et al have studied the relationship between depression and Alzheimer’s disease and explored whether depression is a symptom of AD or comorbidity.
  • Adverse Childhood Experiences Cause Depression However the numbers of females who are affected are far more than the numbers of males. It is also more probable that a girl would experience it as compared to boys at some point in […]
  • Family Therapy for Treating Major Depression One reason why this is so is that, given the onion-layered nature of their problems, family members, individually or as a group, lack the ability to “diagnose” the difficulties they face and to identify their […]
  • Major Depression: Treating Depression in the Context of Marital Discord Major depression could also be a result of family problems and difficulties leading to an aggravation of the patient’s mental state, which in turn could lead to further intensification of the depression in the person.
  • Depression: Helping Students in the Classroom With sufflcient information, teachers can detect depression and are in a good position to identify it and seek help for the student.
  • Adult Depression Sufferer’s and Withdrawal From Family and Friends Counseling through a recognized counselor is required and the use of reality therapy is considered as one of the most effective ways to cure adult depression. Depression or depressive disorder is an illness that involves […]
  • Depression, Substance Abuse and Suicide in Elderly While significant body of research has been devoted to the study of depression in elderly, little attention has been paid to the investigation of substance abuse, emotional instability, burden feelings, and depression.
  • A Critical Evaluation of Major Depression This paper has actively shown how factors such as financial insecurity, job loss, income, and educational inequalities, lifestyle diseases, and breakdown of the social fabric have acted to propel the mental disorder by making use […]
  • Stress, Depression and Psychoneuroimmunology The causes and symptoms of stress may vary from person to person and the symptoms can be mental as well as physical.
  • Depression: A Cognitive Perspective Therefore, the cause of depression on this line may be a real shortage of skills, accompanied by negative self-evaluation because the individual is more likely to see the negative aspects or the skills he lacks […]
  • Reducing Anxiety and Depression With Exercise Regardless of the type of results achieved, it is recommendable for people undergoing mental problems like depression and anxiety to exercise regularly.
  • Poor Body Image, Anxiety, and Depression: Women Who Undergo Breast Implants H02: There is no difference in overt attractiveness to, and frequency of intimacy initiated by, the husband or cohabitating partner of a breast implant patient both before and after the procedure.
  • Depression and the Media Other components of the cognitive triad of depression are the aspect of seeing the environment as overwhelming and that one is too small to make an impact and also seeing the future as bleak and […]
  • The Theory of Personality Psychology During Depression The study concerns personality pathology, and the results of the treatment given to patients who are under depression, and how personalities may have adverse effects on the consequences of the cure.
  • Daily Living, Depression, and Social Support Activities of Elderly Turkish People Navigating the delicate and often convoluted maze of the current issues affecting the elderly has continued to present challenges to the professionals in the field especially with the realization that these issues and needs are […]
  • Depression, Its Perspective and Management Therefore this paper seeks to point out that stress is a major ingredient of depression; show the causes, symptoms, highlight how stresses is manifested in different kinds of people, show how to manage stress that […]
  • Depression, Hallucination, and Suicide: Mental Cases How they handle the process determines the kind of aftermath they will experience for instance it can take the route of hallucinations which is treatable or suicide which is irreversible thus how each case is […]
  • How Did the Great Depression Affect Americans? The Great Depression can be fairly supposed to have been the harshest time in the history of the United States after The Civil War.
  • Depression Effects of School Children
  • Depression Disorder: Key Factors
  • Suicide and Depression in Students
  • Adolescent Grief and Depression
  • Depression and Anxiety in Dialysis Patients
  • Teenage Depression: Psychology-Based Treatment
  • Management of Treatment-Resistant Depression
  • Changes in Approaches to the Treatment of Depression Over the Past Decade
  • Hallucinations and Geriatric Depression Intervention
  • Depression Among University Students
  • Comorbidity of Depression and Pain
  • Postpartum Depression: Statistics and Methods of Diagnosis
  • Postpartum Depression and Its Impact on Infants
  • Depression Treatment: Biopsychosocial Theory
  • “Relationships of Problematic Internet Use With Depression”: Study Strengths and Weaknesses
  • Teenage Depression and Alcoholism
  • The Relationship of Type 2 Diabetes and Depression
  • Antidepressant Drugs for Depression or Dysthymia
  • Depression and Paranoid Personality Disorder
  • Dual Illness – Depression and Alcohol Abuse
  • Aspects and Definition of Depression: Psychiatry
  • Depression Among Minority Groups
  • Steroid Use and Teen Depression
  • Depression in Australia, How Treat This Disorder
  • Ante-Partum & Postpartum Exposure to Maternal Depression
  • The Two Hit Model of Cytokine-Induced-Depression
  • Mental Health Paper: Depression
  • Depression in Australia. Evaluation of Different Factors
  • Depression: Screening and Diagnosis
  • In-Vitro Fertilization and Postpartum Depression
  • Depression in Older People in Australia
  • The Discussion about Depression in Older Patients
  • Depression in Adults: Community Health Needs
  • Medical Evaluation: 82-Year-Old Patient With Depression
  • The Older Women With Depression Living in Long-Term Care
  • Researching Postnatal Depression
  • Expression Symptoms of Depression
  • Depression: The Implications and Challenges in Managing the Illness
  • Interventions for Treating Depression after Stroke
  • PICO Analysis of Depression
  • Clinical Case Report: Depression
  • Anxiety Disorders and Depression
  • Anxiety and Depression in Hispanic Youth in Monmouth County
  • VEGA Medical Center: The Quality of Depression Management
  • Psychedelic Drugs and Their Effects on Anxiety and Depression
  • Depression: Description, Symptoms and Diagnosis, Prognosis and Treatment
  • The Beck Depression Contrast (BDI)
  • Postpartum Depression Among the Low-Income U.S. Mothers
  • The Use of Psychedelic Drugs in Treating Depression
  • Depression and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Therapy
  • Depression and Anxiety Intervention Plan
  • Depression: Diagnostics, Prevention and Treatment
  • NICE Guidelines for Depression Management: Project Proposal
  • Depression Among High School Students
  • The Potential of Psilocybin in Treating Depression
  • Einstepam: The Treatment of Depression
  • Effective Ways to Address Anxiety and Depression
  • Depression as a Major Health Issue
  • Depression – Psychotherapeutic Treatment
  • “Disclosure of Symptoms of Postnatal Depression, …” by Carolyn Chew-Graham Critique
  • A Description on the Topic Screening Depression
  • Biological and Social-Cognitive Perspectives on Depression
  • Depression in the Black and Minority Ethnic Groups
  • Obesity Co-Occurring With Depression
  • Economic Inequality During COVID-19: Correlation With Depression and Addiction
  • “What the Depression Did to People” by Edward Robb Ellis
  • Depression among Homosexual Males
  • Depression in Diabetes Patients
  • Stress and Depression Among Nursing Students
  • The Effects of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) on Depression in Adults
  • The Depression Construct and Instrument Analysis
  • Postpartum Depression in African American Women
  • The Difference Between Art Deco and Depression Modern Design
  • Depression and Anxiety Among Chronic Pain Patients
  • Treadmill Exercise Ameliorates Social Isolation-Induced Depression
  • Treating Obesity Co-Occurring With Depression
  • Ketamine for Treatment-Resistant Depression: Neurobiology and Applications
  • Depression Screening in the Acute Setting
  • Loneliness and Depression During COVID-19
  • Depression in the Black Community
  • Depression in the Lens of History and Humanities
  • The Treatment of Adolescents With Depression
  • Emotional Wellness: The Issue of Depression Through Different Lenses
  • Depression in the Field of a Healthcare Administrator
  • Social Media Use and the Risk of Depression
  • The Problem of Childhood Depression
  • Screening for Depression in Acute Care
  • Nursing Intervention in Case of Severe Depression
  • Breastfeeding and Risk of Postpartum Depression
  • Anxiety and Depression: The Case Study
  • Anxiety and Depression Among College Students
  • Childhood Depression in Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Emotional Encounter With a Patient With Major Depression Disorder
  • Depression in Adolescence and Treatment Approaches
  • Online Peer Support Groups for Depression and Anxiety Disorder
  • Antidepressant Treatment of Adolescent Depression
  • Aspects of Depression and Obesity
  • Managing Mental Health Medications for Depression and its Ethical Contradiction
  • Depression as Public Health Population-Based Issue
  • Depression Among the Medicare Population in Maryland
  • Case Study of Depression and Mental Pressure
  • The Postpartum Depression in Afro-Americans Policy
  • Outcomes Exercise Has on Depression for People Between 45-55 Years
  • Social Determinants of Health and Depression Among African American Adults
  • Complementary Therapy in Treatment of Depression
  • Technology to Fight Postpartum Depression in African American Women
  • Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes and Depression Treatment
  • Depression and Anxiety Clinical Case
  • Complementary Therapy for Postpartum Depression in Primary Care
  • Aspects and Manifestation of Depression
  • Depression in a 25-Year-Old Male Patient
  • Depression Associated With Sleep Disorders
  • Depression Among Nurses in COVID-19 Wards
  • Aspects of Working With Depression
  • Clinical Depression: Causes and Development
  • Activity During Pregnancy and Postpartum Depression
  • Financial Difficulties in Childhood and Adult Depression in Europe

❓Research Questions for a Depression Essay

  • Does Poverty Impact Depression in African American Adolescents and the Development of Suicidal Ideations?
  • Does Neighborhood Violence Lead to Depression Among Caregivers of Children With Asthma?
  • Does Parent Depression Correspond With Child Depression?
  • How Depression Affects Our Lives?
  • Does Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Have an Effect Depression Levels in Elderly Women?
  • How Can Overcome Depression Through 6 Lifestyle Changes?
  • Does Maternal Depression Have a Negative Effect on Parent-Child Attachment?
  • Can Providers’ Education About Postpartum Depression?
  • Can Vacation Help With Depression?
  • How Children Deal With Depression?
  • Can Diet Help Stop Depression and Violence?
  • Does Depression Assist Eating Disorders?
  • Does Depression Lead to Suicide and Decreased Life Expectancy?
  • Can Obesity Cause Depression?
  • Can Exercise Increase Fitness and Reduce Weight in Patients With Depression?
  • Does Fruit and Vegetable Consumption During Adolescence Predict Adult Depression?
  • Does Depression Cause Cancer?
  • Does Money Relieve Depression?
  • Does the Average Person Experience Depression Throughout Their Life?
  • Are Vaccines Cause Depression?
  • Does Social Anxiety Lead to Depression?
  • Does Stress Cause Depression?
  • How Bipolar and Depression Are Linked?
  • Does Postpartum Depression Affect Employment?
  • Does Postpartum Depression Predict Emotional and Cognitive Difficulties in 11-Year-Olds?
  • Does Regular Exercise Reduce Stress Levels, and Thus Reduce Symptoms of Depression?
  • Does the Natural Light During Winters Really Create Depression?
  • How Can Art Overcome Depression?
  • How Anxiety and Depression Are Connected?
  • Does Positive Psychology Ease Symptoms of Depression?
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Why is depression more prevalent in women?

Major depression is a chronic illness with a high prevalence and is a major component of disease burden. Depressive disorders were the second leading cause of years lived with disability in 2010 in Canada, the United States and globally. 1 , 2 When depression-related deaths due to suicide and stroke are considered, depression has the third highest global burden of disease. 3 Major depression is growing in overall disease burden in Canada and around the world; it is predicted to be the leading cause of disease burden by 2030, and it is already the leading cause in women worldwide. 4 Between 1990 and 2010 in Canada, major depressive disorder showed a 75% increase in disability-adjusted life years, 1 the second greatest increase in prevalence after Alzheimer disease; in comparison, the increase in the United States was 43%. 2 At the same time, the female:male ratio of global disability from major depression remained unchanged at 1.7:1. Although differences in socioeconomic factors, including abuse, education and income, may impact the higher rate of depression in women, 5 this editorial focuses on biological contributors that are experimentally tractable and may help to understand how and why depression is more prevalent in women and lead to better treatments.

The prevalence of major depression is higher in women than in men; 6 , 7 in 2010 its global annual prevalence was 5.5% and 3.2%, respectively, representing a 1.7-fold greater incidence in women. 1 , 8 In Canada, the prevalence was 5.0% in women and 2.9% in men in 2002 (1.7-fold greater incidence in women) and increased to 5.8% and 3.6%, respectively, in 2012 (1.6-fold greater incidence in women). 9 , 10 The finding of similar female:male prevalence ratios in developed countries and globally suggests that the differential risk may primarily stem from biological sex differences and depend less on race, culture, diet, education and numerous other potentially confounding social and economic factors. There is no clear evidence that the rate of depression is greater in countries where women have markedly lower socioeconomic status than men than in countries where there may be more equal footing. 5 Depression is more than twice as prevalent in young women than men (ages 14–25 yr), but this ratio decreases with age. 9 , 10 Indeed, starting at puberty, young women are at the greatest risk for major depression and mental disorders globally. 1 Importantly, before puberty, girls and boys have similar rates of depression; the rate is perhaps even higher for boys. 6 At ages older than 65 years, both men and women show a decline in depression rates, and the prevalence becomes similar between them. 9 , 11 A greater prevalence of depression in women is also reflected in prescriptions for antidepressant medications. In Canada between 2007 and 2011, antidepressants were prescribed more than twice as often to women than men (9.3% v. 4.2% in patients aged 25–44 yr, 2.2-fold; 17.2% v. 8.2% in patients aged 45–64 yr, 2.1-fold). 12 The age discrepancy between the peaks in the prevalence of depression (age 14–25 yr) 10 and the prevalence of antidepressant use (> 45 yr) suggests that young adults with depression may not always receive antidepressant treatment until many years after the onset of illness. This delay in medication could contribute to the higher rates of depression during adolescence and young adulthood and would be important to study more rigorously comparing treated and nontreated cohorts. Delay in antidepressant treatment might reflect stigma or underdiagnosis in adolescence. New antistigma and educational programs targeted to youth may help reduce depression in this age group. 13

Why then is depression more prevalent among women? The triggers for depression appear to differ, with women more often presenting with internalizing symptoms and men presenting with externalizing symptoms. 14 For example, in a study of dizygotic twins, women displayed more sensitivity to interpersonal relationships, whereas men displayed more sensitivity to external career and goal-oriented factors. 15 Women also experience specific forms of depression-related illness, including premenstrual dysphoric disorder, postpartum depression and postmenopausal depression and anxiety, that are associated with changes in ovarian hormones and could contribute to the increased prevalence in women. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear; thus, treatments specific to women have not been developed.

The fact that increased prevalence of depression correlates with hormonal changes in women, particularly during puberty, prior to menstruation, following pregnancy and at perimenopause, suggests that female hormonal fluctuations may be a trigger for depression. However, most preclinical studies focus on males to avoid variability in behaviour that may be associated with the menstrual cycle. Nevertheless, primate and rodent studies consistently implicate a role for female hormones, such as estrogen, in depression. Perhaps the most naturalistic depression studies to date to address the role of female hormones involved small groups ( n = 4–5) of female macaque primates that formed lifelong social hierarchies with dominant and subordinate females. The latter showed a depression-like phenotype 16 that has been associated with a brain-wide decrease in serotonin 1A (5-HT 1A ) receptor levels and decreased hippocampal volume. 17 , 18 Interestingly, the reduced hippocampal volume was more extensive in postmenopausal monkeys than in ovarian-intact monkeys, suggesting that ovarian function may be protective. Consistent with this finding, the risk of depression appears to increase during the perimenopausal transition. 19 Emerging evidence indicates that hormone replacement therapy, particularly during the perimenopausal period, can be effective in the prevention of postmenopausal depression in women. 20 Another study involving female macaques examined relocation stress–sensitive alterations in their menstrual cycles and showed depression-related behaviours and reductions in the function of the brain serotonin system. 21 In this light, a recent study has indicated that women who reported using an oral contraceptive (especially monophasic contraceptives) showed reduced rates of major depression and anxiety compared with nonusers, 22 suggesting that moderating the cycling of estrogen may be protective. Taken together these studies suggest that estrogen may have a protective effect on the pathology that underlies depression and that decreases in estrogen may increase the risk for depression.

Why then do men, who lack systemic estrogen, have lower rates of depression than women? Accumulating research has shown that in the male brain testosterone is converted into estrogen by endogenous aromatase (CYP19). Estrogen could mediate protective actions through estrogen receptors expressed throughout the male brain (especially estrogen receptor β). 23 In addition, the presence of androgen receptors in men may confer protection, for example in hippocampal neurons. 24 Since testosterone does not cycle in men as estrogen does in women, there may be a more consistent protection in men. However, men also have sexually dimorphic brain nuclei, particularly in the hypothalamus, so the lower prevalence of depression in men is probably more complex owing not only to hormonal differences, but also to developmental differences in brain circuitry. 23

In the most fundamental terms, the sex difference in depression rates reflects the fact the men and women are different: women have 2 copies of the X chromosome, while men have 1 copy each of X and Y chromosomes, the latter not being present in women. Understanding how this fundamental genetic difference confers sexual differences in predisposition to mental illness is a complex, multilevel puzzle that remains to be clarified. Society-driven risk factors for depression in women likely have a biological origin, such as differences in physical strength and personality traits, leading to a higher prevalence of depression in women. Perhaps what needs to change are social attitudes to promote equality; yet, this has been occurring in the West and has yielded no clear change in the female:male depression ratio. 5 However, despite this complexity, recent evidence suggests that biological factors, such as the variation in ovarian hormone levels and particularly decreases in estrogen, may contribute to the increased prevalence of depression and anxiety in women and that strategies to mitigate decreases in estrogen levels may be protective. Identifying ligands that more specifically target the brain (e.g., estrogen receptor-β-selective ligands) may protect from depression but avoid adverse effects of estrogen therapy. 25

Competing interests: None declared.

Thesis Statement On Depression

Thesis Statement On Depression

Depression thesis statement: 7 Indicators That Confirm the Disorder

Do you think you are suffering from depression symptoms? How to know the difference between a diminished state of mind and a depression itself? Maybe many times you have heard phrases like the following: “I’m not depressed, I just feel tired and sad, I prefer to be alone in my room”, “I’m fine, I just do not have any encouragement”, “I do not need to seek help because I do not want to take medication, I feel doped or very sleepy, it’s not me “. These are one of the many excuses that can go through our mind when we feel depression or emotional distress, and we limit ourselves to seek help or support from a professional.

It is clear, that we are not always going to be in good spirits 365 days a year, and it does not mean that being sad or apathetic for a few days we present a depressive picture.

Depression, according to the thesis statement about depression, is determined based on a pattern of psychosomatic symptoms, which are observed for a specific period of time, and in turn has its different degrees, whether mild, moderate or chronic, where the latter can be high risk for the individual, by having suicidal behaviors.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO) says that this disease affects about 300 million people worldwide, and in the worst of its scenarios has killed 800,000 people by suicide.

7 Indicators That Confirm the Disorder: Thesis Statement for Depression

1 You no longer feel interest in the things that gave you pleasure

You adore doing an activity at work, sharing with your family or reading a good book, but now nothing provokes you and you just want to be in your bed thinking about the problems, or reliving in your mind painful or uncomfortable situations.

2 Bad thoughts

You constantly reproach yourself for any mistake, or over analyze your attitude at all times, hindering your ability to concentrate and promoting a low self-esteem, devaluing you both physically and emotionally.

3 Problems falling asleep

Insomnia is one of the main symptoms that strengthen the metal disorders, and as the individual, in line with thesis statement on depression, has a greater difficulty in being able to rest and stay at rest, his mind will continue working to continue sharpening the feelings of guilt or sadness.

4 Suffering from traumatic or discouraging situations

The circumstances that generate depression thesis statements is negative impact on the mind of the individual, are one of the most important factors, by increasing the likelihood of generating depression, stress, dysfunction or disability, worsening their situation and aggravating their depressive state.

Between the most outstanding situations they are located in line with strong thesis statement for depression: Socioeconomic problems

Trauma: Domestic violence, rape or accident.

Physical disability: loss of a limb or health problems causing limitations.

5 For no apparent reason you have sadness

Any type of scenario produces a feeling of guilt or discouragement for no reason; it is simply not an option to think positively, turning sadness into pathological.

6 Disappointing thoughts

The uncertainty or incapacity of not being able to carry out any activity or not getting the expected result can make the future an uncomfortable and therefore discouraging subject, since no matter how much you think about it, you do not see that at any time you can improve

On the other hand, there is a greater recidivism of thinking about death and wanting to not be present in the current physical plane, so that suicidal thoughts are recurrent.

7 You constantly put your life at risk irresponsibly

It is proven that people who like to put their lives at risk, in situations of danger, take this attitude as an almost suicidal mechanism due to their depression.

Thesis statement of depression: Symptoms of depression

If you present the indicators mentioned above, for a period longer than two weeks, you may find yourself with a major depression disorder.

However, this may vary, as for example in the case of women, there is a greater vulnerability to suffer negative thoughts that may be similar to depression, caused by hormonal situations, such as menstruation, which occurs in a period of time. About 3 or 4 days after or before it, evidencing irritability or emotional sensitivity, presenting with a more intense behavior than premenstrual syndrome, categorized as a premenstrual dysphoric disorder. In this case it is important to distinguish the symptoms of this or other disorders of organic origin from the symptoms of depression.

It is not easy to take the initiative to receive support, since it is about using those small moments where we apparently have 1% more energy, we forget the laziness and apathy, and we recognize the mental situation that is suffered, requesting assistance from a professional, without waiting to hit bottom.

It is false that every time you go to the doctor, they will automatically prescribe medication, although after their degree or impact is determined based on the diagnostic evaluation, the specialist will decide if it is really necessary or if it can be treated through alternative therapies such as the cognitive or psychoanalysis, where it will progressively work, the emotions of the individual for the improvement of their emotional state.

You should be aware that just like when a person has stress problems, they have to reduce their intake of salty or high-fat foods, and they resort to drugs that will allow them to control blood pressure levels, preventing them from having cardiac arrest.

In the same way it happens with the mind, since the brain is an organ that like the rest of those that make up the human body, can present its faults and therefore require pharmacological support for its improvement during a specific time.

Self-administration in these cases is clearly contraindicated, since the person tends to abuse inappropriately the use of antidepressants or sleeping pills, causing their situation to become even more acute and causing it to be much more difficult to treat or solve.

Woman tired after running in park

Running or yoga can help beat depression, research shows – even if exercise is the last thing you feel like

a thesis statement about depression

Senior Lecturer in Psychology, The University of Queensland

Disclosure statement

Michael Noetel receives funding from the Australian Research Council, the Medical Research Future Fund, Sport Australia, and the National Health and Medical Research Council. He is a director of Effective Altruism Australia.

University of Queensland provides funding as a member of The Conversation AU.

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At least one in ten people have depression at some point in their lives, with some estimates closer to one in four . It’s one of the worst things for someone’s wellbeing – worse than debt, divorce or diabetes .

One in seven Australians take antidepressants. Psychologists are in high demand . Still, only half of people with depression in high-income countries get treatment.

Our new research shows that exercise should be considered alongside therapy and antidepressants. It can be just as impactful in treating depression as therapy, but it matters what type of exercise you do and how you do it.

Read more: Why are so many Australians taking antidepressants?

Walk, run, lift, or dance away depression

We found 218 randomised trials on exercise for depression, with 14,170 participants. We analysed them using a method called a network meta-analysis. This allowed us to see how different types of exercise compared, instead of lumping all types together.

We found walking, running, strength training, yoga and mixed aerobic exercise were about as effective as cognitive behaviour therapy – one of the gold-standard treatments for depression. The effects of dancing were also powerful. However, this came from analysing just five studies, mostly involving young women. Other exercise types had more evidence to back them.

Walking, running, strength training, yoga and mixed aerobic exercise seemed more effective than antidepressant medication alone, and were about as effective as exercise alongside antidepressants.

But of these exercises, people were most likely to stick with strength training and yoga.

Antidepressants certainly help some people . And of course, anyone getting treatment for depression should talk to their doctor before changing what they are doing.

Still, our evidence shows that if you have depression, you should get a psychologist and an exercise plan, whether or not you’re taking antidepressants.

Join a program and go hard (with support)

Before we analysed the data, we thought people with depression might need to “ease into it” with generic advice, such as “some physical activity is better than doing none.”

But we found it was far better to have a clear program that aimed to push you, at least a little. Programs with clear structure worked better, compared with those that gave people lots of freedom. Exercising by yourself might also make it hard to set the bar at the right level, given low self-esteem is a symptom of depression.

We also found it didn’t matter how much people exercised, in terms of sessions or minutes a week. It also didn’t really matter how long the exercise program lasted. What mattered was the intensity of the exercise: the higher the intensity, the better the results.

Yes, it’s hard to keep motivated

We should exercise caution in interpreting the findings. Unlike drug trials, participants in exercise trials know which “treatment” they’ve been randomised to receive, so this may skew the results.

Many people with depression have physical, psychological or social barriers to participating in formal exercise programs. And getting support to exercise isn’t free.

We also still don’t know the best way to stay motivated to exercise, which can be even harder if you have depression.

Our study tried to find out whether things like setting exercise goals helped, but we couldn’t get a clear result.

Other reviews found it’s important to have a clear action plan (for example, putting exercise in your calendar) and to track your progress (for example, using an app or smartwatch). But predicting which of these interventions work is notoriously difficult.

A 2021 mega-study of more than 60,000 gym-goers found experts struggled to predict which strategies might get people into the gym more often. Even making workouts fun didn’t seem to motivate people. However, listening to audiobooks while exercising helped a lot, which no experts predicted.

Still, we can be confident that people benefit from personalised support and accountability. The support helps overcome the hurdles they’re sure to hit. The accountability keeps people going even when their brains are telling them to avoid it.

So, when starting out, it seems wise to avoid going it alone. Instead:

join a fitness group or yoga studio

get a trainer or an exercise physiologist

ask a friend or family member to go for a walk with you.

Taking a few steps towards getting that support makes it more likely you’ll keep exercising.

Read more: Exercise is even more effective than counselling or medication for depression. But how much do you need?

Let’s make this official

Some countries see exercise as a backup plan for treating depression. For example, the American Psychological Association only conditionally recommends exercise as a “complementary and alternative treatment” when “psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy is either ineffective or unacceptable”.

Based on our research, this recommendation is withholding a potent treatment from many people who need it.

In contrast, The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists recommends vigorous aerobic activity at least two to three times a week for all people with depression.

Given how common depression is, and the number failing to receive care, other countries should follow suit and recommend exercise alongside front-line treatments for depression.

I would like to acknowledge my colleagues Taren Sanders, Chris Lonsdale and the rest of the coauthors of the paper on which this article is based.

If this article has raised issues for you, or if you’re concerned about someone you know, call Lifeline on 13 11 14.

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